1

OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

O?II?IA Aeuea?ia Aeueaa?o?aia

OAeE 532.5:537.84

AIEEA AEAEO?E*IIAI IIEss IA I?IOeANE CA?ssAeINOAI?AIIss, EIIAAEOe?? OA
OAIEIIA?AIINO A NEAAEII?IA?AeIEO ??AeEIAO

01.02.05 — Iaoai?ea ??aeeie, aaco oa ieacie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieo. o?c.-iao. iaoe, i?io. Oa?aiia ?aai ?aaaiiae/(Oa?e?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? iaoai?ee)

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieo. o?c.-iao. iaoe, i?io. eaoaae?e iaoa??ae?a ?aaeoi?iaoaeoaaiiy
Eoee?i Aieiaeeie? Ieoaeeiae/ (Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a iaoa??ae?a ?aaeoi?iaoaeoaaiiy, i?ioani?);

aeieo. oaoi. iaoe, i?io. Oaeei Oaoyia ?aai?aia

(?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy ?i. A.I?aeai?iiai IAI Oe?a?ie,
i.Oa?e?a,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee);

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo a?ae?iiaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 31 ” na?iiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae64.051.09 a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:

310077, Oa?e?a, iaeaeai Naiaiaee, 4, aoae. 6-48.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «29» eeiiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
??iaeia A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?nio? oe?ea iecea aenieiaoaeoeaieo
i?ioean?a, iniiaith yeeo ? aieea aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia neaaeii?ia?aei?
??aeeie (??aee? na?aaeiaeua c ieoiiith aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noth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 Ni/ni).
Ae?aeaeo?e/i? ??aeeie ciaeoee oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a nenoaiao i???ioaoe??
oa noaa?e?caoe?? eini?/ieo aia?ao?a, a i?eai?ao aaoiiaoeee, aaeaioeaii?
iioeee oa a oaoi?/ieo i?eno?iyo (a aaia?aoi?ao, ianinao, naia?aoi?ao oa
oaieiiai?iieeao), ye? aacothoueny ia aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo (AAAe)
aoaeoao. Oea iaaeaei i?aenoaae aeey iiyae iaoeiaeo oai??e, ye?
iienothoue AAAe-yaeua. Iaea?eueo caaaeueiei aei iiaeaethaaiiy
AAAe-i?ioean?a ? i?aeo?ae, yeee aaco?oueny ia i?eiouaii? i?i eieaeueio
ia??aiiaaaei?noue i?ioean?a aeenioe?aoe?y-?aeiia?iaoe?y, ui i?eaiaeeoue
aei iaiao?aeiino? aeeth/aiiy aei AAAe-??aiyiue /eai?a, iia’ycaieo c
o?i?/iith e?iaoeeith. Oeae i?aeo?ae aeicaieea oai?aoe/ii iienaoe
aeae?eueea aenia?eiaioaeueieo AAAe-yaeu, e??i i?ioean?a
oieii?ioiaeaeaiiy a ?ic/eiao c aeinoaoiuei aenieith eiioeaio?aoe??th
aeii?oee, eiee a ??aeei? iiaeooue ooai?thaaoeny ?iii? eiiieaene.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy AAAe-eiiaaeoe?? oa oaieiiai?io o neaaeiiaiaeii??aeieo
iieyo iaaoaathoue aeooaeueiino? c oi/ee ci?o aeyaeaiiy ?aeeiiai
iaoai?cio ?iiinoai?aiiy. Oaeei iaoai?ciii a neeueieo aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo ?
?iaeaeoe?y ?ii?a c iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iae?a. Aeey ia?aa??ee ?nioaaiiy
e?i?eiiai caeiio ?iaeaeoe?? iaiao?aeii i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue
aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?? a ??cieo ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ??aeeiao i?e ?iaeaeoe?ei?e
i?ia?aeiino?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoe?? ?
anoaiiaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oa/?e oa
oaieiia?aiino a aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo ia iniia? oaeineiiaeaii? oai???
i?ioean?a aeaeo?ecaoe?? oa ca?yaeinoai?aiiy a neaaeii?ia?aeieo
na?aaeiaeuao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

1. Iaea?aeaii iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oai??? aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?eii?
i?ia?aeiino? ??aeeeo ae?aeaeo?ee?a ia iniia? a?eueo iiaiiai a?aooaaiiy
i?ioean?a i?ae?iiii? aca?iiae??. Io?eiaia iaaeeaeaia oi?ioea caeaaeiino?
eiinoaioe aeenioe?aoe?? o??eiee?a a?ae iai?oae aeaeo?e/iiai iiey.

2. I?iaaaeaii aiae?oe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae
oi?ioaaiiy ca?yaeo a i?eaeaeo?iaeieo iaeanoyo c o?aooaaiiyi
eiiieaeninoai?aiiy.

3. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iiey oaeaeeinoae oa iiey
oaiia?aoo? i?e aaeeeeo /eneao I?aiaeoey. Aea/aii aieea aeaeo?e/iiai iiey
oa o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a ??aeeie ia oaeaeeino? AAAe-oa/?e oa
i?ioeane oaieiia?aiino a neaaeiiaiaeii??aeieo iieyo. Io?eiaii
caaeia?eueiee e?euee?niee ca?a ?ic?aooieiaeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeaieo aeey iecee ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ??aeei, ui ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi
i?eiouaiiy i?i e?i?eiee caeii ?iaeaeoe?? a neeueieo aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo.

4. Io?eiaii ?ica’ycie nenoaie AAAe-??aiyiue i?e ?iaeaeoe?ei?e
i?ia?aeiino? ??aeeie, eio?a oa/a o eaiae?, yeee caoaeo?oueny.
Aeine?aeaeai? iniaeeaino? oaieiiai?io a i?eiaaeiaiio oa?? i?e
?iaeaeoe?eiiio oa aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?eiiio iaoai?ciao i?ia?aeiino?
??aeeie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue a iaaeao aeine?aeaeaiue, ui i?iaiaeeeenue ia
eaoaae?? oai?aoe/ii? iaoai?ee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo c
ianooiieo oai:

1. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy iaoai?ei-o?ce/ieo aca?iiae?e ??aeeiieo
na?aaeiaeu c aeaeo?iiaai?oiei iieai (iiia? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe??
0197U009316).

2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ? oaieio?ce/ieo i?ioean?a a
na?aaeiaeuao, ye? iaiaai?/othoueny (iiia? aea?ae. ?a?no?aoe?? 019412835,
ieai IAe? ia 1994-1996 ?.?.).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieacaii, ui aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?eia
iiaeaeue i?ia?aeiino? ??aeeeo ae?aeaeo?ee?a aeicaiey? iienaoe ia eeoa ia
ye?niiio, aea e ia e?euee?niiio ??ai? caeiiii??iino?
aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oa/?e oa oaieiia?aiino, ye? niinoa??aathoueny
ia i?aeoeoe? a ??cieo ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ??aeeiao. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeicaieythoue aeeaoa i?iieeiooe a ?icoi?iiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a,
ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a neaaeii?ia?aeieo ??aeeiao a aeaeo?e/iiio iie?, ui
iaaea? aeiaeaoeia? iiaeeeaino? aeey ?ic?iaee iiaeo iai?yie?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo
AAAe-oa/?e oa oaieiia?aiino aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe aeinoaoiuei oi/io
?aeaioeo?eaoe?th ?ic?aooieiaeo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ui iiaea
aooe iieeaaeaii a iniiao iiaeaethaaiiy nenoai oi?aae?iiy iiaaae?ieith
neaaeii?ia?aeii? ??aeeie, a oaeiae iiaea aooe aeei?enoiaoaaia i?e
oaeineiiaeaii? ??cieo oaoi?/ieo iaoai?ci?a, ye? aacothoueny ia
canoinoaaii? aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo aoaeo?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iaoa??aee e ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e
oai?aoe/ii? iaoai?ee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo, ia
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ”No/ani? i?iaeaie aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?ee oa
aeaeo?io?ceee ??aeeeo ae?aeaeo?ee?a” (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1994), ia
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “*enaeuei? iaoiaee o a?ae?aae?oe? oa
a?ae?iaeeiai?oe?” (Aeiiaoeuee, 1994), ia 14-?e I?aeia?iaei?e
eiioa?aioe?? c iaai?oii? a?ae?iaeeiai?ee (TH?iaea, 1995), ia 5-?e
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c iaoai?ee ??aeeie (?aeiao, 1995), ia
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iiaeaethaaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy no?eeino?
nenoai” (Ee?a, 1997), ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Dynamical systems
modeling and stability investigations” (Ee?a, 1999).

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Ocaaaeueiaiiy iiaeae? aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aeiino?
neaaeii?ia?aeieo na?aaeiaeu c o?aooaaiiyi ooai?aiiy eiiieaenieo ?ii?a.

2. Oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy ca?yaeo a
ia??aiiaaaeieo i?eaeaeo?iaeieo oa?ao.

3. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?i aieea aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia a?ae?iaeeiai?/i?
oa?aeoa?enoeee neaaeii?ia?aeii? ??aeeie a neaaeiiaiaeii??aeiiio iie?.

4. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?eiiai
oaieiia?aiino.

5. ?ica’ycie caaea/? i?i oaieiiai?i a i?eiaaeiaiio oa?? neaaeii?ia?aeii?
??aeeie i?e ?iaeaeoe?ei?e ? aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?ei?e i?ia?aeiino?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A ?iaio? [1], iaienaii? a ni?aaaoi?noa?,
aaoi?ia? aeena?oaoe?? iaeaaeeoue i?iaaaeaiiy on?o ?ic?aooie?a, ia?iaea
?acoeueoao?a oa ?o ocaaaeueiaiiy.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a i’yoe noaooyo oa a
i’yoe ca??ieeao oac eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio aeaa, aeniiae?a oa nieneo e?oa?aoo?e c 93 iaca. Aiia i?noeoue
156 noi??iie, 32 ?enoiea oa 10 oaaeeoeue.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooii?e /anoei? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaia eiai iaoa ? caaaeaiiy,
ye? i?aeeyaathoue ianoaaeaiith oa ae??oaiith; oaeiae iaaaaeai?
a?aeiiino? uiaei iaoeiai? iiaecie oa i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a. Ie?aneai? iniiai? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe, ye?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?noeoue o nia? noeneee iaeyae ?ia?o, i?enay/aieo
aenia?eiaioaeueiiio ? oai?aoe/iiio aeine?aeaeaiith iiaaae?iee ??aeeeo
neaaeii?ia?aeieo na?aaeiaeu o aeaeo?e/iiio iie?. Oaeiae i?eaiaeeoueny
iniiaia nenoaia AAAe-??aiyiue, iai??eiaothoueny ??ci? oeie a?aie/ieo
oiia ? aii??e/ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue, ye? caieeathoue nenoaio. Ia i?aenoaa?
aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o aecia/a?oueny iecea yaeu, ye?
oa?aeoa?i? aeey aeaiiai eeano ??aeei ? iino?eii niinoa??aathoueny a
aenia?eiaioao. Nthaee iiaeia a?aeianoe ? oei aieueoaiia?ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, ? oi?ioaaiiy cii ia’?iiiai ca?yaeo iiaeeco aeaeo?iae?a
(oiaueie eio?eo ia aeae?eueea ii?yaee?a ia?aaeuothoue oiaueio
iiaea?eiiai aeaeo?e/iiai oa?o), ? ?oo neaaeii?ia?aeii? ??aeeie i?ae
aieeaii eoeiiiai? neee (aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?y), a oaeiae aoaeoe iineeaiiy
oaieiia?aiino c? ca?eueoaiiyi iai?oae.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ?niothoue o?e a?oie oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae, ye?
aeathoue o?ce/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a
neaaeii?ia?aeieo na?aaeiaeuao. Iaea?eueo iioe?aiee i?aeo?ae aaco?oueny
ia i?eiouaii? i?i eaac?aeaeo?iiaeo?aeuei?noue ia’?io ??aeeie, ui
i?eaiaeeoue aei oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae c ii?/iith i?ia?aei?noth. A iniiao
ae?oai? a?oie oai??e iieeaaeaia a?iioaca i?i nooo?ao ?ieue a i?ioean?
?icaeoeo aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oa/?e aeiaeaoeiai? aeenioe?aoe??
iieaeoe a iaeanoyo eieae?caoe?? iiey. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeaye?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? yaeua ia i?aeaeathoueny oai?aoe/iiio o?aeooaaiith c
iiceoe?e aeuacaaaeaieo iiaeaeae. Oeae oaeo noaa i?e/eiith iiyae ye?nii
?ioiai i?aeoiaeo aei iienoaaiiy aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo yaeu, iniiaith
yeiai ? i?eiouaiiy i?i eieaeueio ia??aiiaaaei?noue i?ioean?a
aeenioe?aoe?y-?aeiia?iaoe?y.

Ie?aneai? iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ca’ycai? c iaoaiaoe/iei
iiaeaethaaiiyi iiaaae?iee neaaeii?ia?aeii? ??aeeie a aeaeo?e/iiio iie?.
Oae, cie?aia, aeey c’ynoaaiiy caaaeueiino? iaoai?cio ?icaeoeo
aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?? o neaaei- oa neeueiiiaiaeii??aeieo iieyo iaiao?aeii
i?iaaaeaiiy /enaeueiiai aenia?eiaioo ia aac? aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?eii?
iiaeae? i?ia?aeiino?. E??i oiai, caeeoaeinue a?aee?eoei ieoaiiy noiniaii
aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae oaieiia?aiino a neaaeii?ia?aeieo
na?aaeiaeuao c iiceoe?e iaii?/ii? iiaeae? i?ia?aeiino?. Oaeiae, c
oai?aoe/ii? oi/ee ci?o, aeeeeea? ?ioa?an ?icaeyaeaiiy aieeao noai?aiiy
eiiieaenieo ?ii?a ia i?ioeane i?ioiaeaeaiiy no?oio a ??aeeeo
ae?aeaeo?eeao.

Ie??i aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e a ia?oiio ?icae?e? iaaiaeeoueny iniiaia nenoaia
??aiyiue aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?? oa oaieiiai?io a neaaeii?ia?aeieo
ianoeneoaaieo ??aeeiao. Aiia caieno?oueny o aeaeyae?

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picscalex100010009000003d60100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400
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picscalex1000100090000039d0100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400
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7720526f6d616e2043797200cca0040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a
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2d0008000000320a8001b50e010000003d0008000000320a8001da08010000002d000800
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0000000000000000000000000000

picscalex1000100090000039d0100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400
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picscalex101010009000003450100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400
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picscalex96010009000003bd02000002001700000000000500000009020000000004000
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000000000000000000000000000.

Aea ?iaeaene iicia/athoue ianooii? ?iii? oa iaeo?aeuei? eiiiiiaioe
na?aaeiaeua: A+ (j=1), B- (j=2), A+B-A+ (j=3), B-A+B- (j=4), Y+ (j=5),
X- (j=6), A (j=7), B (j=8), X (j=9), Y (j=10), A+B- (N), a ( )
eiao?oe??ioe ?aeiia?iaoe??, k( ) eiinoaioe oaeaeeino? aeenioe?aoe??.

I?ney iai??eiaoaaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiue, ye? caieeathoue nenoaio
AAAe-??aiyiue, i?eaiaeeoueny iaaeeaeaiee aea?ae caeaaeiino? eiinoaioe
??aiiaaae anioe?aoe?? Ea a?ae aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, eiee Ea ciaoiaeeoueny
oeyoii /enaeueiiai ?ioaa?oaaiiy ianooiiiai ae?aco:

picscalex101010009000003f40200000400170000000000050000000902000000000400
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0000000109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
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2d0101000500000014025e011c0a0500000013025e01b30b0500000014025e016b100500
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6f6c0002040000002d01020008000000320a8a03c80701000000f20008000000320a8a03
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6f6c0002040000002d01030004000000f001020008000000320afa009c11010000002d00
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0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001030008000000320a0003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5d05010000004e0008000000320a00033c00010000004b0017000000fb0260ff00000000
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000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7e
040000002d01020004000000f001030009000000320a000360130300000073696e000900
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fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20
43797200cc7e040000002d01030004000000f001020008000000320aa304c00e01000000
300008000000320a54029f0c01000000320017000000fb0260ff00000000000090010000
00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc7e040000002d010200
04000000f001030008000000320a32011d1101000000300008000000320a3201050b0100
000030000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02140009000000
0000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01030004000000f0010200
030000000000000000000000000000000000,

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oaiia?aoo?a, a a?aenoaiue i?ae ?iiaie a ?iii?e ia??, R a?aenoaiue i?ae
?iiaie, i?e aeinyaiaii? yei? aiie noai?ththoue eiiieaeniee ?ii. Ia
i?aenoaa? /enaeueiiai aiae?co iaea?aeaii? oi?ioee ? ii??aiyiiy
?acoeueoao?a c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui aiia ia?
i?noea o?eueee o neaaeeo aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo.

Aeey ciaoiaeaeaiiy oi?ioee aeey Ea, yea iaea a i?noea ye a neaaeeo, oae
? a neeueieo aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo aoei aeiaeaoeiai ?icaeyiooi i?ioean
aeenioe?aoe?? o??eieea a aeaeo?e/iiio iie?. Io?eiaia oi?ioea aeey Ea
(picscalex97010009000003cd0100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400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, E0(0) – eiinoaioa
??aiiaaae aeenioe?aoe?? ca a?aenooiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey), yea
aeiaiaeeoue ciaioaiiy oe??? ooieoe?? c? ca?eueoaiiyi iai?oaeaiino?
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, a a iaeano? neaaeiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey i?yioaaiiy aei
aeayeiai iino?eiiai (iacaeaaeiiai a?ae iai?oaeaiino? iiey) cia/aiiy, ui
ca?aa?oueny c aeaieie aenia?eiaio?a.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny caaaeaiiy, iia’ycai? c i?io?eaiiyi
no?oio a ieineiia?aeaeueiiio eiiaeainaoi?? (IIE). I?iaaaeaii aiae?c
iniiaii? nenoaie ??aiyiue. Iieacaii, ui a ??aiyiiyo aeey eiioeaio?aoe?e
?ii?a c’yaey?oueny iaeee ia?aiao? i?e aeeooc?eieo /eaiao, ui aea? ciiao
ca aeiiiiiaith aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo aneiioioe/iiai ?icaeiaiiy ni?inoeoe
aeo?aeio nenoaio ??aiyiue.

Aeey aieiaiiai /eaio ?aaoey?ii? aneiioioeee iaea?aeaii nenoaio
??aiyiue, aiaeia?/io aeo?aei?e i?e oiiaao iaoooaaiiy aeeooc?eieie
/eaiaie, ui ia? i?noea aeey on?o iai?oa U>>kbT/e, aea a ca?yae
aeaeo?iia. Oey nenoaia ??aiyiue aeiiiaith?oueny a?aie/ieie oiiaaie, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny ye a?aieoey i?e iaeeo cia/aiiyo ia?aiao?o =kbT/eE0d0
?ica’yceo iiaii? nenoaie ??aiyiue a aeaeo?iaeeooc?eieo oa?ao ia
aeaeo?iaeao. Oae, aeey eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ii?a (n), ui ?iaeaeoothoueny
ca?aeii c e?i?eiei caeiiii ?iaeaeoe??, a?aie/ia oiiaa i?eeia? aeaeyae:
n=Ec, aea c eiao?oe??io ?iaeaeoe??.

?icaeyaeathoueny i?ioeane i?io?eaiiy no?oio a IIE i?e te t tm, aea
te=/4eN0b 1c oa?aeoa?iee /an ae?aeoo ?ii?a o aeaeo?e/iiio iie? (
ae?aeaeo?e/ia i?iieei?noue, N0 eiioeaio?aoe?y aeii?oee a ??aiiaac?, b
oa?aeoa?ia ?ooii?noue ?ii?a); tm=mintd1=(kd)-1 104 c, td2=(k1)-1103 c,
aea td1 oa?aeoa?iee /an aeenioe?aoe?? iieaeoee aeii?oee, td2
oa?aeoa?iee /an aeenioe?aoe?? eiiieaenieo ?ii?a (kd, k1 eiinoaioe
aeenioe?aoe??).

I?e aeeiiaii? oe??? oiiae a ??aeei? oi?io?oueny eaac?noaoe?iia?iee
?aaeei i?ia?aeiino?, eiee eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ii?a ia caeaaeaoue a?ae /ano,
a eiioeaio?aoe?y iieaeoe aeii?oee iino?eia. Aeey oeueiai ?aaeeio
i?iaaaeaii aiae?oe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie AAAe-??aiyiue a iaeano?
neaaeeo oa neeueieo aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a. O neaaeeo aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo a?ey
aeaeo?iae?a oi?iothoueny ia??aiiaaaei? iaeano?, a yeeo ii?ooo?oueny
eieaeueia ??aiiaaaa ?aaeoe?e aeenioe?aoe?y-?aeiia?iaoe?y, ? c’yaey?oueny
ia’?iiee ca?yae. O oeeo oa?ao noi?ioeueiaaia nenoaia AAAe ??aiyiue
o?ainoi?io?oueny a nenoaio c aeaiia iaeeie ia?aiao?aie, aiae?oe/iee
?ica’ycie eio?i? aeicaieea iienaoe aeaye? caeiiii??iino? i?ioean?a
ca?yaeinoai?aiiy.

Iieacaii, ui a caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ia?aiao?ii
?iaeaeoe?? ? ia?aiao?aie, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue ??aaiue
eiiieaeninoai?aiiy, a ia??aiiaaaeiiio oa?? oi?io?oueny aai aaoa?ica?yae,
aai aiiica?yae. O aeiaaeeo, eiee ??aaiue ?iaeaeoe?? caaeiaieueiy?
aeayeiio iaiaaeaiith, a ia??aiiaaaeiiio oa?? ooai?th?oueny a?iiey?iee
?iciiae?e ca?yaeo c aaoa?ica?yaeii iiaeeco aeaeo?iae?a. sse iane?aeie
oeueiai, ia e?ea?e caeaaeiino? iai?oaeaiino? A a?ae eii?aeeiaoe ?nio?
iaeneioi. I?e oeueiio, i?e ca?eueoaii? ??aiy eiiieaeninoai?aiiy oa c
?inoii ?ooiiino? eiiieaenieo ?ii?a oi/ea iaeneioio ia?ai?ua?oueny a?ae
iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iaea. I?e iineeaii? ?iaeaeoe?? oa ?ooiiino? ?iaeaeoe?eieo
?ii?a iaeneioi ?ooa?oueny a iai?yieo aeaeo?iaea.

I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a c aeaieie aenia?eiaio?a.
A?aeiii, ui ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? aeii?oee i?eaiaeeoue aei
caoeoaiiy aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe??. O ?aieao i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui oeae i?ioean coiiaeaii aieeaii ianooiieo oaeoi??a:
noai?aiiyi a?eueo aocueeeo, i?ae ca a?aenooiino? eiieaeninoai?aiiy,
ia??aiiaaaeieo cii, u?euei?noue ia’?iiiai ca?yaeo a eio?eo ciaioo?oueny,
oa oi?ioaaiiyi a oeeo ciiao aai aaoa?ica?yaeo, aai a?iiey?iiai
?iciiae?eo ca?yaeo (c aaoa?ica?yaeii iiaeeco aeaeo?iaea), ui
ia?aoeiaeaea? oee?eoeyoe?? ??aeeie.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aeacai? iniaeeaino? a?aeiia?aeathoue
aenia?eiaioaeueiei ?acoeueoaoai (Noeoeia TH.E., Inoaiaiei A.A.
“Yeaeo?iaeae?iaeeiaie/aneea oa/aiey a aeeaeeeo aeeyeaeo?eeao”.-
E.:Ecae.EAO, 1989) , aea anoaiiaeaii, ui a 15%-io ?ic/ei? aooeeiaiai
nie?oo a o?ainoi?iaoi?iiio iane? a i?eeaoiaei?e cii? o?eno?oueny
aiaeia?/iee a?iiey?iee ?iciiae?e ca?yaeo c aaoa?ica?yaeii iiaeeco
eaoiaeo, a a 10%-io ?ic/ei? a ia??aiiaaaei?e cii? niinoa??aa?oueny
a?iiey?iee ?iciiae?e c iiceoeaieie ?iiaie iiaeeco eaoiaeo. Ine?eueee o
?aieao i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui oiiaith
?nioaaiiy a?iiey?iiai ?iciiae?eo ca?yaeo i?e aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeo
eiioeaio?aoe?yo aeii?oee ? iaiaaeaiiy ia ia?aiao? ?iaeaeoe??, oi
ciaeaeaia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iiaea neoaeeoe iniiaith aeey ioe?iee aai
eiinoaioe ?iaeaeoe?eii? ?aaeoe??, aai eiinoaio ??aiiaaae ?aaeoe?e
eiiieaeninoai?aiiy.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?oe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?io?eaiiy no?oio a IIE a neeueieo
aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo. Noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui a?aooaaiiy noai?aiiy eiiieaenieo
?ii?a a ye?niiio ieai? aeyaey?oueny o?eueee i?e i?eiouaii? i?i
ne?i/aii?noue oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe?? ?oc?yaeee, iane?aeeii eio?iai ? ??ceee
no?eaie u?eueiino? aaoa?ica?yaeo ia aeaeo?iaeao. I?e oeueiio ia’?iia
u?euei?noue ca?yaeo i?iii?oe?eia N03/2 (ca a?aenooiino?
eiiieaeninoai?aiiy N01/2). Oaeiae a?aei?/a?oueny ci?ia ciaeo ca?yaeo ia
aiiae? i?e a?eueoeo (i?ae ca a?aenooiino? anioe?aoe?? ?ii?a) cia/aiiyo
iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey (e?eoe/ia cia/aiiy iai?oaeaiino? E
aei??aith?
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,

aea eiao?oe??io ?iaeaeoe??, n(0) eiioeaio?aoe?y ?ii?a ia iiaa?oi?
aiiaeo, b1,b2 ?ooiiino? iiceoeaieo oa iaaaoeaieo ?ii?a).

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaiaeyoueny ?acoeueoaoe /enaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
AAAe-eiiaaeoe?? a nenoai? aeaeo?iae?a: ae??o iaae ieanoeiith.
?icaeyaea?oueny aeiaaeie aeinoaoiuei iecueei? eiioeaio?aoe??
aeaeo?iii-aeoeaioi?ii? aeii?oee i?e oiiaao iaoooaaiiy
eiiieaeninoai?aiiyi oa aiiaeiith ?iaeaeoe??th iiceoeaieo ?ii?a. Oaea
neooaoe?y ia? i?noea, iai?eeeaae, o ?ic/eiao eiaeo a o?ainoi?iaoi?iiio
iane? oa o ?ic/eiao ?ciieoaio c ??cieie aeii?oeaie, a naia: aooeeiaee
nie?o, oao?aa?iiaoeeai, -eaeoeei. Oe? ??aeeie ? oeiiaeie i?eeeaaeaie
o?ueio-?iiieo nenoai, ye? o neeueieo aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo ia?aoiaeyoue a
iaeii?iii?. I?eionea?oueny, ui aaia?aoe?y ?ii?a i?ia?aeiino?
cae?enith?oueny ca?aeii c ianooiieie ?aaeoe?yie:
aeenioe?aoe??-?aeiia?iaoe?? ?iiii? ia?e (iieaeoee aeii?oee):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;
eaoiaeii? ?iaeaeoe?? iaaaoeaieo ?ii?a: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. Oaeiae i?eionea?oueny, ui ?iaeaeoe?ei? (X-) oa
iiceoeai? (A+) ?iie aca?iiae?thoue i?ae niaith ca
ieeneaii-a?aeiiaethaaiei iaoai?ciii ca?aeii c ianooiiith ?aaeoe??th: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 (1, p eiao?oe??ioe ?aeiia?iaoe??, ye? aecia/athoueny
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi Eaiaeaaaia, a naia:
picscalex1000100090000038d0100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02e003e00d1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffbdffffffa00d00009d0300000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000c00009000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
0002b70205000000130200020d0517000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0402
001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc83040000002d01010008000000
320a60022c0d01000000290008000000320a6002480501000000280008000000320a6d01
c90201000000340010000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000020002001053796d62
6f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320ac002610c010000002d00
08000000320ac002010b010000002d0008000000320ac0020508010000002b0008000000
320ac002a206010000002b0010000000fb0280fe00000000000090010000000200020010
53796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a600215090100
00002b0008000000320a60028601010000003d0017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001
010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc83040000002d01
020004000000f001010008000000320a6002a10b01000000620008000000320a6002470a
010000007a0008000000320a6002450701000000620008000000320a6002e80501000000
7a0008000000320a6d014f0401000000650010000000fb0280fe00000000000090010100
00020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a
8d03700301000000650008000000320a6d017c0301000000700008000000320a60021a00
0100000061000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0214000900
00000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f001
010003000000000000ff00ffffff00000000).

*enaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeinue aeey aeaio ?aaeei?a
i?ia?aeiino? ??aeeie: oi?iiey?ii? ?iaeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aeiino? (c e?i?eiei
caeiiii ?iaeaeoe??) oa aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aeiino?. I?ney
ia?aoiaeo aei aac?ici??ieo ci?iieo o nenoai? AAAe-??aiyiue, ye?
iienothoue aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?th neaaeii?ia?aeii? ??aeeie, c’yaeythoueny
oae? aac?ici??i? ia?aiao?e: RE=b2U/, c=4ecd0/, Sc=c/(n0b2d0), d=de/d0,
1=b1/b2, 3=b3/b2, aea b1,b2,b3 ?ooiiino? ?ii?a A+, B-, X-, d0
i?aeaeaeo?iaeia a?aenoaiue, de ae?aiao? aeaeo?iaeo, U iai?oaa
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, n0 oa?aeoa?ia ia’?iia u?euei?noue ?ii?a o ??aiiaac?,
e?iaiaoe/ia a’yce?noue. Ia?aiao?e RE, c, Sc, 1, 3 oa?aeoa?ecothoue
a?aeiia?aeii, ??aaiue iai?oae, yea iiaea?oueny ia aeaeo?iaee, ??aaiue
?iaeaeoe?? oa aeii?oeiai? i?ia?aeiino?, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ?ooiiinoyie
?iaeaeoe?eieo oa aeii?oeiaeo ?ii?a.

O?ce/i? eiinoaioe i?eeiaeenue ??aieie ia?aiao?ai iaea?eueo /anoi
aaeeaaii? a aenia?eiaioao neaaeii?ia?aeii? ??aeeie ?ic/eio eiaeo a
o?ainoi?iaoi?iiio iane?. I?e cia/aiiyo =1 a/ni3, = 0.2 I, b=10-4 ni2 /A
n, d0=1.5 ni, =2 10–14 Ni/ni iaea?aeaii, ui ia?aiao?e RE, c, Sc
ci?iththoueny o a?aieoeyo: 0 < RE 10, 0 < c 10, 0 < Sc 2. Ine?eueee iiaeeco oeee?iae?e/iiai eaoiaeo a?aae??ioe on?o ooieoe?e ? aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeie, iioeiaeueia oi/i?noue ?ic?aooie?a aoea aeinyaiooa ca oiiae cai?iaaaeaeaiiy niaoe?aeueii? “a?a?eaeii?” n?oee, eiee iiaeeco oeee?iae?e/ii? iiaa?oi? aeei?enoiaoaaeanue iiey?ia nenoaia eii?aeeiao, a a ?aoo? iaeano? canoiniaoaaeanue aeaea?oiaa nenoaia eii?aeeiao c aaoiiaoe/iei aeai?ii a?aenoai?. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co /enaeueieo aeaieo o aeiaaeeo ?iaeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aeiino? a?aei?/a?oueny, ui ??no /enea RE ia ci?ith? iaeiiaeo?iaiai oa?aeoa?o oa/??, yea i?yio? a?ae aeaeo?iaeo (?en.1). I?e oeueiio ?iciiae?e oaeaeeinoae a?aeiia?aea? ?aaeeio ?icaeiooi? AAAe-oa/??, eiee ?ici??e iaeano? eieae?caoe?? oa/?? aei??aiththoue i?aeaeaeo?iaei?e a?aenoai?. E?eaa caeaaeiino? oaeaeeino? a?ae iai?oae ai?ieneio?oueny ae?eueieoeath e?i?eiiai ?inoo oaeaeeino? c? ca?eueoaiiyi RE (o ?ici??ieo ci?iieo oea a?aeiia?aea? eaaae?aoe/i?e caeaaeiino? oaeaeeino? a?ae iai?oae) oa ae?eueieoeath, aea V=const (o ?ici??ieo ci?iieo oea a?aeiia?aea? e?i?ei?e caeaaeiino? oaeaeeino? a?ae iai?oae). , ?en.1. Ea?oeia oa/?? ??aeeie i?e n=4.5, RE=5. I?iaiae?ciaaii aieea ??aiy ?iaeaeoe?? ia e?iaiaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee AAAe-oa/?e. Iieacaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy ?iaeaeoe?? (ia?aiao?a c) i?e o?eniaai?e iai?oc? i?eaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy oaeaeeinoae aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe??. Oea ? na?ae/aiiyi aieiaii? ?ie? iiaa?oiaai? ?ii?caoe?? a i?ioeanao oi?ioaaiiy aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?eieo oa/?e. I?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy /enaeueieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo i?e ??cieo aeaeao a?aie/ieo oiia aeey eiioeaio?aoe?? ?iaeaeoe?eieo ?ii?a. ?icaeyaeaeenue aaoiiiiiee (n=const) oa iaaaoiiiiiee ??aaiue ?iaeaeoe?? a?aeiia?aeii e?i?eiiio caeiio ?iaeaeoe?? (n=cE). A?aei?/a?oueny, ui aeey e?i?eiiai caeiio ?iaeaeoe?? iaea?aeaii caaeia?eueia ocaiaeaeaiiy c aeaieie aenia?eiaioo (a?aeoeeaiiy ia a?eueoa 5-7%). Iieacaii, ui ci?ia ae?aiao?a aeaeo?iaeo (ia?aiao?a d) ia aeeeeea? ci?ie oa?aeoa?o i?io?eth oaeaeeino? (o a?aieoeyo oi/iino? ?ic?aooie?a oaeaee?noue o cii? oeaio?aeueiiai no?oiaiy aei??aith? V=(Vx,0), aea Vx=const), aea aaee/eia Vx ciaioo?oueny i?e c?inoaii? d, ui ? iane?aeeii cieaeaiiy i?eaeaeo?iaeii? iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo aieueoaiia?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeey iecee aeii?oie, ye? ?ic/eiyeenue a ?ciieoai?. Ia i?aenoaa? oeueiai aiae?co ioe?ithaaeinue cia/aiiy ia?aiao?o ?iaeaeoe?? (c o?aooaaiiyi eaaae?aoe/ii? caeaaeiino? no?oio a?ae iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey a neeueieo iieyo, eiee iaoai?ci i?ia?aeiino? ??aeeie coiiaeaii iiaa?oiaaith ?ii?caoe??th ?iaeaeoe??th). ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a c iaea?aeaieie ia?aiao?aie ?iaeaeoe?? iieacaee, ui e?iaiaoeea AAAe-oa/?e o ?ic/eiao ?ciieoaio a caaaeueieo ?enao ni?aiaaea? c e?iaiaoeeith oa/?e o ?ic/ei? eiaeo a o?ainoi?iaoi?iiio iane?. Iaeiaio ?ioaineaiith aeyaeeanue oa/?y a ?ic/ei? oao?aa?iiaoeeaio, iaea?eueo ?ioaineaiith a ?ic/ei? -eaeoeeio. Oae, ia ?en.2 iieacai? ?ic?aooieia? e?ea? (ioieoe?i? e?i??) caeaaeiino? na?aaeiuei? oaeaeeino? AAAe-oa/?e a?ae iai?oae, oai aea iaaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? e?ea? (nooe?euei? e?i??). ?en.2. Caeaaei?noue na?aaeiuei? oaeaeeino? a?ae iai?oae aeaeo?e/iiai iiey aeey ?ciieoaio c ??cieie aeii?oeaie: 1 -eaeoeei, 2 aooeeiaee nie?o, 3 oao?aa?iiaoeeai, 4 /enoee ?ciieoai. Aeaco?oueny, ui iaeiaio? a?aeoeeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo aeaieo a?ae aenia?eiaioaeueieo niinoa??aathoueny aeey ?ic/eio oao?aa?iiaoeeaio, iaea?eueo? aeey ?ic/eio -eaeoeeio. I?e/eia oeueiai a?aeoeeaiiy iiaea aooe iia’ycaia c oo?aoe?caoe??th (Re160) ?ooo ??aeeie i?e aaeeeeo iai?oaao, ine?eueee oa/?y ?ic/eio eaeoeeio a ?ciieoai? a?ae??ciy?oueny iaea?eueoeie oaeaeeinoyie . Aeey aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?eiiai ?aaeeio i?ia?aeiino? ??aeeie aeine?aeaeoaaany aieea ??aiy aeii?oeiai? i?ia?aeiino? ? ci?ie ?ooiiino? ?iaeaeoe?eieo ? aeii?oeiaeo ?ii?a. A?aei?/a?oueny, ui o aeiaaeeo aeniei? aeii?oeiai? i?ia?aeiino? (Sc=0.2) i?e iaeeo /eneao RE (RE0.5) ? ??aieo ?ooiiinoyo ?iaeaeoe?eieo oa aeii?oeiaeo ?ii?a (1=3=1) oa/?y ??aeeie iineoue aeaiaeo?iaee oa?aeoa?. Cieaeaiiy ?ooiiino? ?iaeaeoe?eieo ?ii?a (1=1,3=0.5) aeeeeea? iiyao cono??/ii? oa/?? (?en.3). O aeiaaeeo iecueei? aeii?oeiai? i?ia?aeiino? (Sc=2) i? aa??thaaiiy iai?oae, i? ci?ia ?ooiiinoae ia aeeeeea? ci?ie iai?yio oa/?? a?ae oeee?iae?e/iiai eaoiaeo, ci?ith?oueny eeoa cia/aiiy oaeaeeinoae. ?en.3. Aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?y i?e aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?ei?e i?ia?aeiino? ??aeeie (c=0.45,Sc =0.2, RE=0.2, 1=1, 3 =0.5, fA=fB=0) Iieacaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy ??aiy aeii?oeiai? i?ia?aeiino? (ca ?ioeo ??aieo oiia) aeeeeea? cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe??. E??i oiai, yeui i?ine?aeeoaaoe ca oi?ioaaiiyi aeoi?o iiaeeco eaoiaeo, oi c?inoaiiy aeii?oeiai? i?ia?aeiino? ni?e/eiy? ?oo oeaio?o oeueiai aeoi?o o iai?yieo a?ae eaoiaeo. Ia?aeaeueii c ?ic?aooieaie iiey oaeaeeinoae aecia/aeanue ?ioaa?aeueia aeaeo?e/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea aac?ici??iee iiaiee no?oi picscalex1000100090000036e0100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400 000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500 00000b0200000000050000000c02c00420081200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000 0000c0ffffffa8ffffffe0070000680400000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065 0000000110000000fb02c0fd0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002 040000002d01000008000000320a4a03d40201000000f20010000000fb0280fe00000000 00009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f0010000 08000000320ac0027501010000003d0010000000fb0220ff000000000000900101000002 0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a0501 0d0301000000700010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020002001053796d62 6f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ac002ce06010000006a00 17000000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f 6d616e2043797200cc83040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a05019802 01000000320008000000320a6304ed0201000000300017000000fb0280fe000000000000 9001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc8304000000 2d01010004000000f001000008000000320ac002f70001000000270017000000fb0280fe 0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200 cc83040000002d01000004000000f001010009000000320ac002bc03040000006e457264 08000000320ac00240000100000049000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000 10000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc04000000 2d01010004000000f00100000300000000000000002f0000000000000000, aea n eiioeaio?aoe?y ?iaeaeoe?eieo ?ii?a. A?aei?/a?oueny ianooiia caeiiii??i?noue: ca iaeeo /enae RE iiaiee no?oi i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny i?e ci?i? iai?oae, c ?inoii RE no?oi e?i?eii caeaaeeoue a?ae RE. O ?ici??ieo ci?iieo (c o?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui I=II0, I0=ebn0E0d0) iaea?aeo?ii oeiiaee aeae aieueoaiia?ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee (AAO), yeee /anoi niinoa??aa?oueny a aenia?eiaioao, a naia: e?i?eia AAO a neaaeeo iieyo oa eaaae?aoe/ia caeaaei?noue no?oio a?ae iai?oae a neeueieo aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo. A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny aieea aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia oaieiiai?i a i?eiaaeiaiio oa?? neaaeii?ia?aeii? ??aeeie. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo ?c oaieiia?aiino a ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ??aeeiao. Aeaco?oueny, ui oe? aeai? aeiioneathoue ianoia?a/io ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th, yeui i?eionoeoe, ui i?ia?aei?noue ??aeeie coiiaeaia ?iaeaeoe?eiei iaoai?ciii oi?ioaaiiy ca?yae?a. Iaea?aeaii ?ica’ycie caaea/? i?i eiiaaeoe?eiee oaieiiai?i i?ae /an oa/?? neaaeii?ia?aeii? ??aeeie a eaiae?, yeee caoaeo?oueny. Aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeinue ia aeiaaeie eeoa aeaeo?e/ii? eiiaaeoe?? (/enei A?anaioa Gr=gTL3/2=0). ??aiyiiy ia?aiino ca?yaeo a iaaeeaeaii? i?eiaaeiaiai oa?o iaea?aeaii ca oiiae aeiaeaoeiaiai i?eiouaiiy: Ex<7. A?aei?/a?oueny, ui iaea?aeaiee a?ae caeaaeiino? oaieiaiai
iioieo a?ae iai?oae ni?aiaaea? c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie ii
oaieiia?aiino a ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ??aeeiao.

Aeiaeaoeiai i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiiai?io o aeiaaeeo
aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aeiino? ??aeeie. Iieacaii, ui aeey
aeniei? aeii?oeiai? i?ia?aeiino? oa iecueei? ?ooiiino? ?iaeaeoe?eieo
?ii?a (Sc=0.5, 1=1, 4=0.5, c=0.15) ia caeaaeiino? oaieiaiai iioieo a?ae
iai?oae niinoa??aa?oueny ae?eueieoey, aea oaieiiai?i cieaeo?oueny c
?inoii iai?oae (RE<0.15), a i?e c?inoaii? iai?oae oaieiaee iio?e noa? eaaae?aoe/iith ooieoe??th iai?oae. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co /enaeueieo aeaieo noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui cieaeaiiy oaieiiai?io i?e iaeeo iai?oaao (yea niinoa??aa?oueny a aenia?eiaioao aeey iecee neaaeii?ia?aeieo ??aeei) ia? i?noea o?eueee o aeiaaeeo iecueei? aeii?oeiai? i?ia?aeiino? ??aeeie i?e iayaiino? a ?? neeaae? ?ii?a c ??cieie ?ooiiinoyie. I?ae /an aeeiiaiiy oe??? oiiae iiaeeco eaoiaeo oi?io?oueny ca?yae i?ioeeaaeiiai ciaeo, ui ni?e/eiy? cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?eieo oa/?e oa iiyao oa/?? a iai?yieo aeaeo?iaeo (aeea. ?en.3). AENIIAEE 1. Aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?eia iiaeaeue i?ia?aeiino? ??aeeeo ae?aeaeo?ee?a aeicaiey? aeyaeoe ye ia ye?niiio, oae ? ia e?euee?niiio ??ai? aieea aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ? o?ceei-o?i?/ieo ia?aiao??a ??aeeie ia caeiiii??iino? aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?eieo oa/?e a ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ??aeeiao. 2. sse o neeueii-, oae ? a neaaeiiaiaeii??aeieo aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo aieiaiei iaoai?ciii ca?yaeinoai?aiiy ? ?iaeaeoe?eiee, eiee ?iie aaia?othoueny ia iiaa?oi? aeaeo?iae?a ca?aeii c e?i?eiei caeiiii ?iaeaeoe??. I?ioeane aeaeo?ecaoe?? neaaeii?ia?aeii? ??aeeie iathoue aecia/aeueiee aieea ia a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?eieo oa/?e. Ocaiaeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaieo /enaeueieo ?ic?aooie?a c aeei?enoaiiyi eiao?oe??io?a ?iaeaeoe??, io?eiaieo o ?acoeueoao? ia?iaee aieueoaiia?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeey ??cieo ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ??aeei, c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie ? aeieacii aeeiiaiiy e?i?eiiai caeiio ?iaeaeoe?? a ??aeeeo ae?aeaeo?eeao. 3. Aeey ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ??aeei c aeinoaoiuei aenieith eiioeaio?aoe??th aeii?oee oa iecueeith ae?aeaeo?e/iith i?iieei?noth a?eueo aeaoaeueia ?icaeyaeaiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo i?ioean?a a ia’?i? ??aeeie i?eaiaeeoue aei iaiao?aeiino? a?aooaaiiy noai?aiiy eiiieaenieo ?ii?a. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aiae?oe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ??aiyiue c o?aooaaiiyi eiiieaeninoai?aiiy aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ia?aaeaa/eoe oa?aeoa? oa caeiiii??iino? iiaaae?iee oaei? ??aeeie a aeaeo?e/iiio iie? oa aeicaieythoue aeeaoa i?iieeiooe a ?icoi?iiy i?ioean?a, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a ??aeeeo ae?aeaeo?eeao. 4. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iiey oaeaeeinoae oa oaieiia?aiino i?e aaeeeeo /eneao I?aiaeoey aeicaiey? i?iaanoe e?euee?nio ioe?ieo aeaeo?e/ieo, a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oa oaieiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ??cieo ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ??aeei. Iieacaii, ui ci?ia ??aiy aeii?oeiai? i?ia?aeiino? oa ?ooiiinoae ?ii?a iiaea i?eaiaeeoe aei ci?ie iai?yio ?ooo ??aeeie, ui, a naith /a?ao, aeeeeea? ciaioaiiy oaieiia?aiino a neaaeeo aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo. A?aei?/a?oueny, ui oeae aoaeo i?ney ?aoaeueiiai i/euaiiy ??aeeie a?ae aeii?oee iiaea aooe onoiaiei. A neeueieo aeaeo?e/ieo iieyo ?ic?aooieia? e?ea? caeaaeiino? oaieiaiai iioieo a?ae iai?oae aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ca?aathoueny c aenia?eiaioaeueieie, ui aeaco? ia iniiaio ?ieue aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?? a ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a oaieiia?aiino a ??aeeeo ae?aeaeo?eeao. 5. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c nenoaie ??aiyiue aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?ee i?e oi?iiey?i?e ?iaeaeoe?ei?e i?ia?aeiino? neaaeii?ia?aeii? ??aeeie a i?eiaaeiaiio oa?? c iaaaoiiiiiei ??aiai ?iaeaeoe??. Io?eiaii, ui ooieoe?iiaeuei? caeaaeiino? ia?aiao??a oaieiiai?io (cie?aia /enea Ionnaeueoa) a?ae ??aiy ?iaeaeoe?? ? iai?oaeaiino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiey, ye? niinoa??aathoueny ia i?aeoeoe?, iathoue i?noea ? o aeiaaeeo oi?iiey?ii? ?iaeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aeiino? c iaaaoiiiiiei ??aiai ?iaeaeoe??. 6. A?aei?/a?oueny, ui aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oa canoinoaaiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ia i?aeoeoe? iaiao?aeii i?iaaaeaiiy a?eueo aeaoaeueiiai oa nenoaiaoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeii?oeiaiai neeaaeo neaaeii?ia?aeieo ??aeei, ooi/iaiiy e?iaoeee i?eaeaeo?iaeieo ?aaeoe?e, a oaeiae ia/eneaiiy eiinoaio oeeo ?aaeoe?e. Oey ?ioi?iaoe?y iiaea noaoe iniiaith iiaeaeueoi? aa?eo?eaoe?? iiaeae? ? aeanoue iiaeeea?noue iai?oeoe oeyoe ?? oaeineiiaeaiiy. NIENIE INIIAIEO IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE 1. Zhakin A.I., Tropina A.A. Electroconvection and heat transfer in liquid dielectrics// Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference of Fluid Mechanics. - Nairo(Egypt).- 1995.- P.857-862. 2. O?iieia A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea ca?yaeiia?aciaaiey a aeeaeeeo aeeyeaeo?eeao //Aaeaoeeiiii-einie/aneay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey.- 1998. - Aui.7.- N.35-40. 3. Tropina A.A. The influence of direct electric field on the convective heat transfer in liquid dielectrics// Aaeaoeeiiii-einie/aneay oaoieea e oaoiieiaey.- 1998.-Aui.7.-N.18-22. 4. Tropina A.A. Non-uniform fields in liquid dielectrics // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na?. o?ce/ia. - 1999.- Aei.2. - ? 443. - N.65-70. 5. Tropina A.A. Numerical investigation of the heat transfer in the poorly conducting liquid with linear law of injection //Aanoiee OAO. Na?.“Iaoaiaoeea, i?eeeaaeiay iaoaiaoeea e iaoaieea”. - 1999. - ? 444. -N.142-148. 6. O?iieia A.A. Yeaeo?ieiiaaeoeaiue oaieiia?aiin a nenoaiao n ianeiiao?e/iuie yeaeo?iaeaie// O?. Iaaeae.eiio. “*eneaiiua iaoiaeu a aeae?aaeeea e aeae?iaeeiaieea “.- Aeiiaoee. - 1994. - N.73. 7. Tropina A.A. Numerical investigation of electroconvection heat transfer for cylinder-plane electrode system// Proc. on the 14-th International Riga Conference of Magnetohydrodynamics.- Yurmala (Latvia).- 1995. - P.39-40. 8. O?iieia A.A. Iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeannia annioeeaoeee a aeeaeeeo aeeyeaeo?eeao // Thesis on International Conf.reports ‘Modelling and investigation of system stability”. - Eeaa. - 1997. - N.135. AIIOAOe?? O?ii?ia A.A. Aieea aeaeo?e/iiai iiey ia i?ioeane ca?yaeinoai?aiiy, eiiaaeoe?? oa oaieiia?aiino a neaaeii?ia?aeieo ??aeeiao.?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.02.05iaoai?ea ??aeeie, aaco oa ieacie. Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a,1999. Aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? eiiaaeoe?? oa oaieiia?aiino a iaiaeii??aeieo iieyo ia iniia? oaeineiiaeaii? oai??? i?ioean?a aeaeo?ecaoe?? oa ca?yaeinoai?aiiy a ae?aeaeo?e/ieo ??aeeiao. Iaea?aeaea iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oai??y aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?eii? i?ia?aeiino? ??aeeeo ae?aeaeo?ee?a c o?aooaaiiyi eiiieaeninoai?aiiy. Cai?iiiiiaai? eiino?oeoeai? /enaeuei? iaoiaee aiae?co nenoaie aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ??aiyiue, ui aeaei ciiao aecia/eoe iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy eiiaaeoe?eieo oa/?e ? oaieiia?aiino a neaaeii?ia?aeieo na?aaeiaeuao. I?iaaaeaia aiae?oe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a oi?ioaaiiy ca?yaeo a ia??aiiaaaeieo i?eaeaeo?iaeieo oa?ao. Iaea?aeaii iia? ?acoeueoaoe a oai??? oaieiia?aiino i?e ?iaeaeoe?ei?e i?ia?aeiino? ??aeeeo ae?aeaeo?ee?a c iaaaoiiiiiei ??aiai ?iaeaeoe??. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeaeo?ia?ae?iaeeiai?ea, aeenioe?eii-?iaeaeoe?eia iiaeaeue i?ia?aeiino?, ??aeeee ae?aeaeo?ee, ia??aiiaaaei?noue, aeenioe?aoe?y-?aeiia?iaoe?y, /enaeuei? iaoiaee, oaieiia?aiin, aeaeo?ieiiaaeoe?y. O?iieia A.A. Aeeyiea yeaeo?e/aneiai iiey ia i?ioeannu ca?yaeiia?aciaaiey, eiiaaeoeee e oaieiia?aiina a neaaii?iaiaeyueo aeeaeeinoyo. ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.02.05iaoaieea aeeaeeinoe, aaca e ieaciu. Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey niaea?aeeo ?acoeueoaou oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee yeaeo?iaeae?iaeeiaie/aneie eiiaaeoeee e oaieiia?aiina a iaiaeii?iaeiuo yeaeo?e/aneeo iieyo ia iniiaa ooi/iaiey iienaiey i?ioeannia yeaeo?ecaoeee e ca?yaeiia?aciaaiey a aeeyeaeo?e/aneeo aeeaeeinoyo. Iieo/eea aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea oai?ey aeennioeeiiii-eiaeaeoeeiiiie i?iaiaeeiinoe aeeaeeeo aeeyeaeo?eeia n o/aoii eiiieaeniia?aciaaiey. I?aaeeiaeaiu eiino?oeoeaiua /eneaiiua iaoiaeu aiaeeca iniiaiie nenoaiu yeaeo?iaeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo o?aaiaiee, /oi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue auyaeoue iniiaiua caeiiiia?iinoe oi?ie?iaaiey eiiaaeoeaiuo oa/aiee e oaieiia?aiina a neaaii?iaiaeyueo n?aaeao. I?iaaaeaii aiaeeoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeannia oi?ie?iaaiey ca?yaea a ia?aaiiaaniuo i?eyeaeo?iaeiuo neiyo. Iieo/aiu iiaua ?acoeueoaou a oai?ee oaieiia?aiina i?e eiaeaeoeeiiiie i?iaiaeeiinoe aeeaeeeo aeeyeaeo?eeia c iaaaoiiiiiui o?iaiai eiaeaeoeee. Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeo?iaeae?iaeeiaieea, aeennioeeiiii-eiaeaeoeeiiiay iiaeaeue i?iaiaeeiinoe, aeeaeeee aeeyeaeo?ee, ia?aaiiaaniinoue, aeennioeeaoeey-?aeiiaeiaoeey, /eneaiiua iaoiaeu, oaieiia?aiin, yeaeo?ieiiaaeoeey. Tropina A.A. The influence of electric field on the processes of charge formation, convection and heat transfer in the poorly conducting liquids.Manuscript. Ph.D. dissertation thesis (speciality 01.02.05mechanics of fluid, gas and plasma).Kharkiv State University, Kharkiv, 1999. The dissertation contains the results of theoretical investigations of electrohydrodynamic convection and heat transfer in the non-uniform electric fields on the basis of more precise theory of processes of electrification and charge formation in the poorly conducting liquids. Taking into account the processes of complex ions formation the theory of dissociation-injection conductivity of liquid dielectrics have obtained the further development. For the description of poorly conducting liquid the model of multi-component medium has been used. It has been supposed that the medium consists of ion pairs A+B-; positive and negative ions A+,B- (which appearance is connected with dissociation-recombination processes in the liquid volume); ion associates A+B-A+, B-A+B- (which are formed in accordance with Fuoss and Kraus model) and ions X- which are injected from the cathode surface. The analytical investigation of near cathode region of local non-equilibrium of dissociation-recombination reactions has been carried out in the approximation of plane condenser for the case of linear injection law. The charge formation processes in a strong electric field have been also investigated when the volume charge appearance is connected with dissociation intensification in an electric field. It has been shown that in the local non-equilibrium region homocharge or he-terocharge is formed depending on the relation between injection rate and dissociation-recombination reaction rate. In the case of some restriction on the injection parameter in the non-equilibrium layer the bipolar distribution is formed (heterocharge is situated near the electrode). It is noted that bipolar structures with homocharge are not formed in such systems. This effect can cause the electroconvection extinction in the dielectric liquids with increased impurity concentration. It has been also found that for the case of dissociation conductivity of liquid dielectrics the complex ions formation leads to the charge density on the electrode (undergoing the sharp leap) becomes proportional to N03/2 (if we assume no complex ions are present the charge density is proportional to N01/2, N0 is the impurity concentration in the equilibrium state). The stationary electrohydrodynamic (EHD) flows have been investigated on the basis of three-ions model of conductivity. The constructive numerical methods of analysis of EHD-equations have been proposed, that has given an opportunity to reveal the main regularities of convection flow formation in the poorly conducting liquid. Numerical investigations have been performed for two cases: for liquid with unipolar injection conductivity and for one with dissociation-injection conductivity. Numerical results were compared with experimental data concerning EHD-convection of isooctane’s solutions with different impurities (such as –leucine, butanol, tetraidobromoethylene) and for transformer oil with iodine. The analysis of experimental current density j-voltage characteristics was carried out to determine the injection coefficients. It has been shown that the forming EHD-flow pattern depends on the impurity concentration level. For low impurity conductivity the flow pattern is the one-vortex flow directed from the cathode (as for case of unipolar injection conductivity). After increasing the impurity conductivity the two-vortex flow is formed, the dimensions of formed vortex are increased with injection ions mobility decreasing. Further decreasing of injection ions mobility causes the formation of EHD-flow directed towards the electrode. It is noted that for the case of low impurity conductivity neither voltage increase nor varying of mobilities don’t influence on the flow direction only velocity values change reaching maximum for liquids with unipolar injection conductivity. It has been found that experimentally observed velocity dependence on cathode diameter is conditioned by the non-autonomous level of injection, when the concentration of injection ions on the electrode is proportional to the electric field intensity. It has been obtained that the calculated average velocity dependence on voltage is in a good quantitative agreement with experimental data for different dielectric liquids. This fact confirms the fulfilment of linear injection law in the poorly conducting liquids. The influence of an electric field on the heat transfer has been investigated in the approximation of boundary layer. It has been supposed that the surface charge formation is the main reason causing the appearance of electroconvection flows in liquid dielectrics. Analysis of boundary layer EHD-equations has been performed by Lee’s group method for the case of non-autonomous level of injection. It has been found that for the flow of liquid in the constricting channel the automodel variables are defined by some linear group. Numerical analysis of obtained system of ordinary differential equations has been shown that the increase of applied voltage causes the appearance of bend point on the velocity profiles. So the influence of Coulomb forces reduces to the turn of the flow in the opposite direction. After further increasing of voltage U the boundary layer is torn off the wall. The electroconvection heat transfer in the liquid between plane and cylindrical electrodes has been investigated. The analytical method for heat flux calculation in the temperature boundary layer near electrodes has been proposed. The stream function which is used in the analytical expression for temperature is expanded in a power series of generalised co-ordinate. The coefficients of this expansion were found by the least squares method on the basis of numerical solution of basic EHD-equations. It has been obtained that for the case of unipolar injection conductivity of liquid dielectrics (when the electroconvection velocity is maximum) the heat flux increases with applied voltage. The form of obtained dependence is often observed in experiments. This fact demonstrates the main role of electroconvection in the heat transfer intensification processes in the poorly conducting liquids. It has been also found that for the case of dissociation-injection conductivity the heat flux decreases with voltage increasing (at weak electric fields). It has been shown that this effect takes place only for liquids with low impurity conductivity and small injection ion mobility, when in the boundary layer near cathode the heterocharge is formed and the liquid moves towards the electrode. It is noted that after careful purification of liquid such heat flux suppression can be removed. Key words: electrohydrodynamics, dissociation-injection conductivity model, liquid dielectrics, non-equilibrium, dissociation-recombination, numerical methods, heat transfer, electroconvection. Iiaeienaii e ia/aoe 25.07.99. Oi?iao 6090 1/16. One.ia/. eeno 1,0. O/.-ecae. eeno 1,0. Oe?aae 100 yec. Cae. 118. ________________________________________________________________________ ________ OO?EO Iaia/aoaii a oeiia?aoee i?. Eaieia, 17a, e.107. oae. 45-10-46.

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