10

Eaa?iao i?i?no??a Oe?a?ie

Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

Aiiaea?

Aiaoie?e Iiaeyiiae/

OAeE 630* (1-194).002[477.44]

Aieea ?io?iaeooeaio?a ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue

e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie

06.03.01 — e?nia? eoeueoo?e, naeaeoe?y ? ian?iieoeoai

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy

iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie.

IAOEIAEE EA??AIEE

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?ae??iei Ieoaeei ?aaiiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e e?niaeo eoeueoo?
oa e?niai? o?oiiaoieia??

IO?Oe?EI? IIIIAIOE:

aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e OAAI Iaoeae
?ai? Ieeieaeiae/, Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo e?niaiai
ainiiaea?noaa ? aa?ie?niiae?i?aoe?? ?i. A.I.Aenioeueeiai, caa?aeoaa/
eaai?aoi??? naeaeoe?? ian?iieoeoaa oa ?io?iaeoeoe??

aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe Eiaa?iia Aeaaeeneaa Ai?eniae/, Oeaio?aeueiee
aioai?/iee naae ?i. I. I. A?eoea IAI Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo aeaiae?ieia?? ? ia?eiciaanoaa.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee e?nioaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a e?n?aieoeoaa, i. Euea?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 31 aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.004.09 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aa?a?iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252041 i. Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a iai?iie, 15, IAO,
iaa/aeueiee ei?ion ?3, aoaeeoi??y 65.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 252041 i. Ee?a, aoe. Aa?i?a
iai?iie, 11, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion ?10.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ’’19’’ ethoiai1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iai?oa I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa a
aea?aai?e ne?iaei? aeiaaa? i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? e?niaeo
ianaaeaeaiue. Oea ? iniiaiith i?iaeaiith, yeith caeiathoueny e?n?aieee
iaoi? aea?aeaae. Ca inoaii? 27 ?ie?a na?aaei?e i?e??no aea?aaeie
noaiiaeoue aeecueei 4 i3 ia aaeoa?? ? ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao a?ae 5 i3 a
Ea?iaoao aei 2,5 i3 — a Noaio (A.?.Naiiieaanueeee, 1998), a na?aaeiy
ci?ia caiano ianaaeaeaiue Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie, aea ia?aaaaeathoue aeoaia?
ianaaeaeaiiy, o 50-55-??/iiio a?oe? noaiiaeoue 4,3-6,5 i3, a
75-80-??/iiio — 4,4-5,9 i3 ia aaeoa??. ? i?eeeaaee, eiee caiane
65-70-??/ieo ooo/ieo aea?aainoai?a c o/anoth aeoaa cae/aeiiai, ynaia
cae/aeiiai oa eeie ae??aiieenoi?, noai?aieo o na?aeeo ae?a?iaao
Iiae?eey, noaiiaeyoue a?eueoa 400 i3, a na?aaei?e ??/iee i?e??no
aea?aaeie — 6,0 i3 ia aaeoa??. Ioaea, ee?iaoe/i? oa a?oioia? oiiae
Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie ? ni?eyoeeaeie aeey ?inoo oa ?icaeoeo aaaaoueio
aai?eaaiieo oa ?io?iaeoeiaaieo aea?aaieo ?ineei.

Iaeiei ?c niinia?a i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? aea?aainoai?a ?
aeei?enoaiiy ?io?iaeooeaio?a o e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao. Ooo/i? ianaaeaeaiiy c
o/anoth ?io?iaeooeaio?a ii/aee noai?thaaoe ia Iiae?ee? iiiaae noi ?ie?a
oiio iacaae. Oe? aea?aainoaie iathoue ??cio a?ieia?/io no?ee?noue,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue oa aeo?ae oe?iieo ni?oeiaio?a. Aeooaeuei?noue oaie ?
iieyaa? a oiio, uia aecia/eoe oeyoe ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy
?io?iaeooeaio?a o e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao Iiae?eey c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy
caaaeueii? a?ieia?/ii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa no?eeino? e?niaeo oeaiic?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oai?aoe/i? ?
i?aeoe/i? ieoaiiy, ui aena?oeai? a aeena?oaoe?? ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
aea?aeathaeaeaoiiai iaoeiaiai i?iaeoo 110/53 “?ic?iaeoe
a?ieiai-aeieia?/i? oa oaoiieia?/i? iniiae ?ioaineo?eaoe?? oe?eueiaiai
e?niae?iuoaaiiy oa eiiieaenii? nenoaie caoenoo e?n?a a?ae oe?aeiee?a ?
caoaeiee?a oai?ia” eaoaae?e e?niaeo eoeueoo? oa e?niai? o?oiiaoieia??
e?niainiiaea?nueeiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.
Ie?ai? ?icae?ee aeena?oaoe?? aeeiiai? aaoi?ii ca aeaniith ?i?oe?aoeaith.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe noai oa
?ioaineai?noue ?inoo, i?iaeoeoeai?noue oa aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue
aeoaiaeo aea?aainoai?a c o/anoth yeeie cae/aeii?, iiae?eie
?a?iiaenueei?, ninie aaeiooiai?, aoea e?niaiai, ai??oa /i?iiai, aa?oaoo
aio?nueeiai, a?ei?? a?eiai, a oaeiae ii??aiyoe ?o e?n?aie/? iniaeeaino?
oa ainiiaea?nueeo oe?ii?noue c aai?eaaiieie aea?aaieie ii?iaeaie.

Iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

1. Ocaaaeueieoe noi??/iee aeina?ae noai?aiiy e?niaeo eoeueoo? c o/anoth
?io?iaeooeaio?a.

2. Aecia/eoe /eiieee, ye? aieeaathoue ia noai oa ?ioaineai?noue ?inoo
?io?iaeooeaio?a o e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue aea?aainoai?a.

3. Aea/eoe aoaeiao ei?aiaaeo nenoai ?io?iaeooeaio?a oa ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
ae??aiiai ei??iiy a /enoeo oa ci?oaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo.

4. Anoaiiaeoe aieea ?io?iaeooeaio?a ia a?oio oa aca?iiae?th ?o ?
aai?eaaiieo ii??ae o iacaii?e ? i?aecaii?e noa?ao.

5. Aecia/eoe aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue oa ainiiaea?nueeo aeioe?euei?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?io?iaeooeaio?a o e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aia?oa aecia/aii noai,
?ioaineai?noue ?inoo, oiaa?io no?oeoo?o, aoaeiao ei?aiaai? nenoaie,
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ii ai?eciioao a?oioo ae??aiiai ei??iiy ?io?iaeooeaio?a
oa aai?eaaiieo aea?aaieo ii??ae o e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao, noai?aieo o
na?aeeo ae?a?iaao Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie, aieea i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo iiae?eie
?a?iiaenueei? oa ai??oa /i?iiai ia ?ioaineai?noue i?ia?ae?caoe??
i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo aeoaa cae/aeiiai, ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei o
i?aenoeeoe? oa a a?oio? /enoeo oa ci?oaieo ianaaeaeaiue, ?ioaineai?noue
ieiaeiiioaiiy aa?oaoo aio?nueeiai, aeo?ae i?iaeiai? ei?ee inoaiiueiai,
ian?ii?aa iiiiaeaiiy ai??oa /i?iiai, aa?oaoo aio?nueeiai oa a?ei??
a?eiai oiui.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Ia i?aenoaa? anaa?/iiai
aea/aiiy e?n?aie/eo iniaeeainoae oa ainiiaea?nueei? oe?iiino?
?io?iaeooeaio?a, a oaeiae aca?iiae?? ?o oa aai?eaaiieo ii??ae
anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeueiee neeaae aea?aaieo aeae?a, ye? aeioe?eueii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao, noaie ?o ci?ooaaiiy, niiniae ?oaie
aeiaeyaeo a ianaaeaeaiiyo oa ?ic?iaeaii ?io? caoiaee, ye? aieeaathoue
ia a?ieia?/io no?ee?noue ? i?iaeoeoeai?noue aea?aainoai?a.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeai? o ae?iaieoeoai
e?niainiiaea?nueeeie i?aei?e?inoaaie ia’?aeiaiiy “A?iieoeye?n”:
A?iieoeueeei e?niae?iaie/ei eiiieaenii, A?iieoeueeei aea?aeaaiei
e?niieneeanueeei ainiiaea?noaii, Aaeneinueeei ? Iiaee?a-Iiae?euenueeei
aea?aee?nainiaie oa noai?aii eoeueoo?e c o/anoth ?io?iaeooeaio?a ia
ieiu? 144 aa, a oaeiae i?eeiyo? aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a AeEAI
“AEeoiie?e?n”, “Oa?iii?euee?n”, “Oiaeueieoeueee?n” caaaeueiith ieiuath
530 aa.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii? iai?yio
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?aie, aea/aii? e?oa?aoo?e ii oai?, cai??,
ia?iaoe? oa aiae?c? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo, ocaaaeueiaii?
iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, i?aeaioiaoe? ioae?eaoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeiiia?aeaeenue, iaaiai?thaaeenue oa aoee noaaeai? ia iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo e?niainiiaea?nueeiai oaeoeueoaoo Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo (Ee?a, 1996, 1998), can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e e?niaeo eoeueoo?
oa e?niai? o?oiiaoieia?? IAO, ia ia?aaeao Aea?aeeiie?nainio Oe?a?ie
(1994, 1997), Anaoe?a?inueeiio ?anioae?eainueeiio iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio
nai?ia?? ii e?niaiio ainiiaea?noao (A?iieoey, 1994), aaeocaaiio
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiio nai?ia?? (Oa?e?a, 1998), oaoi?/ieo ia?aaeao
ia’?aeiaiiy “A?iieoeye?n”.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaaii aeanyoue
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, o?e c yeeo o oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao, iaeia a “Iaoeiaiio
a?nieeo IAO”. Caaaeueiee ianya ioae?eaoe?e 8,0 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, naie ?icae?e?a oa aeniiae?a. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 222
noi??iee, ?c ieo — 150 noi??iie oaenoo. ?iaioa i?noeoue 43 oaaeeoe? ? 44
?enoiee. Nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae aeeth/a? 195
iaeiaioaaiue.

Iniiaiee ci?no

Noai ? iniaeeaino? ?io?iaeoeoe?? aea?aaieo ?ineei o e?niaeo
ianaaeaeaiiyo. I?aaio/e ca?eueoeoe ani?oeiaio aea?aaieo ?ineei ethaee c
aeaai?o i?? ii/aee ia?aiineoe ?o c iaei??? ee?iaoe/ii? oa a?oioiai? ciie
a ?ioo. A Oe?a?io iniaeeai aaaaoi caaacaii iiaeo aea?aaieo ?ineei
i?ae /an caeeaaeee aioai?/ieo oa aeaiae?ieia?/ieo naae?a ? ia?e?a. A
e?nia? eoeueoo?e A?iieoeueei? iaeano? ?io?iaeooeaioe ii/aee aaiaeeoe c
e?ioey ieioeiai noie?ooy.

?io?iaeooeaioe aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe a e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao oa
caeaiiio aoae?aieoeoa? oiae?, eiee aiie iathoue ia?aaaao ia?aae
aai?eaaiieie ?ineeiaie ii oaeaeeino? ?inoo ? iaeiie/aiith aea?aaii?
iane, oe?iiino? aea?aaeie, oaoi?/ii? ne?iaeie, aieeao ia aeiae?eey,
iaea?aeaiith ieiae?a oa ya?ae, aeaei?aoeaiino? oiui. Oni?oi?noue
?io?iaeoeoe?? ia? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? aiia ioe?ith?oueny ii-??ciiio.
Aeine?aeieee aaaaeathoue, ui ?io?iaeoeoe?y i?ieoea oni?oii oiae?, eiee
?ineeia a ?ioeo oiiaao ieiaeiiineoue, iiaea ?iciiiaeoaaoeny aoaeue-yeei
niiniaii, a?aecia/a?oueny no?ee?noth i?ioe iecueeeo ? aenieeo oaiia?aoo?
? nooino? a?oioo oa iia?o?y.

Ia iaoo aeoieo, i?e aeei?enoaii? iiaeo ?ineei a e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao
?io?iaeoeoe?y i?ieoea oni?oii, a oiio aeiaaeeo, eiee ?ineeie a ?ioeo
oiiaao i?iyaeythoue aenieo a?ieia?/io no?ee?noue ? ooai?ththoue noiaea
ian?iiy, yea iiaea caaacia/eoe ae?iuoaaiiy iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo.

E?eoe/iee aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae c i?iaeai aieeao ?io?iaeooeaio?a
ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue e?niaeo ianaaeaeaiue na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui an?
aeine?aeaeaiiy a oiiaao Oe?a?ie i?iaiaeeeeny 20-30 ?ie?a oiio iacaae. Ca
oeae /an ia Iiae?ee? noai?aii aaaaoi ooo/ieo ianaaeaeaiue, a o?, ye?
aea/aeeny aeine?aeieeaie, ia?aeoee ?c a?oie iieiaeiye?a a
na?aaeiueia?eia? ianaaeaeaiiy. I?ae aieeaii aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o
iniaeeainoae a oeeo ianaaeaeaiiyo a?aeaoeeny oeaiioe/i? ci?ie, ui
aieeioei ia ?o noai.

Aieea ?io?iaeooeaio?a ia a?oioe a?aei?/aany o i?aoeyo iaoeiaoe?a, aea a
oiiaao Iiae?eey aeiaaa? ooi/iaiiy oa aenia?aiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee. A
iaoeiaeo ?iaioao aena?oeaiee aeina?ae ae?iuaiiy oieeueeiaeo
?io?iaeooeaio?a, i?ioa noai?aiiy ianaaeaeaiue ca ?o o/anoth a oiiaao
na?aeeo ae?a?ia caeeoa?oueny iaei aea/aiei. Aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oa,
ui ai??o /i?iee ? oe?iiith aea?aaiith ii?iaeith, aiae?co?oueny ??no ?
aca?iia?aeiioaiiy c ?ioeie ii?iaeaie. Aa?oao aio?nueeee, aoe e?niaee ?
a?ei?? a?eee aea/aeeny a iaaeao ?iciianthaeaeaiiy naiai a?aaeo. Oiio
aeieeea iio?aaa a i?iaaaeaii? aeine?aeaeaiue noaio, ?ioaineaiino? ?inoo,
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aea?aainoai?a c o/anoth
?io?iaeooeaio?a, a oaeiae ii??aiyiiy ?o e?n?aie/eo iniaeeainoae oa
ainiiaea?nueei? oe?iiino? c aai?eaaiieie aea?aaieie ii?iaeaie.

I?ia?aia, ia’?eoe oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue

I?ia?aia aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue ni?yiiaaia ia anoaiiaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo, ?inoo oa i?iaeoeoeaiino? /enoeo ? ci?oaieo
ianaaeaeaiue Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie c o/anoth ?io?iaeooeaio?a ? ii?aoeueiaaia
c iaoith aea/eoe:

1. Iniaeeaino? ieiaeiiioaiiy, i?e?iaeiiai ian?ii?aiai iiiiaeaiiy oa
ae?iuoaaiiy iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo.

2. Aieea ia a?oio, ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a i?aai?/iiio iiaae?
?io?iaeooeaio?a ? aai?eaaiieo ii??ae oa ?ioaineai?noue i?ia?ae?caoe??
i?aenoeeee a /enoeo ? ci?oaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo.

3. ?ioaineai?noue ?inoo iaaecaiii? /anoeie ? aoaeiao ei?aiaai? nenoaie
?io?iaeooeaio?a ? aai?eaaiieo ii??ae.

4. Ia i?aenoaa? e?eoe/iiai aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae oa
ananoi?iiiueiai aea/aiiy aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeaniiai iaoa??aeo
aecia/eoe oiiae aeioe?eueiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?io?iaeooeaio?a o e?niaeo
eoeueoo?ao.

O A?iieoeuee?e iaeano? ia ieiu? iiiaae 86% noi?iiaai? ianaaeaeaiiy a
na?aeeo ae?a?iaao, oiio noai oa i?iaeoeoeai?noue e?niaeo eoeueoo? c
o/anoth ?io?iaeooeaio?a aea/aee a na?aeeo ae?a?iaao. A 21-104-??/ieo
eoeueoo?ao, ye? noai?ai? ii nooe?eueii ia?iaeaiiio a?oio?, aoei
caeeaaeaii 51 oei/aniao i?iaio ieiuo, c??caii ? i?iaiae?ciaaii 166
iiaeaeueieo aea?aa, ?iceiiaii, iienaii ? noioia?aoiaaii 13 ei?aiaaeo
nenoai, caeeaaeaii 135 oo?o?a aeey aea/aiiy ?icaaeoaeaiiy ae??aiiai
ei??iiy ia aeeaei?, a?ae?a?aii 160 c?ace?a i?aenoeeee ? 22 c?acee
a?oioo, i?iaaaeaii aecia/aiiy ai?noo acioo, eae?th, eaeueoe?th ?
eiioeaio?aoe?? eii?a aiaeith a 72 c?aceao i?aenoeeee, aoiono, acioo,
oinoi?o, eae?th, noie oa?a?aieo iniia, a?ae?ie?oe/ii? eeneioe oa
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ii?a aiaeith a 136 c?aceao a?oioo. E??i oiai, caeeaaeai?
niaoe?aeuei? aeine?aee ii aea/aiith aeii?oee i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo iiae?eie
?a?iiaenueei? oa ai??oa /i?iiai ia ?ioaineai?noue i?ia?ae?caoe??
i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo aeoaa cae/aeiiai.

Ia i?aenoaa? iaoa??ae?a e?niaii?yaeeoaaiiy oa iae?eo e?niaiai oiiaeo
aecia/aee ?ici?uaiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ooo/ieo ianaaeaeaiue c o/anoth
?io?iaeooeaio?a. Aea/aiiyi ioiieai? ianaaeaeaiiy an?o a?eiaeo a?oi.
Oei/ania? i?iai? ieiu? caeeaaeaee ii caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo a e?n?aieoeoa?
iaoiaeeeao.

?ici??e i?iaii? ieiu? ciaoiaeeeenue a iaaeao a?ae 0,25 aei 2,0 aaeoa??a
? aecia/aeenue iayai?noth ia eiaei?e ?c ieo ia iaioa 200 aea?aa
ii?iaee, yeo aea/aee. I?ney nooe?eueiiai ia?ae?eo ia i?iai?e ieiu? o
20-25 aea?aa eiaeii? aea?aaii? ii?iaee aecia/aee aenioo ? aoaeoaaee
a?ao?e ca aenioith.

Aeey aea/aiiy oiaeo ?inoo ca aenioith oa ae?aiao?ii ia eiaei?e i?iai?e
ieiu? c??caee ii 3 na?aaei?o iiaeaeueieo aea?aaa an?o ii??ae, ye?
aoiaeeee a neeaae ianaaeaeaiiy.

Aeey aea/aiiy aoaeiae ei?aiaai? nenoaie aea?aaieo ii??ae aeae?aee aeaa
na?aaei?o ca ?ici??aie oa oi?iith e?iie aea?aaa. ?aoaeueii iaieyee ?o
ei??iiy, iienoaaee ? oioia?aooaaee. E?euee?noue ei??ioe?a ieaei?o
ii?yaee?a a?aoiaoaaee ia aeiaaeei? iaeiiai iao?a ei?ai?a aeueo
ii?yaee?a. Aeey aecia/aiiy ?icaaeoaeaiiy neaeaoieo ei?ai?a ia aeeaei?
iaae iaieaiith a?ae caie? ei?aiaaith nenoaiith ?c oiaaaoo iaoyaoaaee
n?oeo c ?ici??aie a?/ie a 0,5 i.

O?c?ieia?/ii aeoeai? ei?ai? aea/aee iaoiaeii I. Ae. Ea/einueeiai
(1925) c a?aooaaiiyi iiaeeo?eaoe?? I. N. Iia?aaiyea (1949) ? Ae. Ae.
Eaa?eiaiea (1952). Oo?oe aaee/eiith 0,5o0,5 i ? aeeaeiith 1,0-1,25 i
caeeaaeaee a o?ueio iiaoi?iinoyo a?ey na?aaei?o aai aeecueeeo aei ieo
aea?aa, a a ci?oaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo i?ae aea?aaaie oeo aeae?a aca?iiae?th
yeeo aea/aee, a inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo oo?oe ?icoaoiaoaaee oae, uia c iaio
aie?a ia a?aenoai? 2,5-3,0 i a?ae iueiai aoee iaeiaeia? ca ?ici??aie
(ae?aiao?ii noiaao??a, aenioith, ?ici??aie e?iie) aea?aaa ii??ae , ye?
aea/aee.

Oe? o?e a?oioia? oo?oe ? aeiaeaoeiai ii aea? i?eeiiee aei aeeaeie
0,5-0,7 i a eiaeiiio ianaaeaeaii? aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey aea/aiiy oei?a
a?oio?a oa a?aeai?o c?ace?a a?oioo aeey aa?io?i?/ieo aiae?c?a. C oe??th
iaoith ?c an?o oo?o?a ? i?eeiiie an? c?acee a?oioo neeaaeaee ia
iie?aoeeaiiao ie?aeo, ?aoaeueii ?o ia?ai?ooaaee ? a?aeae?aee na?aaei?
c?acee. Na?aaei? c?acee i?aenoeeee a?aeae?aee oaeei aea niiniaii ?c
aeanyoe ae?iie, a?ae?a?aieo a oaoiaiio ii?yaeeo ia i?iaieo ieiuao.

Ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a i?aenoeeoe? oa a a?oio? aecia/aee a
A?iieoeuee?e i?iaeoii-?ica?aeoaaeuei?e noaioe?? o?i?caoe?? “Aa?io?i”. A
i?aenoeeoe? aecia/aee acio ii Oth??io, oinoi? ii Ee?naiiao, eae?e
iieoi’yiei oioiiao?ii, eiioeaio?aoe?th ?ii?a aiaeith ?I-iao?ii,
eaeueoe?e — o?eaiiiiao?e/iei iaoiaeii. A c?aceao a?oioo aecia/aee ai?no
aoiono ii Oth??io, oinoi? — ii Ee?naiiao, eae?e — iieoi’yiei oioiiao?ii,
noio iiaeeiaieo iniia ii Eaiiaio-Aeeueeiae/o.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy aieeao i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo iiae?eie ?a?iiaenueei? oa
ai??oa /i?iiai ia ?ioaineai?noue i?ia?ae?caoe?? i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo aeoaa
caeeaaeaee aeine?aee, ye? iieyaaee a oiio, ui i?ney cae?i/aiiy
eenoiiaaeo a ianaaeaeaii? i/euaee a?ae i?aenoeeee ? o?aae aeanyoue
ieiuaaeie (aaee/eiith 2o2 i) aeey eiaeiiai ?c o?ueio aa??aio?a (anueiai
30 ieiuaaeie). E?euee?noue i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo aeoaa a?aee no?eueee,
ne?eueee eiai iiaaea? ia iaeei iao? eaaae?aoiee. A iaeiiio aa??aio?
aeine?aeo ?iceeaaeaee /enoee i?aai?/iee iiaae aeoaa cae/aeiiai ?
aaaaeaee eiai ye eiio?ieueiee. A ae?oaiio aa??aio? aei i?aai?/iiai
iiaaeo aeoaa aeiaeaaaee ii 10% (ii ian?) i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo iiae?eie
?a?iiaenueei?, a o?aoueiio — i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo ai??oa /i?iiai. *enoee
i?aai?/iee iiaae aeoaa ? ci?oaiee i?aai?/iee iiaae aeoaa c aeiaaaeith
i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo iiae?eie a ae?oaiio aa??aio? ? i?aai?/iiio iiaaeo
ai??oa a o?aoueiio aa??aio? ?iceeaaeaee a oeaio?? ?ic/euaieo ieiuaaeie a
iaaeao 1o1 i c oaeei ?ic?aooieii, uia aeine?aeiee i?aai?/iee iiaae ia
c’?aeioaaany c i?aenoeeeith, yea ? a ianaaeaeaii?. A ianooiiiio ?ioe?
i?ney caeeaaeee aeine?ae?a a nooo iiaiaeo ?aoaeueii cae?aee ia eiaei?e
ieiuaaeoe? i?aai?/iee iiaae, caaaeoaaee, iio?i ciiao a oeeo naieo oiiaao
ia ieiuaaeeo oaei? ae aaee/eie (1,0 o 1,0 i) ??aiii??ii ?iceeaaeaee ia
caieth.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?ae?a ia?iaeyee iaoiaeaie iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee.

Aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue aecia/aee a oe?iao noaiii ia 20 n?/iy 1997 ?.

Aieea ?io?iaeooeaio?a ia a?oioe

Iinaeaiiy aea?aaieo ?ineei ia ae?eyieao noi?iaiaeeoueny caeiiii??iith
ci?iith aeanoeainoae a?oioo. Ca aeaieie N.A.Ciiia (1954) oey ci?ia oaea
niinoa??aa?oueny /a?ac 10-20 ?ie?a, a ?iiae? ? ?ai?oa. Ie aea/aee
aeanoeaino? a?oioo a /enoeo oa ci?oaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo 44-91-??/iiai
a?eo.

Iao? aeine?aee na?ae/aoue, ui a a?oio? 50-??/ieo /enoeo eoeueoo? yeeie,
noai?aieo ia oaiii-n??eo e?niaeo noaeeieao a?eueoa eae?th, iaeiaeiai
oinoi?o ? iaioa aoiono ? noie oa?a?aieo iniia, i?ae a ii?yae
?icoaoiaaieo eoeueoo?ao, c o/anoth aeoaa cae/aeiiai oa eeie
ae??aiieenoi?, noai?aieo a oaeeo aea oiiaao i?noeac?inoaiiy. Aea iaa?oue
ia aaaeeeo (noaeeienoeo) a?oioao a /enoeo ianaaeaeaiiyo yeeie cae/aeii?
iaeiie/o?oueny aaeeea e?euee?noue (12,09 o ia aa) i?aenoeeee. ?c an?o
aea/aieo iaie oieeueeiaeo ii??ae iaeiaioa i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo (9,18 o ia
aa) iaeiie/o?oueny a ianaaeaeaiiyo iiae?eie ?a?iiaenueei?. Aeii?oea
i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo inoaiiuei? i?enei?th? i?ia?ae?caoe?th i?aenoeeee
aeoaa cae/aeiiai. *a?ac ??e i?ney iiaaeo eenoy caian i?aenoeeee aeoaa
cae/aeiiai ciaioeany ia 18%. Aeii?oea 10% ii ian? i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo
ai??oa /i?iiai aei i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo aeoaa cae/aeiiai /a?ac ??e ciaioo?
iano i?aenoeeee ia 42 %.

Ia aeanoeaino? a?oioo aieeaa? ia o?eueee i?aai?/iee iiaae, a ? ei?aiaaa
nenoaia (I.?.Oea/aiei, 1952; N.A.Ciii, 1954). Oeei iiaeia ? iiynieoe oa,
ui iacaaaeath/e ia iaeaea iaeiaeiaee ai?no iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a
i?aai?/iiio iiaae? iiae?eie ?a?iiaenueei? ? aeoaa cae/aeiiai, a
aeoioeyoeaiiio oa?? a?oioo ?io?iaeooeaioa iaioa aoiono, aea cia/ii
a?eueoa oinoi?o, eae?th ? noie oa?a?aieo iniia. Aeii?oea a ianaaeaeaiiyo
aeoaa cae/aeiiai, ai??oa /i?iiai i?aeaeuo? ai?no a a?oio? aoiono, acioo,
oinoi?o ? eae?th.

I?iaeoeoeai?noue eoeueoo? oieeueeiaeo ?io?iaeooeaio?a

?c oieeueeiaeo aea?aaieo ii??ae a e?nia? eoeueoo?e A?iieoeueei? iaeano?
aaiaeyoue yeeio cae/aeio, iiae?eio ?a?iiaenueeo ? ninio aaeiooiao. Aea?
ia?o? ii?iaee a i?e?iaeieo ianaaeaeaiiyo Oe?a?ie cono??/athoueny ia
caoiae?, aea i?e?iaei?e a?aae ?o o A?iieoeueeo iaeanoue ia aeioiaeeoue.

sseeia cae/aeia a /enoeo ? ci?oaieo eoeueoo?ao, noai?aieo a na?aeeo
ae?a?iaao, i?iyaey? ??no ii 1a-1n aii?oaoao. A ianaaeaeaiiyo c aeoaii
cae/aeiei yeeia cae/aeia ia? a?eueoo na?aaeith aenioo ? ae?aiao?. Aea ??
aea?aaeia, a?aeiia?aeii aei ae?th/eo oaen (Iinoaiiaa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a
Oe?a?ie a?ae 20 n?/iy 1997 ?.ca ? 44), a aeaa ?ace aeaoaaoa, i?ae
aea?aaeia aeoaa cae/aeiiai. Oiio i?eaooie a?ae ?aae?caoe?? ?? aea?aaeie
iaioee (oaae.1) ? /eno? eoeueoo?e yeeie cae/aeii? ia iathoue ia?aaaae
ia?aae eoeueoo?aie aeoaa a na?aeeo ae?a?iaao.

sseeia ?icaeaa? iiaa?oiaao ei?aiaao nenoaio. Iniiaia iana ?? ei??iiy
(71% a?ae caaaeueii? iane aei aeeaeie 1,25 i) cina?aaeaeaia a aa?oiueiio
25-naioeiao?iaiio oa??. Oiio a /enoeo eoeueoo?ao ? a eoeueoo?ao, a yeeo
aaiaeyoue ?? eoe?naie, aiia a?o?iaaeueia. A oaeeo na?aaeiueia?eiaeo
ianaaeaeaiiyo ooai?ththoueny aaeyaeie, ui cia/ii iia??oothoue noai
ianaaeaeaiue.

sseeia aeo?niy? ei??iiy aeoaa c aa?oi?o a ieaei? oa?e a?oioo, a non?aei?
c iath aea?aaa aeoaa ?icaeaathoue iaeiiaieo e?iio ? a?aeoeeythoueny a?ae
ia?.

Ine?eueee yeeia ia aaaaoeo a?oioao ni?ey? ia?aaiaeo iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei a
aeinooii? aeey ?ineei oi?ie, ?? aeioe?eueii aaiaeeoe a eoeueoo?e, ye?
noai?ththoue a na?aeeo oa aieiaeo ae?a?iaao ? noae?a?iaao. A on?o oiiaao
yeeio ? aeoa aeioe?eueii ?icae?eyoe ?yaeii i?aea?iieo ii??ae.

Oaaeeoey 1 — Aa?o?noue aea?aaeie (a oe?iao 1997 ?.) na?aaeiueiai
aea?aaa yeeie cae/aeii? oa aeoaa cae/aeiiai a eoeueoo?ao, noai?aieo o
na?aeeo ae?a?iaao (Oiee?anueea e?nieoeoai Ooeue/einueeiai
aea?aee?nainio)

Na?aaei?Ia’?i oa aa?o?noue e?ea?aeii? aea?aaeieNeeaaeIi?i-aeaA?e,
?ie?aaeni-oa, iae?aiao?,

niiaeeieoey aei??oa?oaana?aae-

iyae??a-

iaae?i-

aaanuei-

ai%6sse4Aesse7427,441i31,070,300,040,301,71100a?eai?17,444,170,420,3622,
39100Ae7424,830,4i30,190,440,100,040,7745a?eai?6,3816,632,150,8826,04117

O e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao A?iieoeueei? iaeano? iiae?eia ?a?iiaenueea a
i?e?iaeieo ianaaeaeaiiyo ia cono??/a?oueny. A na?aeeo ae?a?iaao aiia
i?iyaey? ??no ii 1a aii?oaoo. A /enoeo ? c ia?aaaaith ?? a neeaae?
ianaaeaeaiue neaai i/eua?oueny a?ae a?eie. A eoeueoo?ao, noai?aieo a
na?aeeo ae?a?iaao, 65-72% ei??iiy iiae?eie cina?aaeaeaii a aa?oiueiio
25-naioeiao?iaiio oa?? a?ae caaaeueii? ?o iane aei aeeaeie 100 ni. sse
a?aei?/aeinue, iiae?eia ni?eyoeeai aieeaa? ia a?oio. Oiio aiia ?
aaaeaiei eiiiiiaioii a eoeueoo?ao aeoaa. Aea iiae?eia ?icaeaa? aaeo?io
e?iio, a aea?aaeia ?? a oe?iao 1997 ?. aeaoaaoa a 2,8 ?ac, i?ae
aea?aaeia aeoaa cae/aeiiai ? ia 41% — i?ae aea?aaeia yeeie cae/aeii?.

A eoeueoo?ao, noai?aieo a na?aeeo ae?a?iaao Iiae?eey a 91-??/iiio a?oe?
aea?aaa iiae?eie ?a?iiaenueei? iathoue cia/ii a?eueo? ?ici??e, i?ae
aea?aaa aeoaa cae/aeiiai. Ia’?i ni?oeiaio?a c iaeiiai na?aaeiueiai
aea?aaa iiae?eie, ca aeaieie E.?. I?e?o?ia (1966), noaiiaeoue 1,15 i3, a
aeoaa — 0,75 i3. I?ioa aa?o?noue aea?aaeie iiae?eie cia/ii iaioa, i?ae
aea?aaeie aeoaa. Ia?aaeuaiiy noaiiaeoue 175% (oaae.2).

Uia noi?ioaaoe a?ieia?/ii no?ee?, aenieii?iaeoeoeai? aea?aainoaie c
aeoiaeii aaeeei? e?eueeino? oe?iieo ni?oeiaio?a /anoea iiae?eie a
neeaae? ianaaeaeaiue ia iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe 25-30% ii /eneo aea?aa ?
iaiao?aeii ??aiii??ii ?ici?uoaaoe ?o ii ieiu?. Aeia?a i/euaiiy a?ae
a?eie aea?aa iiae?eie oa aeoaa a eoeueoo?ao iiaeia aeinyaoe ca oiia
?icoaooaaiiy i?ae oeeie ii?iaeaie i?aea?iieo ii??ae, ye? c ?aiiueiai
a?eo oi?iothoue aonoiiaeenoyio e?iio ? ?inoooue ii aenio? c iaeiaeiaith,
aai aeaui c iaioith ?ioaineai?noth, i?ae aeoa cae/aeiee

Oaaeeoey 2 — Aa?o?noue aea?aaeie (a oe?iao 1997 ?.) na?aaeiueiai
aea?aaa iiae?eie ?a?iiaenueei? oa aeoaa cae/aeiiai a eoeueoo?ao,

noai?aieo o na?aeeo ae?a?iaao

(Aa?aciyinueea e?nieoeoai Oi?eueieoeueeiai aea?aee?nainio)

Na?aaei?Ia’?i oa aa?o?noue e?ea?aeii? aea?aaeieNeeaaeIi?i-aeaA?e,
?ie?aaeni-oa, iae?aiao?,

niiaeeieoey aei??oa?oaana?aae-

iyae??a-

iaae?i-

aaanuei-

ai

%Ia9131,234,5i30,560,490,020,081,151009Ia1Aea?eai?6,674,860,150,1412,001
00Ae9126,330,4i30,200,490,020,040,7565a?eai?6,7514,060,430,0921,00175

Ninia aaeiooiaa a i?e?iaeieo ianaaeaeaiiyo cono??/a?oueny a I?ai?/i?e
Aia?eoe?. A oiiaao na?aeeo noae?a?ia ? ae?a?ia Iiae?eey i?iyaey? ??no ii
1 — 1a aii?oaoao. Aei 86-96-??/iiai a?eo aiia ciaoiaeeoueny a iaeiiio
y?on? c aeoaii cae/aeiei ? yeeiith cae/aeiith..

?ici?? aea?aa ninie aaeiooiai? iaei a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ?ici???a
aea?aa aeoaa cae/aeiiai ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia. O eoeueoo?ao c o/anoth
oeeo ii??ae, noai?aieo a na?aeeo noae?a?iaao ?aai?anueeiai e?nieoeoaa
Oi?eueieoeueeiai aea?aee?nainio, ia’?i iaeiiai na?aaeiueiai 59-??/iiai
aea?aaa ninie aaeiooiai? noaiiaeoue 0,563 i3, aeoaa cae/aeiiai — 0,501
i3 (iaioa ia 12%), a a 86-??/iiio a?oe?, a?aeiia?aeii 1,268 ? 1,088i3
(iaioa ia 17%). Aa?o?noue aea?aaeie aeoaa a oe?iao 1997 ?. a 1,7 ?ac
a?eueoa, i?ae aea?aaeie ninie cae/aeii?.

Ioaea, iaaeioe?eueii ieiu?, ye? i?eaeaoi? aeey ae?iuoaaiiy eoeueoo? c
o/anoth aeoaa cae/aeiiai caeiaoe i?ae eoeueoo?e ninie aaeiooiai?.
Inoaiiy eaaoa, i?ae ninia cae/aeia, ia?aiineoue i?iieneiaa caa?oaeiaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, oiio oeae ?io?iaeooeaio iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaiee a ianaaeaeaiiyo a?ey i?iieneiaeo ianaeaieo i?no ? a
caeaiiio aoae?aieoeoa?.

I?iaeoeoeai?noue eoeueoo? eenoyieo ?io?iaeooeaio?a

?c eenoyieo ii??ae ?io?iaeooeaio?a, ye? aeei?enoiaothoue a e?niaeo
eoeueoo?ao, iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy iathoue ai??o /i?iee, aa?oao aio?nueeee,
aoe e?niaee ? a?ei?? a?eee.

Aaouee?aueiith ai??oa /i?iiai ? I?ai?/ia Aia?eea, aea a ci?oaieo
ianaaeaeaiiyo a?i aeinyaa? aenioe 30-50 i ? ae?aiao?a noiaao??a aei 2 i.
A ?a?iio ai??o /i?iee caaacaiee a 1629 ?., a a Oe?a?io — 1809 ?. A iiaeo
oiiaao iaee?auee ??no i?iyaey? ia aaaaoeo iiaeeaieie ?a/iaeiaie aeineoue
caieiaeaieo a?oioao (I.A.E?ioeaae/, 1954; O.Aecai?aeo, 1959;
A.E.Oaeaeaiei, I.I.Oeeaaieia,1978).

O e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao, noai?aieo a na?aeeo ae?a?iaao Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie
ai??o /i?iee, aeoa cae/aeiee ? eeia ae??aiieenoa ciaoiaeyoueny a iaeiiio
y?on? (?en.1).

wmetafile8? ?? ?? ???????? ???????yyy????????????
v???

???/???????????????????????????????AAA?AUeA?¦E?? 
»»»)))UUUMMMBBB999y|?yPPOe?“IiyiOeAEccOe© (Ii?anueea
e?nieoeoai Iiaee?a-Iiae?euenueeiai aea?aee?nainio ea. 75)

Iaaaoeaiiai aca?iiaieeao oeeo ii??ae a ianaaeaeaiiyo ia aeyaeaii. Eeai
aino?ieenoee i?ney 15 ?ie?a a ianaaeaeaiiyo c o/anoth ai??oa /i?iiai oa
aeoaa cae/aeiiai ia?aoiaeeoue a ae?oaee y?on. Aei e?ioey aea?aeeiiiai
a?eo ai??o /i?iee, aeoa cae/aeiee, a?aa cae/aeiee ? aa?oao aio?nueeee
ciaoiaeyoueny a iaeiiio y?on?, aea a?aa iani?eyoeeai aieeaa? ia noai oa
??no aeoaa. Eecee a ianaaeaeaiiyo c ai??oii, aeoaii oa eeaiii
aino?ieenoei ooai?th? no?eeee c?ieiooee ae?oaee y?on aenioith 5-6 i ?
ia? oi?io /aaa?ieea.

Ai??o /i?iee ?icaeaa? aeeaeiio ei?aiaao nenoaio. Non?aenoai aeoaa
cae/aeiiai oa eeie ae??aiieenoi? ni?ey? cina?aaeaeaiith ei??iiy ai??oa a
aa?oi?o ai?eciioao a?oioo ? ca?eueoo? iano ae??aiiai ei??iiy a iaeeieoe?
ia’?io a?oioo. Ai??o oaeiae ni?ey? ca?eueoaiith ae??aiiai ei??iiy aeoaa
oa eeie ca ?aooiie ieaei?o oa??a a?oioo. Ii?yae c eeaiii aino?ieenoei
ei??iiy ai??oa iiaeeaeth?oueny. I?e noi?niiio ?ino? ai??oa /i?iiai ?
aa?oaoo aio?nueeiai a ?ecinoa?? a?eueo ni?eyoeea? oiiae neeaaeathoueny
ia ei?enoue inoaiiueiai. Ia ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ei??iiy ai??oa a
aa?oeeaeuei?e ieiuei? aa?oao ia aieeaa?. Iacaaaeath/e ia ?icaeoie
eeceeii iiaa?oiaai? ei?aiaai? nenoaie, ii?yae c iei ai??o ca?eueoo? iano
ae??aiiai ei??iiy aei aeeaeie 1,25 i.

Iniiaiei iaoa??aeii ai??oa /i?iiai, yeee oe?iei aeei?enoiao?oueny a
ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noa?, ? aea?aaeia. A ci?oaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo eiai
aea?aaa iathoue iaeiaeia? c aeoaii cae/aeiei ?ici??e ? oi?io noiaao??a.
I?ioa oe?ii?noue aea?aaeie oeueiai ?io?iaeooeaioa a 2,9 ?ace aeua , i?ae
aea?aaeie aeoaa cae/aeiiai (oaae.3).

Oaaeeoey 3 — Aa?o?noue aea?aaeie (a oe?iao 1997 ?.) na?aaeiueiai
aea?aaa ai??oa /i?iiai oa aeoaa cae/aeiiai a eoeueoo?ao,

noai?aieo o na?aeeo ae?a?iaao

(Ii?anueea e?nieoeoai Iiaee?a-Iiae?euenueeiai aea?aee?nainio)

Na?aaei?Ia’?i oa aa?o?noue e?ea?aeii? aea?aaeieNeeaaeIi?i-aeaA?e,
?ie?aaeni-oa, iae?aiao?,

niiaeeieoey aei??oa?oaana?aae-

iyae??a-

iaae?i-

aaanuei-

ai

%A/5926,829,2i30,210,490,020,040,761004A/3Ae3Eia?eai?20,6241,161,260,096
3,13292Ae5926,230,5i30,210,490,020,040,76100a?eai?7,0614,060,430,0921,64
100

Aeii?oea aa?oaoo aio?nueeiai a eoeueoo?ao c o/anoth ai??oa /i?iiai,
aeoaa cae/aeiiai i?aeaeuo? i?eaooie c iaeeieoe? ieiu?, caeiyoi? e?nii.
Uia caiia?aoe cao?iaiiy aa?oaoo caa?oo ai??oii ? aeoaii a eoeueoo?ao an?
oe? o?e ii?iaee ne?ae ?icae?eyoe ?yaeii i?aea?iii? ii?iaee. *anoea
aa?oaoo a ianaaeaeaiiyo ai?iaeiaae anueiai aeeooy aea?aainoaio ia
iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe 30% ii /eneo aea?aa ca oiia ??aiii??iiai ?ici?uaiiy
?o ia ieiu?.

Aaouee?aueiith aa?oaoo aio?nueeiai ? Aeaeaeee No?ae. A iaaeao
i?e?iaeiiai a?aaeo a?i cono??/a?oueny, aieiaiei /eiii, a caieaaao ??/ie
ia noi?uaieo, aaaaoeo i?aai?/ieie ?a/iaeiaie a?oioao a ci?oaieo
ianaaeaeaiiyo. A e?aueo oiiaao i?noeac?inoaiiy aea?aaa eiai a 250-300 ?.
aeinyaathoue aenioe 32 i ? ae?aiao?a noiaao?a 100 ni. (E.I.Nieiaeia,
A.A.Oeeiae, 1952).

O e?nia? eoeueoo?e Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie aa?oao aio?nueeee ii/aee aaiaeeoe c
1929 ?. A?i a?aeiineoueny aei ii??ae, ye? aeiaaathoue aeniei?
?iaeth/ino? oa aieiae a?oioo. Ca aeaieie I.?. Ai?ae??iei (1961) a oiiaao
Oe?a?ie aio?nueeee aa?oao aeia?a ?inoa ia n??eo e?niaeo noaeeieao,
aeeoaiaaieo oa cae/aeieo /i?iicaiao ? iniaeeai ia aetha?aeueii-aea?iiaeo
a?oioao c aeecueeith aei iaeo?aeueii? ?aaeoe??th ?ic/eio (iieacieee ?I
6,1-7,2) ca oiia caeyaaiiy a?oioiaeo aiae ia ei?aiaaiaeinooii?e (1,5-2,0
i) aeeaei?. A eoeueoo?ao, noai?aieo a na?aeeo ae?a?iaao ia Iiae?ee?
Oe?a?ie ? caii/aoeiaai?e o/ano? aa?oaoo 25-30%, i?e cao?iaii? eiai
aea?aa c aie?a, oa a/anieo ? iii??ieo ?oaeao aeiaeyaeo, a?i i?iyaey?
?ioaineai?noue ?inoo ii 1a-1a aii?oaoao ? ciaoiaeeoueny a iaeiiio y?on?
c aeoaii cae/aeiei, ynaiai cae/aeiei, eeiith ae??aiieenoith ? ai??oii
/i?iei (oaae. 4). Ca oaeeo oiia aa?oao aio?nueeee a e?niaeo
eoeueoo?ao Oe?a?ie e?aua ?inoa, i?ae a iioeiaeueieo oiiaao Aeaeaeiai
Noiaeo. A 60 ?ie?a ??cieoey ii aenio? ia?aaeuo? 9 i.

O aieiaeo ae?a?iaao Oe?a?ie a ia?o? 20 ?ie?a aa?oao i?iyaey? iaeaeuo
?ioaineai?noue ?inoo ii aenio?. O na?aeeo ae?a?iaao noaea ?ioaineai?noue
?inoo ii aenio? niinoa??aa?oueny aei 50-55 ?ie?a. I?ney oeueiai a?eo
aea?aaa aa?oaoo iathoue iaeiaeiao aenioo a eoeueoo?ao, noai?aieo o
aieiaeo ? na?aeeo ae?a?iaao.

Ooai?aiiy ei?ee ia aea?aaao aa?oaoo a eoeueoo?ao Oe?a?ie oaeiae
i?ioiaeeoue oaeaeoa. Aeo?ae ei?ee c iaeiiai na?aaeiueiai 41-47-??/iiai
aea?aaa ae?aiao?ii 18,9-28,3 ni i?e ci?iaii? ?? aei 2,5 i noaiiaeoue
1,5-3,8 ea a na?aeiio noai?. Onooea 20%. A eoeueoo?ao, ye? noai?ai? a
na?aeeo ae?a?iaao Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie aa?oao ?icaeaa? iiaa?oiaao ei?aiaao
nenoaio. O eiai aea?aa a?aenooi?e ae?aaeaiee no?eaeiaaee ei??iue, aea ?
ye??i?. Caaea?i?iiy a?oioo iaa?oue a na?aaeiueia?/ieo ianaaeaeaiiyo
coiiaeth? caaeeaeaiiy eiai ei??iiy.

A oiiaao Oe?a?ie aa?oao aio?nueeee ooai?th? ?yniee a?iaeae ya?ae.
Ian?iiy ia? aenieo noiae?noue.

Oaaeeoey 4 — Oa?aeoa?enoeea eoeueoo?, noai?aieo o na?aeeo ae?a?iaao

I?ia-ia?ici?uai-iy iinaae-

Noaia

Neeaae

A?e,

Na?aaei?

Aii?-C?ieio-o?noue

E?euee?noue

Caian,Na?aaeiy ci?iaiei-uaeiaeo i?noeue,
i?ici?uai-iyianaaeaeaiiyIi?iaea?ie?aaenioa,

iae?aiao?,

nioaoe?iiaea?aa,

oo/aa

i 3/aacaiano,

i 3/aaIi?anueea e?nieoeoai Iiaee?a- Iiae?euenueeiai aea?aee?nainio, ea.
41 11,5o0,51?Ao1?AeAo3818,921,7?
a0,9246661?A/1?AeAe3818,217,191211?A/1?Ae5A/3Ao1Ea1AeA/3820,023,2315131E
a aacEa3716,115,313029nenoaie?acii7822477,2Niaie?anueea e?nieoeoai
Aaeneinueeiai aea?aee?nainio, ea. 60 22,0o0,51?Ei1?AeAo4719,518,9?
a0,9200641?Ei1?AoAe4720,023,72981191?
Ei1?ss5Ae2Ao2ss1Eiss4720,426,16042Ei4719,421,310230?acii6602555,4A?iieoe
ueea e?nieoeoai A?iieoeueeiai aea?aee?nainio, ea. 15
32,0o0,51?Ao2?AeAo6226,930,4? a0,7218201ssnai aac
6Ao3Ae1ssAe6225,731,4121112nenoaiess6126,132,24843?acii3873566,2

Ii ??ciiiai?oiino? oaoi?/ii? ne?iaeie, yeo iiaeia io?eiaoe c ?inoo/eo ?
c?oaaieo aea?aa aa?oao noi?oue ia iaeiiio ?c ia?oeo i?noeue na?aae
aai?eaaiieo oa ?io?iaeoeiaaieo aea?aaieo ?ineei. A oe?iao 1997?.,
aea?aaeia eiai a 2,9 ?ac aei?iae/a aea?aaeie aeoaa cae/aeiiai.

A iaaeao Oe?a?ie i?e?iaei? ianaaeaeaiiy aoea e?niaiai cina?aaeaeai? a
Caea?iaonuee?e, Euea?anuee?e, ?aaii-O?aie?anuee?e, Oa?iii?euenuee?e ?
*a?i?aaoeuee?e iaeanoyo (I.?.Iieioeia,1966).

Ee?iaoe/i? oa a?oioia? oiiae ? ni?eyoeeaeie aeey ?icaeoeo ? ?inoo aoea o
A?iieoeueeee iaeano?.

A ianaaeaeaiiyo, noai?aieo a na?aeeo ae?a?iaao A?iieoeueei? iaeano? aoe
ciaoiaeeoueny a iaeiiio y?on? c aeoaii cae/aeiei, ynaiai cae/aeiei,
eeiith ae??aiieenoith. I?ioa ai?iaeiaae aeeooy aei ?oaee aieiaiiai
ei?enooaaiiy ynai cae/aeiee ia? ia 1-2 i a?eueoo, a aeoa ia 0,5-1,0 i,
i?ney 30 ?ie?a, iaioo aenioo, i?ae aoe. Na?aaei?e ia’?i noiaao??a aoea a
104-??/iiio a?oe? iaioee, i?ae noiaao??a aeoaa oa ynaia.

Aoe e?niaee a?aeiineoueny aei o?iueiaeo?eaaeeo ii??ae, ui ? iane?aeeii
iiaaiiai i/euaiiy eiai aea?aa a?ae a?eie, aea i?e iayaiino? aieiaiai
ina?oeaiiy oi?io? iaeiiaieo e?iio ? e?ea? noiaao?e. Iaeaeaa oe? oaeoi?e
(iecueei iiouaia e?iia ? e?ea? noiaao?e) cieaeothoue aeo?ae oe?iieo
ni?oeiaio?a.

Aoe ?icaeaa? iiaa?oiaao ei?aiaao nenoaio. O aa?oiueiio 40-naioeiao?iaiio
oa?? a?oioo ae??aiiai eiai ei??iiy a?eueoa, i?ae ei??iiy aeoaa oa ynaia.

A?aoiaoth/e a?aenooi?noue ai??oe?a aoea, aeina?aeo ae?iuoaaiiy
iinaaeeiaiai iaoa??aeo ? iaeo, aai cian?i a?aenooith aeiiii?/io
aoaeoeai?noue a?ae ?aae?caoe?? eiai aea?aaeie, iniaeeai? iio?aae
noai?thaaoe eiai eoeueoo?e a iaaeao iaeano? iaia?.

A?ei?? a?eee (iaaeueiee, einiaoee, aai ea??y iaaeueia, einiaoa,
iianoyia) ? eiiiiiaioii ci?oaieo ianaaeaeaiue i?aaeaiii-cao?aeii?
/anoeie I?ai?/ii? Aia?eee, aea aeinyaa? aenioe 40 i ? ae?aiao?a iaeei
iao? ? oi?io? ??ai? iaeica?aeeno? aeia?a i/euai? noiaao?e.

A ?a?ii? a?ei?? a?eee eoeueoeao?oueny c 1629 ?ieo. A naaee Oe?a?ie
aaaaeaiee a 1809 ?ioe?.

A na?aaeiueia?/ieo ? noeaeeo e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao Aaeneinueeiai
aea?aee?nainio, noai?aieo a na?aeeo ae?a?iaao, a?ei?? i?iyaey? ??no ii
ia?oiio aii?oaoo, A 42-46 ?ie?a aeinyaa? na?aaeiuei? aenioe 16,8 ? 17,8
i ? ae?aiao?a 15,4 ? 16,5 ni, a a 96-??/ieo, a?aeiia?aeii, 26,8 i ? 30,4
ni, a iaeneiaeueii? aenioe 30,5 i ? ae?aiao?a 48 ni. A oeueiio a?oe? ia
aaeoa?? caa?aaeinue 368 aeeaeo aea?aa a?ei??.

A?ei?? a?eee a na?aeeo ae?a?iaao A?iieoeueei? iaeano? ii/eia?
ieiaeiiineoe c 16-18 ?ie?a ? ooai?th? naiin?a ? i?ae??no i?ae iaiaoii
c?ieiooeo ianaaeaeaiue ? a aonoeo ca?inoyo o?aae. O aei?ineeo aea?aa
a?ei?? oi?io?oueny iiooaeia ei?aiaaa nenoaia c aaeeeith e?euee?noth
neaeaoieo aieiaeo ei?ai?a, aea ?icaaeoaeaiiy ?o neaaa. O aa?oiueiio
25-naioeiaio?iaiio oa?? a?oioo aea?aa a?ei?? aea?aeeiiiai a?eo
cina?aaeaeaii 58, a na?aaeiueia?eiaiai — 83% ae??aieo ei??ioe?a a?ae
caaaeueii? ?o iane aei aeeaeie iaeei iao?.

Aieea ?io?iaeooeaio?a ia noai aeoaa cae/aeiiai

AEeoo?a?noue aeoaa a cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae ai?noo i?aiaio?a
oei?io?e?a a eenoyo aea?aa ? o?nii iia’ycaia c ??cieoeath na?aaei?o
aenio aeoaa oa ii??ae ?io?iaeooeaio?a. *ei a?eueoa oey ??cieoey, oei
a?eueo ??cei iaaea? o?c?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue aeoaa. Iniaeeai ?ioaineaii
iaaea? aeeoo?a?noue aeoaa i?e a?aenoaaaii? eiai aenioe a?eueoa i?ae ia 2
i. Aeey caaacia/aiiy aeniei? aeeoo?aino? aeoaa a ianaaeaeaiiyo i?e
noai?aii? e?niaeo eoeueoo? i?ae ?yaeaie aeoaa oa ii??ae-?io?iaeooeaio?a,
iaiao?aeii ?ici?uoaaoe i?aea?ii? ii?iaee oa nai?/anii i?iaiaeeoe ?oaee
aeiaeyaeo, a ia?oo /a?ao ina?oeaiiy ? i?i/enoee.

Aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue

Iiaiioa aeeeaaeaiiai iaoa??aeo iieyaa? a oiio, ui a ?iaio? iaaaaeaii
e?eoe/iee aiae?c a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e ii?aeiaii? c
aiae?cii aeaniiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo ii noaio ?io?iaeooeaio?a
oa aai?eaaiieo ii??ae, ?ioaineaiino? ?o ?inoo, i?iaeoeoeaiino?
ianaaeaeaiue oa aeiiii?/ii? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy a e?niaeo
eoeueoo?ao.

O i?ioean? ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaea/ aoei aeiaaaeaii, ui
?io?iaeooeaioe i?iyaeee ?ioaineaiee ??no a e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao Iiae?eey,
ieiaeiiinyoue ? ooai?ththoue aeia?iye?nia ian?iiy, ni?eyoeeai
aieeaathoue ia a?oio ? aeoa cae/aeiee, ye aieiaio ii?iaeo a na?aeeo
ae?a?iaao ca iaaieo noai ci?ooaaiiy ? ?ici?uaiiy iinaaeeiaeo i?noeue.

O e?nia? eoeueoo?e Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie ?io?iaeooeaioe ii/aee aaiaeeoe c
e?ioey ieioeiai noie?ooy. Aaaaoi ianaaeaeaiue c ?o o/anoth aeinyaee
ni?eiai (aoe e?niaee — 104 ?iee, iiae?eia aa?iiaenueea – 85-91 ??e,
ninia aaeiooiaa — 86-96 ?ie?a, a?ei?? a?eee — 96 ?ie?a), i?enoeaath/iai
(yeeia cae/aeia — 74 ?iee) ? na?aaeiueiai (aa?oao aio?nueeee — 61 ??e,
ai??o /i?iee — 59 ?ie?a) a?eo. E?nia? eoeueoo?e c o/anoth
?io?iaeooeaio?a, e??i aeayeeo ae?eyiie yeeie oa a?ei??, noai?ai? c
o/anoth aai?eaaiieo ii??ae c ??ciith noaiith ci?ooaaiiy, ?ici?uaiiy
iinaaeeiaeo i?noeue, oiui. A oaeeo ci?oaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo i?e?iaeii
aeieea? aca?iiaieea, yeee ci?ith?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae oei?a e?no,
a?ieia?/ieo oiia oa ainiiaea?nueeeo caoiae?a. ?io?iaeooeaioe a ci?oaieo
ianaaeaeaiiyo i?iyaeee aenieo a?ieia?/io no?ee?noue. Ioaea, aeniiaee,
ye? iniiaai? ia aaeeeiio aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaoa??aeia?, c?a?aiiio a
ianaaeaeaiiyo 60-100-??/iiai a?eo, iathoue aenieo aeinoia??i?noue.

Ca iaoeie aeine?aeaeaiiyie a na?aeeo ae?a?iaao Iiae?eey aeii?oie
iiae?eie ?a?iiaenueei? oa ai??oa /i?iiai cia/ii i?aeaeuo?
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianaaeaeaiue, ca?eueoo? aeo?ae oe?iieo ni?oeiaio?a c
iaeeieoe? ieiu?. An? aea/ai? ?io?iaeooeaioe, ye? ae?iuai? ia
nooe?eueii-ia?iaeaiiio a?oio?, aai c iinaaeeith n?yioe?a ii na?aaeei?
nioae ?iciooaiiai a?oioo, i?iyaeythoue iiceoeaiee aieea ia oaenaoe?ei?
iieacieee, iie?ioothoue o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? a?oioo. A nooe?eueieo
eoeueoo?ao ?ici?uaiiy iinaaeeiaeo i?noeue 1,5o0,5(0,7)i ? 2o0,5(0,7)i
caaacia/eoue c?ieiaiiy e?iie a 5-6 ?ie?a i?ney noai?aiiy eoeueoo?.
?ici?uaiiy ?yae?a aeoaa cae/aeiiai oa ?io?iaeooeaio?a /a?ac ?yae
i?aea?iii? ii?iaee c /aaa?ieeii ni?ey? aeia?iio i/euaiith noiaao??a a?ae
a?eie. Aaaeaieie noiooi?ie ii?iaeaie a eoeueoo?ao, c o/anoth
?io?iaeooeaio?a, ? eeia ae??aiieenoa oa eeai aino?ieenoee, a c
/aaa?iee?a — eecee oa e?ueia cae/aeia. ??aiii??ia ?ici?uaiiy aea?aa on?o
ii??ae ii ieiu? cia/ii i?aeaeuo? i?e??no ii ae?aiao?o ? ca?eueoo? aeo?ae
oe?iieo ni?oeiaio?a.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueoa
aeeoo?a?noue aeoaa niinoa??aa?oueny a ianaaeaeaiiyo c noia?iei ai?noii
oei?io?e?a 4,9 ia/a aaniethoii nooi? iane. Iayai?noue oeeo i?aiaio?a
o?nii iia’ycaia c ??cieoeath na?aaei?o aenio aeoaa ? ii??ae
?io?iaeooeaio?a. *ei a?eueoa oey ??cieoey, oei a?eueo ??cei iaaea?
o?c?ieia?/ia aeanoea?noue aeoaa. Aeey caaacia/aiiy aeniei? aeeoo?aino?
aeoaa a ianaaeaeaiiyo i?e noai?aii? e?niaeo eoeueoo? i?ae ?yaeaie aeoaa
oa ii??ae-?io?iaeooeaio?a, iaiao?aeii ?ici?uoaaoe i?aea?ii? ii?iaee.

Iiaeaeueoa aea/aiiy ?io?iaeooeaio?a aeioe?eueii ca oiia aeei?enoaiiy ?o
o e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao ?ioeo ee?iaoe/ieo oa a?oioiaeo oiia.

Aeniiaee

1. Ee?iaoe/i? oa a?oioia? oiiae Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie ? ni?eyoeeaeie aeey
?icaeoeo oa ?inoo yeeie cae/aeii?, iiae?eie ?a?iiaenueei?, ninie
aaeiooiai?, ai??oa /i?iiai, aa?oaoo aio?nueeiai ? a?ei?? a?eiai.

2. I?aai?/iee iiaae iiae?eie ?a?iiaenueei? oa ai??oa /i?iiai i?enei?th?
i?ia?ae?caoe?th i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo aeoaa cae/aeiiai.

3. O a?oio? eoeueoo? yeeie cae/aeii?, noai?aieo ia na?aeeo oaiii-n??eo
e?niaeo noaeeieao, a?eueoa eae?th, iaeiaeiaee ai?no oinoi?o, iaioa
aoiono ? noie oa?a?aieo iniia, a a a?oio? eoeueoo? iiae?eie
?a?iiaenueei? — iaioa acioo, a?eueoa oinoi?o, eae?th ? noie oa?a?aieo
iniia, i?ae a a?oio? iaeiia?eiaeo noi?aeieo eoeueoo? aeoaa cae/aeiiai.

Aeii?oea ai??oa /i?iiai a ianaaeaeaiiyo aeoaa cae/aeiiai i?aeaeuo? ai?no
aoiono, acioo, eae?th ? noie oa?a?aieo iniia.

4. sseeio aeioe?eueii aaiaeeoe a eoeueoo?e aeoaa, ye aeii?oeo. Iniiaia
iana ei??iiy ?? cina?aaeaeaia a aa?oiueiio 25-naioeiao?iaiio oa?? a?oioo
? aiia a /enoeo eoeueoo?ao oa?ieoue a?ae a?o?iaaeo.

5. Iiae?eia ?a?iiaenueea iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia a?oio, ?? i?aai?/iee iiaae
i?enei?th? i?ia?ae?caoe?th i?aai?/iiai iiaaeo aeoaa cae/aeiiai, aiia
e?aua ?inoa a ci?oaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo. Oiio oeae ?io?iaeooeaio
aeioe?eueii aaiaeeoe a eoeueoo?e aeoaa c aeii?oeith aei 25-30% ii
e?eueeino? aea?aa ca oiia ??aiii??iiai ?ici?uaiiy ?o ii ieiu?.

6. Ninia aaeiooiaa a e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao ia?aaeuo? ca oaenaoe?eieie
iieacieeaie aeoa cae/aeiee. ?? aea?aaeia ia? iecuee? iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino?, aea eaaei ia?aiineoue i?iieneiaa caa?oaeiaiiy
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Oiio ninio aaeiooiao aeioe?euei?noue
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a caeaiiio aoae?aieoeoa?.

7. Ai??o /i?iee a na?aaeiueia?/ieo eoeueoo?ao, noai?aieo a na?aeeo
ae?a?iaao, oi?io? ??ai? iaeica?aeeno? aeia?a i/euai? a?ae a?eie noiaao?e
? ciaoiaeeoueny a iaeiiio y?on? c aeoaii cae/aeiei oa eeiith
ae??aiieenoith. Non?aenoai aeoaa cae/aeiiai, eeie ae??aiieenoi? oa
eeceeo ca?eueoo?, a eeaia aino?ieenoiai oa aa?oaoo aio?nueeiai — ciaioo?
iano ei??iiy ai??oa a iaeeieoe? ia’?io a?oioo. Aeii?oea ai??oa a
eoeueoo?ao aeoaa cia/ii i?aeaeuo? i?eaooie c iaeeieoe? ieiu? ca ?aooiie
?aae?caoe?? aea?aaeie.

8. Ii ??ciiiai?oiino? oaoi?/ii? ne?iaeie, yeo iiaeia io?eiaoe c ?inoo/eo
? c?oaaieo aea?aa, aa?oao aio?nueeee noi?oue ia ia?oiio i?noe? na?aae
aai?eaaiieo oa ?io?iaeoeiaaieo ?ineei. Aeii?oea eiai a e?niaeo
eoeueoo?ao cia/ii i?aeaeuo? i?eaooeia?noue oeeo aea?aainoai?a.

9. O na?aaeiueia?eiaeo ianaaeaeaiiyo, noai?aieo o na?aeeo ae?a?iaao,
aea?aaa aoea e?niaiai iathoue a?eueo?, a a noeaeeo — iaio? ?ici??e, i?ae
aea?aaa aeoaa cae/aeiiai oa ynaia cae/aeiiai. A?aoiaoth/e a?eueo iecueeo
oiaa?io no?oeoo?o, iaio? ?ici??e aea?aa ? iaioo aa?o?noue aea?aaeie aoea
a aeiiii?/iiio a?aeiioaii? a?i iaia? ia?aaaae ia?aae aeoaii oa ynaiai.

10. A?ei?? a?eee ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aaiaeeoe a eoeueoo?e aeey caaaa/aiiy
ii?iaeiiai neeaaeo ianaaeaeaiue.

11. AEeoo?a?noue aeoaa cae/aeiiai a ci?oaieo ianaaeaeaiiyo o?nii
iia’ycaia c ??cieoeath aenio aeoaa oa ii??ae ?io?iaeooeaio?a. *ei
a?eueoa oey ??cieoey, oei a?eueoa iaaea? o?c?ieia?/ia aeoeai?noue aeoaa.

Ocaaaeueithth/e a?eiaee aeina?ae noai?aiiy e?niaeo eoeueoo? a oiiaao
Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie, a?aoiaoth/e iiieo ia aea?aaeio a?o/eciyieo oa
?a?iiaenueeeo niiaeeaa/?a o no/anieo ?eieiaeo oiiaao, aaaaea?ii ca
aeioe?eueia oi?ioaaiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo ? a?ieia?/ii no?eeeo ooo/ieo
aeoaiaeo aea?aainoai?a cae?enithaaoe c a?aooaaiiyi eiiieaenii? oe?iiino?
e?niai? i?iaeoeoe?? oeyoii aaaaeaiiy a eoeueoo?e oe?ieiai niaeo?o
aea/aieo ?io?iaeooeaio?a c iaaeaiiyi ia?aaaae ca ianyaaie noai?aiiy a
ianooii?e iine?aeiaiino?: ai??o /i?iee, aa?oao aio?nueeee, a?ei?? a?eee,
yeeia cae/aeia, ninia aaeiooiaa oa aoe e?niaee.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. Aiiaea? A.I. Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy oieeueeiaeo ii??ae a e?niaeo
eoeueoo?ao Iiaeie??: A?ioo?a.- A?iieoey: Aeae. AAO
’’A?iieoeyiaeae?oea?iy’’, 1996.- 27 n.

2. Aiiaea? A.I. E?nia? eoeueoo?e ai??oa /i?iiai: A?ioo?a.- A?iieoey:
Aeae. AAO, ’’A?iieoeyiaeae?oea?iy’’, 1997.- 46 n.

3. Aiiaea? A.I. Aieea ia a?oio ?io?oaeoeiaaieo aea?aaieo ii??ae
Iiaeie??: A?ioo?a.- A?iieoey: Aeae. AAO ’’A?iieoeyiaeae?oea?iy’’, 1997.-
23 n.

4. Aiiaea? A.I. Aeei?enoaiiy aeoaa ai?aaeueiiai a e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao
Iiaeie??: A?ioo?a.- A?iieoey: Aeae. AAO ’’A?iieoeyiaeae?oea?iy’’, 1997.-
19 n.

5. Aiiaea? A.I., Aeai?i?eia A.?., Iiiaeueithe A. A. Aaia?ao?/i?
eoeueoo?e aeoaa cae/aeiiai ye can?a i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? yeino?
Iiae?euenueeeo ae?a?ia: A?ioo?a.- A?iieoey: Iaeae?oea?iy, 1994.- 5 n.

Aeena?oaio a?aa o/anoue o cae?aii? iieueiaiai iaoa??aeo, aiae?c?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a oa ?o iienaii?.

6. Aiiaea? A.I., Aeai?i?eia A.?., ?eue?i A.I. I?aeaeuaiiy yeino? ?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? ae?a?ia Iiae?eey: A?ioo?a.- A?iieoey: Iaeae?oea?iy,
1994.- 4 n.

Caeeaaeaiiy eeiiiaeo ian?iiaaeo ieaioaoe?? aeoaa cae/aeiiai ia
A?iieoeueeiio iaeaniiio naeaeoe?eii-ian?iiiio eiiieaen?, aeiaeyae ca
ieie, noai?aiiy e?niaeo eoeueoo? c aaaaeaiiyi ?io?iaeooeaio?a aoei
i?iaaaeaii c iniaenoith o/anoth oa i?ae ea??aieoeoaii aaoi?a.

7. Aiiaea? A.I. Noai ? ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo e?niaiai ainiiaea?noaa
A?iie//eie//E?niaee aeo?iae.- 1994.- ?5.- N. 7-8.

8. Aiiaea? A. I. Ai??o /i?iee ni?aaaeaeo? niiae?aaiiy//E?niaee ?
ieneeanueeee aeo?iae.- 1997.- ?3.- N. 29.

9. Aiiaea? A. I. A?ei?? a?eee a e?niianaaeaeaiiyo Iiae?eey//E?niaee ?
ieneeanueeee aeo?iae.- 1997.- ?1.- N. 19.

10. Ai?ae??iei I. ?., Iao?a? A. I., Aiiaea? A. I. Aeei?enoaiiy yeeie a
e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie//Iaoeiaee a?niee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1998.- ?8.- N. 86-93.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino? oa ii?aoethaaiiy oaoiieia?? aaaaeaiiy yeeie
a e?nia? eoeueoo?e Iiae?eey, cai?o oa ia?iaoe? iieueiaeo iaoa??ae?a.

Aiiaea? A. I. Aieea ?io?iaeooeaio?a ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue e?niaeo
ianaaeaeaiue Iiae?eey Oe?a?ie.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.03.01 — e?nia?
eoeueoo?e, naeaeoe?y ? ian?iieoeoai.-Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Caoeua?oueny ?oeiien aeena?oaoe??, a ye?e ocaaaeueiaiee noi??/iee
aeina?ae aeei?enoaiiy ?io?iaeooeaio?a o e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao A?iieoeueei?
iaeano?.

O ?iaio? a?aeia?aaeai? ?acoeueoaoe eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy noaio,
?ioaineaiino? ?inoo iaaecaiii? /anoeie ? noi?iiaaiino? ei?aiaai? nenoaie
yeeie cae/aeii?, iiae?eie ?a?iiaenueei?, ninie aaeiooiai?, ai??oa
/i?iiai, aa?oaoa aio?nueeiai ? a?ei?? a?eiai, ?o aca?iiae?? c
aai?eaaiieie ii?iaeaie, aieea /enoeo ? ci?oaieo ianaaeaeaiue ia
o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeanoeaino? a?oioo.

C o?aooaaiiyi noaio, ?ioaineaiino? ?inoo, caiano aea?aaeie ia iaeeieoe?
ieiu?, aeoiaeo oe?iieo ni?oeiaio?a oa ?o aa?oino?, i?eaaaeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? oaoiieia?y ii noai?aiith oa ?aoe?iiaeueiiio
aeei?enoaiith ?io?iaeooeaio?a a e?niaeo eoeueoo?ao A?iieoeueei? iaeano?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?io?iaeooeaioe, e?nia? eoeueoo?e, a?iaeaei?noue ieiae?a,
i?e?iaeia iiiiaeaiiy, ?ici?uaiiy iinaaeeiaeo i?noeue, noiaao?e, aiaeyi?
ia?inoee, ei?aiaaa nenoaia, c?ieioo?noue e?ii, aii?oao, caian aea?aaeie,
ni?oeiaioe, i?iaeoeoeai?noue.

Aiiaea?ue A. A. Aeeyiea eio?iaeooeaioia ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eaniuo
ianaaeaeaiee Iiaeieee Oe?aeiu. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.03.01- eaniua
eoeueoo?u, naeaeoeey e naiaiiaiaenoai – Iaoeeiiaeueiue aa?a?iue
oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Caueuaaony ?oeiienue aeenna?oaoeee, a eioi?ie iaiauai 100- eaoiee iiuo
eniieueciaaiey eio?iaeooeaioia a eaniuo eoeueoo?ao Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe.

A ?aaioa io?aaeaiu ?acoeueoaou eiiieaeniiai eco/aiey ninoiyiey,
eioaineaiinoe ?inoa iaaecaiiie /anoe e oi?ie?iaaiey ei?iaaie nenoaiu aee
iaueiiaaiiie, eenoaaiieoeu aa?iiaeneie, niniu aaeiooiaie, i?aoa /a?iiai,
aa?oaoa aio?neiai e aeei?e aaeiai, eo acaeiiaeaenoaea n aai?eaaiiuie
ii?iaeaie, aeeyiea /enouo e niaoaiiuo ianaaeaeaiee ia oeceei —
oeie/aneea naienoaa ii/au.

A eaniua eoeueoo?u Iiaeieuey Oe?aeiu eio?iaeooeaiou ia/aee aaiaeeoueny n
eiioea i?ioeiai noieaoey. Iiiai ianaaeaeaiee n eo o/anoeai aeinoeaee
c?aeiai (aoe eaniie — 104 aiaea, eenoaaiieoea aa?iiaeneay – 85-91 aiae,
ninia aaeiooiaa — 86-96 eao, aeei?e aaeue — 96 eao), i?eniaaathuaai
(aeue iaueiiaaiiay — 74 aiaea) e n?aaeiaai (aa?oao aio?neee — 61 aiae,
i?ao /a?iue — 59 eao) aic?anoa. Eaniua eoeueoo?u n o/anoeai
eio?iaeooeaioia, e?iia ioaeaeueiuo ieiuaaeae aee e aeei?e, nicaeaiu n
o/anoeai aai?eaaiiuo ii?iae n ?aciie noaiie niaoaiey, a oaeaea
?aciauaiey iinaaei/iuo iano. A oaeeo niaoaiiuo ianaaeaeaieyo aicieeaao
acaeiiaeeyiea, eioi?ia eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io oeiia eana,
aeieiae/aneeo oneiaee e oicyenoaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee. Eio?iaeooeaiou a
niaoaiiuo ianaaeaeaieyo i?iyaeee aunieoth aeieiae/aneoth noieeinoue.
Eoiae ?aaiou iniiaaiu ia aieueoii yenia?eiaioaeueiii iaoa?eaea,
nia?aiiii a ianaaeaeaieyo 60-100-eaoiaai aic?anoa, eiatho aunieoth
aeinoiaa?iinoue.

N o/aoii ninoiyiey, eioaineaiinoe ?inoa, caiana ae?aaaneiu ia aaeeieoea
ieiuaaee, auoiaea oeaiiuo ni?oeiaioia e eo noieiinoe i?eaaaeaiu
?aeiiaiaeaoeee e oaoiieiaey ii nicaeaieth e ?aoeeiiaeueiiio
eniieueciaaieth eio?iaeooeaioia a eaniuo eoeueoo?ao Aeiieoeeie iaeanoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eio?iaeooeaiou, eaniua eoeueoo?u, o?iaeaeiinoue
ieiaeia, i?e?iaeiia aiciaiiaeaiea, ?aciauaiea iinaaei/iuo iano, noaieu,
aiaeyiua iiaaae, ei?iaaay nenoaia, niieiooinoue e?ii, aiieoao, caian
ae?aaaneiu, ni?oeiaiou, i?iaeoeoeaiinoue

.

Bondar A. E. The influence of intpoducents on the productivitu of the
forest plants

Podilua of Ukraine. — The manuscript.

Candidate dissertation (Agricultural sciences) on the speciality
06.03.01 — silviculture, selection and seed-growing – Nacional
agricultural university, Kyev, 1999.

The dissertation is being defended, in which the 100 years experience of
usage of introducents in silviculture in the Vinnitsa oblast is being
reviewed.

In the work the results of comprehensive research of the state, growth
intensity of the surfase part of the trees and formftion of root system
of Picta excelsa Link, Jarix Mill, Pinus Strobus L, Pinus Silvtstis L,
Juglans nigra L, Carya alba Nutt. are reflected, their interaction with
aboriginal species as well as impact of pure and mixed plantations on
physical and chemical characteristics of soil are also discussed.

Taking into consideration the state, intensity of growth, timber stock
per single unit of square, output of valuable sortiments and their
coast, the recommendations and technology on creation and rational
utilisation of introducents in the silvicultures of Vinitskaya oblast
are provided.

Key words: introducents, silviculture, harvest of seeds and fruits,
natural renewal, distribution of hlantings sites, water stems, trunks,
root systems, bonitet, timber stock, sortiment, productivity.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 25.01.99 ?. Caiiae. ? 85.

Oi?iao 60o90 1/16 Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0 Ae?oe ionaoiee.

Oe?aae 100 i?ei??iee?a.

A?iieoey. Ae?oea?iy AAeIO ?i. I.?.Ie?iaiaa, Ie?iaiaa, 56.

Похожие записи