IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO IAOAEIO?CEEE ?i. A.A. EO?AeTHIIAA

IIEUe*OE Aiaaeai Ai?eniae/

OAeE 669.14: 669-172: 621.785.54

AIEEA ?IIOEUeNII? EACA?II? IA?IAEE IA NO?OEOO?II-OACIAEE NOAI
I?EIIAA?OIAAEO OA??A NIEAA?A IA INIIA? CAE?CA

01.04.13 — o?ceea iaoae?a

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaoaeio?ceee ?i. A.A. Eo?aethiiaa IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
AeAI?EUe*AIEI A?OAE?E THOEIIAE*, ?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee ?i. A.A.
Eo?aethiiaa IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?iaeoeiaaieo ia?oaineoieo
ia?aoai?aiue

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

ONOEIIA AIAOIE?E ?AAIIAE*, ?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee ?i. A.A. Eo?aethiiaa
IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo aoaeiae oa aeanoeainoae oaa?aeeo
?ic/ei?a

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EIIAe?AOTHE NOAI?NEAA ?AAAIIAE*, O?ceei-oaoiieia?/iee ?inoeooo iaoae?a
oa nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy noaeae

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?i. ?.I. O?aioeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie,
a?aeae?e oa?iiiaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ooaiieaaeeo iaoae?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 10 ” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae.26.168.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
iaoaeio?ceee ?i. A.A. Eo?aethiiaa IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith 252680,
Ee?a-142, aoeuea. Aeaaeai?ea Aa?iaaenueeiai, 36.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iaoaeio?ceee ?i. A.A. Eo?aethiiaa IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 17 ” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe
I?UAE A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aenieiaoaeoeaii? oaoiieia?? eaca?ii?
ia?iaee (EI) ? iaeiei ?c iaoiae?a ae??oaiiy aeooaeueii? i?iaeaie
i?aeaeuaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae iaoaeaaeo iaoa??ae?a oa
?icoe?aiiy oaoiieia?/ieo iiaeeeainoae aieeao ia aioia? aeaoae? iaoei oa
?ino?oiaioe.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui EI canoiniao?oueny i?aeoe/ii o an?o aaeocyo
i?iieneiaino?, ? /eiae? ?? ?aca?ae, iiaia aeei?enoaiiy yeeo iiaeeeai
o?eueee i?e oe?eani?yiiaaiiio ?aaoethaaii? no?oeoo?ii-oaciaeo
ia?aoai?aiue, ui a?aeaoaathoueny i?e eaca?iiio iaa??a? oa ianooiiiio
ioieiaeaeaii?. ?ioa?an aei EI coiiaeaiee, c iaeiiai aieo, iiaeeea?noth
oi?ioaaoe niaoeeo?/i? no?oeoo?i? noaie, ye? iaaeinyaei? i?e
o?aaeeoe?ei?e oa?i?/i?e ia?iaoe?, oa, c ?ioiai, — iaaaeueiith iio?aaith
?ic?iaee iiaeo ?ioaineaieo iaoiae?a oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a
eiino?oeoe?eieo oa ?ino?oiaioaeueieo noaeae.

?icaeoie oaoiieia?? EI oa ?? oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a i?iieneiaino? aeiaaa?
iiaeeaeaiiai aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a i?e eaca?iiio
ii?ii?iaii?, ?ic?iaee aaeaeaaoieo iiaeaeae, ye? a?aoiaothoue ana
?icia?ooy no?oeoo?ii-oaciaiai noaio nieaa?a, ui noi?ioaaany a oiiaao
oaeaee?niiai iaa??ao. No?oeoo?iee noai noaeae, noi?iiaaiee ca
aeiiiiiaith iaia?a?aii? EI, aeine?aeaeaii aeinoaoiuei iiaii, iaeiae
iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?ii-oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue o ??cei ia??aiiaaaeieo
oiiaao ?iioeuenii? EI, caeeoeeenue aea/aieie iaaeinoaoiuei. Oaea
neooaoe?y oneeaaeith? anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo i?ae ia?aiao?aie eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy oa eiiieaenii o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee eieaeueieo
ae?eyiie ia?iaeaieo nieaa?a. I?e ?iioeueni?e EI a?aae??io oaiia?aoo? o
iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? oiaueiith 100150 iei neeaaea? aei 106 N/ni, a
oaeaee?noue iaa??ao oa ianooiiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy — a?aeiia?aeii 105108
°N/n oa 104106 °N/n. Inoaiiy iaaaaaoi ia?aaeuo? e?eoe/i? oaeaeeino?
ioieiaeaeaiiy, aeinoaoi? aeey cae?eniaiiy aa?ooaaiiy a cae/aeieo oiiaao
iaa??ao. Aiane?aeie oeueiai a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao oi?iothoueny
aenieiaeenia?ni? no?oeoo?i? neeaaeia? c aenieei ai?noii aeaoaeo?a
e?enoae?/ii? aoaeiae oa niaoeeo?/iei ?iciiae?eii eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a.

?aioaaiino?oeoo?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy noaeae i?ney EI o?aaeeoe?eii
i?iaiaeeee ia iie?e?enoae?/ieo c?aceao, ui aeicaieyei aeyaeoe iaea?eueo
nooo?a? ci?ie no?oeoo?ii-oaciaiai noaio. I?e iae?e /ooeeaino?
iie?e?enoae?/iiai iaoiaeo oiie? no?oeoo?i? aoaeoe caeeoeeenue
iaaeine?aeaeaieie. Iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy oiieeo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i ?
iiaaae?iee ie?aieo noano?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo o noae? aeiaaa?
canoinoaaiiy iiiie?enoae?/ieo c?ace?a. ?aioaaiia?ao?y iiiie?enoae?a
aeicaiey? niinoa??aaoe oiie? aeeo?aeoe?ei? aoaeoe, aei??thaaoe iae?
e?eueeino? oaciaeo neeaaeiaeo oa aeine?aeaeoaaoe e?enoaeia?ao?/i?
i???ioaoe?ei? aniaeoe no?oeoo?iiai noaio.

I?e EI iaeiaoaeaoeaaeo noaeae aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iiaeeeaino? ea?oaaiiy e?euee?noth caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo. I?e
o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiaeao aa?ooaaiiy caeeoeiaee aonoai?o o?eno?oueny
i?eaeecii c 0,4 %N. Eaca?ia aa?ooaaiiy aeicaiey? iaea?aeaoe cia/io
e?euee?noue caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo, iai?eeeaae a noaeyo O8, O10 — ia 2530
% a?eueoa, i?ae i?e cae/aeiiio aa?ooaaii?. O aeayeeo aeiaaeeao
iaoanoaa?eueiee aonoai?o aeicaiey? ?aae?coaaoe aenieo aenieoaoaoe?eio
no?ee?noue ca ?aooiie —ia?aoai?aiiy a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? i?ae /an
?iai/iai oeeeeo iaaaioaaeaiiy. O ca’yceo c oeei ? aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeaino? ooai?aiiy caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo a
iaeiaoaeaoeaaeo noaeyo oa oaoi?/iiio cae?c?.

Aiane?aeie aenieeo a?aae??ioa oaiia?aoo? oa oaeaeeino? ioieiaeaeaiiy i?e
?iioeueni?e EI oi?io?oueny niaoeeo?/iee iai?oaeaiee noai c iniaeeaei
?iciiae?eii caeeoeiaeo iai?oa, ui aecia/a?oueny ye oaieiaeie i?ioeanaie,
oae ? no?oeoo?ieie ci?iaie a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao. Iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy
oa?aeoa?o caeeoeiaeo iai?oa iia’ycaia c ?o iiaeeea?noth aeoea?coaaoe /e
oiia?eueithaaoe oacia? oa no?oeoo?i? ci?ie, aenooiaoe a yeino?
ci?oeithth/iai /e ciai?oeithth/iai /eiieea, ui iniaeeai aaaeeeai aeey
aeaoaeae, ye? i?aoeththoue i?e oeeee?/ieo ci?iieo iaaaioaaeaiiyo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith nenoaiaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeae?eo
?iaeoeiaaieo ia?oaineoieo ia?aoai?aiue ?inoeoooo iaoaeio?ceee ?i. A.A.
Eo?aethiiaa IAI Oe?a?ie, a oiio /ene? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeiiai? ca?aeii c
i?iaeoii I?iiaoee Oe?a?ie 2.4/1030 “Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ia?a?iciiae?eo
aoaeaoeth i?e oa?i?/i?e oa eaca?i?e ia?iaoe? ia ia?oaineoia ia?aoai?aiiy
a iaoanoaa?eueieo nieaaao” oa oaiith 1.4.4.017/95, (? aea?ae.
?a?no?aoe?? 0196E021694) “Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao eaca?ii? oa
oa?iioeeee?/ii? ia?iaee ia oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?oaineoieo ia?aoai?aiue o
iaoanoaa?eueieo nieaaao” (caoaa?aeaeaii iino. Ath?i A?aeae?eaiiy o?ceee
oa ano?iiii?? IAIO, i?ioieie ?9 a?ae 20.12.94).

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioa i?enay/aia anoaiiaeaiith
caeiiii??iinoae oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?ii-oaciaiai noaio nieaa?a ia iniia?
cae?ca a ??cei ia??aiiaaaeieo oiiaao ?iioeueniiai eaca?iiai iaa??ao oa
ianooiiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe iniiaieie caaaeaiiyie aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe ?:

— aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ?aaeei?a EI ia no?oeoo?iee noai iiiie?enoae?a
-cae?ca;

— aea/aiiy iiaeeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo i?ney EI a
iaeiaoaeaoeaaeo noaeyo;

— aiae?c ii?oieia?? ciie eaca?iiai aieeao (CEA);

— aecia/aiiy ?ie? no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a o iaoai?ci? eaca?iiai ci?oeiaiiy
oaoi?/iiai cae?ca;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o oa ?iciiae?eo caeeoeiaeo iai?oa o aoaeaoeaaeo
noaeyo i?ney EI.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeai?
caeiiii??iino? ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? iiiie?enoae?a -cae?ca aiane?aeie
eaca?iiai iaa??ao c ooai?aiiyi iie?e?enoae?/ii? -oace oa
iiiie?enoae?/ii? -oace c? cia/iith oaenoo?iith iaa?aeiia?aei?noth
?ioaineaiino? aeeo?aeoe?eieo ?aoeaen?a. ?ic?aooieiaei oeyoii iieacaii,
ui i?e??no a?aieoe? ieeiiino? oaoi?/iiai cae?ca aecia/a?oueny
i?aeaeuaiiyi aonoeie aeeneieaoe?e oa iiae??aiaiiyi no?oeoo?e, i?e
oeueiio ia?oee oaeoi? ? a?eueo neeueiei. Anoaiiaeaii aieea aia?aaoe/ieo
ia?aiao??a eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia oi?ioaaiiy oaeeueiai? ii?oieia??
ia ia?iaeai?e iiaa?oi?. Iienaii ?iciiae?e caeeoeiaeo iai?oa a
a?iei-cae?c? oa noaeyo a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia?aiao??a eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy oa e?euee?noth aoaeaoeth a noae?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? a
?iaio?, aeicaieythoue ?icoe?eoe oa aeiiiaieoe ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i
i?e?iaeo no?oeoo?iiai noaio iaeiaoaeaoeaai? noae?, ui noi?ioaaany a
oiiaao oaeaee?niiai eaca?iiai iaa??ao. Aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino?
oi?ioaaiiy caeeoeiaiai aonoai?oo, eaca?iiai ci?oeiaiiy ca ?aooiie
no?oeoo?ieo oaeoi??a, ?iciiae?eo caeeoeiaeo iai?oa iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ia i?aeoeoe? i?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaeo ?ioaineaieo iaoiae?a
iie?ioaiiy eiiieaeno o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae eieaeueieo ae?eyiie
iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a noaeae.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniaenoee aianie aeena?oaioa iieyaa? o
ieaioaaii?, i?aeaioiaoe?, naiino?eiiio aeeiiaii? oa ia?iaoe?
?acoeueoao?a ia?aaaaeii? a?eueoino? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
cie?aia, a aeai?? ?aaeei?a eaca?ii? ia?iaee, a i?iaaaeaii?
?aioaaiia?ao?? iiii- oa iie?e?enoae?a, iaai?oiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
aea/aii? i?e?ino?oeoo?e oa aei??thaaii? caeeoeiaeo iai?oa. Caeiaoaa/
i?eeiaa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue a iaaiai?aii? ?acoeueoao?a, iaienaii?
noaoae oa i?aeaioiaoe? iaoa??ae?a eiioa?aioe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia VI ?a?iiaenuee?e eiioa?aioe?? ii ii?ioeia?e
aeeo?aeoe?? (A?D?N-6, Aoaeaiaoo, Oai?ueia, 1998 ?.) oa ia III
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Photonics Prague’ 99» (I?aaa, *anueea
?anioae?ea, 1999 a.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe iioae?eiaai? a /ioe?ueio ?iaioao.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e c 176
iaca ? i?noeoue 148 noi??iie oaenoo, 44 ?ethno?aoe??, 2 oaaeeoe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, i?iaiae?ciaaii no/aniee noai
i?iaeaie, noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaecia oa
i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue.

Ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? i?enay/aiee iaeyaeo oa aiae?co ?ia?o, o yeeo
iienai? oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino? iaoai?cio oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?e
aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae i?ae /an EI. A iaeyae? aiae?cothoueny caeiiii??iino?
oi?ioaaiiy aonoai?oo oa ia?oaineoo i?ae /an EI, ?icaeyiooa iiaaae?iea
aoaeaoeth a oaa?aeeo ?ic/eiao i?e eaca?iiio ii?ii?iaii?, iaaaaeaii
?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeeeainoae eaca?iiai
iiaa?oiaaiai eaaoaaiiy oa o?ceei-iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae, ye?
aeinyaathoueny i?ney EI.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienaii noaiaea?oi? oa i?ea?iaeuei? iaoiaeeee, ui
canoiniaoaaeenue i?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiue, ?aaeeie eaca?iiai ii?ii?iaiiy.

O ?iaio? aeine?aeaeoaaee iiiie?enoaee oaoi?/iiai (0,01 %C; 0,06 %S?;
0,05 %In) oa e?aiienoiai (2,8 %S?; 0,03 %C; 0,05 %In) -cae?ca,
iie?e?enoae?/i? c?acee a?iei-cae?ca oa aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae.

EI i?iaiaeeee ia oaoiieia?/i?e onoaiiaoe? EAAIO-18I o iia?o?yi?e
aoiinoa?? ?iioeuenaie o?eaae?noth 8 in. Aia?a?th eaca?iiai
aei?ii?ithaaiiy iine?aeiaii ca?eueooaaee a?ae 5 aei 30 Aeae,
caaacia/oth/e ?aaeeie ia?iaee a?ae iaa??ao a -iaeanoue aac iieaaeaiiy
aei ia?aaeieaaeaiiy oa iieaaeaiiy iiaa?oi? c?acea. I?e oeueiio oi?ioaaee
ye ie?ai? ieyie, oae ? aei??aeee oeyoii aca?iiiai ia?ae?eooy ieyi.

?aioaai?anuee? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiiie?enoae?a aeeiioaaee ia c?aceao
ae?aiao?ii 0,50,8 ii. Aonoai?oi? iiiie?enoae?/i? c?acee ae??caee ?c
e?oiiie?enoae?/ieo ceeae?a, iaea?aeaieo iia?eueiei ioieiaeaeaiiyi o ia/?
NA*. Aeei?enoiaoaaee iiiie?enoaee -cae?ca, iaea?aeai? ?ae?enoae?caoe??th
oaoi?/iiai cae?ca aai ae??caee ?o ?c o?ainoi?iaoi?iiai cae?ca.
?aioaaiiceiieo iiiie?enoae?/ieo c?ace?a i?iaiaeeee a eaia?ao iaa?oaiiy
?EA-86I? o aei?ii?ithaaii? cae?ciiai aiiaeo. O ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaee
iecueeioaiia?aoo?io ?aioaaiia?ao?th iiiie?enoae?a.

A yeino? iie?e?enoae?/ieo c?ace?a aeei?enoiaoaaee ieanoeiee ?ici??ii
10o10 ii2 oiaueiith 1,53 ii. ?aioaaiiceiieo iie?e?enoae?a aeeiioaaee ia
aeeo?aeoiiao?? Ae?II-C. Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? aecia/aiiy ia?aiao?o
?aioaaiiceiieo i?iaiaeeee ?c noaiaea?oii.

Aeey aea/aiiy e?eueeino? oaciaeo neeaaeiaeo oa ye?niiai aiae?co oaciaeo
ia?aoai?aiue aeei?enoiaoaaee aeeoa?aioe?eiee iaai?oiiao?e/iee iaoiae,
yeee aaco?oueny ia a?aooaaii? ??cieoe? iaai?oieo aeanoeainoae — oa -oac.
Aeey iaai?oiiao?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaee oeee?iae?e/i?
c?acee ae?aiao?ii 3 ii oa aeiaaeeiith 20 ii. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aioo??oi?o
caeeoeiaeo iai?oa i?iaiaeeee ia aeeo?aeoe?ei?e onoaiiaoe?
?aioaai?anueeei iaoiaeii Sin2. No?oeoo?i? ci?ie iaoaeo a i?eiiaa?oiaaiio
oa?? aiae?coaaee ca aeiiiiiaith ia?oeioth/iai iaoiaeo eiacath/iai
?aioaai?anueeiai io/ea.

Iaoaeia?ao?/iee aiae?c no?oeoo?e i?iaiaeeee ia iioe/ieo i?e?ineiiao
IEI-7 oa IEI-8I i?e ca?eueoaiiyo a?ae 50 aei 800 ?ac.

I?e?ino?oeoo?o aeine?aeaeoaaee ia aeaeo?iiiiio i?e?ineii? Tesla BS-540.
Iioa?ia? aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia i?ina?o i?ney EI
i?iaiaeeee ia oiieeo oieueaao, ye? aoee iaea?aeai? ca aeiiiiiaith
ii?aeiaiiy iaeiinoi?iiiueiai oa aeaionoi?iiiueiai iaoai?/iiai oe?ooaaiiy
oa aeaeo?io?i?/iiai iie??oaaiiy c?ace?a aei iaiao?aeii? oiaueie.

I?e?ioaa?ae?noue aei??thaaee ca aeiiiiiaith i?eeaaeo IIO-C i?e
iaaaioaaeaiiyo 50, 100 oa 200a.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iieno oa iaaiai?aiith ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?ii-oaciaiai noaio iiiie?enoae?a -cae?ca i?ney EI.

?aioaaiia?aie iaa?oaiiy aeo?aeieo iiiie?enoae?a i?noeee ?aoeaene
-cae?ca. EI a ?aaeei? aac iieaaeaiiy ia aiineea nooo?aeo ci?i o
aeeo?aeoe?eio ea?oeio, aea iaa??a o ?aaeei? iieaaeaiiy iiaa?oi?
i?ecaiaeea aei cia/ieo ci?i ia ?aioaaiia?aiao. Oaeaeea ioieiaeaeaiiy
iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o c?acea c ??aeeiai noaio aeeeeeaei ooai?aiiy
iie?e?enoae?/ii? neeaaeiai? IOeE-cae?ca. Ia?aiao? iie?e?enoae?/ii?
neeaaeiai? a?aeiia?aeaa ia?aiao?o aeo?aeiiai iiiie?enoaea.

sse?nio ci?io aeeo?aeoe?eii? ea?oeie niinoa??aaee i?ney ii?ii?iaiiy c
aonoeiith aia?a?? 12 Aeae/ii2. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeiaeaoeiai o?enoaaee
-oaco, a?aeaeaaiiy a?ae yei? iaee aeaeyae iiiie?enoae?/ieo ?aoeaen?a.
Iie?e?enoae?/ii? neeaaeiai? -oace ia niinoa??aaee ai? i?e yeeo ?aaeeiao
EI. O ??cieo aeine?aeao o?enoaaee a?ae aeaio aei /ioe?ueio aa??aio?a
i???ioaoe?? ?ao?oee -oace a?aeiinii aei ?ao?oee aeo?aeiiai iiiie?enoaea.
?ioaineai?noue -?aoeaen?a a?ae ?ao?oie ??cieo i???ioaoe?e ?noioii
a?ae??ciyeany, ? oey ??cieoey neeaaeaea a?ae aeaio aei i’yoe ?ac. Iaaieo
caeiiii??iinoae a e?enoaeia?ao?/i?e i???ioaoe?? ca?ai -oace ii
a?aeiioaiith aei ?ao?oee aeo?aeii? -oace ia niinoa??aaee. Iaeiae ??ci?
i???ioaoe?? -oace aoee aeecuee? i?ae niaith ? a?ae??ciyeeny ia 520°.

Eaca?iee ia?aieaa i?e aenieeo aonoeiao aia?a?? (aeua 20 Aeae/ii2) aaea
ia i?ecaiaeea aei oi?ioaaiiy -oace. Ioaea, -cae?ci niinoa??aaee i?ney EI
a iaaiiio ?ioa?aae? aonoei aia?a?? (1218 Aeae/ii2). Aiaeia?/i?
?acoeueoaoe ii niinoa?aaeaiith -oace iaie aoee iaea?aeai? ? ia
iiiie?enoaeao e?aiaienoiai cae?ca. I?e oeueiio e?euee?noue -oace aoea
aeaui a?eueoith.

I?e aiae?c? aeeo?aeoe?eii? ea?oeie a?ae ?ao?oee -oace caa?oa? ia naaa
oaaao cia/ia oaenoo?ia iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ?ioaineaiino? ?aoeaen?a.
?ioaineai?noue ?aoeaeno (200) i?ney eaca?iiai iieaaeaiiy ??cei c?inoaea
a?aeiinii ?aoeaeno (III). A?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? I(200)/I(111) aeey
iaoaenoo?iaaii? AOeE oace aei??aith? 0,64. O iaoeo aeine?aeao ?c
oaoi?/iei cae?cii aoei aeinyaiooi cia/ii a?eueo aeniea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
?ioaineaiinoae aeacaieo ?aoeaen?a — aei 810 ?ac. O aeayeeo aeiaaeeao i?e
aeineoue aenie?e ?ioaineaiino? ?aoeaeno (200) o?enoaaee o?eueee ne?aee
?aoeaen?a (III), a aeey aeayeeo i???ioaoe?e -oace inoaii? ?aoeaene
acaaae? ia niinoa??aaeeny.

Ia?aiao? e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee -oace, yea aoea cao?eniaaia a oaoi?/iiio
cae?c? i?ney EI, noaiiaea 0,3593 ii, ui ?noioii aeua cia/aiiy,
iaea?aeaiiai oeyoii aeno?aiieyoe?? ia?aiao?a aonoai?oii? ?ao?oee ia
ioeueiao eiioeaio?aoe?th aoii?a ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui
inoaii? cia/aiiy ia?aiao?a aoaea ??ciei i?e aeno?aiieyoe?? ia ioeueiao
eiioeaio?aoe?th aoii?a aoaeaoeth (0,3556 ii) oa acioo (0,3566 ii).
I?aeaeuaia cia/aiiy ia?aiao?a -oace ie iia’yco?ii ?c ?ic/eiaiiyi a
iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? i?e eaca?iiio iieaaeaii? ye aoii?a acioo i?e ooai?aii?
ieacie ?c aoiinoa?iiai iia?o?y, oae ? aoaeaoeth — c oeaiaioeoieo /anoie,
ui i?noeeeny o aeo?aeieo c?aceao.

A?aeiii, ui i?ae /an EI a iaaieo ?aaeeiao ca ?aooiie i?iaith aaco a cii?
ii?ii?iaiiy ooai?th?oueny ieaciiaa oia?a. Aiane?aeie aca?iiae?? ieacie c
iiaa?oiath ?icieaaeaiiai iaoaeo o?i?/iee neeaae iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a iiaea
nooo?ai ci?ithaaoeny. Ne?ae oaeiae a?aooaaoe, ui a iaoiio aeiaaeeo iiaa
?aea i?i aeenia?ni? /anoee -oace c iaeei ia’?iiei ai?noii (0,53 %), ui
?iciiae?eai? a ianea? -cae?ca. ?o aeenia?ni?noue oa aenieee ??aaiue
aioo??oi?o iai?oa iiaea ?noioii ci?ieoe oiiae ?ic/eiaiiy a ieo aoii?a
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. E??i oiai, i?e ?iioeueniiio eaca?iiio iaa??a? iiaea
aeieeaoe ciia aenieiai oeneo (aei ?I6-?I7 Ia), yea oaeiae iieaaoo?
i?ioeane iane/aiiy.

C iaoith aea/aiiy nooiaiy noaa?eueiino? -oace, ui aoea cao?eniaaia a
oaoi?/iiio cae?c? i?ney EI, i?iaaee na??th ?aioaaiiceiiie oaeeo c?ace?a
ye i?ney ioieiaeaeaiiy aei e??iaaiieo oaiia?aoo?, oae ? i?ney iaa??ao
aei aenieeo oaiia?aoo?. ?aioaai?anuee? aeine?aeaeaiiy a
iecueeioaiia?aoo?i?e eaia?? iieacaee, ui i?e oaiia?aoo?? -30N
niinoa??aaee cia/ia ciaioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? ?aoeaen?a -oace, a i?e
oaiia?aoo?? -50°N ?aoeaen?a -oace aaea ia o?enoaaee. Ioaea, oaiia?aoo?a
caaa?oaiiy ia?oaineoiiai —ia?aoai?aiiy aoea ieae/a e?iiaoii?.

Oaeo ?aae?caoe?? —ia?aoai?aiiy i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaany ? i?e aei??thaaii?
iaiaai?/aiino?. Iaiaai?/ai?noue c?ace?a, ye? i?noeee -oaco i?ney EI, i?e
ioieiaeaeaii? iacai?ioiuei ca?eueooaaeanue i?eaeecii a oiio ae
oaiia?aoo?iiio ?ioa?aae?, a yeiio niinoa??aaee ineaaeaiiy oa cieeiaiiy
-?aoeaen?a (?en. 1).

?en. 1. Ci?ia iaiaai?/aiino? I/IO oaoi?/iiai cae?ca i?ae /an
ioieiaeaeaiiy oa ianooiiiai iaa??ao aeo?aeiiai c?acea (1) ? oiai ae
c?acea i?ney EI c iieaaeaiiyi iiaa?oi? (2).

IO — iaiaai?/ai?noue aoaeiiiiai c?acea c a?iei-cae?ca

?aioaaiiceiiee c?ace?a c -oacith i?ney iaa??ao aei a?eueo aenieeo
oaiia?aoo? iieacaee, ui iaa??a aei 400°N ia aeeeeeaa ?noioieo ci?i
aeeo?aeoe?eii? ea?oeie. Iaeiae i?ney aeo?eiee i?e oaiia?aoo?? 550°N
?aoeaen?a -oace aaea ia niinoa??aaee. I?e/eiith ?aae?caoe??
—ia?aoai?aiiy i?ney iaa??ao, eiia??ii, ? ?iciaae -oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio. Ia
ei?enoue oeueiai oaa?aeaeaiiy na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe aeiaeaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue e?enoae?/ii? no?oeoo?e acioenoi? noae?.

C oe??th iaoith aeine?aeaeoaaee o?e nieaae c aeecueeith iaoaeaaith
(Fe-Ni-Cr-Mn) iniiaith. I?e/iio nieaa 1 aoa aacaoaeaoeaaee, nieaa 2 aoa
eaaiaaiee aoaeaoeai (0,2 aaa.%N), a nieaa 3 aoa eaaiaaiee acioii (0,45
aaa.%N). On? o?e nieaae aoee a aonoai?oiiio noai?.

Ia?aiao? e?enoae?/ii? ?ao?oee aonoai?oo a aacaoaeaoeaaiai nieaao 1 ia
ci?ithaaany, a ia?aiao? nieaao 2 ci?ithaaany ii iaiiiioiii?e e?ea?e
i?ney iaa??ao a ?ioa?aae? 2001000°N. Ia?aiao? acioiaaiiai nieaao 3 i?ney
iaa??ao aei 550°N ia ci?ithaaany. Aea i?ney iaa??ao aei 580°N ia?aiao?
nieaao 3 no?eaeiiiae?aii aiaa aei aaee/eie, yea a?aeiia?aeaea ia?aiao?o
aacaoaeaoeaaiai nieaao 1. Oaea iiaaae?iea ia?aiao?a a na?ae/eoue i?i
i?aeoe/ii iiaia aeaaciooaaiiy nieaao 3. ?aioaaiiceiiee i?ney o?i?/iiai
o?aaeaiiy iiaa?oi? nieaao 3 iieacaee, ui ?iciaae acioenoiai -oaa?aeiai
?ic/eio iaa i?noea a i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? oiaueiith 1015 iei.

Oaeei /eiii, i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeathoue ciiao iiynieoe i?e/eio
?aae?caoe?? —ia?aoiaeo i?ney iaa??ao oaoi?/iiai cae?ca c -oacith.
Eiia??ii, ui i?ney eiai iaa??ao aei 550°N ?iciaae -oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio iaa
i?noea i?aeoe/ii o anueiio ia’?i? ca?ai o ca’yceo c ?o aeenia?ni?noth.
E??i oiai, aeniea oaenoo?iaai?noue -oace oaeiae iiaea ?ioaineo?eoaaoe
i?ioean ?iciaaeo oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith aieeao oiia ?iioeuenii? EI
ia i?e?ino?oeoo?o cae?ca oa noaeae. Iaoaeia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieacaee, ui aeniea oaeaee?noue ioieiaeaeaiiy i?ney eaca?iiai iieaaeaiiy
i?ecaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy a?eueo ae??aiiaeenia?nii? no?oeoo?e c
iaaiith caeiiii??i?noth ?iciiae?eo ?ici??o ca?ia ii aeeaei? CEA. O
oeueiio aeiaaeeo a cii? ?icieaao niinoa??aaee o?e oa?e: ia?oee —
aeeaeiith aei 20 iei, oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ae??aiiaeenia?niei ??aiiaaaeiei
ca?iii ?ici??ii 1,53 iei; ae?oaee oa? aeeaeiith aei 100 iei iaa a?eueoa
ca?ii — aei 10 iei; o?ao?e oa?, ui ciaoiaeeany ia a?aieoe?
?icieaa-aeo?aeia iao?eoey, i?noea ia?aaaaeii aeoyaioo? ii in?
oaieia?aeaiaeo ca?ia c ?ici??ii i?eaeecii 20 iei.

O no?oeoo?? eaca?ii? ieyie a ieiuei? ia?iaee a oe?ieiio ?ioa?aae? aonoei
aia?a?? (323,6 Aeae/ii2) niinoa??aaee aea? ciie: ciio ia?aieaao oa
ia?ao?aeio. A?aieoe? cii aoee aeinoaoiuei /?oeeie ? aeia?a o?aaeeeny.

A ?ioa?aae? aonoei aia?a?? a?ae 6 aei 19 Aeae/ii2 a iaaeao iienaieo cii
niinoa??aaee ae?eyieo, ui neeaaeaeanue c oaeeue, ye? aeieeaee ia
iiaa?oi? ?icieaao oa o?enoaaeeny i?e eiai iiaeaeueo?e e?enoae?caoe??.
Iiaa?oiaa? oaee? yaeyee niaith eiioeaio?e/i? caieioo? eiea. Aenioa
a?aaai?a ie?aieo oaeeue neeaaeaea 510 iei. Ia??iae oaeeue iiiioiiii
c?inoaa i?e i?inoaaii? a?ae oeaio?a eaca?ii? ieyie aei ia?eoa???. I?e
ca?eueoaii? aia?a?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy e?euee?noue iiaa?oiaaeo
oaeeue c?inoaea ii iaiiiioiii?e caeaaeiino? (?en. 2). Ia ae?eyieao
eaca?ii? ieyie, aea ooai?thaaeeny iiaa?oiaa? oaee?, iii?oii? ci?ie
i?e?ioaa?aeino? ia niinoa??aaee. Ioaea, iiyaa iienaieo oaeeue ia aoea
iia’ycaia c e?eaaoe?yie o?i?/iiai neeaaeo /e ?ioeie iaiaeii??aeiinoyie
?icieaao, a aecia/aeanue o?eueee iniaeeainoyie ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
oaea?ieo oaeeue o ??aee?e aaii? ?icieaao.

?en. 2. Caeaaei?noue e?eueeino? iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue N a?ae aonoeie
aia?a??

O oa?? ?icieaaeaiiai iaoaeo i?ae /an iaa??ao eiioeaio?iaaieie
aeaea?aeaie aia?a?? ie??i cae/aeieo a?aa?oaoe?eii-eai?ey?ieo oaeeue,
iienaieo E.Ae. Eaiaeao: o=(Ik+k3/)1/2, aea I — aonoeia iiooaeiino?, k —
oaeeueiaee aaeoi?, — eiao?oe??io iiaa?oiaaiai iaoyao, — aonoeia
?icieaao; iiaeooue ?nioaaoe ua ? oa?iieai?ey?i? oaee? — neaaicaoooath/?
iiaa?oiaa? oaee? c caeiiii aeenia?n?? caoeiaiai oeio, iienai? A.A.
Aaaeaiiaei: k(dT/dz)1/2, aea dT — a?aae??io oaiia?aoo?, z — eii?aeeiaoa
e?enoae?caoe??. ?c oiiae ?aciiaino aeaio oei?a oaeeue aeieeaa?, ui
iaeneiaeueia /anoioa oaeeue, ye? iiaeooue ooai?thaaoeny ia iiaa?oi?
?icieaao, aeinoaoiuei aaeeea, ? ?o iiaeia niinoa??aaoe i?e iieaaeaii?
c?acea ?iioeueniei eaca?iei aei?ii?ithaaiiyi i?e?naeoiaeii? o?eaaeino?
(1/I=10-3 n), ui a?aeiia?aea? oiiaai ii?ii?iaiiy a iaoiio aeiaaeeo
(?ii=810-3 n). Ia i?aenoaa? iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie
i?i ?nioaaiiy aeaio a?aie/ieo cia/aiue aonoeie aia?a??, a ?ioa?aae? yeeo
neeaaeathoueny oiiae aeey ooai?aiiy iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue, ui /anoeiai
o?enothoueny i?e ianooii?e e?enoae?caoe?? aaiie ?icieaao.

Aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e a?iei-cae?ca i?ney EI
aeeiioaaee ye a i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? ~5 iei a ieiuei? ia?iaee, oae ? ii
aeeaei? CEA. I?ney ii?ii?iaiiy iiaa?oi? a ?aaeei? aac iieaaeaiiy
ia?ae?enoae?caoe?? aeo?aeii? no?oeoo?e ia niinoa??aaee, i?e oeueiio
aonoeia aeeneieaoe?e a i?eiiaa?oiaaiio oa?? c?inoaea ii??aiyii c
aeo?aeiith (~108 ni-2) ? noaiiaeea 0,91,2109 ni-2.

I?ney EI c iieaaeaiiyi iiaa?oi? niinoa??aaee ia?ae?enoae?caoe?th, ui
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeany nooo?aei iiae??aiaiiyi ca?ia. I?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
iaa??ao a CEA ni?eyei ca?eueoaiith aonoeie aeeneieaoe?e aei 0,81,21010
ni-2 oa iiya? ie?aieo ae?eyiie, ye? ca nai?ie ii?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie
a?aeiia?aeaee iaeaoai aeeneieaoe?eiiai ia?oaineoo. Aioo??oiy no?oeoo?a
ca?ai i?e oeueiio ?aaeei? EI i?noeea cia/ii a?eueoee niaeo? no?oeoo? —
a?ae ia?oaineoii? aei eii??/aoi? c i?aeaeuaiith aonoeiith aeeneieaoe?e
ana?aaeei? eii??ie.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iaoai?/ieo
aeanoeainoae cae?ca oa nieaa?a ia eiai iniia?, ye? iiaeia aeinyaiooe
i?ney EI. Caaaeath/e ia cia/i? iaoiaee/i? o?oaeiiu? aaciina?aaeiuei
aecia/eoe iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ci?oeiaiiai eaca?ii oa?o ia caaaeaee
iiaeeeai. Oiio a oe?e ?iaio? c?iaeaia ni?iaa ?ic?aooieiaei oeyoii
i?iaanoe ioe?ieo a?aieoe? ieeiiino? iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o oaoi?/iiai cae?ca,
aacoth/enue ia aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?i eiai no?oeoo?iee noai.

Aeey iaeiioacii? nenoaie oaoi?/iiai cae?ca a?aieoeth ieeiiino? 0,2
iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o iiaeia i?aaenoaaeoe ye noio a?aieoe? ieeiiino?, ui
caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy aeenia?a?caoe?? no?oeoo?e ?0,2, oa a?aieoe?
ieeiiino?, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae aonoeie aeeneieaoe?e ??0,2.

Aeey ?ic?aooieo a?aieoe? ieeiiino? ?0,2 nei?enoaeenue caeaaei?noth
Oieea-Iao/a. Aeyaeeiny, ui i?e ci?i? ?ici??o ca?ia a?ae 3 aei 20 iei ii
aeeaei? CEA a?aieoey ieeiiino? ci?ithaaeany a?ae 280 aei 210 IIa
a?aeiia?aeii. Oea icia/aei, ui ca ?aooiie iiae??aiaiiy no?oeoo?e
a?aieoey ieeiiino? c?inoaea o 1,5 ?ace o ii??aiyii? c aeo?aeiith.

Aaee/eio aonoeie aeeneieaoe?e ii aeeaei? ii?ii?iaiiai oa?o
?ic?aoiaoaaee, aeoiaey/e c o?ce/iiai ooe?aiiy aeeo?aeoe?eii? e?i??
ca?aeii c caeaaei?noth I.I. E?eaiaeaca. Caeaaei?noue ii aeeaei?
CEA aeine?aeaeoaaee i?e ia?iaoe? a ?aaeeiao c iieaaeaiiyi ? aac
iieaaeaiiy iiaa?oi?. A iaio aeiaaeeao niinoa??aaee iaiiiioiiio ci?io .
Aonoeia aeeneieaoe?e o oeueiio aeiaaeeo aeinyaaea 371010 ni-2, ui
ocaiaeaeoaaeinue ii ii?yaeeo aaee/eie c ?acoeueoaoaie
aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiue. C o?aooaaiiyi ia/eneaii?
aonoeie aeeneieaoe?e io?eiaee ae?oao neeaaeiao a?aieoe? ieeiiino? ??0,2,
ui o 1,52 ?ace ia?aaeuoaaea aeo?aeia cia/aiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, i?ney eaca?iiai iieaaeaiiy noia?ia a?aieoey ieeiiino?
iiaa?oiaaiai oa?o oaoi?/iiai cae?ca iiaea aeinyaaoe 650 IIa, oiaoi
a?eueoa, i?ae o 3 ?ace ia?aaeuoaaea aeo?aeia cia/aiiy.

I?eaaaeai? cia/aiiy 0,2 ? oiiaieie. ?acoeueoaoe a?aeiia?aeieo
?ic?aooie?a iio??aii ?icaeyaeaoe o?eueee ye ni?iao ye?nii ioe?ieoe
caeaoi?noue iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a aei ieeiiino?. Aeniiaie i?i iaiiiioiiio
ci?io oa?aeoa?enoee oaeo/ino? ii aeeaei? iiaea aooe ei?eniee i?e aiae?c?
aenieoaoaoe?eii? no?eeino? noaeueieo aeaoaeae a oiiaao iaoai?/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue c? cia/iith oaiaaioe?aeueiith neeaaeiaith. Cie?aia, oaea
caeiiii??i?noue ci?ie 0,2 iiaea i?eaanoe aei niia?eueiaiiy i?ioeano
ciino i?e iaaiiio nooiai? ae?iaeaiiy aeaoae?.

Caeaaei?noue a?aieoe? ieeiiino? ei?aethaaea c? ci?iith i?e?ioaa?aeino?
ci?oeiaiiai oa?o. O oie aea /an ia oi?ioaaiiy i?e?ioaa?aeino? oa
iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? cae?ca ? noaeae i?ney EI a cia/i?e i???
aieeaathoue aioo??oi? caeeoeia? iai?oae. I?aeoe/iee ?ioa?an i?aaenoaaey?
?iciiae?e caeeoeiaeo iai?oa o iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? aeaoae? ii oe?ei?
eaca?ii? aei??aeee.

Iaoai?ci ooai?aiiy caeeoeiaeo iai?oa i?ney eieaeueiiai oaieiaiai aieeao
aecia/a?oueny: c iaeiiai aieo, iayai?noth caeeoeiaeo ieanoe/ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e a cii? eaca?iiai ii?ii?iaiiy, ui aeeeeeathoue ooai?aiiy
?icoyaoaaeueieo caeeoeiaeo iai?oa, c ?ioiai — no?oeoo?ieie oa oaciaeie
ia?aoai?aiiyie a iaoae?, ui iia’ycai? c ia’?iieie aoaeoaie, ye? iiaeooue
aeeeeeaoe ooai?aiiy noeneoth/eo caeeoeiaeo iai?oa. Aeey ioe?iee nooiaiy
aieeao eiaeii? c eiiiiiaio aoei iaiao?aeii anoaiiaeoe ei?aeyoe?th i?ae
ci?iith caeeoeiaeo iai?oa oa oi?ioaaiiyi ye no?oeoo?ii-oaciaiai noaio,
oae ? iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae cae?ca oa noae?.

Aeey EI cae?ca oa noae? a ?aaeei? aac iieaaeaiiy iiaa?oi? oa?aeoa?ii
oi?ioaaiiy ?icoyaoaaeueieo caeeoeiaeo iai?oa ii an?e oe?ei? eaca?ii?
aei??aeee (?en. 3, a). I?e?ioaa?ae?noue o oeueiio ?aaeei? ia?iaee
c?inoaea iacia/ii.

?en. 3. ?iciiae?e caeeoeiaeo iai?oa cae (1), ci?ia i?e?ioaa?aeino? I (2)
oa o?ce/iiai ooe?aiiy ?aoeaeno (211) (3) ii oe?ei? x eaca?ii? aei??aeee
i?ney EI a?iei-cae?ca aac iieaaeaiiy (a) oa c iieaaeaiiyi (a) iiaa?oi?.
Oo?eoiaeie e?i?yie iicia/ai? iaae? eaca?ii? aei??aeee

Cia/aiiy o?ce/iiai ooe?aiiy ci?ithaaeiny ii e?ea?e c iaeneioiii ii an?e
oe?ei? eaca?ii? aei??aeee, ui aeacoaaei ia ca?eueoaiiy aonoeie
aeeneieaoe?e o i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao.

I?ney EI cae?ca oa noae? a ?aaeei? c iieaaeaiiyi iiaa?oi? a?aeaoaaeeny
?noioi? ci?ie a oa?aeoa?? ?iciiae?eo caeeoeiaeo iai?oa. Ia iiaa?oi?
iieaaeaiiai iaoaeo a oeaio?? eaca?ii? aei??aeee caeeoeia? iai?oae
ci?ithaaee na?e ciae ? noaaaee noeneoth/eie (?en. 3, a). Iaeneiaeuei?
noeneoth/? iai?oae ciaoiaeeeenue naia oai, aea a i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao ia
i?e?ino?oeoo?? niinoa??aaee ianeae ia?oaineoo. Ia a?aieoe? CEA
niinoa??aaee no?eaeiiiae?aio ci?io oa?aeoa?o iai?oa a?ae noeneoth/eo aei
?icoyaoaaeueieo ?c iinooiiaith ?aeaenaoe??th inoaii?o. I?e?ioaa?ae?noue
oa caeaaei?noue o?ce/iiai ooe?aiiy a oeueiio ?aaeei? EI iaee /?oeee
iaeneioi o oeaio?? eaca?ii? aei??aeee.

Oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo caeeoeiaeo iai?oa aeey ??cieo ?aaeei?a ?iioeuenii?
EI caa??aaany ? i?e ii?ii?iaii? na?aaeiuei- ? aenieiaoaeaoeaaeo noaeae,
aea c aeaui iaioeie eieeaaiiyie i?eiaeo cia/aiue iai?oa.

AENIIAEE

1. ?iioeueniee eaca?iee iaa??a iiiie?enoae?a oaoi?/iiai oa e?aiaienoiai
-cae?ca a ?aaeei? iieaaeaiiy aeeeeeaa ?o ia?ae?enoae?caoe?th c
ooai?aiiyi iie?e?enoae?/ii? -oace c ia?aiao?ii IOeE ?ao?oee, yeee
a?aeiia?aeaa aeo?aeiiio, ? iiiie?enoae?/ii? -oace c? ca?eueoaiei
ia?aiao?ii AOeE ?ao?oee.

2. I?e aenieeo oaeaeeinoyo ioieiaeaeaiiy, ui oa?aeoa?i? aeey eaca?iiai
iieaaeaiiy, niinoa??aaeany cia/ia oaenoo?ia iaa?aeiia?aei?noue
?ioaineaiino? aeeo?aeoe?eieo ?aoeaen?a -oace, nooi?iue yei? c?inoaea ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi aonoeie aia?a?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

3. O ca?iao -oace, ui noi?ioaaeany i?ney eaca?iiai iaa??ao, i?io?eaei
—ia?aoai?aiiy ye i?e ioieiaeaeaii? ieae/a e?iiaoii? oaiia?aoo?e, oae ?
i?ney iaa??ao aeua 550°N. I?e/eiith —ia?aoai?aiiy i?e ioieiaeaeaii?
aoea ?aae?caoe?y oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai noeioeo i?e iaci?iiiio o?i?/iiio
neeaae? — ? -oac, a i?ney iaa??ao — ?iciaae -oaa?aeiai ?ic/eio.

4. Oa?aeoa?enoeee ieeiiino? oa i?e?ioaa?aeino? a iiaa?oiaaeo oa?ao
noaeae i?ney EI ci?ithaaeeny ii nei?aeueiaaieo e?eaeo c iaeneioiii,
i?e/iio ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo aoaeaoeth i?eaiaeeei aei ?icieooy aeno?aioio,
a i?aeaeuaiiy aia?a?? eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy — aei eiai ci?uaiiy o
a?e a?eueo aeeaieeo oa??a; aeacai? aeanoeaino? i?oeiino? aecia/aeeny
oaeeie no?oeoo?ieie /eiieeaie, ye aonoeia aeeneieaoe?e oa
aeenia?a?caoe?y no?oeoo?e, c yeeo ia?oee /eiiee aoa a?eueo neeueiei.

5. Aaee/eia oa ciae caeeoeiaeo iai?oa o ieiuei? ia?iaee i?e ?iioeueniiio
ii?ii?iaii? aecia/aeeny ye ia?aiao?aie eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, oae ?
ai?noii aoaeaoeth a noae?: ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo aoaeaoeth aaee/eia
caeeoeiaeo iai?oa ciaiooaaeanue; i?ney EI aac iieaaeaiiy oi?ioaaeeny
ia?aaaaeii ?icoyaoaaeuei? caeeoeia? iai?oae, a i?ney EI c iieaaeaiiyi —
noeneoth/? caeeoeia? iai?oae.

6. Oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo caeeoeiaeo iai?oa i?ney EI a caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo
ei?aethaaa ?c ci?iith i?e?ioaa?aeino? oa o?ce/iiai ooe?aiiy
aeeo?aeoe?eieo ?aoeaen?a -oace.

7. I?e eieae?caoe?? eaca?iiai aieeao, ca?eueoaii? oaeaeeino?
iaa??ao-ioieiaeaeaiiy aaee/eia caeeoeiaeo iai?oa ia iiaa?oi? CEA
c?inoaea, i?e/iio oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?eo caeeoeiaeo iai?oa aoa neiao?e/iei
a?aeiinii oeaio?a ieyie ? caeaaeaa a?ae ?iciiae?eo aia?a?? a eaca?iiio
io/eo.

8. Aeeiiaiiy ?aciiainieo oiia i?e EI ?iioeuenaie i?e?naeoiaeii?
o?eaaeino? i?eaiaeeei aei iano?eeino? iiaa?oi? ?icieaao oa ooai?aiiy
oaeeynoiai ?aeue?oo i?e eiai iiaeaeueo?e e?enoae?caoe??. Anoaiiaeai?
?ioa?aae i?aee?eoe/ieo cia/aiue aonoei aia?a??, a yeiio niinoa??aaeany
cacia/aia iano?ee?noue, ? oa?aeoa? iaiiiioiiii? caeaaeiino? /enea
iiaa?oiaaeo oaeeue i?e ca?eueoaii? aia?a?? aei?ii?ithaaiiy.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o ianooiieo ?iaioao:

1. Aiiaea?ue A.E., Aeaieeue/aiei A.A., Iieue/oe A.A. No?oeoo?iia
ninoiyiea iiiie?enoaeeia aeueoa-aeaeaca iinea eaca?iie ia?aaioee //
Oeceea iaoaeeia e iaoaeeiaaaeaiea. — 1997. — O.84. — ?4. — N. 189-192.

2. Aeaieeue/aiei A.TH., Iieue/oe A.A. Ia?ae?enoae?caoe?y -cae?ca i?ae
aieeaii eaca?ii? ia?iaee // Aeiiia?ae? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe
Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — ?1. — N. 137-140.

3. Aeaieeue/aiei A.A., Iieue/oe A.A. Eaca?iia oi?i/iaiea oaoie/aneiai
aeaeaca // Oeceea iaoaeeia e iaoaeeiaaaeaiea. — 1998. — O.86. — ?4. — N.
124-128.

4. Bondar V.I., Danil’chenko V.E., Pol’chuk B.B. Effect of Laser Heating
on Structural State of Alpha-Iron // 6th European Powder Diffraction
Conference EPDIC-6. — Abstracts. — Budapest (Hungary). — 1998. — P. 85.

Iieue/oe A.A. Aieea ?iioeuenii? eaca?ii? ia?iaee ia no?oeoo?ii-oaciaee
noai i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa??a nieaa?a ia iniia? cae?ca. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.13 — o?ceea iaoae?a.
— ?inoeooo iaoaeio?ceee ?i. A.A. Eo?aethiiaa IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo?iiai noaio
iiii- oa iie?e?enoae?a cae?ca oa nieaa?a ia eiai iniia? a ??cei
ia??aiiaaaeieo oiiaao ?iioeuenii? eaca?ii? ia?iaee. Iieacaii, ui cia/i?
oaeaeeino? iaa??ao-ioieiaeaeaiiy i?e eaca?i?e ia?iaoe? i?ecaiaeyoue aei
iiieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e —ia?aoai?aiiy ? ooai?aiiy -oace. O oeueiio
aeiaaeeo niinoa??aa?oueny ia?ae?enoae?caoe?y iiiie?enoae?a -cae?ca,
aiane?aeie yei? oi?iothoueny iie?e?enoae?/ia neeaaeiaa -cae?ca ?c
ia?aiao?ii IOeE ?ao?oee, yeee a?aeiia?aea? aeo?aeiiio, a i?e iieaaeaii?
o aocueeiio ?ioa?aae? aonoei aia?a?? oaeiae ? iiiie?enoae?/i? iaeano?
-oace ?c ca?eueoaiei ia?aiao?ii AOeE ?ao?oee oa cia/iith oaenoo?ith.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoai?/i? aeanoeaino? ii aeeaei? ciie eaca?iiai aieeao
aecia/athoueny ia?aaaaeii no?oeoo?ieie oaeoi?aie ? ci?iththoueny ii
iaiiiioiiieo e?eaeo c iaeneioiii. Aeyaeaii aieea aia?aaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a
?iioeueniiai eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ia oi?ioaaiiy oaeeynoi?
i?e?iaaiiao??? iiaa?oi?. Iienaii caeaaei?noue oa?aeoa?o caeeoeiaeo
iai?oa a?ae ?aaeei?a eaca?ii? ia?iaee aoaeaoeaaeo noaeae.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eaca?ia ia?iaea, iiiie?enoaee, -cae?ci, no?oeoo?a,
aonoai?o, ia?oaineo.

Polchuk B. Effect of pulse laser treatment on a structural and phase
state of surface layers in iron-based alloys. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 01.04.13 — physics of
metals. — The G.V. Kurdyumov Institute for Metal Physics of the Academy
of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to research of formation a structural state
of iron single crystals and iron-based alloys in nonequilibrum
conditions of pulse laser treatment. It was shown that the result of
significant speeds of heating — cooling at laser treatment is in
downturn of temperature —transformation and formation of -phase. In
this case observed recrystalisation of a-iron single crystals. As a
result, both single-crystal and polycrystalline components of bcc iron
are formed, with the lattice parameter corresponding to the initial
single-crystal; upon laser melting, single-crystal zones of the fcc
phase with an increased lattice parameter and significant texture are
also formed. It was established that the mechanical properties on depth
of a laser influence zone are determined mainly by structural factors
and change on unmonotonous curves with a maximum. It was disclosed the
effect of power parameters of pulse laser radiation on formation of wavy
surface microgeometry. It was described the dependence of residual
stresses character from laser treatment modes in carbon steels.

Key words: laser treatment, single crystals, -iron, structure,
austenite, martensite.

Iieue/oe A.A. Aeeyiea eiioeueniie eaca?iie ia?aaioee ia
no?oeoo?ii-oaciaia ninoiyiea i?eiiaa?oiinoiuo neiaa nieaaia ia iniiaa
aeaeaca. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.13 — oeceea
iaoaeeia. — Einoeooo iaoaeeioeceee ei. A.A. Eo?aethiiaa IAI Oe?aeiu,
Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth oi?ie?iaaiey no?oeoo?iiai
ninoiyiey iiii- e iieee?enoaeeia aeaeaca e nieaaia ia aai iniiaa a ?acei
ia?aaiiaaniuo oneiaeyo eiioeueniie eaca?iie ia?aaioee.

?acaeoea oaoiieiaee eaca?iie ia?aaioee e aa oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea a
i?iiuoeaiiinoe o?aaoao oaeoaeaiiiai eco/aiey caeiiiia?iinoae
oi?ie?iaaiey no?oeoo?ii-oaciaiai ninoiyiey iaoaeeia e nieaaia. A yoie
nayce iniiaiuie caaea/aie aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou yaeyeenue:
enneaaeiaaiea aeeyiey ?aaeeiia eaca?iie ia?aaioee ia no?oeoo?iia
ninoiyiea iiiie?enoaeeia -aeaeaca e aiciiaeiinoe oi?ie?iaaiey
inoaoi/iiai aonoaieoa a iaeioaea?iaeenouo noaeyo, aiaeec ii?oieiaee ciiu
eaca?iiai aicaeaenoaey, ii?aaeaeaiea ?iee no?oeoo?iuo oaeoi?ia a
iaoaiecia eaca?iiai oi?i/iaiey, enneaaeiaaiea oa?aeoa?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey
inoaoi/iuo iai?yaeaiee a oaea?iaeenouo noaeyo iinea eaca?iiai iaeo/aiey.

I?e eaca?iii iieaaeaiee iiiie?enoaeeia oaoie/aneiai e e?aiienoiai
-aeaeaca iaaethaeaee neiaeioth aai ia?ae?enoaeeecaoeeth, a ?acoeueoaoa
eioi?ie oi?ie?iaaeanue iieee?enoaeee/aneay ninoaaeythuay -aeaeaca n
ia?aiao?ii e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoee, niioaaonoaothuei enoiaeiiio, a i?e
iieaaeaiee a oceii eioa?aaea ieioiinoae yia?aee (12-18 Aeae/ii2)
iaaethaeaee oaeaea oi?ie?iaaiea iiiie?enoaeee/aneeo iaeanoae -oacu n
oaaee/aiiui ia?aiao?ii ?aoaoee. I?e/eiie oeenaoeee -oacu e cia/eoaeueiue
ia?aiao? aa e?enoaeee/aneie ?aoaoee (0,3593 ii) iinea eaca?iie ia?aaioee
yaeyaony ianuuaiea -oaa?aeiai ?anoai?a acioii ec aoiinoa?u e oaea?iaeii
ec oeaiaioeoiuo /anoeoe. Ioia/aii cia/eoaeueiia oaenoo?iia
ianiioaaonoaea eioaineaiinoe aeeo?aeoeeiiiuo ?aoeaenia -oacu, noaiaiue
eioi?iai aic?anoaea n oaaee/aieai ieioiinoe yia?aee eaca?iiai eceo/aiey.

Iieacaii, /oi -ia?aoiae a oaoie/aneii -aeaeaca, niaea?aeauai -oaco iinea
eaca?iiai iaeo/aiey, iiaeao ?aaeeciaaoueny eae i?e iineaaeothuai
ioeaaeaeaiee ieaea eiiiaoiie oaiia?aoo?u, oae e iinea iaa?aaa aei
oaiia?aoo? auoa 550N. I?e/eiie -i?aa?auaiey e aai aeaeaeouae neeie i?e
ioeaaeaeaiee yaeyaony ?acieoea naiaiaeiuo yia?aee aonoaieoa e
ia?oaineoa, a iinea iaa?aaa — ?aniaae -oaa?aeiai ?anoai?a.

Auiieiaiea ?aciiainiuo oneiaee i?e eaca?iie ia?aaioea eiioeuenaie
ieeeenaeoiaeiie aeeeoaeueiinoe i?eaiaeeei e iaonoie/eainoe iiaa?oiinoe
?anieaaa e ia?aciaaieth aieienoiai ?aeueaoa i?e e?enoaeeecaoeee.
Onoaiiaeaiu eioa?aae iaaee?eoe/aneeo cia/aiee ieioiinoe yia?aee (6-19
Aeae/ii2), a eioi?ii i?iyaeyeanue iaonoie/eainoue, e oa?aeoa?
iaiiiioiiiiai eciaiaiey /enea iiaa?oiinoiuo aiei n oaaee/aieai yia?aee
eceo/aiey.

N iiiiuueth yeaeo?iiiiiee?ineiie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee iaia?oaeaii, /oi
iinea eiioeueniiai iaeo/aiey a iaeanoe eaca?iiai iyoia oi?ie?oaony
aieueoie niaeo? iee?ino?oeoo? io ia?oaineoiie aei y/aenoie n iiauoaiiie
ieioiinoueth aeeneieaoeee aioo?e y/aae.

Ia iniiaaiee yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo i no?oeoo?iii ninoiyiee
?an/aoiui iooai iieacaii, /oi i?e eaca?iii iieaaeaiee oaoie/aneiai
aeaeaca i?aaeae oaeo/anoe oi?i/iaiiiai neiy oaaee/eaaaony aieaa, /ai a
o?e ?aca, /oi n?aaieii n oi?i/iaieai io oaciaiai iaeeaia eee n
aeaoi?iaoeeiiiui oi?i/iaieai n aunieeie noaiaiyie iaaeaoey. I?e?ino
i?aaeaea oaeo/anoe ii?aaeaeyaony a iniiaiii iiauoaieai ieioiinoe
aeeneieaoeee e eciaeue/aieai no?oeoo?u, i?e/ai ia?aue oaeoi? yaeyaony
aieaa neeueiui. N aeoaeiie ia?aaioaiiiai neiy i?aaeae oaeo/anoe e
iee?ioaa?aeinoue eciaiythony ii iaiiiioiiiui e?eaui n iaeneioiii.

Aaee/eia e ciae inoaoi/iuo iai?yaeaiee a ieineinoe ia?aaioee i?e
eiioeueniii iaeo/aiee ii?aaeaeyeenue eae ia?aiao?aie eaca?iiai
eceo/aiey, oae e niaea?aeaieai oaea?iaea a noaee: n oaaee/aieai
niaea?aeaiey oaea?iaea aaee/eia inoaoi/iuo iai?yaeaiee oiaiueoaeanue;
iinea eaca?iie ia?aaioee aac iieaaeaiey oi?ie?iaaeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii
?anoyaeaathuea inoaoi/iua iai?yaeaiey, a iinea eaca?iie ia?aaioee n
iieaaeaieai — naeeiathuea inoaoi/iua iai?yaeaiey.

Oa?aeoa? ?ani?aaeaeaiey inoaoi/iuo iai?yaeaiee iinea EI a iauai neo/aa
ei??aee?iaae n eciaiaieai iee?ioaa?aeinoe e oece/aneiai ooe?aiey
aeeo?aeoeeiiiuo ?aoeaenia -oacu.

Aeenna?oaoeey eceiaeaia ia 148 no?., niaea?aeeo 44 ?enoiea e 2 oaaeeoeu.
Aeaeeia?aoey — 176.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eaca?iay ia?aaioea, iiiie?enoaeeu, -aeaeaci, no?oeoo?a,
aonoaieo, ia?oaineo.

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