OA?NIINUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE AA?AA?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OAeE 631.416.54-38:631.67.03

AIEEI IAOAE?ss AIEIAeEIE??AIA

AIEEA EANIAI? IAE?I?AOe?? IA O?I?*I? AEANOEAINO? OA I?IAeOEOEAI?NOUe
*I?IICAIO OAA???, INIEIIOeUeIAAIIAI A I?IOeAN? C?IOAIIss
I?IA?AE?CIAAIITH A?OAC?AINUeEITH AIAeITH

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 06.01.02 – iae?i?aoe?y ? c?iooaaia caiea?ianoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Oa?nii – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?niinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?,
I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

CIEIOOI AANEEUe IAAEIAE*,

Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

i. Oa?nii, eaoaae?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo

iae?i?aoe?e, i?ioani?-eiinoeueoaio.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

NI?AIAEE AIEIAeEIE? NAIAIIAE*, Oa?niinueea naeaeoe?eia aeine?aeia
noaioe?y aaooaiieoeoaa, i. Aiea I?enoaiue, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a;

eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

NAOIIIAA IEAIA IAO??AIA, ?inoeooo c?iooaaiiai caiea?ianoaa OAAI, i.
Oa?nii, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo a?oioiciaanoaa ? aa?io?i?? ?i. I.I. Nieieianueeiai OAAI,
i. Oa?e?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae47.830.01 i?e Oa?niinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao?, i. Oa?nii, aoe. ?. Ethenaiao?a, 23.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?niinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 325006, i. Oa?nii,
aoe. ?. Ethenaiao?a, 23.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 14” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eaca?
I.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A?oioe Nooiai Noaio a?ae??ciythoueny i?e?iae-iith
nieiioethaao?noth, iaoiiaeaiith ?o aaiacenii, iaaaoeaiei eaeueoe??aei
aaeainii, oiio ui i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? ea?aiiaoe o aa?oi?e i?aiao?ia?e
oiau? i?io?eth. O?eaaea c?ioaiiy, iniaeeai i?ia?ae?-ciaaieie aiaeaie,
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny iiaeaeueoei aeeoaiaoaaiiyi nieae eaeueoe?th ?
iaeiie/aiiyi – iao??th, ui aeeeeea? ?icaeoie nieiioeaaiai i?ioeano oa
iia??oaiiy aa?iiae?i?aoeaieo aeanoeainoae a?oio?a. I?iaeoeoeai?noue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ia oaeeo a?oioao cieaeo?oueny ia
20-26%.

Coieieoe ?icaeoie nieiioeaaiai i?ioeano, ye aia?aaoe/iiai, iaiiaeeeai,
aea ?ioaineai?noue eiai cieaeo?oueny i?e aeei?enoaii? eaeueoe?eai?nieo
niieoe. Canoinoaaiiy a?ino, oinoia?ino oa ?ioeo iae?i?aio?a iia’ycaii c
aenieeie aeo?aoaie, ei?ioei/ani?noth iae?i?aoeaiiai aoaeoo ?
aeieia?/iith iaaacia/i?noth.

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui oe? aaaeeiae??ooaai? i?iaeaie
o?aaeeoe?eii? iae?i?ioe?? aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaieo a?oio?a ci?iathoueny
i?e aeei?enoaii? a?oioiaeo ?aca?a?a eaniaeo ii??ae a yeino? i?e?iaeiiai,
aeieia?/ii /enoiai iae?i?aioo, yeee i?noeoue 12-15% ea?aiiaoo
eaeueoe?th.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aoiaeyoue a ieai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe Oa?niinueeiai AeAO a neeaae?
aea?ae-athaeaeaoii? oaie: ?a?no?aoe?eiee iiia? 0195 U 028320 “?ic?iaeoe
oa ai?iaaaeeoe i?iaeo aeieia?/ii iaae?eii? oaoiieia?? aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ? caiaeueieo ?ano?n?a”.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – anoaiiaeoe aoaeoeai?noue eano a yeino?
eaeueoe?eai?niiai iae?i?aioo aeey caiia?aaiiy ?icaeoeo i?ioeano
aoi?eiiiai inieiioethaaiiy ? aeoeaiiai nieiioeai?iyaeaiiy i?e c?ioaii?
/i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

– ??eaaoe?eia ioe?iea c?iooaaeueii? aiaee;

– aea/aiiy aieeao o?eaaeiai c?ioaiiy i?ia?ae?ciaaieie a?oac?ainueeeie
aiaeaie ia ci?io iniiaieo aeanoeainoae aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiai
/i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai;

– aea/aiiy aieeao eaniai? ianeiee ia ci?ithaaiiy o?i?/ieo,
o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ? aa?io?i?/ieo aeanoeainoae aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiai
/i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai;

– aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai oa?o eaniai? ianeiee;

– aecia/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? eaniai? ianeiee
5, 10 ? 15 ni.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie a
yeino? iao?aaeeoe?eiiai iae?i?aioo aeei?enoiao?oueny ianeiea eano 5; 10
? 15 ni ia iiaa?oith aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiai /i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai,
c?iooaaiiai i?ia?ae?ciaaieie aiaeaie. Canoinoaaiiy eano caaacia/o?
noaa?eueiee iiceoeaiee eaeueoe??aee aaeain, iiia?aaeaeo? aeoeaia
nieiioeai?iyaeaiiy i?e neaae?e ?ioaineaiino? nieiioeaaiai i?ioeano.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. I?e canoinoaaii? aeieia?/ii
/enoiai eano iaea?aeaii aeiaaio?eaaeee iae?i?aoeaiee aoaeo, yeee
caaacia/ea i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiai
/i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai ? ca?eueoaiiy o?iaeaeiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ia 19-21%.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaaaeaii a Eaoianueeiio
?aeii?: ENI «Na?oaiie» ia ieiu? 200 aa ? a ENI «Oe?a?ia»– ia ieiu? 150
aa, yea i?aeoaa?aeeei aenieo aoaeoeai?noue canoinoaaiiy eaniai?
iae?i?aoe??.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue a
iieueiaiio aeine?ae? oa o aeeiiaii? eaai?aoi?ieo aiae?oe/ieo ?ia?o ii
aea/aiith ci?ithaaiiy nieueiaiai neeaaeo, o?ceei-o?i?/ieo, aa?io?i?/ieo
aeanoeainoae a?oioo. Aea/aii ye?niee neeaae ? i?iaaaeaia ??eaaoe?eia
ioe?iea c?iooaaeueii? aiaee. Aaoi?ii i?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ia iniia? yeeo c?iaeaii aeniiaee i?i
aieea eaniai? iae?i?aoe?? ia aeanoeaino? oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue c?iooaaiiai
a?oioo.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue ia aoc?anueeeo, iaeanieo (1988, 1990, 1994) oa
?anioa-e?eainuee?e (1997) iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo; ia VIII
c’?cae? AIA (1989).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii a 8
ae?oeiaaieo i?aoeyo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, ainueie
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ?
aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 146 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 33 oaaeeoe?, 13
?enoie?a, 42 aeiaeaoee. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue 295
iaeiaioaaiue, a oiio /ene? 7 ?iicaiieo aaoi??a.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Noai aea/aiiy ieoaiiy. I?iaaaeaii iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae,
aena?oethth/eo i?e/eie aoi?eiiiai inieiioethaaiiy c?iooaaieo a?oio?a,
ci?iaiiy ?o aeanoeainoae. Aeyaeaii i?iaeaie o?aaeeoe?eii? iae?i?aoe??
aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaieo a?oio?a ? iaa?oioiaaia aeioe?euei?noue
canoinoaaiiy eaniaeo ii??ae a yeino? eaeueoe?eai?niiai iae?i?aioa.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue ia i?ioyc? 1986
-1991 ?.?. ia noaoe?iia?i?e aeine?aeiee ae?eyioe? ENI «Na?oaiie»
Eaoianueeiai ?aeiio Oa?niinueei? iaeano?, c?iooaai?e i?ia?ae?ciaaiith
a?oac?ainueeith aiaeith.

Oa?eoi??y caieaei?enooaaiiy ainiiaea?noaa ?icoaoiaaia ia e?aiaa??aeae?
Aei?i?a, a iaaee??//? Aei?i?i-Iiei/ia a I?e/i?iiii?nuee?e ieciaei?, a
iaaeao Oeaio?aeueiiai aacnoi/iiai ?aeiio. A?oioia? aiaee ciaoiaeyoueny
ia aeeaei? 34-36 i ? ia aieeaathoue ia i?ioeane a?oioi-ooai?aiiy.

A?oioiaee iie?ea, i?aaenoaaeaiee /i?iicaiaie i?aaeaiieie
iecueeiaoionieie nieiioethaaoeie aaaeeinoaeeieiaeie ia eanao, caeia? 90%
ieiu? ainiiaea?noaa.

Iiaiaeii-ee?iaoe/i? oiiae a ?iee i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aoee
iaiaeiaeiaeie, aea a oe?eiio oeiiaeie aeey aeaiiai ?aeiio, e??i
?aiiuei?, oieiaeii? ceie 1986-87 ?.?. ? ?aiiuei? aanie 1990 ?.

Iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. A yeino? iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoaii
iieueiaee noaoe?iia?iee iaeiioaeoi?iee aeine?ae, caeeaaeaiee ia
ae?eyioe? iieueiai? c?iooaaii? n?aici?ie ainaie 1985 ?ieo. Aeey
«i?noeaaiai» c?ioaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeanue aiaea a?oac?ainueei? neaaaeeie,
yea ooieoe?thaaea c 1972 ?ieo. A ?? ?aeii? aeneoaooaaany
aa?oiueina?iaonueeee aiaeiai?niee ai?eciio, caeyaath/ee ia aeeaei? 40-70
i. C?ioaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue aeiuoaaeueiith iaoeiith AeAeA-100 IA.

Ieiua aeine?aeii? ae?eyiee neeaaea? 2,1 aa (50 i o 420 i), iin?aii?
ae?eyiee – 1750 i2 (50 o 35 i), iae?eiai? – 300 i2 (25 i o 12 i).
Iiaoi?i?noue aeine?aeo o?ueioe?aoia, ?icoaooaaiiy iiaoi?aiue –
iine?aeiaia, aa??aio?a – nenoaiaoe/ia.

Noaia aeine?aeo ii eania?e iae?i?aoe?? aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiai a?oioo
aeeth/aea oae? aa??aioe: 1. Eiio?ieue – /i?iicai i?aaeaiiee
iecueeiaoioniee aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiee ia ean?; 2. Ianeiea ia
iiaa?oith 5 ni oa?o eano; 3. Ianeiea 10 ni oa?o eano; 4. Ianeiea 15 ni
oa?o eano.

Iae?i?aoeai? ?iaioe ii caeeaaeoe? aeine?aeo cae?enithaaeenue NIO-96 ia
caiiaeaiiy Oe?aiaeainio. Ean aeae?aany c ?onea i?ae /an aoae?aieoeoaa
Ia?aeiinueeiai iaa?no?aeueiiai eaiaeo. Oaoiieia?/i? iia?aoe?? ii e?nia?e
iae?i?aoe??: 1. O?ainii?ooaaiiy eano; 2. Ianeiea ia iiaa?oith a?oioo
eano a e?eueeino?, iaiao?aei?e aeey oi?ioaaiiy oa?o 5; 10 ? 15 ni; 3.
A?oaa ? oiiea ieai??iaea ae?eyiee.

A ia??iae aeine?aeaeaiue ae?iuoaaeenue ne?aeoth/? eoeueoo?e: eoeo?oaeca
ia neein (IAN; 1986 ?.); iceia ioaieoey ? aiaiai-ceaeiaa noi?oea ia
caeaiee ei?i – i?neyaeieaii (1987 ?.); y?ee y/i?iue (1988, 1990 ?.?.);
niiyoiee (1989 ?.); eoeo?oaeca ia ca?ii (1991 ?.). Aa?ioaoi?ea
ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiain-iiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a aeine?ae?
cae?enithaaeanue ii ciiaeuei?e oaoiieia??, ?aeiiaiaeiaai?e aeey
c?iooaaieo caiaeue Noaio Oe?a?ie, aea ia oii? N60P60 i?ia?aeueieo
aeia?ea a oi?i? ai?a/ii? nae?o?e, iiaea?eiiai ? a?aio-eueiaaiiai
noia?oinoaoo.

Ii?oieia?/i? aeanoeaino? a?oio?a iienoaaee ii Caoa?iao. A a?oio?
aecia/aee: aoion ca Oth??iei o iiaeeo?eaoe?? Oe?IAI, eiai a?oiiaee
neeaae – ca Eiiiiiaith-A?eue/eeiaith; iai?ii? eaeueoe?e oa iaai?e –
eiiieaeni-iao?e/ii; iai?iiee iao??e – ia iieoiaiaaiio oioiiao?? a
aeoyaeoe? 1i ioeoiaieeneiai aiii?th; neeaae aiaeii? aeoyaeee – ca
Aaae?ieoeai; aiaeiee ?I-iioaioe?iiao?e/ii; aeoeai?noue ?ii?a iao??th oa
eaeueoe?th – ?iiiiao?e/ii a a?oioia?e iano?; ea?aiiaoe –
aaciaiethiao?e/ii; i?o?aoe – ca A?aiaeaaeue-Eyaeai c
aeenoeueoioaiieiaith eeneioith; ?ooiiee oinoi? – ca Ia/ea?iei c
anei?a?iiaith eeneioith; ?ooiiee eae?e – ia iieoiaiaaiio oioiiao?? a 1%
aeoyaeoe? aoaeaeeneiai aiii?th.

O?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? iae?eiaoaaee iaoiaeii i?yiiai
eiiaaeioaaiiy c ianooiiei caaaeoaaiiyi, o?iaeaei?noue ei?iiaeo eoeueoo?
– iaoiaeii i?iaieo ieiuaaeie. Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo i?iaiaeeeanue iaoiaeii aeenia?n?eiiai aiae?co ca Aeini?oiaei.

sse?niee neeaae oa ??eaaoe?eia ioe?iea c?iooaaeueii? aiaee.

Aeey c?ioaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeanue a?oac?ainueea aiaea c i?ia?ae?caoe??th
1,70-2,40 a/e (oaae. 1). Ca ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue ye?noue aiaee ci?ieeanue
a iaaaoeaiee a?e ii a?aeiioaiith aei 1972 ?ieo. Ai?no a?ae?iea?aiiao-
?ii?a neeaaeaa 1,60-4,80; ?ii?a oei?o – 4,20-11,60; noeueoao-?ii?a –
17,86-31,90 ia-aea/e. Ai?no ?ii?a eaeueoe?th, iaai?th ? iao??th
a?aeiia?aeii aei??aithaaa 3,16-7,70; 9,0-13,0; 13,50-20,64 ia-aea/e.
Aiaeiaaee iieaciee ci?ithaaany o ae?aiacii? 7,2-8,0 iaeeieoeue. O?i?/iee
neeaae oeeo aiae ci?ithaaany a?ae noeueoaoiiai aei
oei?eaeii-noeueoaoiiai.

Ca?aeii c AeNOO–2730-94 a?oac?ainueea aiaea ca iaaacia/i?noth canieaiiy
iaeaaeeoue aei ae?oaiai eeano, oiaoi iaiaaeaii i?eaeaoia, oiio ui
??aaiue ?? i?ia?ae?caoe?? ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao 1,70-2,40 a/e, a
eiioeaio?aoe?y oiene/ieo ?ii?a, ae?aaeaia a aea?aaeaioao oei?o –
8,59-16,34 ia-aea/e. Ca iaaac-ia/i?noth ieoaiaoaaiiy aiaea iaeaaeeoue oi
aei ia?oiai, oi aei ae?oaiai eeano a ??ci? no?iee aecia/aiiy (aeea.
oaae. 1), oiio ui ?I eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao 7,2-8,0 iaeeieoeue, a
oiene/ia eoaei?noue aei??aith? 1,25-3,05 ia-aea/e. Ca iaaacia/i?noth
inieiioethaaiiy c?iooaaeueia aiaea iaeaaeeoue aei ae?oaiai eeano, oiio
ui a?aeiioaiiy iao??th aei noie eao?ii?a ci?ithaaeinue a?ae 54,7 aei
71,6%, aeinyaath/e a na?aaeiueiio cia/aiiy 61,4%, a ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
iaai??i ? eaeueoe??i eieeaaeinue a?ae 1,38 aei 2,85.

Ca eeaneo?eaoe??th Iieoiaia I.?., c?ioaiiy a?oac?ainueeith aiaeith aaaea
aei inieiioethaaiiy a?oioo neaaeiai nooiaith, oiio ui na?aaei?e ??aaiue
?? i?ia?ae?caoe?? noaiiaeoue 2,1 a/e, ai?no ?ii?a iao??th neeaaea? a
na?aaeiueiio 16,05 ia-aea/e, a?aeiioaiiy eaeueoe?th aei iao??th
aei??aith? 0,37, a?aeiioaiiy iao??th aei noie eaeueoe?th ? iaai?th –
iaeeieoe?.

Oaeei /eiii, aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?ae?ciaaieo a?oac?ainueeeo aiae ae?oaiai
eeano (iaiaaeaii i?eaeaoieo) aaaea aei ?icaeoeo inieiioethaaiiy a?oio?a
neaaeiai nooiaith, ia??iaee/iiai ieoaiaoaaiiy ? canieaiiy.

Oaaeeoey 1 – ??eaaoe?eia ioe?iea c?iooaaeueii? aiaee

??e c?ioaiiy

No?ie aecia

?I

I?ia?ae?caoe?y, Eiioeaio?aoe?y oiene/.

?ii?a,

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 ????&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyyA??Q?? ???&? ?MathType????
???u?????????»????-?????<@????<3/4???u?th?????? wmetafile8? ??8???+???????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????   ???&??yyyy?????Ayyye??a???? ???&? ?MathType??°? ???u?????????"????-?????<@????<I???u?th??????(AeNOO-2730- 94) ca iaaacia/i?nothIoe?iea aiaee ca iaaacia/i?noth inieiioethaaiiy (Iieoiai I.?., 1993 ?.)/aiiya/eia-aea/e < 5 < 40 < 1canieaiiy a?oiooieoaiaoaaiiyinieiioethaaiiywmetafile8? ??E???????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? aa???&??yyyy?????¬??»yyy???›?? ???&? ?MathType?? ????u?th??????1. ? eean – "i?eaeaoia"; 2. ?? eean – "iaiaaeaii i?eaeaoia"; 3. 1-e – 1972 ?., ca aeaieie ianii?oa a?oac?ainueei? neaaaeeie ?193. Aeanoeaino? iac?iooaaiiai oa o?eaaei c?iooaaiiai i?ia?ae?ciaaieie a?oac?ainueeeie aiaeaie aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiai /i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai. O?eaaea c?ioaiiy (14 ?ie?a) aeeeeeaei iia??oaiiy aeanoeainoae a?oioo a ?acoeueoao? ?icaeoeo aoi?eiiiai inieiioethaaiiy. Ci?ia ii?oieia?/ieo aeanoeainoae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iia??oaiiyi no?oe-oo?iiai noaio i?iiai oa?o a?oioo c iaaoaaiiyi a?eeenoino?, iayai?noth e?aiiacaienoi? i?eneiee oa ?etha?eiaaiino? a?oioiaiai i?io?eth. Iac?iooaaiee a?oio neeia? ia aeeaei? 54 ni, a c?iooaaiee – 59 ni, oiio ui i?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny iiaeaeueoa aeieaaiiy ea?aiiao?a, yea iineeth? iaaaoeaiee eaeueoe??aee aaeain a?oioo. Ai?no ea?aiiao?a a iao?iaiio oa?? ciaioeany ia 0,34%, aai ia 67,43 o/aa. Aoion ia?a?iciiae?eeany ii i?io?eth c?iooaaiiai a?oioo: a?aeaoeiny ciaioaiiy aoioniino? o aa?oi?e eiai /anoei? ? ca?eueoaiiy – a ieaei?e. Oae, e?euee?noue aoiono a oa?? 0-60 ni cieceeanue ia 0,13% (12,4 o/aa), iniaeeai a oa?? 0-20 ni – ia 0,37% (5,28 o/aa), aai 12 a?aeiinieo a?aenioee, a a oa?? 60-100 ni – ca?eueoeeanue ia 9,6 a?aeiinieo a?aenioee. I?e oeueiio eiai e?euee?noue a oa?? 0-100 ni cieceeanue ia 0,03% (10 o/aa). Ci?ia ye?niiai neeaaeo aoiono iaoiiaeea caoaeaiiy a?aeiioaiiy Nae:Noe a oa?? 0-20 ni c 1,54 aei 1,10, a oa?? 20-40 ni - c 1,28 aei 1,10. O neeaae? iai?iieo iniia cieceany ai?no eaeueoe?th a oa?? 0-20 ni c 74,3 aei 68,6%, a oa?? 20-40 ni – c 71,3 aei 65,2%. Iaeii/anii e?euee?noue iao??th ca?eueoeeanue aei 1,07-1,18 ia-aea/100 a, oiaoi a 2 ?ace, a iaai?th – aei 27,4-30,3%, oiaoi a 1,2 ?ace o ii??aiyii? c iac?iooaaiei a?oioii. I?e oeueiio a?aeiioaiiy iai?iiiai eaeueoe?th aei iaai?th ciaioeeinue a oa?? 0-20 ni c 3,1 aei 2,5, a oa?? 20-40 ni – c 2,7 aei 2,1. I?e aeei?enoaii? i?ia?ae?ciaaieo a?oac?ainueeeo aiae (II eeano) caaaeueiee ai?no nieae a iao?iaiio oa?? ca?eueoeany a na?aaeiueiio ia 0,0330%, aai a 1,4 ?ace, ui neeaaea? 0,1109%, oiaoi ia a?aeaoeiny ?noioiiai canieaiiy a?oioo, oi/a ca 14 ?ie?a c?ioaiiy iaae?eoei aeecueei 70 o/aa nieae. Ca?eueoeeanue e?euee?noue oiene/ieo nieae a oa?ao 0-20 ? 20-40 ni a?aeiia?aeii a 2,8 ? a 2,3 ?ace, aea ?o ai?no ia ia?aaeuea ii?iao oiene/iino?. Iii?oii o?ainoi?ioaaany ye?niee neeaae a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio, ui aecia/a?oueny ?iii-nieueiaei neeaaeii c?iooaaeueieo aiae, a yeeo i?noeoueny a na?aaeiueiio 61,4% ?ii?a iao??th, e?euee?noue yeiai a oa?? 0-20 ni ? 20-40 ni ca?eueoeeanue a 4,7 ? 3,3 ?ace, a iaai?th – a 1,4 ?ace. Ai?no eaeueoe?th ciaioeany a oeeo oa?ao a 1,4-1,2 ?ace, aiane?aeie aacia?a?aiiai aeeoaiaoaaiiy. Oea iaoiiaeei caoaeaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eaeueoe?th aei iao??th a 6,6 oa a 3,9 ?ace; eaeueoe?th aei iaai?th – a 2,0 ? a 1,6 ?ace a?aeiia?aeii. Ca?eueoeany ai?no ai?ii?a: a?ae?iea?aiiao-?ii?a a oa?? 0-40 ni – a 1,6 ?ace; noeueoao-?ii?a a oa?? 0-40 ni – a 1,4 ?ace, a a oa?? 40-100 ni – a 1,8 ?ace; ?ii?a oei?o a iao?iaiio oa?? – a 1,5 ?ace. Aiaeiaaee iieaciee (?I) a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio i?aeaeueany a oa?? 0-60 ni c 6,90-7,89 aei 8,01 iaeeieoe?. Aeoeai?noue ?ii?a iao??th ca?eueoeeanue a oa?? 0-60 ni c 1,07-0,64 aei 13,04-15,87 ia-aea/e, i?e ianooo?a?e ci?i? aeoeaiino? ?ii?a eaeueoe?th. Oiio ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeoeaiinoae iao??th oa eaeueoe?th a iac?iooaaiiio a?oio? a oa?? 0-60 ni aei??aithaaeinue 0,45-0,26 iaeeieoe?, ui ii Iieoiaio I.?. (1993 ?.) oa?aeoa?eco? ianeaiee nieiioeaaee i?ioean, a i?e c?ioaii? i?aeaeueeinue aei 5,34-6,16 iaeeieoe?, ui a?aeiia?aea? neaae?e ?ioaineaiino? ?icaeoeo nieiioeaaiai i?ioeano. Ioaea, c?ioaiiy iaiaaeaii i?eaeaoieie aiaeaie ( II eeano) iineeeei aeeiai?/i?noue ea?aiiaoii? nenoaie, ni?eyei iaeiie/aiith eaaei?ic/eiieo nieae, iniaeeai iao??th, ui i?eaaei aei ci?ie ?ioaineaiino? nieiioeaaiai i?ioeano a?ae ianeaii? – ia iac?iooaaiiio a?oio?, aei neaaei? – ia c?iooaaiiio ? iaoiiaeei neaaeee nooi?iue aoi?eiiiai inieiioethaaiiy /i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai, i?e yeiio niinoa??aa?oueny aeoeaia nieiioeai?iyaeaiiy. Ci?ithaaiiy aeanoeainoae aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiai /i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai a caeaaeiino? a?ae oa?o eaniai? ianeiee. I?e canoinoaaii? eano a yeino? eaeueoe?eai?niiai iae?i?aioo iniiai? ci?ie aeanoeainoae a?oioo a?aeaoeeny a oa?? 0-40 ni. Iaianaiiy ia iiaa?oith aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiai /i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai oa?o eano 5; 10 ? 15 ni caaacia/eei iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ea?aiiaoo eaeueoe?th a?aeiia?aeii a e?eueeino? 80-90; 150-160 oa 220-240 o/aa ? eiai ai?no ca?eueoeany a oa?? 0-20 ni a 12-34 ?ace, a a oa?? 20-40 ni – a 6-15 ?ac?a o ii??aiyii? c iaiae?i?iaaiei a?oioii. Oea aeicaieeei noai?eoe iiceoeaiee eaeueoe??aee aaeain, i?aeo?eioaaoe o?eaaeee /an eiioeaio?aoe?th eaeueoe?th a a?oioiaiio ?ic/ei? aeua ii?iao eiaaoeyoe??, ui caiia?aa? aeoeaiiio nieiioeai?iyaeaiith. A ia?oee ??e aeine?aeaeaiue ia aa??aioao eaniai? ianeiee a?aeaoeiny ?icaaaeaiiy i?iiai oa?o eanii, oiio ai?no aoiono a oa?? 0-40 ni ieae/a eiio?ieth ia 11,1; 23,7 ? 26,9 a?aeiinieo a?aenioee. Aiane?aeie ci?uaiiy oa??a a iao?iaiio a?oioiaiio i?io?e? a?aeaoeiny iacia/ia cieaeaiiy e?eueeino? aoiono, yea neeaaeaei a?aeiia?aeii 1,7; 4,1 ? 5,2 a?aeiinieo a?aenioee. Ia i’yoee ??e aeine?aeaeaiue e?euee?noue aoiono a oa?? 0-40 ni ca?eueoeeanue a?aeiia?aeii ia 0,8; 5,1 ? 6,7 a?aeiinieo a?aenioee. Oey oaiaeaioe?y caa??aeanue a iao?iaiio oa??, oiio ui eaeueoe?e eano noaa?e?coaaa ai?no aoiono ia a?eueo aenieiio ??ai? ? i?ioean aoioniooai?aiiy i?oia ii ciiaeueiiio oeio. Ia an?o aa??aioao eaniai? ianeiee ca?eueoeeanue noia iai?iieo iniia, ci?ieany ye?niee neeaae oa?a?aieo eao?ii?a. Ai?no iai?iiiai eaeueoe?th ca?eueoeany a oa?? 0-20 ni c 68% ia eiio?ie? aei 70,6-76,0% ia aa??aioao eaniai? ianeiee, e?euee?noue iaai?th ciaioeeanue c 27,5% aei 25,7-21,4%, a ai?no iai?iiiai iao??th ciaioeany c 4,5-4,9% aei 3,7-2,6%. Ia aa??aio? ianeiee eano 15 ni nooi?iue inieiioethaaiiy a?oioo iaaeeceany aei ianeaiiai. ?icoe?eeinue a?aeiioaiiy eaeueoe?th aei iaai?th c 2,5 aei 2,7-3,6 iaeeieoe?. Aiaeia?/i? i?ioeane niinoa??aaeenue a i?aei?iiio oa?? a?oioo. Iiceoeai? ci?ie a a?oioiai-iiaeeiath/iio eiiieaen? a?aeaoeeny aiane?aeie o?ainoi?iaoe?? ye?niiai oa e?euee?niiai neeaaeo a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio, iniaeeai a oa?? 0-40 ni. A ia?oee ??e aeine?aeaeaiue ia aa??aioao eaniai? ianeiee ai?no ?ii?a eaeueoe?th ca?eueoeany a oa?? 0-20 ni a 1,5-2,5 ?ace, a a oa?? 0-40 ni – a 1,28–1,61 ?ace i?e iacia/iiio ciaioaii? ai?noo ?ii?a iao??th ? iaci?ii?e e?eueeino? ?ii?a iaai?th. Oea iaoiiaeei a?ae/ooia ?icoe?aiiy a?aeiioaiiy eaeueoe?th aei iao??th a oa?? 0-20 ni a 1,6-2,3 ?ace, a oa?? 20-40 ni – a 1,2 ?ace; a?aeiioaiiy eaeueoe?th aei iaai?th a oa?? 0-20 ni ca?eueoeeinue a 1,4-2,1 ?ace, a a oa?? 20-40 ni – a 1,2-1,3 ?ace. A oa?? 0-20 ni oei canieaiiy ci?ieany ia a?ae?iea?aiiaoii-noeueoaoiee. ?aaeoe?y a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio ca?eueoeeanue c 8,04 ia eiio?ie? aei 8,40-8,58 ia aa??aioao eaniai? ianeiee. Ai?no oiene/ieo nieae a iao?iaiio a?oioiaiio i?io?e? cieceany i?e i?aeaeuaii? caaaeueii? noie nieae a 1,02 ?ace, oiaoi ca nooiaiai canieaiiy a?oio caeeoeany iacanieaiei. Ca?aeii c ?acoeueoaoaie aiae?c?a aiaeii? aeoyaeee, ia i’yoee ??e aeine?aeaeaiue, ai?no ?ii?a eaeueoe?th ia aa??aioao eaniai? ianeiee aoa a 1,33-1,70 ?ace aeua eiio?ieth. ?iie eaeueoe?th, ye? ? aioaaii?noaie ?ii?a iao??th, aeieoaaee iaeiie/aiiy ? cieceee ?o ai?no a oa?? 0-40 ni a 1,2-1,7 ?ace, aiane?aeie /iai a?aeaoeiny iiaeaeueoa ?icoe?aiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiue i?ae eaeueoe??i ? iao???i oa eaeueoe??i ? iaai??i (oaae. 2). E?euee?noue oiene/ieo nieae ciaioeeanue a 1,3-1,6 ?ace i?e ciaioaii? caaaeueiiai ai?noo nieae ia 0,0125-0,0168%, aai a 1,1-1,2 ?ace. Oei canieaiiy ci?ieany ia aa??aio? 5 ni ianeiee eano a oa?? 0-20 ni ia noeueoaoiee, caeeoeaoenue a?ae?iea?-aiiaoii-noeueoaoiei ia aa??aioao 10 ? 15 ni eaniai? ianeiee. Ca i’youe ?ie?a a?aeaoeiny cieaeaiiy ?I a oa?? 0-40 ni aei 8,28-8,22 – ia 5 ni, aei 8,40-8,32 – ia 10 ni oa aei 8,48-8,30 – ia 15 ni eaniai? ianeiee. Canoinoaaiiy eaniai? ianeiee 5; 10 ? 15 ni iaoiiaeei ci?ithaaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo iieaciee?a c?iooaaiiai a?oioo (oaae. 3): aeoeai?noue ?ii?a iao??th cieceeanue o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai a oa?? 0-20 ni ia 1,82; 2,53 ? 3,48 ia-aea/e, a oa?? 20-40 ni – ia 1,85; 3,22 ? 3,80 ia-aea/e ? a oa?? 40-60 ni – ia 1,79; 1,93 ? 1,98 ia-aea/e a?aeiia?aeii. Iaeii/anii aeoeai?noue ?ii?a eaeueoe?th i?ney /ioe?ueio??/iiai aieeao c?iooaaeueii? aiaee aoea aeua eiio?ieth a oa?? 0-20 ni ia 0,78, 1,94 ? 2,54 ia-aea/e, a oa?? 20-40 ni – ia 0,33, 0,29 ? 0,25 ia-aea/e, a oa?? 40-60 ni – iacia/ii. Oiio ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeoeaiinoae ?ii?a iao??th ? eaeueoe?th ciaioeeinue ii anueiio aoioniaaiiio i?io?eth (ni. oaae.3): a oa?? 0-20 ni – ia 1,09; 1,74 ? 2,23 iaeeieoe?, a oa?? 20-40 ni – ia 0,88; 1,39 ? 1,60 iaeeieoe?, a oa?? 40-60 ni – ia 0,70; 0,67 ? 0,64 iaeeieoe? ia aa??aioao eaniai? ianeiee o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i oaiaeaioe?th cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? nieiioeaaiai Oaaeeoey 2 – Iieacieee a?aaeaoe?? nieiioeaaiai i?ioeano /i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai a caeaaeiino? a?ae iae?i?aoeaiiai oiio, 1990 ?. Oa?,Iac?iooaaieeC?iooaaiee5 ni eano10 ni eano15 ni eanoniwmetafile8? ??8???+???????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ` ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy° ??a???? ???&? ?MathType???? ???u?????????"????-?????<@????<I???u?th??????1. I – ianeaia; 2. N – neaaea. Oaaeeoey 3 – Aeoeai?noue ?ii?a iao??th, eaeueoe?th (ia-aea/e) ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy wmetafile8? ??,??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/4yyy???Ue?? ???&? ?MathType??0? ???u?????????"????-?????bss???F ???u?? ???????"????-????N????W???-??????_???L?1/2??? L?1/2???L?k???u?th??????a caeaaeiino? a?ae iae?i?aoeaiiai oiio Oa?, aeiaoaiue 1986 ?.aeiaoaiue 1990 ?.niaNaaCawmetafile8? ??,??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy1/4yyy???Ue?? ???&? ?MathType??0? ???u?????????"????-?????bss???F ???u?? ???????"????-????N????W???-??????_???L?1/2??? L?1/2???L?k???u?th??????i?ioeano, iniaeeai ia aa??aioao 10 ? 15 ni eaniai? ianeiee, oi/a a?aaeaoe?y nieiioeaaiai i?ioeano caeeoeeanue neaaeith. I?e iaianaii? eano ia iiaa?oith aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiai a?oioo a?aeaoany ia?a?iciiae?e i?o?aoiiai acioo a iaaeao ci?ooaaiiai oa?o ? eiai ai?no cieceany o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai a oa?? 0-20 ni ia 5,3-28,0 a?aeiinieo a?aenioee, aiane?aeie iecueei? a?ieia?/ii? aeoeaiino? eano, ca?aeiaiiai i?aai?/ieie ?a/iaeiaie. O ianooii? ?iee ia aa??aioao eaniai? ianeiee e?euee?noue i?o?aoiiai acioo ca?eueoeeanue ? aeinyaea na?aaeiuei? caaacia/aiino?. Oinoi?iee ?aaeei iae?i?iaaiiai eanii a?oioo oi?ioaaany o iai?yieo iia?e?caoe??, ca?eueoaiiy ?ooiiino? a?oioiaeo oinoao?a, i?e oeueiio ai?no ?ooiiiai oinoi?o ia ianeieao eano 10 oa 15 ni noaa aenieei, ia 5 ni – i?aeaeuaiei, i?e na?aaeiueiio eiai ??ai? ia eiio?ie?. Oea iiynith?oueny iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi a i?iee oa? c eanii 1,5-4,5 o/aa aaeiaiai oinoi?o, o?ainoi?iaoe??th aaaeei?ic/eiieo oinoao?a a aeinooii? oi?ie ca ?aooiie ?o o?i?/ii? ? a?ieia?/ii? iia?e?caoe?? a oiiaao aenieiai ai?noo ea?aiiao?a oa i?aeaeuaii? eoaeii? ?aaeoe?? (?I = 8,3-8,5) a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio. Caaacia/ai?noue eae??i ia an?o aa??aioao eaniai? ianeiee ca an? ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue aoea aenieith. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui aei a?oioo c eanii iaae?eoei 20-60 o/aa E2I a oi?i? i?ia?aeueieo niieoe. A oiiaao c?ioaiiy aenieee ai?no ea?aiiaoo eaeueoe?th, yeee iaae?eoia c eanii, caaacia/ea aeao?enaoe?th iai?iiiai eae?th ? ni?eya i?io?eaiith i?e?ia?ieia?/ieo i?ioean?a. O?iaeaei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? c?iooaaii? n?aici?ie. Canoinoaaiiy eano a yeino? eaeueoe?eai?niiai iae?i?aioo aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe ?noioi? i?eaaaee o?iaeaeiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a on? ?iee aeine?aeaeaiue o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai (c?iooaaiei iaiae?i?iaaiei aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiei a?oioii; oaae.4). I?eaaaee o?iaeath ae?iuoaaieo eoeueoo? noaiiaeee ia aa??aioao 5; 10 ? 15 ni ianeiee eano a?aeiia?aeii 12,4-23,9; 15,0-28,5; ? 14,7-27,6 a?aenioee. I?ioyaii i’yoe ?ie?a aeine?aeaeaiue na?aaeiy o?iaeaei?noue ia 5-naioe-iao?ia?e ianeioe? eano aoea aeaui ieae/a, i?ae ia 10 ? 15-naioeiao?iaeo ianeieao eano, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iieacieeaie no?oeoo?e a?iaeath ae?iuoaaieo eoeueoo?. Na?aaeiy o?iaeaei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ca i’youe ?ie?a a ei?iiaeo iaeeieoeyo ia aa??aioao ianeiee eano 5; 10 oa 15 ni a?aeiia?aeii neeaaeaea: 57,4; 58,1 ? 59,7 oe/aa i?e 48,0 oe/aa ia eiio?ie?. Na?aaeiy i?eaaaea o?iaeaeiino? noaiiaeea 19,6-21,0% o ii??aiyii? c iaiae?i?iaaiei aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiei /i?-iicaiii i?aaeaiiei. Oaaeeoey 4 – O?iaeaei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a caeaaeiino? a?ae iae?i?aoeaiiai oiio ??e aeine?aeaeaiue, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea eoeueoo?a1986198719871988198919901991 Aa??aioeoeo?oaeca IANiceia ioaieoeyei?iinoi?o (ai?io.-ceae.)y?ee y/i?iue niiyoieey?ee y/i?iueeoeo?oaeca ia ca?iiOIOIOIOIOIOIOIoe/aa%oe/aa%oe/aa%oe/aa%oe/aa%oe/aa%oe/aa%Eiio?ieue35 9–36,4–106,6–37,6–19,4–35,9–48,4–Ianeiea eano 5 ni44523,943,720,0125,317,544,718,921,812,441,615,956,817,4Ianeiea eano 10 ni41315,044,020,9127,319,448,328,523,219,644,223,159,522,8Ianeiea eano 15 ni41214,841,814,8122,314,747,827,123,420,645,827,660,625,2I??0532,39,02, 87,76,66,22,77,21,68,22,98,14,89,9I?ei?oee: 1. O – o?iaeaei?noue; 2. I – i?eaaaea.Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue eaniai? iae?i?aoe??. Aeai? aeiiii?/iiai aiae?co (oaae. 5) na?ae/aoue, ui eaniaa iae?i?aoe?y aeiiii?/ii aoaeoeaia: aeiaeaoeiaee /enoee aeioiae i?e ae?iuoaaii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? (1986-1991 ??.) ia aa??aioao eaniai? ianeiee 5; 10 ? 15 ni aeua ia 38,7-44,3 a?aeiinieo a?aenioee o ii??aiyii? c eiio?ieai, ??aaiue ae?iaie/i? ?aioaaaeueiino? - ia 23,7-26,2 a?aeiinieo a?aenioee, oiae? ye no?ie ieoiiino? noaiiaeoue 3; 5 oa 7,5 ?ie?a, ui a 5-2 ?ace iaioa ii?iaoeaiiai. Iieacieee aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aa??aio?a eaniai? ianeiee 10 oa 15 ni iaee?au? ? aeecuee? ca cia/aiiyi, aea a?aoiaoth/e no?ie ieoiiino? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue, ne?ae aaaaeaoe iioeiaeueiith ianeieo eano oa?ii 10 ni. Aeniiaee. 1. O?eaaea c?ioaiiy (14 ?ie?a) /i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai nieiioethaaoiai i?ia?ae?ciaaieie a?oac?ainueeeie aiaeaie ae?oaiai eeano (iaiaaeaii i?eaeaoieie), ai?uoth/eie 61,4% iao??th a?ae noie eao?ii?a, i?eaaei aei c?inoaiiy ai?noo nieae ia 0,0330%, aai a 1,4 ?ace ii anueiio iao?iaiio i?io?eth, oi/a a?oio ca nooiaiai canieaiiy caeeoeany iacanieaiei. E?euee?noue oiene/ieo nieae a oa?? 0-40 ni ca?eueoeeanue a 2,5 ?ace, aea ?o ai?no ia ia?aaeuea ii?iao oiene/iino?. 2. A?aeaoeany o?ainoi?iaoe?y ye?niiai neeaaeo a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio, iniaeeai a i?iiio oa i?aei?iiio oa?ao: i?aeaeueany ai?no ?ii?a iao??th a 5-3 ?ace, iaai?th – a 1,4 ?ace. Ca?eueoeany iaaaoeaiee eaeueoe??aee aaeain ca ?aooiie aeieaaiiy a?ae?iea?aiiao?a, e?euee?noue eaeueoe?th ciaioeeanue a 1,4-1,2 ?ace i?e iaeii/aniiio cieaeaii? a?aeiioaiiy eaeueoe?th aei iao??th a oeeo oa?ao a 7,4 ?ace, eaeueoe?th aei iaai?th – a 2 ?ace. I?aeaeueeanue eoaei?noue a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio a oa?? 0-60 ni c 6,90-7,89 aei 8,01-8,15. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeoeaiinoae ?ii?a iao??th ? eaeueoe?th ca?eueoeeinue aei 5,3-6,2 iaeeieoe?, ui ci?ieei ?ioaineai?noue nieiioeaaiai i?ioeano a?ae ianeaii? ia iac?iooaaiiio a?oio? aei neaaei? – ia c?iooaaiiio, aiane?aeie /iai i?aeaeueany ai?no iai?iiiai iao??th a 2 ?ace, iaoiiaeaoe neaaeee nooi?iue aoi?eiiiai inieiioethaaiiy /i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai, i?e yeiio niinoa??aa?oueny aeoeaia nieii-oeai?iyaeaiiy. 3. I?ae aieeaii c?ioaiiy i?ia?ae?ciaaiith aiaeith aoion ia?a?iciiae?eeany ii iao?iaiio a?oioiaiio i?io?eth ? eiai e?euee?noue a oa?? 0-60 ni cieceeanue ia 0,13%, a a oa?? 0-20 ni – ia 0,37%, ci?ieany ye?niee neeaae aoiono ? caoceeinue a?aeiioaiiy Nae :Noe c 1,54 aei 1,10. 4. Iaianaiiy ia iiaa?oith aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiai /i?iicaio i?aaeaiiiai oa?o eano 5; 10 ? 15 ni a yeino? eaeueoe?eai?niiai iae?i?aioo caaacia/eei iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ea?aiiaoo eaeueoe?th a?aeiia?aeii a e?eueeino? 80-90; 150- 160 oa 220-240 o/aa ? eiai ai?no ca?eueoeany a oa?? 0-20 ni a 12-34 ?ace, a oa?? 20-40 ni – a 6-15 ?ac?a o ii??aiyii? c iaiae?i?iaaiei a?oioii, ui iaoiiaeei iiceoeaiee eaeueoe??aee aaeain, i?aeo?eioth/ee o?eaaeee /an eiioeaio?aoe?th eaeueoe?th a a?oioiaiio ?ic/ei? aeua ii?iao eiaaoeyoe?? ? caiia?aath/ee aeoeaiiio nieiioeai?iyaeaiith. Ai?no ?ii?a eaeueoe?th o aiaei?e aeoyaeoe? i?aeaeueany a 1,33-1,70 ?ace, a?aeaoeiny aeieoaaiiy iaeiie/aiiy iao??th ? iaai?th, ?o e?euee?noue cieceeanue a 1,2-1,7 oa 1,5-1,7 ?ace a?aeiia?aeii, ?icoe?eeinue a?aeiioaiiy eaeueoe?th aei iao??th ? eaeueoe?th aei iaai?th. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeoeaiinoae iao??th ? eaeueoe?th ciaioeeinue ii anueiio aoioniaaiiio i?io?eth: a oa?? 0-20 ni – ia 1,09-2,23 ? a oa?? 20-40 ni – ia 0,88-1,60 iaeeieoe?. Oea iaoiiaeei oaiaeaioe?th cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? nieiioeaaiai i?ioeano a iaaeao neaaei? a?aaeaoe??, aiane?aeie /iai ci?ieeinue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iai?iieo eao?ii?a a a?oioiai-iiaeeiath/iio eiiieaen? o a?e ciaioaiiy /anoee iao??th (ia 0,8-2,3%) a iaaeao neaaeiai nooiaith inieiioethaaiiy, yeee iaaeeceany aei ianeaiiai ia aa??aio? 15 ni ianeiee eano. 5. E?euee?noue oiene/ieo nieae ia aa??aioao eaniai? ianeiee ciaioeeanue a 1,3-1,6 ?ace i?e cieaeaii? caaaeueiiai ai?noo nieae a 1,1-1,2 ?ace; i?aeaeueeanue ?aaeoe?y a?oioiaiai ?ic/eio (?I = 8,3-8,5), c /ei iia’ycaii ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo ?ooiiiai oinoi?o. 6. I?e ianeioe? eano a?aeaoeiny ?icaaaeaiiy i?iiai oa?o ? cieaeaiiy a iueiio e?eueeino? aoiono ia 11,1-26,9 a?aeiinieo a?aenioee, a oie /an ye o iao?iaiio a?oioiaiio i?io?e? ai?no aoiono cieceany ia 1,7-5,2 a?aeiinieo a?aenioee, aiane?aeie ci?uaiiy oa??a. Eaeueoe?e eano ni?eya noaa?e?caoe?? ai?noo aoiono ? i?ioean aoioniooai?aiiy i?oia ii ciiaeueiiio oeio. 7. I?e oi?ioaaii? ianeiee eano ai?no i?o?aoiiai acioo aoa ieae/a eiio?ieth, aea ca i’youe ?ie?a i?aeaeueany a?ae iecueei? caaacia/aiino? aei na?aaeiuei? ia oii? N60?60. Caaacia/ai?noue iae?i?iaaiiai eanii a?oioo ?ooiiei oinoi?ii i?ioyaii anueiai ia??iaeo aeine?aeaeaiue aoea aenieith ia ianeioe? eano 10 oa 15 ni ? i?aeaeuaiith – ia 5 ni, i?e na?aaei?e caaacia/aiino? ia eiio?ie?; caaacia/ai?noue eae??i aoea iino?eii aenieith. Oea iiynith?oueny iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi c eanii oinoi?o (1,5-4,5 o/aa ) ? eae?th (20-60 o/aa ) a oi?i? i?ia?aeueieo niieoe. 8. Canoinoaaiiy eano a yeino? eaeueoe?eai?niiai iae?i?aioo ia aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiio /i?iicai? i?aaeaiiiio caaacia/eei i?eaaaeo o?iaeaeiino? ia 19,6-21,0% a na?aaeiueiio ca i’youe ?ie?a. Na?aaeiy o?iaeaei?noue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ia aa??aioao ianeiee eano 5; 10 oa 15 ni noaiiaeea 57,4-59,7 oe/aa i?e 48,0 oe/aa ia eiio?ie?. 9. Eaniaa iae?i?aoe?y aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiai a?oioo aeiiii?/ii aoaeoeaia. Aeiaeaoeiaee /enoee aeioiae ia ianeieao eano 5; 10 oa 15 ni aei??aith? 180,9; 203,9 ? 206,7 a?i./aa, oiaoi ia 38,7; 43,7 ? 44,3 a?aeiinieo a?aenioee aeua eiio?ieth, ??aaiue ae?iaie/i? ?aioaaaeueiino? – a?aeiia?aeii ia 23,7; 25,7 ? 26,2 a?aeiinieo a?aenioee, oiae? ye no?ie ieoiiino? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue noaiiaeoue 3; 5 oa 7,5 ?ie?a, ui a 5-2 ?ace iaioa ii?iaoeaiiai. Iieacieee aeiiiie/ii? aoaeoeaiino? eaniai? ianeiee oa?ii 10 oa 15 ni iaee?au? ? aeecuee? ca cia/aiiyi. A?aoiaoth/e no?ie ieoiiino? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue, ne?ae aaaaeaoe iioeiaeueiith ianeieo eano 10 ni, a a?eueo ia?niaeoeaiith – ianeieo eano 15 ni, yea caaacia/o? a?eueo o?eaaeee iae?i?aoeaiee aoaeo. 10. I?iiiio?ii aeey iae?i?aoe?? aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaieo a?oio?a aeei?enoiaoaaoe ean a yeino? i?e?iaeiiai, aeieia?/ii /enoiai, iao?aaeeoe?eiiai eaeueoe?eai?niiai iae?i?aioo oeyoii iaianaiiy ia iiaa?oith a?oioo 10-15 ni oa?o eano, yeee caaacia/eoue noaa?eueii aenieee eaeueoe??aee aaeain, o?eaaeee /an caiia?aath/ee ?icaeoeo inieiioethaaiiy ? aeoeaiiai nieiioeai?iyaeaiiy ia c?iooaaieo a?oioao. Iaeii/anii ae??oo?oueny i?iaeaia ooee?caoe?? a?aeaae?a eaniaeo ii??ae, ?icoaoiaaieo ocaeiaae c?iooaaeueieo eaiae?a i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy a?oio?a, iioiaaieo i?ae ieie. Oaeei /eiii, eaniaa iae?i?aoe?y aeicaiey? noai?eoe ?ano?ni-caa??aath/o oaoiieia?th iae?i?aoe?? aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaieo a?oio?a, yea caaacia/o? aeinenoaiia aeei?enoaiiy i?e?iaeieo ?ano?n?a a?oioo ? noeioeth? aio?iiiaaiiee i?ioean a?aeiiaeaiiy aeieia?/ii? ??aiiaaae. Nienie iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o. 1. Cieiooi A.I., AEoaea A.A., Aa?aieeineee E.A., Aieei I.A. I?e?iu ooeeecaoeee ieia?aeueiiai a?oioa /e?nna/ aeey iaeei?aoeee i?ioaaiuo ii/a i?e iaeei?aoeaiii no?ieoaeuenoaa // I?ioaaiia caieaaeaeea. – E.: O?iaeae. – 1990. – Aui.35. – N.12-14. 2. AEoaea A.A., Aieei I.A. Aeieiai-aeiiii?/i? aniaeoe ooee?caoe?? eano i?e aiaeiainiiaea?nueeiio aoae?aieoeoa? I?ai?/iiai I?e/i?iiii?’y. // Oaa??enueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. –Oa?nii: ONA?. – 1997. – Aui.5. – N.28-31. 3. Aieei I.A. Canoinoaaiiy eano aeey caiia?aaiiy nieiioeai?iyaeaiiy ia aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaieo a?oioao i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie // Oaa??enueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. – Oa?nii: Aeeaio. – 1998. – Aei.3. – N.27-32. 4. Aieei I.A., Aa?aieeineee E.A. Aeeyiea eanniaie iaeei?aoeee ia oeie/aneea naienoaa aoi?e/ii inieiioeiaaiiuo thaeiuo /a?iicaiia Oaa?ee // Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee "Iiauoaiea ?iee iieiaeuo o/aiuo a onei?aiee iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna". – Oa?nii: ONOE. – 1990. – N.187-188. 5. Aa?aieeineee E.A., Aieei I.A. Eanniaay iaeei?aoeey aoi?e/ii inieiioeiaaiiuo i?ioaaiuo oaiii-eaooaiiauo ii/a thaa Oe?aeiu // Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee "O/aiua Oa?niiueiu - ia?iaeiiio oicyenoao iaeanoe a oneiaeyo ia?ano?ieee". – Oa?nii. – 1988.–N.49. 6. Aa?aieeineee E.A., Aieei I.A. E aii?ino i iaeei?aoeee aoi?e/ii inieiioeiaaiiuo, i?ioaaiuo ieia?aeeciaaiiuie aiaeaie ii/a THaeiie Noaie Oe?aeiu // Iaoa?eaeu iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee "Oaiaoeea iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e eo ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue a ia?aua aiaeu iacaaeneiinoe ainoaea?noaa". – Oa?nii. – 1994. – N.37-38. 7. Aa?aieeineee E.A., Cieiooi A.I., Aieei I.A. E?nniaay iaeei?aoeey aoi?e/ii inieiioeiaaiiuo thaeiuo /a?iic?iia Oaa?ee, i?ioaaiuo ieia?aeeciaaiiuie aiaeaie // Oacenu VIII Ananithciiai nuacaea ii/aiaaaeia. – E.5. Iiaineae?ne. – 1989. – N.50. 8. Aa?aie?inueeee ?.I., Aieei I.A. Ia?niaeoeaiee iaoiae iae?i?aoe?? aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaieo c?iooaaieo caiaeue i?aaeaiiiai Noaio Oe?a?ie // Aa?io?i?y ? a?oioiciaanoai. Niaoe?aeueiee aeione aei V c’?caeo OOAA (6-10 eeiiy 1998 ?., i. ??aia). – *.3. – Oa?e?a: Aa?a?ia iaoea. – 1998. – N.185-186. Aieei I.A. Aieea eaniai? iae?i?aoe?? ia o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue *i?iicaio Oaa???, inieiioeueiaaiiai a i?ioean? c?ioaiiy i?ia?ae?ciaaiith a?oac?ainueeith aiaeith. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueei-ainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.01.02 – iae?i?aoe?y ? c?iooaaia caiea?ianoai. – Aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?nii,1998. A oiiaao aeao?oeeoo ye?nieo aiae aeey c?ioaiiy a?oio?a i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie aeei?enoiaothoue i?ia?ae?ciaai? aiaee ae?oaiai eeano (iaiaaeaii i?eaeaoi?), ye? i?ecaiaeyoue aei ?icaeoeo aoi?eiiiai nieiioeaaiai i?ioeano ??cii? ?ioaineaiino?. Aeey iae?i?aoe?e aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaieo a?oio?a canoiniao?oueny ean a yeino? i?e?iaeiiai, aeieia?/ii /enoiai, iao?aaeeoe?eiiai eaeueoe?eai?niiai iae?i?aioa. Iaianaiiy 5; 10 oa 15 naioeiao?iaiai oa?o eano ia iiaa?oith c?iooaaiiai a?oioo aeicaiey? noai?eoe noaa?eueii aenieee eaeueoe??aee aaeain, i?aeo?eioth/ee o?eaaeee /an eiioeaio?aoe?th eaeueoe?th aeua ii?iao eiaaoeyoe?? ? caiia?aath/ee aeoeaiiio nieiioeai?iyaeaiith i?e neaae?e ?ioaineaiino? nieiioeaaiai i?ioeano. Oea iaoiiaeei aeiaaio?eaaeee iae?i?aoeaiee aoaeo, caaacia/eaoee i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaiiai a?oioo ? i?aeaeuaiiy o?iaeaeiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ia 19-21%. Aeiiii?/ii aoaeoeaii canoiniaoaaoe a?aeaaee eaniaeo ii??ae, ?icoaoiaaieo ocaeiaae c?iooaaeueieo eaiae?a i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie, aeey iae?i?aoe?? aoi?eiii inieiioeueiaaieo a?oio?a ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy a?oio?a, iioiaaieo i?ae ieie. Eeth/ia? neiaa: nieiioeaaee i?ioean, nieiioeai?iyaeaiiy, eaniaa iae?i?aoe?y. Aieei I.A. Aeeyiea e?nniaie iaeei?aoeee ia oeie/aneea naienoaa e i?iaeoeoeaiinoue /a?iic?ia Oaa?ee, inieiioeiaaiiiai a i?ioeanna i?ioaiey ieia?aeeciaaiiie a?oaceaineie aiaeie. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.01.02 – iaeei?aoeey e i?ioaaiia caieaaeaeea. – Ainoaea?noaaiiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao, Oa?nii, 1998. A oneiaeyo aeaoeoeeoa ea/anoaaiiuo aiae aeey i?ioaiey ii/a thaa Oe?aeiu eniieuecothony ieia?aeeciaaiiua aiaeu aoi?iai eeanna (ia?aie/aiii i?eaiaeiua), eioi?ua i?eaiaeyo e ?acaeoeth aoi?e/iiai nieiioeiaiai i?ioeanna ?acee/iie eioaineaiinoe. Aeey iaeei?aoeee aoi?e/ii inieiioeiaaiiuo ii/a i?eiaiyaony e?nn a ea/anoaa i?e?iaeiiai, yeieiae/anee /enoiai, iao?aaeeoeeiiiiai eaeueoeeeniaea?aeauaai iaeei?aioa. Iaianaiea 5; 10 e 15 naioeiao?iaiai neiy e?nna ia iiaa?oiinoue i?ioaaiie ii/au iicaieyao nicaeaoue noaaeeueii aunieee eaeueoeeaaue aaeain, aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy iiaeaea?aeeaathuee eiioeaio?aoeeth eaeueoeey auoa ii?iaa eiaaoeyoeee, i?aiyonoaothuee aeoeaiiio nieiioeai?iyaeaieth i?e neaaie eioaineaiinoe ?acaeoey nieiioeiaiai i?ioeanna. Yoi iaoneiaeei i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue iaeei?aoeaiue yooaeo, iaania/eaoee iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aoi?e/ii inieiioeiaaiiie ii/au e oaaee/aiea o?iaeaeiinoe naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? ia 19-21%. Yeiiiie/anee yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue ioaaeu e?nniauo ii?iae, ?aniieiaeaiiuo aaeieue i?ineoaeueiuo eaiaeia thaa Oe?aeiu aeey iaeei?aoeee aoi?e/ii inieiioeiaaiiuo ii/a e naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai eniieueciaaiey ii/a, iia?aa?iiuo iiae ieie. Eeth/aaua neiaa: nieiioeiaue i?ioeann, nieiioeai?iyaeaiea, e?nniaay iaeei?aoeey. Boyko N.V. Influence of loess melioration on chemical properties and productivity of black soils of Tavria, alkalized during the process of irrigation by mineralized artesian water. – Manuscript. Thesis on getting scientific degree of a Candidat of Agricultural Sciences on speciality 06.01.02 - Melioration and irrigation farming. - Kherson Agrari-an university, 1998. Under conditions of shortage of good-quality water for the irrigation of the soils in the south of Ukraine, mineralized waters of the second grade are used (fit with limit) that causes the second solenetrization process of different intensivity. For the melioration of secondly alkalized soil loess is applied as natural, ecologically clean, untraditional calcium - containing meliorating agent. Application of loess 5, 10 and 15 centimetres thick on top of the irrigated soil, allows to create stable high calcium balance, which is able to support calcium concentration higher than coagulation threshhold for a long period of time, hindering active alkali-manifestation under conditions of low - intensivity development of alkali process. This stipulated durable meliorative effect, which provided rise in productivity of secondly alkalized soil and increase in yeild of crops 19-21%.It is economically efficient to use spoilbanks of loess rocks, dispositioned along the irrigation canals of southern Ukraine for the melioration of secondly alkalized soils and agricultural application of the soils, buried under them. Key words: solonetrization process, alkali-manifestation, loess melioration.

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