10

1

OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AA?A?IEO IAOE

?INOEOOO AENIA?EIAIOAEUeII? ? EE?I?*II?

AAOA?EIA?II? IAAeEOeEIE

IE*EE NA?A?E AIAOIE?EIAE*

OAeE: 619: 579: 616 – 036. 22: 636. 52/58.

AIEEA I?E?IA?CIO IOAOIEEA IA NOAI I?AAI?CIO EO?*AO

OA AI?CIIOE*IO NEOOAOe?TH IOAOIAINIIAeA?NOAA

16.00.03 — aaoa?eia?ia i?e?ia?ieia?y oa a??onieia?y.

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Noinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoao?

I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Cii A?eai??e
Aiaoie?eiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e a??onieia??, iaoaiaoii?? ? oai?ia ioeoe?
Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, /eai – ei?aniiiaeaio OAAI Aa?iai
A’y/aneaa Aaeaioeiiae/, caa?aeoth/ee eaai?aoi???th aea/aiiy oai?ia
ioeoe? ?inoeoooo aenia?eiaioaeueii? ? ee?i?/ii? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie
OAAI;

eaiaeeaeao aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Niieyi?iia Aieiaeeie?
Einoyioeiiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e ai?ciioieia??, aeiiii?ee oa
i?aai?caoe?? aaoa?eia?ii? ni?aae Oa?e?anueeiai ciiaaoa?eia?iiai
?inoeoooo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo ioao?aieoeoaa OAAI, eaai?aoi??y iaoieia??
ioeoe?, a?aeae?e o?c?ieia??, a?io?i?? oa aeeaeaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ioeoe?, eaai?aoi??y ?ieoaaoe??
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? ioeoe? n.i.o. Ai?ee, Oa?e?anueei? iaeano?.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 23 » /a?aiy 1999 ?. i » 11-30 » aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.359.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ? ee?i?/ii? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie OAAI, 310023, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe. Iooe?inueea,83.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ? ee?i?/ii? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie OAAI i. Oa?e?a,
aoe. Iooe?inueea,83.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 20 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee Eiia?aeaanueeee E.?.

aeieoi? aaoa?eia?ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

AEOOAEUeI?NOUe oAIE. Iaaecae/aeii aeniea eiioeaio?aoe?y ia iaiaaeai?e
oa?eoi??? iiaie?a’y ioao?a i?e aeei?enoaii? ?ioaineaieo iaoiae?a
oo?eiaiiy, c iaeiiai aieo — ca?eueoo? a??ia?aei?noue aeoaea oaeaeeiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?ioaeoe?e, c ?ioiai — i?ecaiaeeoue aei
aaiethoe?ii?caoe?? oi?i aeyao a?aeiieo ?ioaeoe?e ? aeieeiaiiy iiaeo
caoai?thaaiue ye ca?acii?, oae ? iaca?acii? ao?ieia??, ye? ia
aeyaeythoueny i?e aenoaineaieo iaoiaeao oo?eiaiiy. A iao /an ioao?aie/?
ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie iaea?eueo? caeoee ianooue a?ae oaeeo aaeoa??ic?a,
ye eie?aaeoa??ic, naeueiiiaeueic, ?ani??aoi?iee i?eiieaciic, ? a??ic?a —
oai?iaa Ia?aea, oai?iaa Aaiai?i, ?ioaeoe?eiee ea?eiaio?aoa?o, neiae?ii
cieaeaiiy yeoeaian?iiy. Aaaaoi c ieo iathoue aoei?/iee oa anioe?eiaaiee
ia?aa?a (Aa?iai A.A., Nieieaiei I.O., 1985; A.I.O?aai, 1985; Aaae?i
A.O., 1990; Ieueoiaee E. A., 1992; Aaeaeaaeyoia A.A., Aana?aaia A.O.,
1992; Oio?ia O.?.,1995, Iai?ea? ?.?., Ei?yaaoeue A.?., 1995; Aiaoaiei
A.I., 1991, 1994; Cii A.A., 1996; Simko S., 1986; Sondermann,1986;
Stewart T.I.,1995)

Caeaa?eueoiai a?aecia/a?oueny ci?oaiee ia?aa?a ?ioaeoe??, aeeeeeaiee
aeaiia ? a?eueoa aaaioaie a??on-aaeoa??aeueii? ao?ieia??. A noeoiiino? c
?ioaineaiith aenieoaoaoe??th, a oaeiae /anoeie no?aniaeie neooaoe?yie,
ioi/oth/a na?aaeiaeua ia i?iieneiaeo ioaoieiiieaenao coiiaeei i?aeaeuaio
/ooeea?noue i?aai?cio aei cieaeaiiy caaaeueii? ?acenoaioiino? i?e
aaaaoueio caoai?thaaiiyo ?ioaeoe?eii? ? iaca?acii? ao?ieia?? (Aa?iai
A.A.. Nieieaiei ?. O., 1985; Eio A.I., 1986; Aaeaeaaeyoia A.A.,
Aanna?aaia A.O., 1992; Maatthes S., 1988; Dykstra M.S, 1985)

A iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? inoaii?o ?ie?a aeei?enoiao?oueny oa?i?i «Crowding
disease complex» (oai?iaioai?iee eiiieaen neo/aiino?), i?ae eio?ei
?icoi?thoue ?icaeoie oai?iaeeaiai noaio a iane?aeie ae??
oiiaiiiaoiaaiii? i?e?ioei?e i?e iaaei??i?e eiioeaio?aoe?? oaa?ei, yea
aeeeeea? /anoi anioe?eiaai? ciaoei?/iei ia?aa?aii caoai?thaaiiy ?c-ca
iecueeiai ??aiy ianiaoeeo?/ii? ?acenoaioiino? i?aai?cio oaa?ei, ui
caciathoue ae?? no?aniaiai oaeoi?o. A a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? ia i?ioyc?
inoaii?o 20 ?ie?a aeei?enoiaothoue oa?i?i «i?e?ia?ci» (Aaeaeaaeyoia
A.A., 1981, 1984) aeey aecia/aiiy noaio i?aeaeuaii? caa?oaeiaiino?
oaa?eiieoeueeeo i?ei?uaiue ? iia?o?y.

I?enoiniaaia aei a?eueiiai ?nioaaiiy ioeoey a iioiaaiac? ia i?eaeaaea
iaoai?ci?a caoenoo a?ae aieeao aaeeeeo eiioeaio?aoe?e oe?aeeeaeo ?a/iaei
(ieethee, aiii?aeo oa ?io.) oa i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ye? iio?aieythoue a
aeeoaeuei? oeyoe. C iaoith caiia?aaiiy iia?o?yii — e?aiaeueieo ?ioaeoe?e
a oiiaao i?iieneiaiai oo?eiaiiy ioeoe? iio??aii eiio?iethaaoe ??aaiue
i?e?iaiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua ioao?aie/eo ia’?eo?a
ainiiaea?noa ? nai?/anii i?iaiaeeoe aeac?ioaeoe?ei? caoiaee (Eio A.?.,
1986; Cii A.A., ? ni?aaao. 1993; Steiger A., 1994).

A?aeiii, ui i?aai?ci ioao?a ia caaaeaee ia? iaiao?aei? ? aeinoaoi?
caniae, ui caaacia/othoue caa?aaeaiiy caei?ia’y iniaeeai a oiiaao
oo?eiaiiy a ee?oeao. Aaaaoi oaeoi??a ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ? a oiio
/ene? no?ane ??ciiiai?oiiai iioiaeaeaiiy caeaoi? ia?aai?thaaoe caoeno
i?aai?cio ? i?ecaiaeeoe aei oai?ia (N?eueaano?ia A.I.,1986; Aa?aiia,
1990; Iooea?ueiaa ?.I., 1991; Aeaena?aa N.A., 1992; ?a?aa?iia A.A.,
1993; Aeaaeeia A.A., 1995).

A?aie/ii-aeiionoei? eiioeaio?aoe?? (AAeE) ieethee oa i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a
eoa?/iiio iao?? iia?o?y ioaoiee?a, aecia/ai? ii?iaie oaoiieia?/iiai
i?iaeooaaiiy (CIOI-4-88), aea iaa?oue ?o aeio?eiaiiy ia cieaeo? nooo?ai
ia cieaeo?oueny ??aaiue caaeaae? ioao?a a?ae iiaaiii?? oa ?ioeo
?ani??aoi?ieo caoai?thaaiue, ui ?iciianthaeaeothoueny
iia?o?yii-e?aiaeueiei oeyoii. I?e?ia?ci i?ei?uaiue aeeeeea? no?an a
i?aai?ci? eo?/ao ? i?ecaiaeeoue aei ?icaeoeo ?ioiiaeao?oeeoiiai noaio
(?a?aa?iia A.A., 1993), i?ioa ? aei oaia? iaoeiai ia aecia/aii ??aaiue
aaeoa??aeueii? caa?oaeiaiino?, yeee ua aei i?iyao ee?i?/ieo iciae
oai?iae, na?ae/ea ae i?i iayai?noue «i?e?iaiiai no?ano». Oea aeiiiiiaei
a eiio?iethaaoe ? i?iaiicoaaoe neooaoe?th uiaei iiyae
iia?o?yii-e?aiaeueieo ?ioaeoe?e o ioao?aieoeoa?.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia
?i?oe?aoeaia, aeeiioaaeanue ia eaoaae?? a??onieia??, iaoaiaoii?? oa
oai?ia ioeoe? Noinueeiai AeAO, a Noinuee?e iaeani?e eaai?aoi???
aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie ? ioaoiainiiaea?noaao Noinueei? iaeano? ia
caiiaeaiiy AI «Noieioaoii?ii».

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiue aoei aea/eoe aieea i?e?ia?cio ioaoieea ia
caaaeueiee noai i?aai?cio eo?/ao oa ai?ciioe/io neooaoe?th
ioaoiainiiaea?noaa. Ia ?ica`ycaiiy iaie aoee iinoaaeai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aea/eoe no/aniee niaeo? iniiaieo oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a iia?o?y
ioao?aie/eo oa?i.

2. Aea/eoe aieea aeeiai?ee i?e?ia?cio ia ??aaiue aaeoa??aeueiiai
ian?iai?iiy caa?oaeiaiiy i?aai?a aeeoaiiy 1-60 aeaiieo eo?/ao.

3. Aea/eoe ?aaeoe?th i?aai?cio eo?/ao, ye? oo?eiothoueny a oiiaao
c?inoath/i? eiioeaio?aoe?? oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a iia?o?y.

4. Aea/eoe ?aaeoe?th i?aai?cio eo?/ao ia iaiaaeaiiy eiioai?iaoe??
oaeoeueoaoeaieie aiaa?iaaie iia?o?y, yea aaeeoa?oueny.

5. ?ic?iaeoe iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaiee ?aaeei naiaoe?? iia?o?y ioaoiee?a a
i?enooiino? ioeoe? aeey i?io?eaeoeee aaeoa??ic?a ? ai?iaaaeeoe eiai o
ae?iaieoeoai ioao?aie/eo ainiiaea?noa Noinueei? iaeano?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a 1. Aia?oa aea/aii ae?th ??cieo
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a, ui caa?oaeiththoue iia?o?y ioaoiee?a ia aea ye?
iieacieee noaio i?aai?cio oaa?ei oa ?ani??aoi?ieo i?aai?a.

2. Aeieacaii, ui a?noieia?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie iii?oi?eiaii eaaaiue, a
oaeiae iaaeie?iee?a oa oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a ?ioiieiiiaoaioii? nenoaie
eo?/ao iiaeeeai anoaiiaeoe i?iyae aieeao i?e?iaiiai no?ano ia ii/aoeo
eiai ?icaeoeo.

3. C`yniaaii, ui eiee eiao?oe??io i?iii?oe?eiino? (a?aeiioaiiy i?ae
anoaiiaeaiei oa ii/aoeiaei ??aiai aaeoa??aeueiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y)
neeaaea? F 1,1, oi aa?oi? aeeoaeuei? oeyoe eo?/ao ni?iiiaei?
iaeneiaeueii cao?eioaaoe iaeiie/aiiy oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a.
Ia?aaeuaiiy oeueiai iieacieea aaaea aei eiioai?iaoe?? eaaaiue oeeie
aaeoa??yie ? i?iaiicoth/ei aaeoi?ii uiaei ?icaeoeo aa?iaaiieo
aaeoa??ic?a.

4. Aecia/ai? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? oa?i?ie canoinoaaiiy aaeoa?eoeeaeieo
aa?icieae ??cieo aeac?ioaeoaio?a aeey ei?aeoe?? ??aiy aaeoa??aeueiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y ioaoiee?a.

I?AEOE*Ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A i?aeoeeo aaoa?eia?iiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy i?iieneiaiai ioao?aieoeoaa i?iiiio?oueny cai?iaaaeeoe
eiio?ieue aaeoa??aeueiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?yiiai na?aaeiaeua, yeee
i?noeoue iia? a?aeiiino? i?i ae?th i?e?iaiiai no?ano ia i?aai?ci eo?/ao.

I?iiiio?oueny iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaia noaia ?aaeeio naiaoe?? ioao?aie/eo
i?ei?uaiue, yea aeicaiey? eiio?iethaaoe ??aaiue i?e?ia?cio, ui ia
aieeaa? iaaaoeaii ia i?aai?ci ? aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe caa?aaeaiiy eo?/ao.

Oaoi?/iith ?aaeith i?e Noinueeiio iaeaniiio oi?aae?ii? aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie caoaa?aeaeaia «Oei/aniaa ianoaiiaa ii aeei?enoaiith
i?aia?aoo A??eiia N aeey naiaoe?? iia?o?y ioaoieea a i?enooiino? ioeoe?»
aeey ioaoiainiiaea?noa Noinueei? iaeano?.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a
«Oai?iae ioeoe?» oa «Ciia?a??ia» ia oaeoeueoao? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie
Noinueeiai AeAO.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniaeeaee aianie aeena?oaioa a ?ic?iaeo
iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a neeaaea?oueny c

naiino?eiiai aeeiiaiiy anueiai ianyao aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o,
noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee

io?eiaieo aeaieo oa ?o ?ioa?i?aoaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a caeiaoaa/a. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aoee
?icaeyioo? oa iaaiai?ai? ia:

— ??/ieo can?aeaiiyo A/aii? ?aaee oaeoeueoaoo aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie
Noinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo; ?-?e Oe?a?inuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? ii ioao?aieoeoao (1993); ui??/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? ani??aio?a Noinueeiai AeAO
(1994, 1995, 1996, 1997); I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
iieiaeeo a/aieo (“Iaoeia? aeinyaiaiiy a aaeoc? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie”
— Oa?e?a, 1997); V-?e i?aec’?cae?anuee?e eiioa?aioe?? ia?aceoioeaiieia?a
Oe?a?ie (aeiaoaiue, Oa?e?a — Eoaainuee, 1997 ); I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (“?icaeoie aaoa?eia?ii? iaoee a Oe?a?i?,
caeiaooee oa i?iaeaie”. Oa?e?a, 1997) oa I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 160-??//th I.A.Eieaniaa
(“Aeieia?y oa i?iaeaie cii?iaeaia??? ? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie”, Oa?e?a,
1997).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue.

IANssA OA NO?OEOO?A ?IAIOE. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 144 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo ? i?noeoue caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ?iaioe, iaeyae
e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue, ?acoeueoaoe aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?c ? iaaiai?aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, aeniiaee,
i?aeoe/i? i?iiiceoe??, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoie. Ia?ae?e
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e ai?uo? 254 aeaea?ae, a oiio /ene? 73 ?iicaiieo
aaoi??a. ?iaioa ?ethno?iaaia 36 oaaeeoeyie ? 14 iaethieaie.

AEANI? AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? o 1993-1997 ?ieao ia eaoaae?? a??onieia??,
iaoaiaoii?? ? oai?ia ioeoe? Noinueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, a ioaoiainiiaea?noaao Noinueei? iaeano?: «Oniainueeee»,
«Ie?iee», «Ia?oio?aaiaaee».

Ai?ciioieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee ni?yiiaai? ia aea/aiiy aeaea?ae
caoaeiee?a ?ioaeoe?e, iaoai?ci?a ia?aaea/?, a oaeiae niaeo?a
oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a o iia?o?yiiio na?aaeiaeu? ioaoiee?a ? o
eaaaiyo eo?/ao, i?e ee?oeiiiio oo?eiaii? oa a?oiia?e i?io?eaeoeoe?
aaeoa??aeueieo ?ioaeoe?e. I?e oeueiio c’yniaoaaee aeeiai?eo caaeaae?
eo?/ao, ?o aaiaoieia?/iee i?io?eue, a oaeiae ii?oieia?/io ?aaeoe?th oa
iaoieiai-aiaoii?/i? ci?ie i?aai?a aeeoaiiy oa ?ioiii? nenoaie caeaaeii
a?ae ??aiy eiioeaio?aoe?? oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a a iia?o??. Ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee eo?/aoa ii?iaee eaaai?i, e?ino «A?ei?onue-9» c 1 aei
60-aeaiiiai a?eo, ye? oo?eioaaeenue a oiiaao oeiiaeo i?ei?uaiue
ioaoiainiiaea?noa.

Aeey a?noieia?/iiai oa ii?oieia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeae?aee a
a?aeiia?aei? oa?i?ie eaaai?, oeion, oaa?eoe??ao noieo, naeac?ieo,
iaaeie?ieee.

I?iae iia?o?y a?aeae?aee ia i?ioyc? 5 oaeeei naaeeiaioaoe?eiei iaoiaeii
a ?aieiaee /an i?e niie?eiiio noai? ioao?a ia /aoee Iao?? c
na?aaeiaeuaie IIA, aaa?ii Aiaei a o?ueio i?noeyo, ?icoaoiaaieo ii
ae?aaiiae? ioaoieeo c ee?oeiiei oo?eiaiiyi ia ??ai? na?aaeiueiai y?ono
aaoa?a?. Eiio?ieue ca ??aiai iaeiie/aiiy a iia?o?? oaeoeueoaoeaieo
aiaa?ia?a, i?iaiaeeee aei iinaaeee oa ia 5,10, 15, 20, 25, 30,35, 40,
45, 50,55, 60 aeaiue ae?iuoaaiiy ioao?a. A?ae?a?ai? i?iae ?ieoaoaaee a
oa?iinoao? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 370N, i?ioyaii 48 aiaeei. Ae?iuai? eieii??
i?ae?aoiaoaaee i?e aeiiiiic? iai?aaaoiiaoe/iiai e?/eeueieea ca
iaoiaeeeith I.I.Coaiaa (1976).

I?ae?aooiie i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a 1i3 iia?o?y i?iaiaeeee ca caaaeueii
i?eeiyoith iaoiaeeeith. Io?eiai? aeaii? ni?aa?aeiineee c AAeE
i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a 1i3 iia?o?y aeey ??cieo a?eiaeo a?oi ioeoe? (ca
iaoiaeii Iaoonaae/a) ye? aeeeaaeai? a caaaeueiinithcieo ii?iao
oaoiieia?/iiai i?iaeooaaiiy (CIOI-4-88) aeey /iai canoiniaoaaee
ia?a?aooieiaee eiao?oe??io 5,6, yeee aoa cai?iiiiiaaiee Ciiii A.A. c
ni?aaao. (1998).

?cieyoe?th i?e?ii?aai?ci?a i?iaiaeeee c iia?o?y ioaoiee?a ? o?oi?a
ioao?a. O an?o ?cieyo?a aea/aee ii?oieia?/i?, a?io?i?/i?, oa o aeayeeo
iaoiaaii? aeanoeaino? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoiaeeeaie ? aeiiaaie,
aeeeaaeaieie a aeia?aeieeo «Eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy o aaoa?eia???.
Aaeoa??aeuei? ?ioaeoe??» i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th Aioiiiaa A.I. (1986).

Aen?ae i?iaiaeeee ia i?ino? oa aeaeoeai? iiaeeai?, o oiio /ene? ?
aeeoa?aioe?eii ae?aaiinoe/i? na?aaeiaeua oa ?ieoaoaaee 24 aiaeeie i?e
370N. Ii?oieia?/i? aeanoeaino? aeae?eaieo eoeueoo? aea/aee a
iaceao-a?aeaeoeao, iioa?aiaaieo ca A?aiii. Aea/aiiy eoeueoo?aeueieo ?
a?io?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae i?iaiaeeee, aeei?enoiaoth/e iiaeeai?
na?aaeiaeua c aoaeaaiaeaie ? aaaaoiaoiiieie nie?oaie, ye? e i?noeee
?iaeeeaoi? Aiae?aaea, na?aaeiaeua Eea?ea, Ieueeaieoeueeiai, IIIAE,
na?aaeiaeua c na/iaeiith, na?aaeiaeua O??noainaia. ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th
aeae?eaieo aaaio?a cae?enithaaee o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeiiaaie,
aeeeaaeaieie a «Ei?ioeiio aecia/aeueieeo aaeoa??e Aa?a?» (1980).

Oei?caoe?th oa ?aeaioeo?eaoe?th aeae?eaieo eoeueoo? aaeoa??e
naeueiiiaeueicii? a?oie i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii iine?aeiaiiai caaaa/aiiy.
Eaaai?, a?ae?a?ai? a?ae o?eueee-ii caaeoi? ioeoe?, iii?uaee a eieao c
na?aaeiaeuai o ni?aa?aeiioaii? 1:5 ? ?ici?uoaaee a oa?iinoao?. *a?ac
18-24 aiaeeie i?iaiaeeee aen?ae a aaeoa??ieia?/i? /aoee c
aeeoa?aioe?eii-ae?aaiinoe/ieie na?aaeiaeuaie, cie?aia ia
a?nioo-noeueo?oiee aaa?, naeai?oiaee aoeueeii, iaai??aa na?aaeiaeua oa
?io?. I?ney 16-aiaeeiiiai aeo?eioaaiiy a oa?iinoao? i?e 370N ?c
caaaa/aieo na?aaeiaeu i?iaiaeeee aoi?eii? aen?ae ia /aoee c
a?nioo-noeueo?oiei aaa?ii ? ?ieoaoaaee a oeo aea oiiaao. ??no eieii?e
ia?aoiaoaaee ia 16,24 ? 48 aiaeeio.

Ii?oieia?th a?ae?a?aieo eoeueoo? aea/aee a iaceao, iioa?aiaaieo ca
A?aiii, ia ?ooeea?noue — o aeny/?e e?aie?. Ia aeiaaeie aeae?eaiiy
oeiiaeo eoeueoo?, ?o i?aeaeaaaee aeine?aeaeaiith c aaethoeioth/eie
iie?naeueiiiaeueicieie ne?iaaoeaie. Eoeueoo?e, ye? aeaaaee iiceoeai?
?aaeoe??, a iiaeaeueoiio aea/aee — c iiii?aoeaioi?ieie aaethoeioth/eie
ne?iaaoeaie.

Aeey aecia/aiiy eieiai? i?e?ioei?e i?iaiaeeee ?icaaaeaiiy iaoa??aeo ?c
c?ace?a eaaaiue. I?ney in?aeaiiy caaen? /anoeiie c aa?oiueiai oa?o
??aeeie a?aeae?aee i?iae ? aen?aaee ia /aoee Iao?? c 5%-iei e?ia’yiei
IIA. Iae?e eieii?e i?iaiaeeee i?ney ?ieoaaoe?? a oa?iinoao? i?ioyaii 48
aiaeei i?e 370N. Aeey ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? no?aioieie?a io?eiai? eieii??
ia?an?aaee ia iiei/ia na?aaeiaeua c 0,002 % ai?noii iaoeeaiiaiai
neiueiai.

Iaoiaaii? aeanoeaino? aeae?eaieo eoeueoo? aea/aee ia a?eeo ieoao ?
11-aeiaiaeo eo?y/eo aia??iiao. Aeey ca?aaeaiiy eo?y/eo aia??ii?a
aeei?enoiaoaaee aeiaia? aoeueeiii? eoeueoo?e ?cieueiaaieo caoaeiee?a
(/ano?oa 18-20-aiaeeii?), iaiineee ?o ii 0,2 ni3 ia oi?eiaeaioi?nio
iaieiieo (A??aa? I.I. c ni?aaao., 1982). I?ney ?icoeio aea/aee
iaoieiai-aiaoii?/io ea?oeio ? i?iaiaeeee aen?ae c iaoiaoa??aeo aia??ii?a
oa eo?/ao ia iiaeeai? na?aaeiaeua c iaoith ?a?cieyoe?? eoeueoo?.

A?noieia?/ii aeine?aeaeoaaee eaaai?, oeion, oaa?eoe??ao noieo,
naeac?ieo, iaaeie?ieee Iaoieia?/iee iaoa??ae o?enoaaee a 10% oi?iae?i?
i?ioyaii 10 aei?a, iaacaiaeithaaee a nie?oao ia?inoath/i?
eiioeaio?aoe??, iio?i ia’?eoe caeeaaee a ia?ao?iia? aeiee c iaoith
aeaioiaeaiiy c??c?a oiaueiith 7-10 iei. Io?eiai? c??ce oa?aoaaee
aaiaoienee?i-aiceiii aeey anoaiiaeaiiy oeeoia?o?oaeoii?ee i?aai?a,
i?e?iooeneiii — aeey aeyaeaiiy niieo/ii? oeaieie; a -iaooieii — aeey
aeyaeaiiy e?ioi?aeieo ee?oei.

Aeey aecia/aiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? ai?aeo canoiniaoaaee ii?oaoeaiee aaciaee
aiae?caoi? oeio OA-2. Caaaeueio e?euee?noue eaeeioeeo?a i?ae?aoiaoaaee o
eaia?? Ai?y?aa ca caaaeueii-i?eeiyoith noaiith. Aeey aecia/aiiy ai?noo
eao?iiieo a?ee?a a a?aioeioeeoao ioao?a aeaioiaeai? iacee e?ia? nooeee
ia iia?o?? ? oa?aoaaee nii/aoeo no?eeei caeaiei 15 oaeeei, iio?i Aco?ii
-20-30 naeoiae. I?e i?e?ineii?? i?ae?aoiaoaaee ca oi?ioeith
Anoaeueae?-Aa?aa: (3a+2a+1a+0a) /100 iae., aea a,a,a,a — e?euee?noue
iaeiioeiieo ee?oei c iaaiei nooiaiai iioa?aiaaiino? oeeoiieacie no?eeei
caeaiei; oeeo?e: 3,2,1,0 — nooi?iue ?ioaineaiino? iioa?aiaaiino? iace?a;
100 — caaaeueia e?euee?noue i?ae?aoiaaieo ee?oei. A?aenooi?noue
yne?aai-caeaieo a?aioe a oeeoiieaci? i?eeiaee ca 0. Iayai?noue a
oeeoiieaci? 1/3 iioa?aiaaieo a?aioe a?aeiineee aei 1. sseui eao?iii?
a?eee caiiaithaaee 2/3 oeeoiieacie ee?oei, ?o ioe?ithaaee /eneii 2, yeui
iiai?noth — 3.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy ?aaeoe?? i?aai?cio ia iaiaaeaiiy eiioai?iaoe??
aa?iaaie iia?o?y, ui aaeeoa?oueny i?iaiaeeee aenia?eiaio ia 30 eo?/aoao
c iaeiiaeaiiiai aei 60-aeaiiiai a?eo. A yeino? aeaceioaeoaioa
aeei?enoiaoaaee «Aaeuecai AEA», iiei/io eeneioo oa A??eii N ca noaiith ?
a eiioeaio?aoe??, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a i?iieneiaiio ioao?aieoeoa?,
cie?aia, o ioaoi?aaeainiao «Ie?iee» Noinueeiai ?aeiio oa «Ia?oio?aaiaaa»
Eeiiaiaeieeinueeiai ?aeiio Noinueei? iaeano?. Aecia/aee ??ai?
aaeoa??aeueiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y aei aeaceioaeoe?? /a?ac 2, 4, 24,
48, 72 aiaeeie i?ney aeaceioaeoe??, ia?aa??yee ia noa?eeuei?noue e?ia
ioao?a o oe? oa?i?ie oa e?euee?noue eaeeioeeo?a (oen./ni3).

I?iaiaeeee caai? ii 5 ioao?a /a?ac eiaei? 5 ae?a c iaoith aecia/aiiy
a?noieia?/ieo ci?i a ?ioiieiiiaoaioieo i?aaiao ? eaaaiyo i?e
aeei?enoaii? aeac?ioaeoaio?a.

C iaoith aea/aiiy aieeao A??eiia N ia ??aaiue aaeoa??aeueiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy i?iaiaeeee ae?iaie/ee aenia?eiaio a aeine?aei?e oeiia?e
ioaoa?i? aea eiaei? 5 ae?a eiio?iethaaee ??aaiue aaeoa??aeueii?
caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y ioaoieeo, ? a?aeae?aee i?iae e?ia? aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy aaiaoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae i?ae?aoiaoaaee
e?euee?noue caaeaeeo ioao?a c anoaiiaeaiiyi iaoieiai-aiaoii?/iiai
ae?aaiico a eiio?ieuei?e ioaoa?i?.

Aeaceioaeoe?th iiei/iith eeneioith i?iaiaeeee ca noaiith,
canoiniaoaaiith o oeueiio ioaoi?aaeaini? c a?aeiia?aeieie eiio?ieyie
noaiiaeua iia?o?y ioaoieea oa i?aai?cio eo?/ao.

Io?eiai? i?e i?iaaaeaii? aeine?ae?a e?euee?ni? aeai? ia?iaeyee iaoiaeii
iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee c ae?aooaaiiyi na?aaei?o a?eoiaoe/ieo aaee/ei, a
oaeiae nooiaith aeinoia??iino? iieaciee?a ( Aoia??i ?.I., Ai?iaeia A.A.,
1962; Aineiaieieeia A.A., 1995 ?.) ca aeiiiiiaith eiii`thoa?a IBM
PC/ATI.

I?e aeeiiaii? aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoaii: 1-aeiaiaeo eo?y/eo aia??ii?a —
90 oooe; eo?/ao — c 1 aei 60-aeaiiiai a?eo — 870 aie?a. Ee?i?/iiio
ianoaaeaiith i?aeaeaaaee 670 593 aieiae ioeoe?.

?acoeueoaoe aeanieo aeine?aeaeaiue

Ai?ciioe/i? ianoaaeaiiy aoee i?iaaaeai? ioaoi?aaeainiao AI
«Noieioaoii?ii»: ?i. «Eoeaeoaaa», «Ie?iee» Noinueeiai ?aeiio;
«A?eii?euenueeee», «Aaaiaa?ae» A?eii?eueneiai ?aeiio; ?i.
«Iooeaeuenueeeo ia?oecai» Iooeaeuenueeiai ?aeiio; «ssii?euenueeee»
ssii?eueneiai ?aeiio; «Ia?oio?aaiaaee» Eeiiaiaeieeinueeiai ?aeiio;
«I?eaeaniyinueeee» Oinoe?inueeiai ?aeiio; «Iinoeuenueeee»
Iaae?eaaee?anueeiai ?aeiio; «I?enaeinueeee» Eiiioiinueeiai ?aeiio;
«Ai?neea» O?inoyiaoeueeiai ?aeiio oa «Oniainueeee» E?aniii?euenueeiai
?aeiio, a yeeo oo?eioaaeenue eo?/aoa.

Aeey c’ynoaaiiy aeeiai?ee o?aaeaiue i?aai?a aeeoaiiy caaeaeeo eo?/ao
1-60 aeaiiiai a?eo ca 1995-1997 ?iee ie ia?aee ioaoi?aaeainie «Ie?iee»,
«Ia?oio?aaiaaee» oa «Oniainueeee», aea ca inoaii? 3 ?iee ia
?a?no?oaaeiny aino?eo ?ioaeoe?eieo oai?ia na?aae eo?/ao. Io?eiai?
aeaii?, na?ae/aoue i?i c?inoaiiy aeiaaee?a o?aaeaiiy i?aai?a aeeoaiiy c
15 aei 30 aeaiiiai a?eo eo?/ao. I?ney 30 aeaiiiai a?eo oeae iieaciee
iaaoaaa oaiaeaioe?? aei cieaeaiiy. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui iaea?eueoo
caaeaaeue eo?/ao c o?aaeaiiyie i?aai?a aeeoaiiy ie niinoa??aaee c 20 aei
40 aeaiiiai a?eo eiee aeioei aeecueei 45-60 aie?a ia aeiao. Oa?aeoa?ii,
ui oaiaeaioe?y uiaei aeeiai?ee o?aaeaiue i?aai?a aeeoaiiy eo?/ao a ??ci?
?iee aeine?aeaeaiue caeeoa?oueny iaci?iiith.

Ai?ciioe/i? ianoaaeaiiy ioaoi?aaeaini?a Noinueei? iaeano? iieacaee, ui
ia oeeo ia’?eoao c i?io?eaeoe/iith iaoith aei 35-40 aeaiiiai a?eo eo?/ao
canoiniaothoueny aioea?ioeee, noeueoai?eai?aei? i?aia?aoe,
eieoeeae?inoaoeee oa ?io?. ?ieiee ca aeiiii?/ieo oiia, ye? neeaeeny ia
aeo?eioaaeeny eo?ne aai eiioeaio?aoe?y caaaeaieo i?aia?ao?a, aai
i?ecia/aiiy ?o ia caaaeaee aeioe?eueii. Oea a iaai?e i???
a?aeia?aaea?oueny ia e?euee?niiio neeaae? oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a
iia?o?y i?ei?uaiue, eiioeaio?aoe?y yeeo iinooiiai c?inoa? iacaaaeath/e
ia i?io?eaeoe/i? caoiaee. Oae, aaea a ia?o? aei? i?ney ?icoaooaaiiy
eo?/ao, ??aaiue aaeoa??aeueiiai caa?oaeiaiiy ia?aaeuo? 150 oen.i.o./i3
iia?o?y. A iiaeaeueoiio oeae iieaciee ua a?eueoa c?inoa? ei?aethth/e ?c
no?ieaie oo?eiaiiy eo?/ao oa ?o a?eii. Iaeneiaeuei? iieacieee
caa?oaeiaiino? a iaoeo aeine?aeao aoee a iaaeao 665-710 oen.i.o./i3
iia?o?y.

Iaaiee ?ioa?an aeeeeea? oie oaeo, ui canoinoaaiiy oei?iiai aaiia aeey
iia?eee no?i i?ei?uaiue oa aeaceioaeoe?? i?aeeiae, iaeaaeiaiiy,
?iaaioa?th ciaiooaaei aaeoa??aeueio caa?oaeiai?noue i?ei?uaiiy ?
aaeoa??oeeaeii ae?yee ia naeueiiiaee.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui c 10-aeaiiiai a?eo a iia?o?? niinoa??aa?oueny
iaea?eueoee ai?no, o caaaeueiiio /ene? aaeoa??e, eeoeiai? iaee/ee.
E?euee?noue naeueiiiae o 5-aeaiiiio a?oe? i?e aeine?aeaeai? a oiiaao
ioaoieea neeaaeaea 19% a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? oaeoeueoaoeaieo
aiaa?ia?a, a a 30-aeaiiiio a?oe?-35%, ui aeeeeea? iaaia ianoi?iaeaiiy.
Ai?no aaeoa??e a?oie eeoeiai? iaee/ee a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a iia?o?y neeaaeaa ca 2-o i?ny/iee ia??iae
62-93%. I?ioa e?euee?noue eie?a aei 35 aeaiiiai a?eo ioeoe? noaiiaea
5-9%, a c 35 aei 60-aeaiiiai a?eo a?ae 21 aei 40%.

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aaeoa??ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aoei
?cieueiaaii 164469 eieii?e aaeoa??e. C ieo 12771 ?aeaioeo?eoaaee ye
S.virchow? oa 3204-S.pullorum. E??i oiai, 121656 eieii?e ?aeaioeo?eoaaee
ye i?aaenoaaiee?a aaeoa??e a?oie eeoeiai? iaei/ee: 67926 a?aeianai? iaie
aei ?iaeo Echerichia; 34379-aei ?iaeo Enterobacter; 19351 eieii?th aei
?iaeo Citrobacter. Oaeiae, aoee ?cieueiaai? eieia? oi?ie aaeoa??e (26838
eieii?e). C ieo St.aureus 14927 eieii?e oa
Str.haemolyticus-11911eieii?e.

Ca nai?th ii?oieia??th naeueiiiaee oyaeyee niaith ae??ai? c cae?oaeaieie
e?ioeyie iaaaoeai? ca A?aiii iaee/ee o 63,4% aeiaaeeao iaaecae/aeii
?ooeea?. A a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a (79,5%) aiie aeaaaee oeiiaee ??no ia
na?aaeiaeu? Aiaei a aeaeyae? e?oaeeo aaceieuei?iaeo aai ia i?ai?ici?eo
eieii?e. Ia a?nioo-noeueo?oiiio aaa?? aiie ooai?thaaee /i?i? aai
ei?e/iaa? eieii?? c oa?aeoa?iei iaoaeaaei aeeneii, a ia IIA-aeeeeeaee
aeeoocia iioaii?iiy na?aaeiaeua. Ia IIA aiie ?inee o aeaeyae? eieii?e
ae?aiao?ii 2-4 ii, a a 63.4% aeiaaee?a aeoaea ae??aieo eieii?e aei 1 ii.

Iaee/ee a ?cieyo? aoa??o?e aoee iaaaoeai? ca A?aiii, iaee ii e?ayo
cae?oaeaiiy. Aeaye? na?iaa?e aaeoa??e iaee eieiiiae?aio oi?io,
?icoaoiaoaaeenue ie?aii aai iiia?ii. A?eueoa iieiaeia aaeoa??e (71,2%)
aoea ?ooeeaa. Ia IIA aeae?eai? ?cieyoe aeeeeeaee iioaii?iiy na?aaeiaeua
c ooai?aiiyi a?eiai inaaeo, yeee no?oooaaii? eaaei ?icaeaaany i?e
no?on?. ?yae eieii?e ooai?thaaee ia iiaa?oi? IIA na?oei-n??iai eieuei?o
ie?aeo (21,7%). Ia IIA eoeueoo?e oi?ioaaee ??no o aeaeyae? e?oaeeo
n??oaaoi-a?eeo eieii?e c aeeneo/ith iiaa?oiath. Ia na?aaeiaeu? Aiaei
a?eueo?noue ?cieyo?a (75,71%) ooai?thaaee yne?aai /a?aii? c iaoaeaaei
aeeneii eieii??. A a?io?i?/iiio a?aeiioaii? aeae?eai? eoeueoo?e aoee
aeineoue aeoeai? ca?iaeaeoaaoe oeoei? oa aaaaoiaoiii? nie?oe c
ooai?aiiyi eeneioe oa aaco aai o?eueee eeneioe, 79,1% ?cieueiaaieo
aoa??o?e iaee oeiia? a?io?i?/i? aeanoeaino? ? aoee a?aeianai? aei E.coli
20,9% aoee aoei?/i? ? iaee a?aeoeeaiiy ii1 aai 2 iieacieeai. C ieo 42%
ca aioeaaiieie iciaeaie aoei a?aeianaii aei E.coli na?iaa??a 078, 02,
0111.

??ae Enterobacter aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee ?ooeeaeie, iaaaoeaieie ca A?aiii
iaee/eaie. Ia IIA aiie aeeeeeaee aeeoocia iioaii?iiy, ia IIA-eieii??
n??i-a?eiai eieuei?o, neeciiiae?ai?. Ia na?aaeiaeu? Aiaei aiie ?inee o
aeaeyae? iaeeiiaiai eieuei?o eieii?e, a ia na?aaeiaeu? Ieine??aaa –
aeiaooaaoeo aai aaceieuei?iaeo eieii?e. ??ae Enterobacter aoei
i?aaenoaaeaii E.aerogenes (36%) oa E.cloacae (64%).

??ae Citribacter aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee ae??aieie, iaaaoeaieie ca A?aiii
iaee/eaie, ye? o?eueee a 2,5% aeiaaee?a aoee ia?ooeea?. Ia IIA
niinoa??aaee aeeoociee ??no. Ia IIA eieii?? aoee aaceieuei?ia?, a
ie?aieo aeiaaeeao n??oaaoi-a?e?, ??cieo ?ici???a. Ia na?aaeiaeu? Aiaei o
51,2% aeiaaeeao aeae?eyee eaeoiciiiceoeai? eieii??, ye? iaee ?iaeaaee
eieuei? oa a 48,8% aeiaaee?a-eaeoiciiaaaoeai?, ye? noai?thaaee
aaceieuei?ia? eieii??. Ia a?nioo-noeueo?oiiio aaa?? niinoa??aaee ??no
eieii?e na?oei-caeaiiai aai ei?e/iaaiai eieuei?o c oa?aeoa?iei
iai?e?iiei caiaoii. ??ae Citribacter aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee C.freundii
(43%), C.intermedius (57%).

Eieiaa i?e?ioei?a aoea i?aaenoaaeaia a?aiiiceoeaieie eieaie, na?aae yeeo
?ciethaaee no?aioieiee oa noao?eieiee. Ia aetheici-e?ia`yiiio aaa??
no?aioieiee ?inee a aeaeyae? ae??aieo, ?inei/aoeo eieii?e c ciiith
aaiie?co. Noao?eieiee ooai?thaaee e?oae? iioee? eieii?? aeiaoiai
eieuei?o. Ia IIA Str.haemolyticus aeaaaa ??no, yeee i?e no?on? i?ia??ee
?icaeaaany ia ae??ai? oiaoi/ee. St.aureus ia IIA noai?thaaa neeciaee
inaae, yeee i?e no?on? i?ae?eiaany a aeaeyae? eine/ee. Eieii??
Str.haemolyticus iaee oa?aeoa?iee ??no ia na?aaeiaeu? c 40% ai?noii
aeia/? oa aeeeeeaee ?aaeoeoe?th iaoeeaiiaiai neiueiai. St.aureus
aeeoa?aioe?thaaee a?ae Str.haemolyticus ca aeiiiiiaith eaoaeacii? i?iae
oa ?inoo ia IIA, yeee i?noea 10% oei?eaeo iao??th. Str.haemolyticus ia
oeueiio na?aaeiaeu? ia aeeeeeaa iioaii?iiy c aeieeiaiiyi neeciaiai
inaaeeo.

Iaoiaaii? aeanoeaino? aoee anoaiiaeai? o 7 eoeueoo? c ?iaeo Echerichia
oa o 2 eoeueoo? c ?iaeo Enterobacter.

Aea/ath/e aeeiai?eo ??aiy aaeoa??aeueii? eiioai?iaoe?? eaaaiue ioeoe?,
ie anoaiiaeee, ui aaea c 5-aeaiiiai a?eo c eaaaiue aeae?eythoueny
eoeueoo?e na?iaa??aio?a naeueiiiae oa eeoeiai? iaee/ee, ye? iaeii/anii
?ciethaaee ?c iia?o?y ioaoieea. O eo?/ao 20 aeaiiiai a?eo ??aaiue
aaeoa??aeueii? eiioai?iaoe?? eaaaiue nyaaa 90 oen.i.o./a. i?e oeueiio
oaeiae aeae?eyee naeueiiiaee oa aoa??o??. E?euee?noue oeeo aaeoa??e ia
i?ioyc? ia??iaeo niinoa?aaeaiiy a a?aenioeiaiio a?aeiioaii? nooo?ai ia
ci?ithaaeanue ia i?ioyc? 2-3 aeaeaae. Ca aanue ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiiy o
ee?i?/ii caei?iai? ioeoe?, yea ciaoiaeeeanue a oiiaao aaeoa??aeueii
-caa?oaeiaiiai iia?o?y, iai ia aaeaeiny aen?yoe eieiaeo oi?i i?e?ia?a.
Oea iiaea na?ae/eoe i?i oa, ui a aa?oi?o aeeoaeueieo oeyoao ioeoe? oe?
oi?ie aaeoa??e ia ?icaeaathoueny, a oie /an ye iaee/eia? oi?ie aaeoa??e
ni?iiiaei? aei aaeaac?? ia ai?oae?? eaaaiue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui
i?e iinooiiai c?inoath/?e aaeoa??aeuei?e caa?oaeiaiino? ia aaea?oueny
aeae?eeoe naeueiiiae oa eeoeiai? iaee/ee c eaaai?a ioeoe?. Oea
a?aeaoaa?oueny eeoa a aeiaaeeao ??ceiai i?aeaeuaiiy caaaeueii?
caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaie eiao?oe??io i?iii?oe?eiino?
(a?aeiioaiiy ae?eniiai ??aiy aaeoa??aeueii? caa?oaeiaiino? aei
ii/aoeiaiai), yeee aei??aith? 1,1 aa?oi? aeeoaeuei? oeyoe ni?iiiaei?
cao?eioaaoe aaeoa??? c iia?o?y, yea aaeeoa?oueny. sseui caaaeaiee
eiao?oe??io aei??aith? 1,23 ? aeua caoenoii-i?enoinoaaeuei? iaoai?cie
aa?oi?o aeeoaeueieo oeyo?a ia a ciic? cao?eioaaoe anth e?euee?noue
i?e?ia?a. Ia iiaa?oi? eaaaiue iiaeooue aaeaacoaaoeny aei 25% c ?o
caaaeueii? e?eueeino?.

Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui a ae?iaie/eo oiiaao a inoaii? ?iee niinoa??aa?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y aei ci?i a ye?niiio neeaae? aaeoa??e ia oiiaio iaeeieoeth
ia’?io na?aaeiaeua. Ia iaoo aeoieo, oea iiaea aooe iia’ycaii c iino?eiei
aeei?enoaiiyi i?ioyaii aaaaoueio ?ie?a aioeaaeoa??aeueieo i?aia?ao?a,
aeac?ioaeoaio?a oa ?ioeo ?a/iaei, ye? iathoue aaeoa??inoaoe/i? oa
aaeoa??oeeaei? aeanoeaino?.

?aaeoe?y i?aai?cio eo?/ao ia aieea oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a iia?o?y
ioaoieea.

Aeey c`ynoaaiiy ?aaeoe?? i?aai?cio 1-60-aeaiieo eo?/ao ia aieea
oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a iia?o?y, ui i?iieeathoue o eaaai? ie
aeine?aeaeoaaee noai oeueiai i?aaio o aeeiai?oe?.

Ii?oieia?/ia ?aaeoe?y eaaai?a, yeo niinoa??aaee caeaaeaea a?ae ??aiy
aaeoa??aeueiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y ioaoieea. Iaea?eueo nooo?aeie
ci?iaie a eiiieaen? oe??? ?aaeoe?? aoa ?icaeoie iaoieiai –a?noieia?/ieo
ci?i aeanoeaeo aiaieuaa?e na?icii-eaoa?aeueii? a?iioiiiaaiii?? oa
iaa?yeo eaaai?a. I?ioean caiaeaiiy noi?iaiaeaeoaaany i?ie?oa?aoe??th
e?ioi?aeieo ee?oei, a ia?oo /a?ao caaaeyee inaaaeiaiceiio?e?a, a a
iiaeaeueoiio iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy a?no?ioeeo?a oa ieaciiaeano?a. Ae?y
iaoiaaiieo oaeoi??a i?ecaiaeeea aei aeaneaaiaoe?? ee?oei ?ani??aoi?iiai
ai?oae?th neeciai? iaieiiee. I?ae aieeaii i?e?ioei?e iia?o?y (aaeoa??e,
a i?e?iaeii ? a??on?a), yea c?oeiiao? ia?aooaaee ai?oae?e aeeoaeueieo
oeyo?a, a a iiaeaeueoiio noeioeth? eiai iaoaieac?th, oiaoi ia?ao?ae a
ieiueiiee aaaaoioa?iaee ai?oae?e. Ia iaoo aeoieo iiyaa aenoaeaoeaieo
i?ioean?a a ia?aio?i? eaaaiue, oiaoi na?icii- eaoa?aeueiiai aenoaeaoo oa
aeoeaia ?aaeoe?y inaaaeiaiceiio?e?a ia?aoeiaeaea? i?iieeiaiith aaeoa??e
a oiauo neeciai? iaieiiee. Iaea?eueo aeoeaii oe? i?ioeane
niinoa??aathoueny c ii/aoeo a aa?oi?o aeeoaeueieo oeyoao, a i?e
iiaeaeueoiio c?inoath/iio oeneo i?e?ioei?e aiie ioiieththoue anth
nenoaio aeeoaiiy eo?/ao.

C’yniaoth/e iaoai?cie ?aaeoe?? ?ioiieiiiaoaioii? nenoaie a caaaeuei?e
?aaeoe?? i?aai?cio ia c?inoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aaeoa??e o iia?o??, ui
aaeeoa?oueny eo?/aoaie ie anoaiiaeee, ui oaa?eoe??aa ao?na ia c?inoaiiy
aaeoa??aeueii? caa?oaeiaiino? ii/eia? ?aaaoaaoe ia 10-20 aeaiue aeeooy
ioeoe?. Nooo?ai? ?aaeoe?? oeiono ia anoaiiaeaii. Iana naeac?iee
ca?eueooaaeanue ia 20 aeiao ia 0,04%, a a 30-aeaiiiio a?oe? a ii??aiyii?
c aeine?aeiith a?oiith ia 0,15% aoea a?eueoith, aea aaea a 40-aeaiiiio
a?oe? eo?/ao aaaiaa ??cieoey noaiiaeea 0,03%. Oiaoi nooo?ao ??cieoeth a
aac? naeac?iee i?ioe eiio?ieth niinoa??aaee ia 30-e aeaiue oo?eioaaiiy
eo?/ao. Iaea?eueoo ??cieoeth o a?aeiini?e ian? iaaeie?iee?a o eo?/ao
aeine?aeii? oa eiio?ieueii? a?oi ie anoaiiaeee a 10-20-aeaiiiio a?oe?.
Iao? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeai? O?a?ia ? Neaaeue (1971), ui
i?e?iai? no?ane o ioeoe? aeeeeeathoue cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa
i?e?inoo aeeai? aaae, caa?aaeaiiy aia??ii?a ? eo?/ao oa ni?eythoue
aeieeiaiith oai?ia (eie?aaeoa??ico oa ?io.), cieaeothoue ?ioiia?ieia?/i?
iieacieee o eo?/ao.

I?e aea/aii? ii?oieia?/ii? ?aaeoe?? oaa?eoe??aie ao?ne anoaiiaeaii, ui a
ia?o? 15 aei?a aeeooy ia caaaeath/e ia c?inoath/ee ??aaiue
aaeoa??aeueii? caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y, ci?i ia a?aeaoaa?oueny. Aea
ii/eiath/e c 20-25 aeiae ? iniaeeai ia 30-45 aeiao ie niinoa??aaee
?noioi? ci?ie, ye? i?eoaiaii? aeoea?caoe?? i?ie?oa?aoeaieo i?ioean?a a
i?aai?. ?ieiee a?aei?/aeinue ca?aeiaiiy ao?ne e?ioioeeoaie, ui
iaaaaeoaaei ea?oeio aeaeiiiainaoe?? aaeaioaoe?eiiai neiae?iio. Uiaei
oeiono oi eiai ?aaeoe?y, yea i?iyaeyeanue aeoeaiith i?a?aoe??th
eaeeioeeo?a, niinoa??aaeanue c 20-25 aeiy oo?eiaiiy ioeoe?. Oe? i?ioeane
iinooiiai iineeththoueny aei 35-40-aeaiiiai a?eo, eiee ie a?aei?/aee
?oeioaaiiy oeiioeeo?a a o?eueoeyo Aannaey, aea a aeieueeao i?aaio
ca?aeiaiiy e?ioioeeoaie aoei ae?aaeaia ia iaeiaeiaith i??ith. Oaeei
/eiii, ?aaeoe?y oaa?eoe??ai? noiee oa oeiono aei 25-30 aei?a aeeooy
eo?/ao, ia c?inoath/ee oene i?e?ioei?e iia?o?y oa?aeoa?ecoaanue
iinooiiaeie, a ?ieiee ? ??ceeie ye ?io?eueo?aoe?eii-i?ie?oa?aoeaieie
i?ioeanaie, oae ? aeoeaiith i?a?aoe??th e?ioioeeo?a, ui i?eoaiaii?
??ciei noaae?yi aaeaioaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio. A?aeiia?aeia ii?oieia?/ia
?aaeoe?y a ?ioiieiii?oaioieo i?aaiao ia aa?iaaiio i?e?ioei?o aai
iia?o?yii-e?aiaeueio ?ioaeoe?th iienaia a ?iaioao O?aaia A.I. (1992),
Ai?enaieiai? A.I. (1993), ssuaiei I.O. (1995).

caeaaei?noue aeeiai?ee eaeeioeeo?a oa e?ciniiaeueii-eao?iiieo a?ee?a
e?ia? a?ae ??aiy i?e?ia?cio ioaoieea.

Ca iaoeie aeaieie cia/io ae?th ia ee?oeiiee neeaae e?ia? /eiyoue oiiae
oo?eiaiiy ioeoe?, ianaiia?aae aenieee ??aaiue aaeoa??aeueiiai
caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y ioaoiee?a. Oae, o eo?/ao 10-40-aeaiiiai a?eo i?e
oeueiio a?aei?/aee no?eeee eaeeioeeoic. E?euee?noue e?ioioeeo?a a e?ia?
eo?/ao ciaiooaaeanue, a e?euee?noue inaaaeiaiceiio?e?a ca?eueooaaeanue.
A?aeiioaiiy e?ioioeeo?a aei inaaaeiaiceiio?e?a ciaiooaaeinue, a oea
na?ae/eei i?i ?icaeoie ci?i, ye? oa?aeoa?i? aeey aaeaioaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a ia aaeoa??aeueiee no?an (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1.

Aeeiai?ea eaeeioeeoa?iiai i?io?eth eo?/ao aeine?aeii? a?oie a

caeaaeiino? a?ae a?eo oa iaeiie/aiiy oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a a
iia?o?? ioaoieea.

A?e ioeoe?, aei?a Eaeeioeeoa?iee i?io?eue, oen/ii (I±m)Caaaeueia
e?euee?noue
eaeeioeeo?aA?aioeioeeoeaa?aioeioeeoeaacio?ee%aiceiio?ee%inaaaeiaiceiio?e
e%e?ioioeeoe%iiiioeeoe%549,63±0,90,63±0,071,32,1±0,74,231,1±1,362,712,01
±0,924,23,79±0,77,61053,71±1,20,57±0,031,11,65±0,713,123,45±1,863,720,83
±1,138,87,21±0,5113,32059,93±1,70,66±0,031,12,2±0,653,621,99±2,136,729,0
±1,1348,46,08±0,5310,23066,4±1,50,60±0,050,92,82±0,584,623,39±0,935,331,
9±1,548,17,39±0,6411,14061,37±1,60,64±0,061,02,76±0,774,523,2±1,537,828,
41±1,1746,36,36±0,7110,45058,52±1,50,59±0,041,02,39±0,134,122,78±1,138,9
26,39±1,445,16,37±0,810,96052,7±1,70,56±0,051,02,14±0,414,118,75±1,1335,
624,29±1,246,06,96±0,913,2

Aeaii? io?eiai? iaie i?e aea/aii? aaiaoieia?/iiai i?io?eth oa ??aiy
e?ciniiaeueii-eao?iiieo a?ee?a o eo?/ao 1-60-aeaiiiai a?eo, ye?
oo?eioaaeenue a oiiaao ??ciiai ??aiy aaeoa??aeueii? caa?oaeiaiino? oeneo
aeiiiiiaee anoaiiaeoe, ui ?nio? iaaia ei?aeyoeaia caeaaei?noue a
c?inoaii? ye caaaeueiiai ioeo eaeeioeeo?a oae ? cie?aia a?aioeioeeo?a oa
aa?aioeioeeo?a. Iniaeeai oea /?oei niinoa??aaeiny a ia?oee i?nyoeue
oo?eiaiiy eo?/ao (c 5 aei 30-aeaiiiai a?eo). Ie iia`yco?ii oeth
?aaeoe?th c aeoea?caoe??th a?aeiia?aeii? nenoaie i?aai?cio ia
i?iieeiaiiy i?e?ioei?e, ui noaa?aeaeo?oueny iaaaaeaieie iiia?aaei?ie
aeaieie, uiaei aeoeaiino? naeac?iee, oeiono oa oaa?eoe??ai? noiee. I?e
aeine?aeaeaii? aeeiai?ee e?ciniiaeueii-eao?iiieo a?ee?a (EEA) o ioeoe?
a?aei?/aeinue iinooiiaa ciaioaiiy ??aiy oeueiai iieacieea a aeine?aei?e
a?oi? ii/eiath/e c 10-aeaiiiai aei 40-aeaiiiai a?eo. C 50-aeaiiiai a?eo
??aaiue EEA ii/eiaa i?aeaeuoaaoenue. Ia iaoo aeoieo, oea iiaea aooe
iia`ycaii c i?enoinoaaiiyi i?aai?cio eo?/ao aei ci?ithth/eony oiia
?nioaaiiy, a oaeiae noaa?e?caoe??th ?o caaaeueiiai noaio ? i?aeaeuaiiyi
??aiy ianiaoeeo?/ii? ?acenoaioiino? ?o i?aai?cio (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2.

Aeeiai?ea EEA o eo?/ao eiio?ieueii? oa aeine?aeii? a?oi

a caeaaeiino? a?ae a?eo oa iaeiie/aiiy oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a o
iia?o??

i?ei?uaiiy.

Eiio?ieueiaa?oiaAeine?aeiaA?oia%EEAA?e,eiioeaio?aoe?yEiioeaio?aoe?yaeine
?aeii?aei?.oae. aiaa?ia?ae?euee?noueoae.
aiaa?ia?ae?euee?noueaeioen.i.o./i3EEAoen.i.o./i3EEAeiio?ieueii?iia?o?yia
e.iia?o?yiae.a?oie570,0±8,51,17±0,07160,0±9,11,17±0,11001060,0±7,41,14±0
,05170,0±8,31,13±0,09992068,0±9,11,11±0,11485,0±7,80,91±0,08823066,0±7,8
1,66±0,11500,0±9,20,72±0,09434078,0±5,61,81±0,011568,8±8,70,68±0,0738509
4,0±8,71,87±0,09665,0±9,40,89±0,094860117,0±5,91,93±0,11615,0±8,71,25±0,
1365

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui canoinoaaiiy ioeoe? aioea?ioee?a nooo?ai ia
ae??oo? i?iaeaie iaiaaeaiiy aeae?eaiiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a iaaeieeoi?
na?aaeiaeua i?e ?nioth/eo ciia?a??i?/ieo ia?aiao?ao. Oiio
iaeaaaeeea?oith /anoeiith oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ii caoenoo
ioaoiiiaie?a’y iiaeiia aooe naiaoe?y iia?o?y ioaoieea a i?enooiino?
ioeoe?. Aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii, ui iiceoeaiee ?acoeueoao
i?iaaaeaii? naiaoe?? caeaaeeoue ye a?ae yeino? oa e?eueeino?, oae ? a?ae
nai?/aniino? canoinoaaiiy aeac?ioaeoe?eieo cania?a. I?e ii??aiyeueiiio
aea/ai? ae?? aaeuecaio AEA, iiei/ii? eeneioe oa A??eiio N ia i?e?ioei?o
ioaoieea c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy ?o aeoeaiino? c o?aooaaiiyi
eiioeaio?aoe?? oa aeniiceoe?? –e?au? ?acoeueoaoe aoee io?eiai? i?e
aeei?enoaii? A??eiio N (oaae. 3).

sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe? ia i?ioyc? aeaio ae?a i?ney canoinoaaiiy A??eii N
ia?aoeiaeaea? i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy i?e?ii?aai?ci?a a iia?o?? ioaoieea.
Iiceoeaiee aieea oeueiai i?aia?aoo oaeiae i?aeoaa?aeaeaii i?e aea/aii?
?aaeoe?? i?aai?cio eo?/ao, ye a oiiaao aieno oae ? i?e i?iieneiaiio ?o
oo?eiaii?.

Oaaeeoey 3.

Aeeiai?ea aaeoa??aeueii? caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y a caeaaeiino?

A?e Aaeoa??aeueia caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y ( oen
i.o./i3 )Ioeoe?aei
naiaoe??aiaeeiei?neynaiaoe??(ae?a)24244872186,4±4,338,8±4,162,4±6,372,3±
3,787,6±5,897,3±6,47158,1±7,269,4±5,989,8±7,2132,3±4,7162,3±4,7174,5±5,1
12290,5±8,9127,7±7,1156,4±8,3245,7±8,2301,4±5,9315,8±7,316365,6±7,5171,3
±4,5198,5±4,7341,1±9,7358,6±6,1412,7±4,921526,6±7,4234,8±6,2297,3±4,2501
,7±5,9539,7±7,2561,8±5,230548,7±4,1251,6±3,9312,9±6,5512,3±6,4557,8±8,55
89,9±5,437585,8±9,3276,4±8,7356,7±7,2549,9±7,2598,5±7,1616±11,147610,3±8
,4297,7±7,43058±4,6578,8±5,2591,4±6,8642±9,457593±9,2231,8±5,7287,7±5,95
12,7±6,3599,6±7,9612±8,3

a?ae /ano i?ney naiaoe?? A??eiiii N.

Ca?aeii i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue ie anoaiiaeee, ui aoaeoeaia
canoinoaaiiy aa?icie?a c iaoith aeaeiioai?iaoe?? iia?o?y ioaoieea a?ae
oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?i?i?a i?iaaaeaiiy
aeaceioaeoe??, yeo iaiao?aeii ?iaeoe: a ia?oo aeaeaaeo oo?eiaiiy eo?/ao
ia eiaeiee o?ao?e aeaiue, o ae?oao-ia eiaeiee ae?oaee aeaiue, o o?aoth ?
aeae? aei 60 aeaiiiai a?eo-ia eiaeiee i’yoee aeaiue. Cai?iiiiiaaia noaia
i?ieoea ae?iaie/a aei?iaoaaiiy o aeaio ioaoiainiiaea?noaao Noinueei?
iaeano?: «Ie?iee» Noinueeiai ?aeiio oa «Ia?oio?aaiaaee» E.Aeieeinueeiai
?aeiio ia caaaeueiiio iiaie?a’? 48820 eo?/ao. Aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae
canoinoaaiiy A??eiio N ca cai?iiiiiaaiith noaiith neeaaea?oueny c
i?aeaeuaiiy caa?aaeaiino? eo?/ao aei 60 aeaiiiai a?eo ia 4-5%, ciaioaiiy
aeo?ao ei?i?a ia 1oe i?e?inoo ia 0,5-0,7oe oa ca?eueoaiiy ia 5-7a
na?aaeiueiaeiaiaiai i?e?inoo aeeai? iane eo?/ao i?ioe eiio?ieth.

Aeniiaee

1. Ai?ciioieia?/iei ianoaaeaiiyi ioaoiainiiaea?noa c i?iieneiaei
oo?eiaiiyi ioeoe? aeiaaaeaii, ui caaeaaeue eo?/ao 1-60-aeaiiiai a?eo
a?ae iaoieia?? ?ani??aoi?ieo i?aai?a neeaaea? a?ae 0,02 aei 0,14%, ui
iia’ycaii c aieeaii c?inoath/i? eiioai?iaoe?? iia?o?y ioaoieea
i?e?ioei?ith oa ae/a?iaiiyi iaoai?ci?a aaeaioaoe?eii-i?enoinoaaeueieo
i?ioean?a.

2. Anoaiiaeaia i?yia ei?aeyoeaia caeaaei?noue i?ae no?ieii oo?eiaiiy
ioeoe? oa ??aiai aaeoa??aeueiiai caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y ioaoiee?a. I?e
ee?oeiiiio oo?eiaii? ??cea c?inoaiiy caaaeueii? aaeoa??aeueii?
caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y ii/eia?oueny c 10-20 aeiy i?ney ?icoaooaaiiy
eo?/ao. Iaeii/anii ?a?no?othoueny nii?aaee/i? aeiaaeee aaeoa??ic?a
(eie?aaeoa??ic, ioei?ic oa ?io?).

3. Aecia/aii, ui no/aniee niaeo? oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a ioaoiee?a
neeaaeathoue ia?aaaaeii aaeoa??? a?oie eeoeiai? iaee/ee (a?ae 57,0 aei
93,0%); eieiai? i?e?ioei?e (a?ae 5,0 aei 40,0%) ? naeueiiiae (a?ae 0 aei
35,0%).

4. Anoaiiaeaia i?yia ei?aeyoeaia caeaaei?noue i?ae c?inoaiiyi ??aiy
oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a iia?o?y ioaoieea (a?eueoa ca 150 oen.i.o/i3)
oa eiioai?iaoe??th eaaaiue eo?/ao ia?aaaaeii iaee/eiaith i?e?ioei?ith
(eeoeiaith iaee/eith, naeueiiiaeaie oa ?io?).

5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e eiao?oe??io? i?iii?oe?eiino? F1,1
(a?aeiioaiiy i?ae anoaiiaeaiei oa ii/aoeiaei ??aiai aaeoa??aeueii?
caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y ioaoieea) aa?oi? aeeoaeuei? oeyoe eo?/ao caeaoi?
iaeneiaeueii cao?eioaaoe ?icaeoie oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a iia?o?y.
Ia?aaeuaiiy oeueiai iieacieea ? i?iaiicoth/ei aaeoi?ii eiioai?iaoe??
eaaaiue i?e?iaaie.

6. Ii?oieia?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi ?ioiieiii?oaioieo i?aai?a eo?/ao
1-60 aeaiiiai a?eo iieacaii, ui aieea i?e?iaiiai no?ano i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ciaioaiiy a?aeiinii? iane oeiono, ao?ne, naeac?iee oa iaaeie?iee?a c 10
ii 25 aeaiue oo?eiaiiy. C i`yoeaeiaiaiai a?eo ca oeeo oiia a eaaaiyo
eo?/ao niinoa??aathoueny i?ioeane i?eoaiaii? na?icii-eaoa?aeuei?e
a?iioiiiaaiii?? oa iaa?yeo ia oii? i?ie?oa?aoe?? oa ai?a?aoe??
eaeeioeeo?a oeiono oa ao?ne o 20-25 aeaiiiio a?oe?.

7. I?e c?inoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? i?e?ia?a a iia?o?? ioaoieea
caaaeueia e?euee?noue eaeeioeeo?a o e?ia? eo?/ao, c ia?oiai aeiy ?o
oo?eiaiiy aei 30-aeaiiiai a?eo a oeeo oiiaao, ca?eueoo?oueny ianaiia?aae
ca ?aooiie e?ioioeeo?a (1,24-2,4 ?ace) i?e ciaioaii? inaaaeiaiceiio?e?a
(o 1,63-1,8 ?ace), e?euee?noue e?ciniiaeueii-eao?iiieo a?ee?a
ciaioo?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei eiio?ieth c 99% (o 10aeaiiiio a?oe?) aei
38% (o 40 aeaiiiio a?oe?).

8. Anoaiiaeaia ei?aeyoeaia caeaaei?noue i?ae o?aaeaiiyi eaaai?a
(cano?eia a?ia?ai?y, iaa?ye, caiaeaiiy) oa eiioeaio?aoe??th
oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a ? aiii?aeo a iia?o?? ioaoa?i?.

9. Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaai? oa?i?ie iioeiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy cania?a aeey aa?icieueii? naiaoe?? iia?o?y ioaoiee?a, ui
aeicaieythoue caiia?aaoe aeieeiaiith aaeoa??aeueiiai no?ano.
Canoinoaaiiy aaeoa?eoeeaeieo aa?icieae a ia?oo aeaeaaeo oo?eiaiiy eo?/ao
ia eiaeiee o?ao?e aeaiue, o ae?oao — ia eiaeiee ae?oaee aeaiue, o o?aoth
? aeae? aei 60-aeaiiiai a?eo — ia eiaeiee i`yoee aeaiue ni?ey? a?eueo
iia?eueiiio c?inoaiith eiioeaio?aoe?e aaeoa??e a iia?o?? ioaoieea.

10. Canoinoaaiiy a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao A??eiio-N, a?aeiia?aeii
cai?iiiiiaai?e noai?, aeicaiey? i?io?eaeooaaoe aeieeiaiiy
iia?o?yii-e?aiaeueieo ?ioaeoe?e oa i?aeaeuoaaoe caa?aaeai?noue eo?/ao
aei 60-aeaiiiai a?eo ia 4-5%, ciaiooaaoe cao?aoe ei?i?a ia 1oe i?e?inoo
aeeai? aaae ia 0,5-0,7oe oa ca?eueooaaoe ia 5-7a na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee
i?e??no aeeai? aaae eo?/ao.

Ia?ae?e iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o.

1. Cii A.A., Ie/ee N.A. Caeaaei?noue ??aiy aaeaac?? oa niaeo?o
aiaa?ia?a ia iiaa?oi? eaaaiue a?ae ??aiy aaeoa??aeueii? caa?oaeiaiino?
iia?o?y ioaoieea. /A?niee Noinueeiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
?inoeoooo /Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee aeo?iae/. Aei. 1 -1998, -n.113-120.

2. Cii A.A., Ie/ee N.A. Aieea oaeoi??a iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua ia
i?aai?ci ioeoe?. Aaoa?eia?ia iaaeeoeeia, 1998, ?8. -n.14.

3. Cii A.A., Ie/ee N.A. Ooieoe?iiaeueia oa a?eiaa ii?oieia?y
oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a ?ioiieiiiaoaioii? nenoaie oa iaaeie?iee?a eo?/ao a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia ?o oo?eiaiiy. // A?niee Noinueeiai AeAO /
Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee aeo?iae/ 1999 aei.3. –n.39-43.

4. Cii A.A., Ie/ee N.A. ?aaeoe?y eaaaiue eo?/ao a caeaaeiino? a?ae
??aiy aaeoa??aeueii? caa?oaeiaiino? ioaoiee?a. /Oace aeiiia?aeae ia?oi?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? ii ioao?aieoeoao OAAIAI. — Ai?ee, 1993-n.115.

5. Cii A.A., Ie/ee N.A., Caaa?a A.I. Ii?oieia?/ia ?aaeoe?y eaaaiue
eo?/ao ia ??aaiue aaeoa??aeueii? caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y ioaoiee?a. //
Iai?yiee i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa yeino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
i?iaeoeoe??. / Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. Noie. –1995. -n.86.

6. Ie/ee N.A., Cii A.A. Ii?oieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea eaaaiue eo?/ao i?e
oo?eiaii? a oiiaao o?aaeeoe?eii? oaoiieia?? oa c aeei?enoaiiyi A??eiio
N. // Iaoeia? aeinyaiaiiy a aaeoc? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie / Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo., Oa?e?a,
1997, -n.43.

7. Cii A.A., Ie/ee N.A., Oo?/?ia N.A. ?aaeoe?y eaaaiue eo?/ao ia
anioe?eiaaio ?ioaeoe?th. // I?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ia?aceoioeaiieia??./
Iaoa??aee v i?aec’?cae?anueei? eiioa?aioe?? ia?aceoioeaiieia?a Oe?a?ie;
Oa?e?a-Eoaainuee, 1997, -n.71.

8. Cii A.A., Ie/ee N.A. I?i ao?ieia?th oa iaoai?ci iaoiaaiaco iiaaiii??
o i?iieneiai-oo?eioaaieo eo?ae. // ?icaeoie aaoa?eia?ii? iaoee a
Oe?a?i?: caeiaooee oa i?iaeaie. / Ca??iee iaoa??ae?a i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??, Oa?e?a, 1997,-n.79.

9. Ie/ee N.A., Cii A.A. ?aaeoe?y eaaaiue eo?/ao ia i?aeaeuaiiy
caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y ioaoiee?a. //Aeieia?y oa i?iaeaie cii?iaeaia???
oa aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie / iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe??, Oa?e?a, 1997, -n.44-45.

Ie/ee N.A.

Aieea i?e?ia?cio ioaoieea ia noai i?aai?cio eo?/ao oa ai?ciioe/io
neooaoe?th ioaoiainiiaea?noaa. -?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaoa?eia?ieo
iaoe c niaoe?aeueiino? 16.00.03.- aaoa?eia?ia i?e?ia?ieia?y oa
a??onieia?y. -?inoeooo aenia?eiaioaeueii? ? ee?i?/ii? aaoa?eia?ii?
iaaeeoeeie OAAI, Oa?uee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi aea/aiiy aieeao i?e?ia?cio ioaoieea, a
caeaaeiino? a?ae eiai ??aiy, ia i?aai?ci eo?/ao oa ai?ciioe/io
neooaoe?th ioaoi?aaeaini?a.

Aea/aii iniiaiee niaeo? oaeoeueoaoeaieo aiaa?ia?a a iia?o?? ioao?aie/eo
oa?i ? ??aaiue eiioai?iaoe?? ?ie i?aai?a aeeoaiiy 1-60 aeaiieo eo?/ao.
C’yniaaii aieea ??ciiiai?oieo oaeoi??a ia aeeiai?eo aaeoa??aeueii?
caa?oaeiaiino? iia?o?y ioaoa?aiue. Anoaiiaeaia ?aaeoe?y i?aai?cio 1-60
aeaiieo eo?/ao, ui oo?eiothoueny a oiiaao c?inoaiiy i?e?ia?a a iia?o??
ioao?aie/eo i?ei?uaiue oa i?e iaiaaeaii? eiioai?iaoe?? oaeoeueoaoeaieie
aiaa?iaaie iia?o?y, ui aaeeoa?oueny. ?ic?iaeaii oa ai?iaaaeaeaii o
oaoiieia?th aaoa?eia?iiai caoenoo ioao?aieoeueeeo ainiiaea?noa Noinueei?
iaeano? iaoeiaiiaa?oioiaaiee ?aaeei naiaoe?? iia?o?y ioaoa?aiue c iaoith
i?io?eaeoeee aaeoa??ic?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaeoa??aeueia eiioai?iaoe?y, oaeoeueoaoeai? aiaa?iae,
?aaeoe?y i?aai?cio eo?/ao, aeaceioaeoe?y iia?o?y.

Iu/ee N.A.

Aeeyiea iee?iaecia ioe/ieea ia ninoiyiea i?aaiecia oeuieyo e
yieciioe/aneoth neooaoeeth ioeoeaoicyenoaa. -?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaoa?eia?iuo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 16.00.03.- aaoa?eia?iay iee?iaeieiaey e ae?onieiaey.
-Einoeooo yenia?eiaioaeueiie e eeeie/aneie aaoa?eia?iie iaaeeoeeiu OAAI,
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Iieo/aiiua aeaiiua ioiineoaeueii aaeoa?eaeueiiai niaeo?a aicaeooa
ioe/ieeia a eioi?uo niaea?aeaony oeuieyoa 1-60-aeiaaiiai aic?anoa
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi oaea a ia?aua aeie iinea ?aciauaiey
oeuieyo o?iaaiue aaeoa?eaeueiiai ianaiaiaiey iiaeieiaaony auoa 100-150
oen.i.o./i3 aicaeooa (ii iaoiaeo naiaiaeiiai inaaeaeaiey iee?ii?aaieciia
– iaoiae Eioa). A aeaeueiaeoai yoio iieacaoaeue oaaee/eaaeny e
ei??aeyoeaii caaenae io n?ieia niaea?aeaiey oeuieyo e eo aic?anoa. Iaie
oaeaea auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi i?e niaea?aeaiee oeuieyo a ceiia – aanaiiee
ia?eiae iauee o?iaaiue iee?iaecia aue iaiueoa /ai o?iaaiue, eioi?ue iu
ioia/aee eaoii e inaiueth. Oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi
nouanoaoao ii?aaeae?iiay caaeneiinoue aeeiaieee eiioaieiaoeee aicaeooa
oaeoeueoaoeaiuie aiay?iaaie io naciia aiaea e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue io
aeeyiey aeaaeiinoe, aeeiaieee iaeiieaiey iuee e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia.
Iaeneiaeueiia cia/aiea iu ioia/aee a i?aaeaeao 665-710 oen.i.o./i3.

Iaoeie enneaaeiaaiey, iu ii?aaeaeeee, /oi n 10-aeiaaiiai aic?anoa a
aicaeooa iaaethaeaaony i?enoonoaea naeueiiiae, ii aieueoaa eiee/anoai n
iauaai /enea aaeoa?ee i?eoiaeeeinue ia eeoa/ioth iaei/eo. Oae eiee/anoai
naeueiiiae a iyoe aeiaaiii aic?anoa i?e iiuoao a oneiaeyo ioe/ieea
ninoaaeyei 19% io iauaai eiee/anoaa oaeoeueoaoeaiuo aiay?iaia, a a
30-aeiaaiii aic?anoa ioeoeu – 35%, /oi aucuaaao ii?aaeae?iiia
aaniieienoai. Eiee/anoai aaeoa?ee a?oiiu eeoa/iie iaei/ee ninoaaeyei ca
aeaoo iany/iue ia?eiae enneaaeiaaiee 62-93% io iauaai eiee/anoaa
oaeoeueoaoeaiuo aiay?iaia aicaeooa, oioy niaea?aeaiea eieia aei
35-aeiaaiiai aic?anoa ioeoeu auei 5-9%, a n 35 aei 60-aeiaaiiai aic?anoa
io 21-40%. Oaeei ia?acii iaie onoaiiaeaia, /oi a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oneiaeyo a iineaaeiea aiaeu iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey aei niaiu a
eiee/anoaaiiii niaea?aeaiee aaeoa?ee ia oneiaioth aaeeieoeo iau?ia
n?aaeu ioe/ieea.

Yieciioieiae/aneeie enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaii, /oi a iineaaeiea aiaeu
a ioeoeaaiae/aneeo oicyenoaao ioia/aaony iiauoaiiue iooiae n?aaee
oeuieyo 20-45-aeiaaiiai aic?anoa, ianiio?y ia eniieueciaaiea
aioeaaeoa?eaeueiuo i?aia?aoia. I?eiaiaiea iineaaeieo e ia?ooaiey
oaoiieiaee niaea?aeaiey ioeoeu aeeyao ia eiee/anoaaiiue e ea/anoaaiiue
ninoaa iee?ii?aaieciia eiioaieie?othueo aicaeooioth n?aaeo ioe/ieeia. A
?aaioa io?aaeaia aeeiaieea ii?oieiae/aneie ?aaeoeee eiioiieiiiaoaioiuo
i?aaiia e iaaeii/a/ieeia oeuieyo 1-60-aeiaaiiai aic?anoa, eioi?ua
niaea?aeaony a oneiaeyo aic?anoathuae aaeoa?eaeueiie caa?yciaiiinoe
aicaeooa. Iieacaii, /oi iaaaoeaiia aicaeaenoaea aic?anoathuae
eiioeaio?aoeee oaeoeueoaoeaiuo aiay?iaia aicaeooiie n?aaeu au?aaeaaony a
eioeeueo?aoeaii – i?ieeoa?aoeaiuo i?ioeannao, naienoaaiiuo
eiiiainaoi?iie oaca aaeaioaoeeiiiie ?aaeoeee eee ia/aeueiui noaaeeyi
oacu aeaeiiiainaoeee. I?e yoeo oneiaeyo a eaaeeo ?acaeaathony eieaeueiua
ioaee, a oaeaea eeaoi/eiaay eee aoeeiicii – iiaeiciay iiaaiiiey.
Aeinoiaa?ii onoaiiaeaii, /oi o?iaaiue iee?iaecia ioe/ieeia
io?eoeaoaeueii aeeyao ia i?aaieci oeuieyo e iieacaoaee ?acenoaioiinoe.
Auyaeyaony noieeee eaeeioeeoic e nieaeaiea eiioeaio?aoeee eeciniiaeueii
– eaoeiiiuo aaeeia ia oiia aeia?ooieoeee i?aaiia eiioiieiiiaoaioiie
nenoaiu.

Eco/ay caaeneiinoue /anoiou aicieeiiaaiey caaieaaaiee i?aaiia aeuoaiey
i?e oaaee/eaathuaeny eiioeaio?aoeee aiieaea e o?iaiy oaeoeueoaoeaiuo
aiay?iaia a aicaeooa ioe/ieeia auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi nouanoaoao i?yiay
caaeneiinoue iaaeaeo ieie. *ai aieueoa oaaee/eaaaony eiioeaio?aoeey
aiieaea ia oiia aaeoa?eaeueiie caa?yci?iiinoe aicaeooa ioe/ieea, oai
/aua iu ioia/aee iaoieiaiaiaoiie/aneea eciaiaiey, eae a aa?oieo
aeuoaoaeueiuo iooyo, oae e a eaaeeo oeuieyo. Iaoe enneaaeiaaiey
iieacaee, /oi iaeaieaa e?eoe/aneei ia?eiaeii niaea?aeaiey, a
niioaaonoaaiii e aic?anoii ioeoeu 15-30 nooee. Ia/eiay n 40-aeiaaiiai
aic?anoa ioeoea iinoaiaiii aaeaioe?oaony aei ia?ooaiee ia?aiao?ia
iee?ieeeiaoa, oioy aucaaiiua eciaiaiey aeaaiaea?y aeaenoaeth aiieaea a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a yieoaeee aeuoaoaeueiuo iooae aaaeoo aei aaeaacee e
i?iieeiiaaieth iee?ioei?u /oi i?eaiaeeo aei io?aaeaiey i?aaiecia oeuieyo
e ?acaeoeth i?ioeanna naioeoeaiee.

Oaeei ia?acii, anee naiaa?aiaiii eiio?iee?iaaoue o?iaaiue eiioeaio?aoeee
aiieaea, ia?aie/eaaoue ?aceia iaeiieaiea oaeoeueoaoeaiuo aiay?iaia
aicaeooa, ia?eiaee/anee ii?aaeaeyoue eaeeioeeoa?iue i?ioeeue e o?iaaiue
eeciniiaeueii – eaoeiiiuo aaeeia, ia?auaoue aieiaiea ia eiee/anoai
neo/aaa ii?aaeaiee i?aaiia aeuoaiey, iu n/eoaai aiciiaeiui
caaeaaia?aiaiii ni?iaiice?iaaoue aicieeiiaaiea ay?iaaiiie eioaeoeee.

N oeaeueth i?aaeioa?auaiey aicaeooii – eaiaeueiuo eioaeoeee iu
i?aaeeaaaai eniieueciaaoue aioeaaeoa?eaeueiua aauanoaa, eioi?ua iiaeii
?aniueyoue a aeaea iecei aeenia?niuo ay?icieae a i?enoonoaee ioeoeu, ii
yoi aeieaeii i?ienoiaeeoue a ii?aaeaeaiiua n?iee. Oae, aeaaiaea?y
i?iaaaeaiiui enneaaeiaaieyi, eniieueciaaiey n yoie oeaeueth Ae?eiia N
iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue ii noaia (a ia?aoth aeaeaaeo niaea?aeaiey –
eaaeaeue o?aoee aeaiue; ai aoi?oth ia eaaeaeue aoi?ie aeaiue; a o?aoueth
aeaeaaeo e aeaeaa aei 60-aeiaaiiai aic?anoa – eaaeaeua iyoue aeiae),
eioi?ay iiaeoaa?aeaeaia a ?acoeueoaoa iaaethaeaiee ca ?aaeoeeae
i?aaiecia oeuieyo e eiio?ieai oneiaee eo niaea?aeaiey.
Yenia?eiaioaeueiua aeaiiua iiaeoaa?aeeee, /oi Ae?eii N anoue aeoeaiui ii
ioiioaieth aei iniiaiie iannu oaeoeueoaoeaiuo aiay?iaia aicaeooa e ia
aeeytho iaaaoeaii ia iniiaiue iieacaoaee oeceieiae/aneiai ninoiyiey
oeuieyo, /oi niinianoaoao iiauoaiiie nio?aiiinoe oeuieyo 1-60-aeiaaiiai
aic?anoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaeoa?eaeueiay eiioaieiaoeey, oaeoeueoaoeaiua aiay?iau,
?aaeoeey i?aaiecia oeuieyo, aeaceioaeoeey aicaeooa.

Nichyk S.A.

The influence of poultry farm microbism on the state of chicken organism
and the epizootical situation of poultry farm — Manuscript.

The dissertation of thesis for candidates degree of veterinary science
in fields 16.00.03- veterinary microbiology and virusology and
infectious diseases. The Institute of experimental and clinical
veterinary medicine UAAS, Kharkov, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the questions of studing of influence of
poultry farm microbism (in dependence of its level) on the chicken
organism and epizootical situation of poultry farms.

The main spectrum of facultative anaerobes of poultry farms air and
level of contamination of respiratory organs of 1-60 days chickens were
studied. The influence of different factors on dynamics of bacterial
contamination of air was explained. The reaction of organism of 1-60
days chickens, which were keeping in conditions of raising of
microorganism in poultry farms air and with limitation of facultative
anaerobes contamination of air was established. The science-based
conditions of sanation of poultry farms air with the aim of prophilaxis
of bacteriosis was worked out and introduced into technology of
veterinary protection of poultry farms of Sumy region.

Key words: the bacterial contamination, the facultative anaerobes, the
reaction of chickens organism, the air desinfection.

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