I?i?noa?noai INA?OE OE?A?IE

*A?I?AAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?i.TH.OAAeUeEIAE*A

Ae?AeIAE* AIIA IAAE?AIA

OAeE 636:612:015:591.147.6

AIEEA AAe?AIAE?IO IA E?I?AeIEE IAI?I O NEAEAOIEO I’ssCAO OAA?EI A
IIOIAAIAC?

03.00.04 — a?io?i?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe

*a?i?aoe? 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a IAe? a?iaeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao a neeaae?
Euea?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie ?iai?
N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai I?i?noa?noaa AIE Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? a?ie.iaoe, i?io., /eai-ei?. OAAI, caneoaeaiee
ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

E?aaoe?a ?iiai Eineiiae/,

aee?aeoi? IAe? a?iaeieia?/iiai
iii?oi?eiao a neeaae? Euea?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aaoa?eia?ii?
iaaeeoeeie ?i.N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai, ?aeoi? aeaaeai??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aaeeeee Ieeiea Ieeieaeiae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
?.O?aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e a?io?i??

Aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ieneeoeueeee Aaeaioei O?aioeiae/,

Aoeiaeinueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia
aeaaeai?y,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iaoio?c?ieia?? ?
a?io?ceee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa : ?inoeooo a?io?i?? ?i. I.A.Iaeeaae?ia IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e naini?ieo oa ?aaoeyoi?ieo
nenoai

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “20” aeiaoiy 1999?. i 12 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 76.051.05 a *a?i?aaoeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, i.*a?i?aoe?, aoe.
Eioethaeinueeiai,2.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? *a?i?aaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a (i.*a?i?aoe?, aoe. Ean?
Oe?a?iee, 23).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_18__” __aa?aniy__ 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao a?ieia?/iee iaoe
Eiieeue/oe A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Anaa?/ia aea/aiiy iioiaaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae
iai?io ?a/iaei a i?aai?ci? oaa?ei ? iaiao?aeiith ia?aaeoiiaith
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aieeao ia ?o ??no, ye?noue io?eioaaii? oa?/iai?
i?iaeoeoe??. Oiio aeooaeueiei ? c`ynoaaiiy a?io?i?/ieo iaoai?ci?a, ye?
eaaeaoue a iniia? ci?i ai?noo e?i?ae?a a i?aaiao ? oeaieiao oaa?ei i?ae
aieeaii ??cieo oaeoi??a (ii?iaee, a?eo, aiae?ae?, oo?eiaiiy). Cie?aia,
caaaeueiee ai?no e?i?ae?a, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?aieo ?o eean?a ?
aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo inoaii?o o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae ?noioii aieeaa? ia iieacieee yeino? icyna. O oaeyoei? ? aenieee
ai?no oinoie?i?ae?a. Aiie i?noyoue iie?iaiane/ai? aee?i? eeneioe,
cie?aia a?ao?aeiiiao, ui ? iiia?aaeieeii aeeicaii?ae?a — aaeeei? a?oie
a?ieia?/ii aeoeaieo ?a/iaei c oe?ieei niaeo?ii ?aaoeyoi?ii? ae??
(Aa?oieiiaaa, Iaao, 1985; Smith,1989; Brochart, 1992; D?Marno, 1995) ?
oie?io, yeee i?iyaey? e?iio?iiio ae?th (Lindsay, 1980; 1982). Oea
coiiaeth? a?ieia?/io oe?ii?noue oaeyoeie. O yeiae/ei? a?aei?/aiee
aenieee ai?no o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oinoie?i?ae?a aiie
i?noyoue cia/io e?euee?noue noaa?eiiai? eeneioe, yea iaaaoeaii aieeaa?
ia iai?i e?i?ae?a a i?aai?ci? ethaeeie.

Ai?no e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ioyaii
iinoiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?noioii c?inoa? (Link at al., 1970; ssiiae/,
1973; Caoa??a, 1996), i?ioa a?io?i?/i? iaoai?cie, ui eaaeaoue a iniia?
oeueiai c?inoaiiy, c`yniaai? iaaeinoaoiuei. Oea coiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue
?icoe?aiiy ? iiaeeaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, nea?iaaieo ia aea/aiiy
?aaoeyoi?ieo iaoai?ci?a, ye? aecia/athoue ci?ie ai?noo ie?aieo eean?a
e?i?ae?a ? ?o aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ioyaii iinoiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ie?
ai?iii?a a ?aaoeyoe?? aiaaie?cio ? eaoaaie?cio e?i?ae?a. Cie?aia,
caneoaiao? ia oaaao c`ynoaaiiy aieeao aae?aiae?io ia iaoaaie?ci e?i?ae?a
o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ia ??cieo noaae?yo
iinoiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. A aeine?aeao ia oaa?eiao, a oiio /ene? ia
aaeee?e ?iaao?e ooaeia? (D?Marno et al., 1991), anoaiiaeaii, ui oeae
ai?iii a?ae?a?a? aaaeeeao ?ieue a ?aaoeyoe?? ?icuaieaiiy
o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a o aee?ia?e oeaiei?, ui caaacia/o? aeei?enoaiiy
aee?ieo eeneio a aia?aaoe/ieo i?ioeanao o ia/?ioe? ? ia?eoa??eieo
oeaieiao. Ae?y aae?aiae?io ia iai?i e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae c`yniaaia iaei.

Cacycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa i?iaiaeeeanue a ?aieao eiiieaenii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? oaie
IAe? a?iaeieia?/iiai iii?oi?eiao a neeaae? Euea?anueei? aea?aeaaii?
aeaaeai?? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie ?i.N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai. ?a?no?aoe?eiee N
0198U008024.

Iaoa ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aoei anoaiiaeoe iioiaaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? iai?io e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo
i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ? ?ieue aae?aiae?io a eiai ?aaoeyoe??.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aoee iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aeine?aeeoe ai?no ie?aieo eean?a e?i?ae?a ? ?o
aee?iieeneioiee neeaae o neaeaoieo i’ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a 1-,
3-, 6-, 12- ? 20-i?ny/iiio a?oe?.

2. Aea/eoe ?ioaineai?noue neioaco e?i?ae?a ?c i?/aieo
?aae?iaeoeaiei aoaeaoeai aetheice ? ioeoiai? eeneioe o neaeaoieo i`ycao
aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae o cacia/aiiio a?oe?.

3. Aeine?aeeoe ?ioaineai?noue i?ioean?a e?iie?co ?
ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio o neaeaoieo i’ycao aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaa?ei.

4. Aea/eoe aieea aae?aiae?io ia ai?no e?i?ae?a ? ?o
aee?iieeneioiee neeaae, aeoeai?noue e?iie?oe/ieo oa?iaio?a,
?ioaineai?noue neioaco e?i?ae?a ? ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio o neaeaoieo
i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- ? 20- i?ny/iiio a?oe?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iaea?aeaii ?yae iiaeo aeaieo i?i ci?ie iai?io e?i?ae?a o
neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ? i?i ?ieue aae?aiae?io a eiai
?aaoeyoe?? ia ??cieo noaae?yo iinoiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a o
neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae c a?eii coiiaeaia ciaioaiiyi
nooiaiy ?o ?icuaieaiiy aiane?aeie cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino?
o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace ? ciaioaiiy ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio oa
iineeaiiyi iiaeeiaiiy e?iii?ioa?i?a c ieacie e?ia? aiane?aeie
i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? e?iii?ioa?ie?iace.

Iaie aia?oa iieacaii, ui na?aae aee?ieo eeneio o neeaae? caaaeueieo
e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae c 1- aei 6-i?ny/iiai
a?eo ciaioo?oueny /anoea e?iieaai? ? iea?iiai? oa ca?eueoo?oueny /anoea
iaeuei?oeiiai? ? noaa?eiiai? eeneio. O oinoie?i?aeao neaeaoieo i`yc?a
aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae c a?eii ciaioo?oueny a?aeiiniee ai?no e?iieaai?
? iea?iiai? eeneio oa ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no iaeuei?oeiiai? eeneioe.

Aia?oa aoei aeyaeaii, ui i?ney o?ee?aoiiai i?aeoe??iiai aaaaeaiiy
aaeee?e ?iaao?e ooaeia? aae?aiae?io a 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- ? 20-i?ny/iiio
a?oe? o neaeaoieo i`ycao ciaioo?oueny ai?no caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a ?
o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a aiane?aeie i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino?
o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace ? iineeaiiy ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio,
cieaeo?oueny ?ioaineai?noue neioaco e?i?ae?a c ioeoiai? eeneioe. I?e
oeueiio o neeaae? caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a ? oinoie?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao
aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ciaioo?oueny ai?no e?iieaai?, a?ao?aeiiiai? ?
aeieicaiaioa?iiai? eeneio oa ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no iaeuei?oeiiai?,
noaa?eiiai? ? iea?iiai? eeneio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe i?i aieea aae?aiae?io
ia iai?i e?i?ae?a ? aee?ieo eeneio o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi?
ooaeiae ?icoe?ththoue ? iiaeeaeththoue no/ani? oyaeaiiy i?i a?io?i?/i?
iaoai?cie, ye? aecia/athoue eiai ?aaoeyoi?iee aieea ia i?aai?ci oaa?ei.
Aiie na?ae/aoue i?i iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy aiaeia?a aae?aiae?io c
iaoith iie?auaiiy a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a icyna. Iaea?aeai? aeai?
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a eaeoe?eieo eo?nao c o?c?ieia?? ? a?io?i??
oaa?ei o AICao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?io?eth.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a io?eiaii?
iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, aeeeaaeaieo a aeena?oaoe??, ? iniiaiei ? iieyaa?
o aecia/aii? iai?yieo, ianyao oa iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy; iinoaiiaoe?
iaoe oa oi?ioethaaii? caaaeaiue; o aeeiiaii? iniiaiiai iac?io
aenia?eiaioaeueii? /anoeie; a aiae?c? oa ocaaaeueiaii? ?acoeueoao?a;
noaoenoe/i?e ia?iaoe? iaoa??aeo; ai?iaaoe?? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?
i?aeaioiaoe? iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aei ae?oeo; iaienaii? oa ioi?ieaii?
aeena?oaoe??. Aiae?c oa iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue
i?iaaaeaii ni?eueii c iaoeiaei ea??aieeii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? aianai?
aei aeena?oaoe??, aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? aei 100-??//y a?ae /ano iaaeaiiy aeaaeai?/iiai noaoono
Euea?anuee?e aea?aeaai?e aeaaeai?? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie
?i.N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai (i.Euea?a,1997?.), can?aeaii? eaoaae?e a?io?i?? ?
aenia?eiaioaeueii? aeieia?? *a?i?aaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a (i.*a?i?aoe?,1998?.), can?aeaii? IAe? a?iaeieia?/iiai
iii?oi?eiao a neeaae? Euea?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aaoa?eia?ii?
iaaeeoeeie ?i.N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai (i.Euea?a,1999?.), iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
aei 50-??//y a?ae aeiy canioaaiiy cii?iaeaia?iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Euea?anueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie
?i.N.C.Aaeeoeueeiai (i.Euea?a,1999?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 5 noaoae, c ieo 4 o
oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a ? ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a (iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??aee ? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, iaaiai?aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a), aeniiae?a oa nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, yeee i?noeoue
223 iaeiaioaaiiy. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 133 noi??iee.
Aeena?oaoe?y i?i?ethno?iaaia 20 oaaeeoeyie ? 1 ?enoieii.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy

Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei i?iaaaeaii a aa?io??i? «Aaee/eia»
Niyoeinueeiai ?aeiio ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaeano? ia a?oiao ae/e?a
/i?ii-?yai? ii?iaee, ii 5 aie?a a eiaei?e. Oaeyoa iaio a?oi i?ioyaii
aeiae i?ney ia?iaeaeaiiy oo?eioaaeeny ?acii c ei?iaith, aeae? aei
21-aeaiiiai a?eo a ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo ee?oeao i?io?eaeoi??th, aei
90-aeaiiiai a?eo a a?oiiaeo ee?oeao c aaci?ea`yciei oo?eiaiiyi, c 3- aei
20-i?ny/iiai a?eo — ia i?ea`yc?. Aiae?aey oaa?ei i?iaiaeeeanue ca?aeii
ii?i, ?ic?iaeaieo AANAI?E (1985). Oaeyoai ca ia??iae ae?iuoaaiiy
aeiithaaee 120 e iieiea ? 300 e cai?iieea oe?eueiiai iieiea. C
10-aeaiiiai a?eo ?o i?ea/aee aei ii?aeaiiy n?ia, c 20-aeaiiiai a?eo aei
ii?aeaiiy eiioeaio?iaaieo ei?i?a. A ianooiiee ia??iae a aiae?ae? oaa?ei
aeei?enoiaoaaee n?ii, neein, ei?aiaieiaee, eiia?ei?i (o no?eeiaee
ia??iae), aai caeaio iano (o e?oi?e ia??iae). ?aoe?ii caaacia/oaaa
na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e??no oaeyo a ia??iae a?ae ia?iaeaeaiiy aei
3-i?ny/iiai a?eo ia ??ai? 600-650 a, a ianooiiee ia??iae — ia ??ai?
800-850 a.

Aeey c`ynoaaiiy iioiaaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae iai?io e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo
i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ? ?ie? aae?aiae?io a eiai ?aaoeyoe??
i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy caaaeueiiai ai?noo e?i?ae?a ?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?aieo ?o eean?a, aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo caaaeueieo
e?i?ae?a ? oinoie?i?ae?a, ?ioaineaiino? neioaco e?i?ae?a, aeoeaiino?
o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace ? e?iii?ioa?ie?iace, a oaeiae ?ioaineaiino?
ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio o aeacai?e oeaiei? ?ioaeoieo ae/e?a
(eiio?ieuei? a?oie) ? ae/e?a, yeei aaiaeeee aae?aiae?i (aeine?aei?
a?oie) o 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- ? 20-i?ny/iiio a?oe?. Aae?aiae?i oaa?eiai
aeine?aeieo a?oi aaiaeeee i?aeoe??ii i?ioyaii 3-o aei?a a e?eueeino? 1
ia/ea aeeai? iane. Oaa?eiai eiio?ieueieo a?oi i?e oeueiio i?aeoe??ii
aaiaeeee o?c?ieia?/iee ?ic/ei oei?enoiai iao??th a e?eueeino? 5 ie. Aeey
a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaee c?acee /ioe?eaieiaiai i`yca
noaaia, ye? a?ae aeine?aeieo oaa?ei iaea?aeoaaee iaoiaeii a?iin??.

E?i?aee c? neaeaoieo i`yc?a, c?acee yeeo a?ae?aco i?ney acyooy
caii?iaeoaaee a ??aeeiio acio?, aeno?aaoaaee oei?ioi?i-iaoaiieii 2:1
((((n( (( ((., 1957). A?ae iae?i?aeieo caeeoe?a e?i?aeiee aeno?aeo
ca?eueiyee oeyoii aeiaeaaaiiy aei iueiai 5% ?ic/eio ((( (Eaeon, 1975).
Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?aieo eean?a e?i?ae?a o e?i?aeieo aeno?aeoao
aeine?aeaeoaaieo c?ace?a neaeaoiiai i`yca aecia/aee oeyoii oiieioa?iai?
o?iiaoia?ao?? ia nae?eaaae? o nenoai? aaenai-aeeaoeeiaee ao??-eueiaeiaa
ioeoiaa eeneioa (70:30:1). E?euee?noue ie?aieo eean?a e?i?ae?a o i`yc?
ae?aaeaee a i?ioeaioao a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? e?i?ae?a
(Ooaeue,1965).

AEe?iieeneioiee neeaae caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a ? oinoie?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo
i`ycao aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaa?ei aecia/aee oeyoii aaci??aeeiii?
o?iiaoia?ao?? (Oa?auoe, Iaie?ianueeee, 1983). Iaoeeia? ao??e aee?ieo
eeneio iaea?aeoaaee oeyoii i?yii? ia?aaoa?eo?eaoe?? aee?ieo eeneio
(Eo?ei, 1965). ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aecia/aee oeyoii o?iiaoia?ao?? ia
aaci??aeeiiiio o?iiaoia?ao? ((r((-4 c iieoi`yii-?ii?ciaaiei aeaoaeoi?ii.
AEe?i? eeneioe ia o?iiaoia?aiao ?aeaioeo?eoaaee ca aeiiiiiaith
noaiaea?oiiai iaai?o aee?ieo eeneio o??ie «(((((((» ? ae?aaeaee ?o o
i?ioeaioao a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aee?ieo eeneio (Oa?auoe,
Iaie?ianueeee, 1983).

Aeoeai?noue o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace ? e?iii?ioa?ie?iace o
aeine?aeaeoaaiiio i`yc? aecia/aee oeyoii ?ieoaaoe?? aiiiaaiao?a i`yca c
oa?iii-80 i?e ?I a?aeiia?aeii 7,0 ? 8,5 c ianooiiei aecia/aiiyi
eiioeaio?aoe?? a?eueieo aee?ieo eeneio (Iie?ianeee,1965).

?ioaineai?noue neioaco e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aeine?aeaeoaaieo
oaa?ei aecia/aee oeyoii ?ieoaaoe?? aiiiaaiao?a i`yca o oinoaoiiio aooa??
E?aan-??iaa?a (?I-7,4) c ((—(((( aetheicith aai (1—14N( aoeaoaoii ?c
ianooiiei aecia/aiiyi ?aae?iaeoeaiino? neioaciaaieo e?i?ae?a, yea
i?iaiaeeee ia ??aeeiiiio noeeioeeyoe?eiiio e?/eeueieeo ((( (Oaaoe?y).
Oaeaee?noue ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio o aeine?aeaeoaaiiio i`yc? aecia/aee
oeyoii ?ieoaaoe?? aiiiaaiao?a i`yca o aeacaiiio aooa?? c (1—14N(
iaeuei?oeiiaith ? (1—14N( noaa?eiiaith eeneioaie ? ianooiiei aecia/aiiyi
?aae?iaeoeaiino? ooai?aiiai NI2.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy

1. Ci?ie caaaeueiiai ai?noo e?i?ae?a ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?aieo ?o eean?a
o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca ae?? aae?aiae?io a
iioiaaiac?. Aeine?aeaeaii, ui caaaeueiee ai?no e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo
i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ioyaii iinoiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo
iinooiiai ca?eueoo?oueny, a ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?aieo ?o eean?a ?noioii
ci?ith?oueny (?en.1.1). Caaaeueiee ai?no e?i?ae?a o neaeaoiiio i`yc?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaa?ei ca ia??iae c 1- aei 20- i?ny/iiai a?eo c
?ic?aooieo ia nooo iano oeaieie ca?eueoo?oueny a 2,34 ?aco (?(0,001).
I?e oeueiio ai?no o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a o aeine?aeaeoaai?e oeaiei?
ca?eueoo?oueny a 1,75 ?aco (?(0,001), a ai?no oinoie?i?ae?a, a?eueiiai ?
aoa?eo?eiaaiiai oieanoa?ieo ciaioo?oueny a?aeiia?aeii o 1,51; 1,45 ?
1,33 ?aco (?(0,001). Ai?no aeeaoeeeae?oea?ie?a ? a?eueieo aee?ieo eeneio
?noioii ia ci?ith?oueny. A?aeiioaiiy i?ae ai?noii a?eueiiai ?
aoa?eo?eiaaiiai oieanoa?ieo o neaeaoiiio i`yc? aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaa?ei
ca ia??iae c 1- aei 20-i?ny/iiai a?eo ciaioo?oueny c 1,46 aei 1,35.

Caaaeueiee ai?no e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae
i?ney i?aeoe??iiai aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io i?ioyaii 3-o aei?a o 1-, 3-,
6-, 12- ? 20-i?ny/iiio a?oe? aoa a?aeiia?aeii ia 13,86; 20,88; 19,30;
17,62; 16,72% iaioee (?(0,01-0,001) ii??aiyii c ?o ai?noii o neaeaoieo
i`ycao oaa?ei eiio?ieueieo a?oi aeacaiiai a?eo, yeei ai?iii ia aaiaeeee.

?en. 1.1. Aeeiai?ea iniiaieo eean?a e?i?ae?a neaeaoieo i’yc?a aaeeei?
?iaaoi? ooaeiae a iioiaaiac?:

a) eiio?ieue; a) aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io.

I?ei?oea: 1.A??ia?aei? ci?ie aeine?aeaeoaaieo iieaciee?a ii??aiyii c
eiio?ieai: ( ?<0,05; (( ?< 0,01; ((( ? <0,001. 2.Ai?no e?i?ae?a ae?aaeaiee o i?ioeaioao c ?ic?aooieo ia nooo iano i(yciai? oeaieie. Cieaeaiiy caaaeueiiai ai?noo e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ney aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io coiiaeaia ciaioaiiyi o ?o neeaae? /anoee o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a, yea o oaa?ei aeine?aeieo a?oi aoea a?aeiia?aeii ia 16,09; 17,60; 11,57; 13,87 ? 8,11% iaioa, i?ae o oaa?ei eiio?ieueieo a?oi (?(0,05-0,001). sse aoaea iieacaii ieae/a, cieaeaiiy ai?noo o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaa?ei i?ney aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io coiiaeaia iineeaiiyi ?o ?icuaieaiiy aiane?aeie i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace. I?i oea na?ae/eoue oaeiae ii??aiyiiy ai?noo iaaoa?eo?eiaaieo aee?ieo eeneio o neeaae? caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a o i`ycia?e oeaiei? oaa?ei aeine?aeieo a?oi ia an?o aoaiao aeine?aeaeaiiy ii??aiyii c ?o ai?noii o oaa?ei eiio?ieueieo a?oi (?(0,01-0,001). I?ney aaaaeaiiy aeine?aeiei oaa?eiai aae?aiae?io o caaaeueiiio ai?no? e?i?ae?a oaeiae aeyaeyeany oaiaeaioe?y aei ca?eueoaiiy /anoee oinoie?i?ae?a ? aeeaoeeeae?oea?ie?a, oiae? ye /anoea a?eueiiai ? aoa?eo?eiaaiiai oieanoa?ieo i?e oeueiio aeaui ciaioo?oueny (?(0,5-0,1). 2. Ci?ie aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a ? oinoie?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca ae?? aae?aiae?io a iioiaaiac?. sse iieacaii ia ?en. 2.1-2.2, ci?ie caaaeueiiai ai?noo e?i?ae?a ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?aieo ?o eean?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ioyaii iinoiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ci?iaie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?aieo aee?ieo eeneio a ?o neeaae?. Iaea?eueoith i??ith ae?aaeai? oe? ci?ie a ia??iae c 1- aei 6-i?ny/iiai a?eo, ui coiiaeaia ia?aoiaeii oaeyo a?ae iiei/iiai aeeaeaiiy aei ?ineeiiiai ? i?eaiaeeoue aei ?icaeoeo ia?aaeoeoie?a oa aieeao i?e?ii?aai?ci?a ia i?ioeane a?ae?iaai?caoe?? ? ?io? iiaeeo?eaoe?? iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio, ye? i?noyoueny a e?i?aeao ?ineeiieo ei?i?a. O oeueiio ieai? ianaiia?aae ne?ae a?aei?oeoe ca?eueoaiiy /anoee iane/aieo ? ciaioaiiy /anoee iiiiiaiane/aieo oa iie?iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio o neeaae? caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a ia??iae c 1- aei 6-i?ny/iiai a?eo ? cia/ii iaio? ci?ie o ni?aa?aeiioaii? ie?aieo aee?ieo eeneio a ia??iae c 6- aei 20-i?ny/iiai a?eo. O ia??iae c 1- aei 6-i?ny/iiai a?eo a?aeiiniee ai?no iane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio o e?i?aeao neaeaoieo i`yc?a oaeyo ca?eueoo?oueny c 38,98 aei 50,30%, ai?no iie?iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio ciaioo?oueny c 23,41aei 18,54%, ai?no iiiiiaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio — c 37,35 aei 32,05%. Oe? a?aei?iiino? coiiaeai? a iniiaiiio ca?eueoaiiyi o e?i?aeao neaeaoieo i`yc?a oaeyo o aeacaiee ia??iae ai?noo iaeuei?oeiiai? oa noaa?eiiai? (?(0,001; ?(0,01) ? ciaioaiiyi ai?noo iea?iiai? (?(0,01) oa e?iieaai? (?(0,001) eeneio. O oeae ia??iae o e?i?aeao neaeaoieo i`yc?a oaeyo aeyaeythoueny oaeiae noaoenoe/ii aeinoia??i? ci?ie o ai?no? aeayeeo i?ii?ieo aee?ieo eeneio, i?ioa i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaa cia/aiiy oeeo ci?i c`yniaaia iaioith i??ith. C 6- aei 20-i?ny/iiai a?eo oa i?ney caaa?oaiiy ii?oiooieoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ia?aaeoeoie?a, aee?iieeneioiee neeaae e?i?ae?a neaeaoieo i`yc?a aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ci?iththoueny iaioith i??ith, i?ae c 1- aei 6-i?ny/iiai a?eo. O aeacaiee ia??iae ai?no iane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio o e?i?aeao neaeaoieo i`yc?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaa?ei ca?eueoo?oueny c 50,30 aei 52,23%, ai?no iie?iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio — c 18,54 aei 20,08%, a ai?no iiiiiaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio ciaioo?oueny c 32,05 aei 26,50%. I?iaaaeai? iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ci?ie aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo oinoie?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo iinoiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeeie ae caeiiii??iinoyie, ye ci?ie aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a, i?ioa aiie ae?aaeai? iaioith i??ith. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe ocaiaeaeothoueny c iayaieie a e?oa?aoo?? aeaieie i?i a?eueo? ci?ie aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo iaeo?aeueieo e?i?ae?a, i?ae oinoie?i?ae?a o oeaieiao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae c a?eii (Caoa??a, 1996). ?en. 2.2. Aeeiai?ea aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo e?i?ae?a neaeaoieo i’yc?a aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a iioiaaiac?: a) eiio?ieue; a) aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io. Ii??aiyiiy aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo e?i?ae?a o aeine?aeaeoaaiiio neaeaoiiio i`yc? oaa?ei a 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- ? 20-i?ny/iiio a?oe? aei ? i?ney aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io na?ae/eoue i?i cia/iee aieea ai?iiio ia iaoaaie?ci ie?aieo aee?ieo eeneio ? ?o aeei?enoaiiy o neioac? e?i?ae?a. Ianaiia?aae ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui ia an?o aoaiao aeine?aeaeaiiy o e?i?aeao neaeaoieo i`yc?a aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ney aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io ca?eueoo?oueny /anoea iane/aieo ? ciaioo?oueny /anoea iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio. Oae, /anoea iane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio o neeaae? caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao oaa?ei eiio?ieueieo a?oi o 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- ? 20-i?ny/iiio a?oe? noaiiaeea a?aeiia?aeii 38,98; 44,87; 50,30; 50,51; 53,23%, a o aeine?aeieo — 42,65; 46,35; 52,53; 52,63; 56,75% caaaeueii? e?eueeino? aee?ieo eeneio. Ca?eueoaiiy /anoee iane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio o e?i?aeao neaeaoieo i`yc?a aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a?aeaoaa?oueny a iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy a ?o neeaae? a?aeiiniiai ai?noo iaeuei?oeiiai? ? noaa?eiiai? eeneio, a ciaioaiiy /anoee iie?iaiane/aieo aee?ieo — ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy ai?noo e?iieaai? eeneioe. Ci?ie aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo oinoie?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ney aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io oa?aeoa?ecothoueny oaeeie ae caeiiii??iinoyie, ye ? ci?ie aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo caaaeueieo e?i?ae?a. 3. Ci?ie aeoeaiino? o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace ? e?iii?ioa?ie?iace o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca ae?? aae?aiae?io a iioiaaiac?. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue (oaae.3.1) anoaiiaeaii, ui aeoeai?noue o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace o aeine?aeaeoaaiiio i`yc? aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca ia??iae c 1- aei 20-i?ny/iiai a?eo cieaeo?oueny o 1,94 ?aco (?(0,001), ui na?ae/eoue i?i iaa?iaio caeaaei?noue i?ae ci?iaie ai?noo o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a ? aeoeai?noth o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace o aeacai?e oeaiei? aeaiiai aeaeo i?ioyaii iinoiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeoeaiino? o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace, aeoeai?noue e?iii?ioa?ie?iace o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca ia??iae c 1- aei 20-i?ny/iiai a?eo i?aeaeuo?oueny o 1,54 ?aco (?(0,001). C oeeo aeaieo aeieeaa?, ui ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae c a?eii coiiaeaia ia o?eueee cieaeaiiyi nooiaiy ?o ?icuaieaiiy aiane?aeie cieaeaiiy aeoeaiino? e?iii?ioa?ie?iace, a e i?aeaeuaiiyi nooiaiy iiaeeiaiiy c e?ia? o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny o neeaae? ne?iaaoeiaeo e?iii?ioa?i?a. Oaaeeoey 3.1 Aieea aeciaaiiiai aae?aiae?io ia aeoeai?noue o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace ? e?iii?ioa?ie?iace o neaeaoieo i`ycao aeine?aeaeoaaii? aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a iioiaaiac? (I((, ieaea aee?ieo eeneio / a ne?i? oeaieie, (=5) Aeine?aeaeoaai? oa?iaioe A?e oaa?ei, i?nyoe? O?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iaca E?iii?ioa?ie?iaca Eiio?ieue Aae?aiae?i Eiio?ieue Aae?aiae?i 1 6,20(0,24 12,48(0,50((( 12,14(0,55 8,11(0,37(( 3 5,70(0,27 11,18(0,70((( 12,00(0,70 8,22(0,70( 6 4,85(0,24 9,16(0,33((( 14,73(0,21 10,16(0,56((( 12 4,12(0,20 7,36(0,27((( 16,15(0,44 13,70(0,65( 20 3,19(0,24 5,28(0,34(( 18,66(0,70 16,15(0,61( I?ei?oea. A??ia?aei? ci?ie aeine?aeaeoaaieo iieaciee?a ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai: ( ?<0,05; (( ?< 0,01; ((( ? <0,001. I?ney aaaaeaiiy ai?iiio aeoeai?noue o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace o neaeaoieo i`ycao oaa?ei aeine?aeieo a?oi o 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- ? 20-i?ny/iiio a?oe? aoea a?aeiia?aeii o 2,01; 1,96; 1,89; 1,79 ? 1,66 ?aco aeua (?(0,001), a aeoeai?noue e?iii?ioa?ie?iace — a 1,50; 1,46; 1,45; 1,18 ? 1,16 ?aco ieae/a (?(0,05-0,001), i?ae o neaeaoieo i`ycao oaa?ei eiio?ieueieo a?oi, yeei ai?iii ia aaiaeeee. Oe? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i e?iie?oe/iee aoaeo aae?aiae?io o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae. 4. Ci?ie ?ioaineaiino? ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca ae?? aae?aiae?io a iioiaaiac?. C iaaaaeaieo o oaae. 4.1 aeaieo aeaeii, ui ?ioaineai?noue ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ioyaii iinoiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo iinooiiai cieaeo?oueny. Oae, nooi?iue ieeniaiiy (1—14N( iaeuei?oeiiai? eeneioe o neaeaoieo i`ycao aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaa?ei a oiiaao (( ((((( ca ia??iae c 1- aei 20-i?ny/iiai a?eo cieaeo?oueny o 3,27 ?aco, ?ioaineai?noue ieeniaiiy (1—14N( noaa?eiiai? eeneioe — o 1,85 ?aco (?(0,001). Oe? ci?ie na?ae/aoue i?i o?niee ca`ycie i?ae ci?iaie aeoeaiino? o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace oa ?ioaineaiino? ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae c a?eii. Oaaeeoey 4.1 Aieea aeciaaiiiai aae?aiae?io ia ?ioaineai?noue ieeniaiiy (1—14N( iaeuei?oeiiai? oa (1—14N( noaa?eiiai? eeneio o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a iioiaaiac? (I((, oen. ?ii/100ia. ne?. oe., (=5) AEe?ia eeneioa A?e oaa?ei, (1—14N( iaeuei?oao (1—14N( noaa?ao i?nyoe? Eiio?ieue Aae?aiae?i Eiio?ieue Aae?aiae?i 1 2,75(0,07 3,92(0,10((( 1,83(0,05 2,42(0,03((( 3 2,24(0,11 3,30(0,15(( 1,95(0,03 2,53(0,04((( 6 1,65(0,05 2,92(0,08((( 1,44(0,04 1,97(0,06((( 12 1,19(0,05 1,60(0,09(( 0,92(0,04 1,20(0,03(( 20 0,84(0,02 1,15(0,04((( 0,99(0,03 1,16(0,04( I?ei?oea. A??ia?aei? ci?ie aeine?aeaeoaaieo iieaciee?a ii??aiyii c eiio?ieai: ( ?<0,05; (( ?< 0,01; ((( ? <0,001. I?ney aaaaeaiiy aeine?aeiei oaa?eiai aae?aiae?io ?ioaineai?noue ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio o neaeaoieo i`ycao cia/ii i?aeaeuo?oueny. Oae, i?iaeoeoe?y 14NI2 ca ?aooiie ieeniaiiy (1—14N( iaeuei?oeiiai? eeneioe aiiiaaiaoaie neaeaoieo i`yc?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaa?ei a 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- ? 20-i?ny/iiio a?oe? i?ney aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io aoea a?aeiia?aeii o 1,43; 1,47; 1,87; 1,34 ? 1,37 ?aco (?(0,01-0,001), ca ?aooiie ieeniaiiy (1—14N( noaa?eiiai? eeneioe — o 1,32; 1,30; 1,37; 1,30 ? 1,17 ?aco (?(0,05-0,001) aeua, i?ae o neaeaoieo i`ycao oaa?ei eiio?ieueieo a?oi. C iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeieeaa?, ui noeioeueiaaia aae?aiae?iii i?aeaeuaiiy aeoeaiino? o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace o neaeaoieo i`ycao oaeyo ? aei?inei? aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?eaiaeeoue aei i?aeaeuaiiy oiiaeo a?eueieo eeneio ? iineeaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ?o a aia?aaoe/ieo i?ioeanao. Noeioethth/ee aieea aae?aiae?io ia ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ioyaii iinoiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo ciaioo?oueny. 5. Aieea aae?aiae?io ia ?ioaineai?noue neioaco e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a iioiaaiac?. I?iaaaeai? iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ?ioaineai?noue neioaco e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae c (6—14N( aetheice o ia??iae c 1- aei 3-i?ny/iiai a?eo ciaioo?oueny a 1,58 ?aco (?(0,001), a a ianooiiee ia??iae ci?ith?oueny a?aeiinii iaei. ?ioaineai?noue neioaco e?i?ae?a c (1—14N( ioeoiai? eeneioe o neaeaoieo i`ycao aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaa?ei o aeacaiee ia??iae i?aeaeuo?oueny a 1,54 ?aco ? a ianooiiee ia??iae ?noioii ia ci?ith?oueny. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe ocaiaeaeothoueny c iayaieie a e?oa?aoo?? aeaieie (Eo?oye, 1991; Aiae, 1992) i?i ciaioaiiy aeei?enoaiiy aetheice ? ca?eueoaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ioeoiai? eeneioe a neioac? e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao oaeyo i?ney ia?aoiaeo a?ae iiei/iiai aeeaeaiiy aei ?ineeiiiai. ?ioaineai?noue neioaco e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao oaa?ei aeine?aeieo a?oi, yeei aaiaeeee aae?aiae?i, a 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- ? 20-i?ny/iiio a?oe? a oiiaao (( ((((( c (6—14N( aetheice aoea a?aeiia?aeii ia 8,45; 3,51; 4,97; 10,40 ? 7,79% (?(0,5), a c (1—14N( ioeoiai? eeneioe — ia 25,69; 27,40; 14,31; 19,61 ? 11,56% (?(0,05-0,01) ieae/a ii??aiyii c ?ioaineai?noth neioaco e?i?ae?a o aeine?aeaeoaai?e oeaiei? oaa?ei eiio?ieueieo a?oi. C io?eiaieo aeaieo aeieeaa?, ui aeciaaiiee aae?aiae?i cia/ii a?eueoith i??ith ?ia?ao? neioac e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao oaeyo ? aei?inei? aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae (( (((( c ioeoiai? eeneioe, i?ae c aetheice. ?acii c oei, aiie na?ae/aoue i?i ?aoeei?ieio caeaaei?noue i?ae ?ioaineai?noth neioaco ? ?icuaieaiiy e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca ae?? aae?aiae?io. AENIIAEE Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeiiiaiththoue ? ?icaeaathoue oyaeaiiy i?i ?aaoeyoi?i? iaoai?cie, ye? eaaeaoue a iniia? ci?i ai?noo ie?aieo eean?a e?i?ae?a ? ?o aee?iieeneioiiai neeaaeo i?ioyaii iinoiaoaeueiiai iioiaaiaco. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?ae aieeaii aae?aiae?io o neaeaoieo icycao oaa?ei ci?ith?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ie?aieo eean?a e?i?ae?a ? ?o aee?iieeneioiee neeaae, ?ia?ao?oueny neioac e?i?ae?a ? iineeththoueny i?ioeane e?iie?co, i?aeaeuo?oueny ?ioaineai?noue ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio. Aieea aae?aiae?io ia aeacai? i?ioeane cieaeo?oueny c a?eii oaa?ei. Caaaeueiee ai?no e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca ia??iae c 1- aei 20- i?ny/iiai a?eo c?inoa? ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy /anoee o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a ? ciaioaiiy /anoee oinoie?i?ae?a, a?eueiiai ? aoa?eo?eiaaiiai oieanoa?ieo. O caaaeueieo e?i?aeao neaeaoieo i`yc?a aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a ia??iae c 1- aei 6- i?ny/iiai a?eo ciaioo?oueny ai?no e?iieaai? ? iea?iiai? eeneio oa ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no iaeuei?oeiiai? ? noaa?eiiai? eeneio. O ia??iae c 6- aei 20-i?ny/iiai a?eo o caaaeueieo e?i?aeao neaeaoieo i`yc?a oaa?ei ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no noaa?eiiai? ? ciaioo?oueny ai?no iea?iiai? eeneioe. O oinoie?i?aeao neaeaoieo i`yc?a aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae c a?eii ciaioo?oueny ai?no e?iieaai? ? iea?iiai? eeneio oa ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no iaeuei?oeiiai? eeneioe. Aeoeai?noue o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace oa ?ioaineai?noue ieeniaiiy [1-14N] iaeuei?oeiiai? ? [1-14N] noaa?eiiai? eeneio o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca aeacaiee ia??iae cieaeo?oueny, a aeoeai?noue e?iii?ioa?ie?iace i?aeaeuo?oueny. ?ioaineai?noue neioaco e?i?ae?a c [6-14N] aetheice o neaeaoieo i`ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae ca ia??iae c 1- aei 20- i?ny/iiai a?eo cieaeo?oueny, a c [1- 14N] ioeoiai? eeneioe i?aeaeuo?oueny. I?ney o?ee?aoiiai i?aeoe??iiai aaaaeaiiy aaeee?e ?iaao?e ooaeia? 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- ? 20- i?ny/iiai a?eo aae?aiae?io caaaeueiee ai?no e?i?ae?a ? ai?no o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a o neaeaoieo i`ycao ciaioo?oueny. O neaeaoieo i`ycao aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaa?ei i?ney aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io i?aeaeuo?oueny aeoeai?noue o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace oa ?ioaineai?noue ieeniaiiy [1-14N] iaeuei?oeiiai? ? [1-14N] noaa?eiiai? eeneio, cieaeo?oueny aeoeai?noue e?iii?ioa?ie?iace oa ?ioaineai?noue neioaco e?i?ae?a c [1-14N] ioeoiai? eeneioe. O caaaeueieo e?i?aeao ? oinoie?i?aeao neaeaoieo i`yc?a aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ney aaaaeaiiy aae?aiae?io ciaioo?oueny ai?no e?iieaai? ? a?ao?aeiiiai? eeneio ? ca?eueoo?oueny ai?no iaeuei?oeiiai? oa noaa?eiiai? eeneio. Iniiai? ?iaioe, iioae?eiaai? ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? Ae?aeiae/ A.I., E?aaoe?a ?.E., Ia?aiye ?.I.Aieea aae?aiae?io ia ai?no e?i?ae?a oa ?o aee?iieeneioiee neeaae o neaeaoieo i(ycao oaa?ei // Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1998.-Aei.20. (A?ieia?y). - N.72-76. Ia?aiye ?.I., Ae?aeiae/ A.I. ?aaoeyoi?iee aieea aae?aiae?io ia aeaye? iieacieee e?i?aeiiai iai?io o neaeaoieo i(ycao aoaaeoe?a //Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iaaeeoeeie, a?ieia??, aaoa?eia??? ? n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa.- 1998.- *aoaa?oa eieaa. - N. 230-232. Ae?aeiae/ A.I. Eaoaaie?ci e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i(ycao oaeyo ??ciiai a?eo i?ae aieeaii aae?aiae?io // Iaoeiaee a?niee *a?i?aaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo.- 1998.-Aei.38.(A?ieia?y).- N.108-112. E?aaoe?a ?.E., Ia?aiye ?.I., Ae?aeiae/ A.I., Iai/eoei A.A.Iniaeeaino? e?i?aeiiai iai?io a iieiaeiyea aeoeieo//N?euenueeee ainiiaea?.- 1998.-Aei.5, ? 5-6 -N.16-17. Ae?aeiae/ A.I., Einoeoei N.N. Aieea aae?aiae?io ia aeoeai?noue e?iie?oe/ieo oa?iaio?a o oaeyo//Oe?.a?io?i.aeo?i.-1999.-o.71, ?3.-N.95-98. Ae?aeiae/ A.I. Aieea aae?aiae?io ia e?i?aeiee iai?i o neaeaoieo icycao oaa?ei a iioiaaiac?. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa a?ieia?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth “a?io?i?y” – 03.00.04. - *a?i?aaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, *a?i?aoe?,1999. A ?iaio? i?aaenoaaeai? aeai? i?i o?c?ieiai-a?io?i?/i? iaoai?cie, ye? eaaeaoue a iniia? ci?i ai?noo e?i?ae?a o neaeaoieo i(ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a iioiaaiac? ? i?i ?ieue aae?aiae?io a ?aaoeyoe?? iai?io e?i?ae?a o aeacai?e oeaiei? aeaiiai aeaeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o neaeaoieo i(ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i?ioyaii iinoiaoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo c?inoa? ai?no o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a ? ciaioo?oueny ai?no oinoie?i?ae?a ? oieanoa?ieo. I?e oeueiio a neaeaoieo i(ycao cieaeo?oueny aeoeai?noue o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace ? i?aeaeuo?oueny aeoeai?noue e?iii?ioa?ie?iace, cieaeo?oueny ?ioaineai?noue ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio. A ia??iae c 1- aei 6-i?ny/iiai a?eo a neaeaoieo i(ycao aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae cieaeo?oueny aeei?enoaiiy aetheice ? c?inoa? aeei?enoaiiy ioeoiai? eeeioe a neioac? e?i?ae?a, ci?ith?oueny aee?iieeneioiee neeaae e?i?ae?a. I?ney o?e?aciaiai aaaaeaiiy oaa?eiai aae?aiae?io a neaeaoieo i(ycao cieaeo?oueny ai?no o?eaoeeeae?oea?ie?a, i?aeaeuo?oueny aeoeai?noue o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iace ? iineeth?oueny ieeniaiiy aee?ieo eeneio, cieaeo?oueny ?ioaineai?noue neioaco e?i?ae?a ?c ioeoiai? eeneioe, ci?ith?oueny aee?iieeneioiee neeaae e?i?ae?a. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aaeeea ?iaaoa ooaeiaa, e?i?aee, o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee, o?eaoeeeae?oea?iee?iaca, e?iii?ioa?ie?iaca, aetheica, aee?i? eeneioe, aae?aiae?i, NI2. Aeeaeiae/ A.I. Aeeyiea aae?aiaeeia ia eeieaeiue iaiai a neaeaoiuo iuooeao aeeaioiuo a iioiaaiaca. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aeieiae/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe “aeioeiey” – 03.00.04. - *a?iiaeoeeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei.TH.Oaaeueeiae/a Ieienoa?noaa i?inaauaiey Oe?aeiu, *a?iiaoeu,1999. A ?aaioa i?aaenoaaeaiu aeaiiua i oeceieiaiaeioeie/aneeo iaoaieciao, eioi?ua eaaeao a iniiaa eciaiaiee niaea?aeaiey eeieaeia a neaeaoiuo iuooeao e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa ia i?ioyaeaiee iinoiaoaeueiiai ?acaeoey e i ?iee aae?aiaeeia a ?aaoeyoeee iaiaia eeieaeia a oeacaiiie oeaie aeaiiiai aeaea. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi a neaeaoiuo iuooeao e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa n aic?anoii oaaee/eaaaony niaea?aeaiea o?eaoeeeaeeoea?ieia e oiaiueoaaony niaea?aeaiea oinoieeieaeia e oieanoa?iea. I?e yoii a neaeaoiuo iuooeao nieaeaaony aeoeaiinoue o?eaoeeeaeeoea?ieeeiace e iiauoaaony aeoeaiinoue eeiii?ioaeaeeeiacu, nieaeaaony eioaineaiinoue ieeneaiey aee?ieo eeneio. A ia?eiae n 1- aei 6-iany/iiai aic?anoa a neaeaoiuo iuooeao e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa oiaiueoaaony eniieueciaaiea aetheicu e oaaee/eaaaony eniieueciaaiea oenoniie eeneiou a neioaca eeieaeia, eciaiyaony aee?iieeneioiee ninoaa eeieaeia. Iinea o?aoe?aoiiai aaaaeaiey aeeaioiui a 1-, 3-, 6-, 12- e 20-iany/iii aic?anoa aae?aiaeeia iauaa niaea?aeaiea eeieaeia e niaea?aeaiea o?eaoeeeaeeoea?ieia a neaeaoiuo iuooeao oiaiueoaaony niioaaonoaaiii ia 13,86-20,88 ? 8,11-17,60%, a niaea?aeaiea oinoieeieaeia oaaee/eaaaony ia 6,49-10,10% a n?aaiaiee n eioaeoiuie aeeaioiuie. Ioia/aii iiauoaiea aeoeaiinoe o?eaoeeeaeeoea?ieeeiacu e eioaineaiinoe ieeneaiey (1—14N( iaeueieoeiiaie e (1—14N( noaa?eiiaie eeneio, iiieaeaiea aeoeaiinoe eeiii?ioaeieeiacu e eioaineaiinoe neioaca eeieaeia ec (1—14N( oenoniie eeneiou. Yeciaaiiue aae?aiaeei aucuaaao iiauoaiea niaea?aeeiey iaeueieoeiiaie noaa?eiiaie e ieaeiiaie eeneio e oiaiueoaiea niaea?aeaiey eeiieaaie, a?aoeaeiiiaie e yeeicaiaioaaiiaie eeneio a ninoaaa iaueo eeieaeia e oinoieeieaeia a oeacaiiie oeaie e?oiiiai ?iaaoiai neioa. Eeth/aaua neiaa: e?oiiue ?iaaoue neio, eeieaeu, o?eaoeeeaeeoea?ieu, o?eaoeeeaeeoea?ieeeiaca, eeiii?ioaeaeeeiaca, aetheica, aee?iua eeneiou, aae?aiaeei,NI2. Didovych A.P. Influence of adrenaline on lipid metabolism in cattle skeletal muscles in ontogenesis.- Manuscript. Thesis for the competition of a scientific degree of the Candidate of Biological science on the speciality 03.00.04 – Biochemistry. Yu. Fedkovych Chernovtsi State University, Chernovtsi, 1999. The thesis presents data of physiology and biochemical mechanisms which are the changes base of content of lipids in skeletal muscles of the cattle in ontogenesis and of adrenaline role in regulation of lipids changes in the tissue of given species. It has been determined that in skeletal muscles of the cattle during postnatal development the content of tryglycerides increases and the content of phosfolipids and cholesterol decreases. At this the activity of tryglycerol lipase in skeletal muscles decreases and the activity of lipoprotein lipase increases, the intensity of fatty acids oxidation decreaces. At the period from the 1-st to the 6-th months of age in cattle skeletal muscles the usage of glucose decreases and the usage of acetic acid increaces in lipids synthesis, fatty and acids lipids content changes. After three times introduction of adrenaline the content of tryglycerides decreases, the activity of tryglycerol lipase increases and oxidation of fatty acids strengthens, the intensity of lipid synthesis from acetic acid decreases, fatty acids composition changes in the skeletal muscles of the cattle. Key Words: cattle, lipids, tryglycerides, tryglycerol lipase, lipoprotein lipase, glucose, fatty acids, adrenaline, NI2.

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