I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Iiainaae E?e?y ss?ineaa?aia

OAeE: 336.3

Aioo??oi? iiceee ye o?iainiaee ?ano?n aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.04.01 – o?iaine, a?ioiaee ia?a ? e?aaeeo

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?iain?a Oa?iii?euenueei? aeaaeai??
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio eaoaae?e
o?iain?a Oa?iii?euenueei? aeaaeai?? ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa Aiae?ouaiei
Aieiaeeie? Eaii?aeiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?, aieiaiee

iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo i?aeia?iaeieo aaethoii- o?iainiaeo
a?aeiinei ?inoeoooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie Noaiaiaiei Aieiaeeie? Iiaianiae/

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio, aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo aaie???a
aaieo «Oe?a?ia» Iia??i Aaea??e Ieoaeeiae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,
eaoaae?a o?iain?a,a?ioiaiai ia?ao ? e?aaeeoo

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny «12» aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 16 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.006.02 o Ee?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252057, i. Ee?a,
i?iniaeo ia?aiiae, 54/1, aoae. 214.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «11» ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? iaoe, i?ioani?

?aaee A.I. Iiaeae??ueia?i

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

OA NOOI?IUe AeINE?AeAEAIINO? AeENA?OAOe??

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oe?a?ia, ?icaoaeiaoth/e naith aea?aeaai?noue ?
?eieiao aeiiii?eo, ?ioaa?o?oueny o na?oiao aeiiii?eo oa i?aeia?iaeiee
o?iainiaee ?eiie. Iiaoaeiaa aeaiie?aoe/ii?, nioe?aeueii?, i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae, ye aecia/aii o Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie, aeiaaa? ?ioaineaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy an?o iayaieo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, aoaeoeaiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a. Iaiao?aeii iioeiaeueii
caae?yoe on? iiaeeea? aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy aeaeaoe?a athaeaeaoo.
Caeo/aiiy eioo?a ia o?iainiaiio ?eieo /a?ac aeione oe?iieo iaia??a —
aaaiiee o?iainiaee ?ano?n aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, can?a iie?eooy
athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo. Aeei?enoaiiy iice/eiaiai iaoiaeo o?iainoaaiiy
athaeaeaoieo aeaeaoe?a a iioeiaeueieo ?ici??ao ni?ey? ciaioaiith
iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y.

Caeo/aiiy o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo coiiaeee ooai?aiiy
cia/iiai aioo??oiueiai aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao Oe?a?ie. Oiio iei? iniaeeai
aino?i iinoaee ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ?ici???a aea?aeaaii?
caai?aiaaiino?, aaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e, iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy oa
ianeoaiaoaaiiy aioo??oiueiai aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao. Oea aeiaaa? noai?aiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo canaae aoaeoeaii? ? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? o?iainiai?
iie?oeee iioei?caoe?? caai?aiaaiino? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. C iaeyaeo
ia aeuaneacaia, aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue ?icaeoeo ?eieo aioo??oi?o
aea?aeaaieo iicee oa i?iaeaie aioo??oiueiai aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao ?
aaaeeeaei oa aeooaeueiei ye c oai?aoe/ieo, oae ? iniaeeai c i?aeoe/ieo
iiceoe?e.

Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo oa aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao iaaiith
i??ith aea/ai? o o?iainia?e e?oa?aoo??. Iaeaaeia i?noea o ?ic?iaoe?
oe??? i?iaeaie caeiathoue ?iaioe oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo:
I.A.Aiaa/aanueeiai, A.I. Iia??ia, A.I.Nooi?i?ii?, A.I.Noaiaiaiea,
A.I.Oaaeiniaa oa ?ioeo. Na?aae ?in?enueeeo a/aieo aa?oi aeae?eeoe
?iaioe: A.A.Aieaee??aa, E.I.Ae?iaic?ii?, ?.I.Aioiaa, E.I.E?anaa?ii?,
?.I.Inaae/i? oa ?io. Na?aae no/anieo cao?aeieo aeiiii?no?a aaaiiee
aianie a aeine?aeaeaiiy oe??? oaie c?iaeee: Aeae.A SYMBOL 162 \f
«Symbol» \s 14 c theaiai, N.Aaeio?aoa, I.Aiaeia, ?.Aecia?, Aeae. Eaein,
A.Eaooa?, A.Ea?ia?, ?.Iana?aea, I.O??aeiai, A.Oainai oa ?io. O
a?o/eciyi?e o?iainiai-aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iaaeinoaoiuei iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, niaoe?aeueii i?enay/aieo i?iaeaiai ?icaeoeo ?eieo
aioo??oi?o aea?aeaaieo iicee oa aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao a Oe?a?i?.
Aaaeeea?noue oa aeooaeuei?noue oeeo i?iaeai iio?aaothoue ye inieneaiiy
oai?aoe/ieo canaae, oae ? ?ic?iaee i?aeoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue oa
i?iiiceoe?e. Oe? ianoaaeie, a oaeiae ?icoi?iiy aaeeeiai
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai cia/aiiy, ye? iathoue
iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeuaiacaaieo i?iaeai, niiioeaei aaoi?a aei ?iaioe
iaae aeaiith oaiith aeena?oaoe??.

Ca SYMBOL 162 \f «Symbol» \s 14 c ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie,
ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia
ii?aoeueiaaii? eieaeoeaii eaoaae?e o?iain?a Oa?iii?euenueei? aeaaeai??
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa eiiieaenii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? oaie “athaeaeao
o nenoai? ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a ” (iiia?
aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0197U003465).

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o eiiieaeniiio aeine?aeaeaii? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
nenoaie aioo??oi?o aea?aeaaieo iicee oa aioo??oiueiai aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao
Oe?a?ie, iaoeiai-oai?aoe/iiio ?o iaa?oioiaaii? oa i?aeoe/iiio
oaeineiiaeaii?.

Aeinyaiooe iinoaaeaio iaoo ia?aaeaa/a?oueny oeyoii ae??oaiiy ianooiieo
iaoeiaeo caaaeaiue:

— ?ice?eoe nooi?nii-oai?aoe/i? canaaee aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo ye
?iaiaioii? neeaaeiai? aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a;

— iieacaoe ?ieue aea?aeaae ye iice/aeueieea eioo?a ia o?iainiaiio ?eieo;

— ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iniiai? aeaee aea?aeaaieo ai?aiaeo ciaia SYMBOL 162
\f «Symbol» \s 14 c ycaiue, ye? ?niothoue o a?o/eciyi?e i?aeoeoe?;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe noai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo aea?aeaaieo iae?aaoe?e a
Oe?a?i?;

— aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? nenoaie aioo??oi?o
aea?aeaaieo iicee;

— ?icaeyiooe oa i?iaiae?coaaoe no?oeoo?o aioo??oiueiai aea?aeaaiiai
ai?ao Oe?a?ie, iaoai?ci eiai oi?aae?iiy oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy;

— iaa?oiooaaoe iai?yiee aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy
aioo??oiueiai aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao Oe?a?ie;

— ?ic?iaeoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ?ici??o ?
no?oeoo?e aioo??oiueiai aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao Oe?a?ie.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o?iainia? a?aeiineie, ui aeieeathoue i?ae
aea?aeaaith oa th?eaee/ieie ? o?ce/ieie iniaaie, a i?ioean?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy yeeo noai?ththoueny aeueoa?iaoeai? iiaeaoeai a?ioia?
?ano?ne athaeaeaoo, aeieea? e ooieoe?iio? aea?aeaaiee ai?a.

Ia SYMBOL 162 \f «Symbol» \s 14 c ?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaia
aioo??oi?o aea?aeaaieo iicee oa aea?aeaaiee aioo??oi?e ai?a Oe?a?ie ye
?? iane?aeie.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue
oai?aoe/ii-eiioeaiooaeuei?, aii??e/ii-aiae?oe/i?,
oi?iaeueii-iaoaiaoe/i?, iiceoeai? e ii?iaoeai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ui ia?aaeaa/athoue: ?icaeyae aaiethoe?? oai?aoe/ieo oeoia/aiue a?aeiinei
aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo; aiae?oe/ii-a?ao?/io oi?iae?caoe?th o?iainiaeo
i?ioean?a; ii??aiyeueii-iiceoeaiee aiae?c oaeo?a, iieaciee?a ? aeaieo,
acyoeo o aeeiai?oe?; e?eoe/ii-ii?iaoeaio ioe?ieo noaio aea?aeaaieo
o?iain?a Oe?a?ie oa o?yaeiaeo caoiae?a o noa?? aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo. A
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? oai?/i inieneai? oai?aoe/i? e aii??e/i? iaaeaaiiy
na?oiai? o?iainiai? iaoee, i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo o/aieo c
ieoaiue oai??? ? i?aeoeee aea?aeaaieo iicee oa aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao. Aeey
aiae?co ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aioo??oi?o aea?aeaaieo iicee oa noaio
aioo??oiuei? caai?aiaaiino? Oe?a?ie aeei?enoai? iaoa??aee I?i?noa?noaa
o?iain?a Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo
Oe?a?ie, Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy Aea?aeaaiiai eacia/aenoaa Oe?a?ie,
I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie oa Aea?aeaaii? eii?n?? c oe?iieo iaia??a
oa oiiaeiaiai ?eieo. Aeei?enoai? noaoenoe/i? ca??ieee
Oe?a?inueei-?a?iiaenueeiai eiinoeueoaoea-iiai oeaio?o c ieoaiue
caeiiiaeaanoaa, I?aeia?iaeiiai aaethoiiai oiiaeo, ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
i?aeia?iaeieo aenia?o?a uiaei ?icaeoeo ?eieo aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a
a Oe?a?i?, a oaeiae aeia?aeeiaa, iiiia?ao?/ia ? ia??iaee/ia a?o/eciyia e
ca?oa?aeia e?oa?aoo?a.

iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o
ianooiiiio:

ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai ocaaaeueiaiiy oai?aoe/ieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e
aioo??oiuei? aea?aeaaii? caai?aiaaiino? a?aoiaioiaaii aeniiaie i?i
?aaeuei?noue ai?aiaiai oyaa?y (anoia?a/ aeueoa?iaoeaiei oaa?aeaeaiiyi);

aeiaaaeaii, ui aeeeaia “iiaeaoee-iiceee” ? ia’?eoeaiei
aca?iiaeiiiaithth/ei o?neaeueiei oaiiiaiii;

a ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aeyaeai? caeiiii??iino? oa aeeiai?ea
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieo aea?aeaaieo iae?aaoe?e, aecia/aii ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo, cai?iiiiiaaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aaeineiiaeaiith ?eieo
aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a a Oe?a?i?;

aeiaaaeaii aeioe?euei?noue iii??iiai ia?iuoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao ca
oiiae ciaioaiiy ?aaeueii? aa?oino? eiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy oa
a?aeiia?aeiino? aeeiai?ee caai?aiaaiino? c oaiiaie aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo,
iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ca?eueoaiiy na?aaeiuei- oa aeiaaino?ieiai?
/anoee caai?aiaaiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee ia aeiiii?/iiio oaeoeueoao? i?e /eoaii?
eaeoe?e oa i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue c eo?n?a “O?iaine”,
“Oiiaeiaee ?eiie”. I?iiiceoe?? oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aaoi?a uiaei ?icoe?aiiy
aeae?a aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a aeey a?o/eciyieo ?iaanoi??a,
aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a ?eieo aea?aeiae?aaoe?e aeey o?iainoaaiiy
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a, iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e aioo??oiuei?
caai?aiaaiino? Oe?a?ie, aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy oa
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ai?ao oa ?yae ?ioeo iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o i?ioean?
?icaeoeo oa ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo a Oe?a?i?.

A?aeiia?aei? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy iane?aee?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
iaae?neai? o o?iainiaa oi?aae?iiy aieeinueei? iaeanii? aea?aeaaii?
aaei?i?no?aoe?? ? aoaeooue a?aoiaoaaoeny o i?ioean? aeioneo
ioi?oeeiaeueieo oe?iieo iaia??a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaeaaaeeea?o?
iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo “?aoi?ia o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee” i.Eooeuee, 1997 ?., “?aoi?ia o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii?
nenoaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee” i.Eooeuee, 1998 ?.; iioae?eiaai? noaoo? a
aeo?iae? «O?iaine Oe?a?ie» «Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae ?
iae?iaeiiii?/i? iane?aeee aea?aeaaii? caai?aiaaiino?», a oaeiae o
iaoeiaiio a?nieeo Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean?
Oe?a?iee «Aeiiii?/ia, iie?oe/ia ? aoe/ia i?e?iaea aea?aeaaiiai
e?aaeeoo».

Ca iaoa??aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii 4 ?iaioe caaaeueiei ianyaii
2,2 ae.a.,?c ieo 3 ?iaioe a iaoeiaeo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo caaaeueiei
ianyaii 1,7 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa aeiaeaoe?a.

O anooi? aaoi?ii aecia/ai? i?aaeiao, ia’?eo, iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaa?oioiaai? eiai oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy, aeooaeuei?noue oa nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie aeena?oaoe??.
O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooa aeiiii?/ia oa aoe/ii-i?aaiaa i?e?iaea
aea?aeaaieo iicee, aaiethoe?y oai?aoe/ieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e o?neaeueii?
aeeeaie ? aea?aeaaii? caai?aiaaiino?. Ae?oaee ?icae?e aena?oeth? ieoaiiy
ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?o/eciyii? nenoaie aioo??oi?o aea?aeaaieo iicee. O
ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii i?noea oa cia/aiiy ia?ao aea?aeaaieo
oe?iieo iaia??a ia a?o/eciyiiio o?iainiaiio ?eieo, ooieoe?iioaaiiy
nenoaie aioo??oi?o aea?aeaaieo iicee a Oe?a?i?. O o?aoueiio ?icae?e?
aeine?aeaeaii noai aioo??oiueiai aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao, aecia/aii i???ioe?e
oa neeaaeia? o?iainiai? iie?oeee iioei?caoe?? caai?aiaaiino?
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Aeniiaee i?noyoue iniiai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aaoi?a,
c?iaeai? iei ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 161 noi??ieo ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 12
oaaeeoeue ? 17 ?enoiee, nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, yeee
iae?/o? 161 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss ? ?ACOEUeOAOE AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi o?e a?oie i?iaeai.

Ia?oa a?oia i?iaeai iia’ycaia ?c aena?oeaiiyi nooi?nii-oai?aoe/ieo
canaae aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo oa aaiethoe?? oai?aoe/ieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e
aea?aeaaii? caai?aiaaiino?.

Aea?aeaaiee e?aaeeo ? ?iaiaioiith neeaaeiaith aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a.
Iaiao?aei?noue aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo coiiaeaia oei, ui aea?aeaaa a nai?e
ae?yeueiino? caeaa?eueoiai aeoiaeeoue c iaae o?neaeueieo iiaeeeainoae,
caaacia/oaaieo iiaeaoeaie. Iiaeieaoe aa?’?? i?ae iayaieie eiooaie ?
aeiaeaoeiai iaiao?aeiith iio?aaith a ieo aea? iiaeeea?noue aea?aeaaiee
e?aaeeo, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai a?ioia? eiooe, caiice/ai? ia ?eieo
iice/eiaeo eai?oae?a, caae?ththoueny aea?aeaaith, ?icoe?thth/e oei naiei
?? o?iainia? ?ano?ne.

Oai?/i ocaaaeueieaoe iiaeyaee a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
o/aieo-o?iaineno?a aaoi? i?iiiio? oaea aecia/aiiy aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo:

Aea?aeaaiee e?aaeeo – oea caniiaaia ia aeia??’?, aca?iieo ?ioa?anao ?
ciaia’ycaiiyo ai?aeiee?a oa e?aaeeoi??a noeoii?noue o?iainiaeo oaiae ii
iaaeaiith aea?aeaaith aai aea?aeaa? eioo?a o oei/aniaa, ieaoia e
a?aeoeiaeiaoaaia ei?enooaaiiy, (a oaeiae iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae c
a?aeno?i/eith ieaoaaeo). Ca iaoei ia?aeiiaiiyi, aeaia aeao?i?oe?y
aaeaeaaoii a?aeia?aaea? aoe/ii-i?aaiao e o?iainiai-aeiiii?/io i?e?iaeo
aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo.

A neeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ianoaaei, ye?
ii?iaeaeothoue athaeaeaoi? aeao?oeeoe, aea?aeaaa a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai
e?aaeeoo aenooia? ia?aaaaeii ai?aeieeii. Oiio a iaoeiaiio ieai? oaia
aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo, e??i nooi iia?aoe?eieo caoiae?a ii ?ici?uaiith e
oi?aae?iith iiceeaie, caiaeeoueny ii noo? aei c?noaaeaiiy c iiaeaoeaie
ye aeueoa?iaoeaiei aeaea?aeii o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a oa
caaeainoaaiiy athaeaeaoo, a oaeiae aei i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao,
iniaeeai eiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy. Aea?aeaaa aenooia? ye e?aaeeoi?, iaaeath/e
iiceee th?eaee/iei ? o?ce/iei iniaai. O oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee aea?aeaaa
aa?a ia naaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iiaaoaiiy iiceee /e aeeiiaiiy ?ioeo
ciaia SYMBOL 162 \f «Symbol» \s 14 c ycaiue o?ce/ieie oa th?eaee/ieie
iniaaie, aiia aenooia? ye aa?aio. O aioo??oiueiaeiiii?/i?e noa?? ?ieue
aea?aeaae ye e?aaeeoi?a ? aa?aioa ia ii?yaeie iaioa, i?ae ?? ?ieue ye
ai?aeieea.

Ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ooai?aiiy aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao. Noia eiai neeaaea?oueny c on?o aeiouaieo ?
iaiiaaoaieo ai?aiaeo ciaia SYMBOL 162 \f «Symbol» \s 14 c ycaiue
aea?aeaae (ye aioo??oi?o, oae ? ciai?oi?o), aeeth/ath/e aeaeai? aa?aio??
ca e?aaeeoaie. Aaniethoia aaee/eia, aeeiai?ea ? oaiie ci?ie ai?ao
a?aeia?aaeathoue noai aeiiii?ee ? o?iain?a e?a?ie, aoaeoeai?noue
ae?yeueiino? a?aeiia?aeieo aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?. Noai aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao
caeaaeeoue a?ae ui??/ieo iia?aoe?e o noa?? e?aaeeoiio?eiaiiy iiaeo
iicee, c iaeiiai aieo, ?ici???a iiaaoaiue ? aeieao i?ioeaio?a, c
ae?oaiai. Aea?aeaaiee e?aaeeo, ii?aeioth/e aeanoeaino? o?iain?a acaaae?
? aeania e?aaeeoo cie?aia, ? oi?eaeueiith oi?iith iia?e?caoe??
o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a. Iiceee aeathoue iiaeeea?noue io?eioaaoe eiooe ia
oiiaao iiaa?iaiino?, oa?i?iiaino?, ieaoiino? oa aeia?ia?eueiino?. Aeione
iicee aea? ciiao o?yaeo iie?eoe aeao?oeeo athaeaeaoo oa ?icoe?eoe
o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ia?ai. Aea ca iaaieo oiia ai?aiaa
o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo iio?aa iiaea ni?e/eieoe ? iaaaoeai? iane?aeee
(aeo?niaiiy i?eaaoieo ?iaanoeoe?e, i?aeaeuaiiy ii?ie i?ioeaioo oa ?io?).

I?iaeaie e?aaeeoo oa ai?ao oe?eaaeyoue o?iainiao iaoeo c oiai /ano, eiee
iniaeeai aino?i iinoaee ieoaiiy caaacia/aiiy aea?aeaae iaiao?aeieie
eiooaie oa aecia/aiiy i?noey ? ?ie? aea?aeaae o ia?a?iciiae?eue/eo
i?ioeanao. Eeaneee aiae?enueei? iie?oaeiiii?? A.Ni?o, Ae.??ea?aei,
Ae.THi, ye? caii/aoeoaaee i?eioeei “caei?iaeo o?iain?a” oa aoee
i?eoeeueieeaie a?eueiiai ?eieo, a oe?eiio iaaaoeaii noaaeeeny aei
iice/eiaiai o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo iio?aa, aaaaeaee ca iaiao?aeia
iicaaaeoeny a?ae oyaa?y aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao oeyoii eiai aeeoio. Iniiaith
oai??e aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a aei ii/aoeo OO no. aoa i?eioeei
aacaeao?oeeoiiai athaeaeaoo, ?nioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo ai?a?a
canoaeaeoaaeiny. Iineeaiiy ?ie? aea?aeaae ye noni?eueiiai ?inoeoooo, ui
i?ecaaei aei ?icoe?aiiy ?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ooieoe?e, aeiaaaei
c?inoaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao. Noaei iaiao?aeiei oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
?icaeoeo aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?a ? aea?aee?aaeeoo cie?aia.

Oai??y Aeae.Eaeina caia?a/oaaea aeioe?euei?noue naii?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee. Eaein cai?iiiioaaa aea?aeaao ia ?ieue ?inoeoooo iie?ioaiiy
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio. Iniiaiee o?ie eaein?ainoaa
iieyaa? a oiio, ui o?iainiaa iie?oeea ca ?aoeaioaie Eaeina aeicaieeea
ae??oeoe i?iaeaie e?eciaeo, i?neye?eciaeo, ai?iieo ? i?neyai?iieo
o?oaeiiu?a o e?a?iao Caoiaeo a ia?oo /a?ao ca ?aooiie aeao?oeeoiiai
o?iainoaaiiy i?e a?aeiia?aeiiio ia?iuoaaii? aea?aeaaii? caai?aiaaiino?.
Oiaoi, — a/aiiy Eaeina iineei neooaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?, aoei i?enoiniaaia
aei noaoeee e?eciaeo yaeu. Eiee ae oaeee ia??iae i?ieoia, e?aeiy
iaiao?aei?noue aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a aeiiii?eo i?ieoea, ciaaeiaeeenue
?io? ?aea?, eio?? a oai?aoecoaaee aeeiai?eo ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee aaea aac
iaaei??ii? aea?aeaaii? ?aaeaiaioaoe??.

Oai??? iaieeanee?a caia?a/othoue ao?o/aiiy aea?aeaae a aeiiii?eo,
canoaeaeothoue ??no aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a, aea?aeaaii? caai?aiaaiino?.
Oae, ca ia?aeiiaiiyi I.O??aeiaia, aea?aeaaia ao?o/aiiy ne?ae iaiaaeeoe
eeoa a?ioiaith noa?ith. Iaieeaneee oa ?o iine?aeiaieee (?.Aa??i,
Aeae.A’theaiai, ?.Iana?aea) oai?aoecoaaee ?aae?caoe?th ?ioa?an?a
?iaeea?aeooi?a oa noni?euenoaa ca oiia c?inoaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao.
Aeey ?ethno?aoe?? oai?aoe/ieo eiioeaioe?e cao?aeieo aaoi??a a
aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoaiee iaoaiaoe/ii-oi?iae?ciaaiee
?ino?oiaioa??e.

No/aniee noai oai??e aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
nai???aeiei neioacii ?, aiaeii/an, i?ioenoaaeaiiyi eaein?ainueei? oa
iaieeane/ii? eiioeaioe?e. Eiinainono na?aae aeiiii?no?a uiaei iaaaoeaii?
/e iiceoeaii? ioe?iee o?yaeiaiai ai?ao ? athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo iei?
iaia?. Iniiaia i?ioe??//y i?ae i?eoeeueieeaie eaein?ainueei? oa
iaieeane/ii? oai??e — o iaoiaeao oa iaaeao aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a
aeiiii?eo.

A?o/eciyia o?iainiaa iaoea, eio?a aeiaaee /an aacoaaeany ia
?aeaieia?ciaaieo eeaniaeo oai??yo E.Ia?ena oa A.?.Eai?ia, aei 90-o ?ie?a
OO no. iaeiiaiei aea/aea i?iaeaio aea?aeaaieo iicee, ui no?eioaaei ??
?icaeoie. Iei? a?o/eciyia o?iainiaa aeoiea oi?io?oueny ye ii?aeiaiiy
oai??e oe?a?inueeeo oa cao?aeieo o/aieo. Iaea?eueoa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
ii?iaoeaii-caeiiiaeaa/iio aniaeoo aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo, aeine?aeaeaiiy
oai?aoe/ieo ieoaiue oaeoe/ii ciaoiaeeoueny iica oaaaith a?o/eciyieo
aeiiii?no?a. Oea nooo?ai a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae noaio cao?aeii? o?iainiai?
iaoee, yea aea/a? ia eeoa i?e?iaeo aea?aeaaieo iicee, a e iane?aeee
aeei?enoaiiy ai?aiaiai o?iainoaaiiy uiaei on?o neeaaeiaeo aeiiii?/ieo
i?ioean?a ia iae?i- ? i?e?i??aiyo, ii?aeio? iaaeaaiiy o?iainiaeo,
aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo a/aiue.

aeaeaoe?a. A?o/eciyia o?iainiaa ciaiiy i?i aea?aeaaiee e?aaeeo iiaeiia
?ooaoenue oeyoii caaaeueiina?oiaeo oaiaeaioe?e o?iainiai? aeoiee, aea c
o?aooaaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueieo oiia ? i?iaeai. Nueiaiaei? i?aai ia ?nioaaiiy
iathoue ??ci? eiioeaioe??, neioac yeeo aeanoue ciiao noai?eoe oaeo
oai??th aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo, eio?a a a?aeiia?aeaea ?aae?yi, aeaaaea a
aaeaeaaoio a?aeiia?aeue ia aeeeeee no/aniiai neeaaeiiai o?iainiaiai
noaio Oe?a?ie.

Ae?oaa a?oia i?iaeai, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny a ?iaio?, iia’ycaia ?c
aeine?aeaeaiiyi ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aioo??oi?o aea?aeaaieo iicee a
Oe?a?i?.

Aioo??oi? iiceee ye oi?ia aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oei,
ui oei/aniai a?euei? a?ioia? eiooe o?ce/ieo oa th?eaee/ieo in?a
caeo/athoueny aeey o?iainoaaiiy noni?eueieo iio?aa oeyoii aeioneo ?
?aae?caoe?? aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a. Caeo/aiiy eioo?a aea?aeaaith ia
?eieia?e iniia? a iioeiaeueieo ?ici??ao ? iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiei niiniaii
o?iainoaaiiy aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee.
?eiie aea?aeaaieo ai?aiaeo ciaia’ycaiue Oe?a?ie ooieoe?iio? ia aac?
aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a ye iae?aaoe?? aioo??oiuei?
aea?aeaaii? iiceee (IAAeI), iae?aaoe?? aioo??oiuei? aea?aeaaii? iuaaeii?
iiceee (IAAeII) oa eacia/aenuee? aaenae?.

Ai?oiaai? o?yaeii aea?aeaai? oe?ii? iaia?e i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo (1995-1998 ??.) aoee aenieiaeioiaeieie oa, ia?aaaaeii,
ei?ioeioa?i?iiaeie ciaia’ycaiiyie. Oae, o 1996 ?. na?aae ?ici?uaieo
IAAeI /anoea iae?aaoe?e c oa?i?iii iiaaoaiiy aei 1 ?ieo neeaaeaea
91,01%, o 1997 ?. — 52,82%, ca aeanyoue i?nyoe?a 1998 ?. — 74,5%. Aiae?c
ci?i aeioiaeiino? iae?aaoe?e ca aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae iieacaa, ui
?eieia? oaeoi?e, ye i?aaeei, ia aoee aecia/aeueieie i?e aecia/aii?
aeioiaeiino?. ??/ia aoaeoeaia noaaea aeioiaeo ii aea?aeiae?aaoe?yo o
1997 ?. neeaaeaea 42,9% — 25,4%, o 1998 ?. — 51,1% — 65,7%. I?aeo?eiaiiy
cia/ii? /anoee aenieiaeioiaeieo ei?ioeino?ieiaeo aeione?a aea?aeaaieo
iae?aaoe?e ?aoo?ii iaaaoeaiith oaiaeaioe??th. Ca iaoei ia?aeiiaiiyi,
/anoea na?aaeiuei- oa aeiaaino?ieiaeo aea?aeaaieo iae?aaoe?e o
caaaeueiiio aeioneo iiaeiia neeaaeaoe ia iaioa 70%, a ei?ioeioa?i?iia?
ciaia’ycaiiy ne?ae aeioneaoe o oi?i? eacia/aenueeeo aaenae?a, ui
a?aeiia?aeaoeia i?aeia?iaei?e i?aeoeoe?.

?ici?uoth/e aenieiaeioiaei? IAAeI aea?aeaaa aecia/aea oe?io o?iainiaeo
?ano?n?a oa eiioeaio?oaaea iniiai? o?iainia? iioiee, aeeo/ath/e eiooe c
?aaeueii? aeiiii?ee Ca ?aooiie ?eieo aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a o?yae
ae??ooaaa i?iaeaio athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo, cai?ieaoe ai?n?eia
o?iainoaaiiy ia ai?aiaa, ia a?aoiaoth/e ui inoaii? oaeiae iiaea iaoe
iaaaoeai? iane?aeee. Aeao?oeeo athaeaeaoo ca aieo iicee aeiaaaee
ia?iuaiiy ianya?a caiice/aiue, ye? c na?aaeeie 1996 ?. caaacia/oaaeeny
ca ?aooiie eai?oae?a ia?aceaeaio?a. Ia ?enoieo 1 iiaeaii ?ici??e
caeo/aieo eioo?a ia ?eieo IAAeI oa aeieaoe iniiaiiai ai?ao ? a?aenioe?a
ca iae?aaoe?yie.

Ca 10 i?nyoe??aooiie eioo?a ?eieo IAAeI o 1996 ?. aoa i?io?iainiaaiee ia
43,4%, o 1997 ?.- ia 69,8%, ca 9 i?nyoe?a 1998 ?. – ia 36%.

Ca ?aooiie caeo/aieo eioo?a ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo o?iainoaaeeny iioi/i?
aeaeaoee athaeaeaoo, ui, ia iaoo aeoieo, aoei iaeiei ?c iniiaieo
iaaeie?e?a a?o/eciyii? iie?oeee caiice/aiue. Iaiao?aei?noue
o?iainoaaiiy aeao?oeeoo oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?eieo aea?aeaa 1998 ?.
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae noiith caeo/aieo eioo?a ia ?eieo IAAeI ? AAI neeaei
8,9% a o 1996 ?. – 3,86%, o ii??aiyii? c aeioiaeaie aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo – a?aeiia?aeii 67,4% ? 15,6%. Ca oiia niaaeo AAI i?ioyaii
1995-1998 ??. oa iaiaaeaiino? o?iainiaiai iioaioe?aeo a?o/eciyiiai ?eieo
cia/ia ia?iuaiiy ianya?a ?eieo aea?aeaaieo iae?aaoe?e, ca ia?aeiiaiiyi
aaoi?a, aoei iaaeioe?eueiei oa iaaacia/iei.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? 1998 ?. aiane?aeie ?ioaineaii? ai?n??
aenieiaeioiaeieo aea?aeaaieo iae?aaoe?e o 1996-1997 ??.
neiioeaio?oaaeiny a?eueo?noue aeieao ii aeiouaieo iae?aaoe?yo. O 1998 ?.
o?yae c?oeioany c na?eicieie o?oaeiiuaie a o?iainoaaii? athaeaeaoiiai
aeao?oeeoo ca ?aooiie ?eieo IAAeI. Ca 10 i?nyoe?a 1998 ?. a?ae’?iia
naeueaei ?eieo aea?aeiae?aaoe?e neeaei 101,3 iei. a?i. I?aeoe/ii iiaiee
aeo?ae c ?eieo ia?aceaeaio?a, /anoea yeeo na?aae iieoioe?a aea?aeaaieo
oe?iieo iaia??a o 1997 ?. neeaaeaea a?eueoa 50%, a ia ii/aoie aa?aniy
1998 ?. eeoa 13%, ia ci?a aooe eiiiainiaaiee eoi?aeath aea?aeiae?aaoe?e
a?o/eciyieie ?iaanoi?aie. I?ioyaii 1998 ?. Iaoe?iiaeueiee aaie Oe?a?ie
aeeoiea 71,3% caaaeueiiai aeioneo IAAeI, a a /aoaa?oiio eaa?oae? a?i aoa
?aeeiei iieoioeai iae?aaoe?e ia ia?aeiiiio ?eieo.

?eiie aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a, i?ecia/aiiy yeiai — iia?e?caoe?y
eioo?a aeey o?iainoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a, noaa aeeiioaaoe ?ieue
aeao?oeeoi-ooai?thth/iai oaeoi?a. Ca 9 i?nyoe?a 1998 ?. aeieaoe iniiaii?
noie ai?ao oa a?aenioe?a ca IAAeI neeaee 67% on?o aeioiae?a
aea?aeathaeaeaoo, ui ? aeineoue aenieei iaaaoeaiei iieacieeii.

Aeey ciaioaiiy oeneo ia aeaeaoeiao /anoeio aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo oa c
iaoith iiaeiaaeaiiy no?ieo ia?ao aea?aeaaieo iae?aaoe?e o
aa?ani?-aeiaoi? 1998 ?. o?yae i?ia?a eiiaa?n?th IAAeI c iiaaoaiiyi aei
26 na?iiy 1999 ?. Ia?aceaeaioe iai?iyee 99% caaaeueiiai ii?ooaeth IAAeI
ia eiiaa?n?ei? iae?aaoe?? c aeioiaei?noth a a?eaiyo 45% (oaaeaeiaaiith
aeiea?iaith aeioiaei?noth 22%) oa aeiea?ia? ?a?iaiiaee c aeioiaei?noth
20% ??/ieo c iiaaoaiiyi o 2000 ?. ia caaaeueio noio 1070 iei. a?i.
Aaieai-?aceaeaioai aoee cai?iiiiiaai? cia/ii iaio aea?aei? oiiae
eiiaa?n?? – iae?aaoe?? c iiaaoaiiyi o 2001-2004 ??. oa aeioiaei?noth 40%
??/ieo . i?ae aieeaii iaiieyaaiue o?yaeo oa a?aenooiino? ?ano?n?a o
i?i?noa?noaa o?iain?a ia nai?/ania ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?nioth/iai ai?ao
a?o/eciyi? ?iaanoi?e iai?iyee IAAeI ia noio 803 iei. a?i. ?c caaaeueiiai
ii?ooaey 1400 iei. a?i.

Ie aaaaea?ii, ui caiia?aoe e?eoe/i?e neooaoe?? oa ao?ao? aeia??e
?iaanoi??a aei o?yaeo iiaeia aoei ii/aaoe i?ioean ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ua
aaniith, aaiaey/e oe?ii? iaia?e c oa?i?iii iiaaoaiiy 1,5 — 5 ?ie?a ?c
oaaeaeiaaiith aaethoiith aeioiaei?noth. Iiieeee, aeiiouai? i?e
oi?ioaaii? iie?oeee caiice/aiue o 1997-98 ??., i?ecaaee aei
aeanoaa?e?caoe?? ?eieo aioo??oi?o caiice/aiue. Iniiai? i?e/eie ?icaeoeo
iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iieyaathoue o oiio, ui:
iie?oeea ia ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a aoea i???ioiaaia ia aeinyaiaiiy
ie?aieo oe?eae, iaocaiaeaeaieo ?c no?aoaa?/ieie caaaeaiiyie
caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie; ?icaeoie ?eieo aea?aeaaieo
caiice/aiue ia noi?iaiaeaeoaaany ciaioaiiyi iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y ?
no?oeoo?ieie ?aoi?iaie; caeo/ai? eiooe aeei?enoiaoaaeeny eeoa ia
iie?eooy iioi/ieo aeaeaoe?a athaeaeaoo ? ia noeioethaaee
eai?oaeiooai?aiiy a e?a?i?; ia?iuaiiy ianya?a ?eieo IAAeI
caaacia/oaaeiny a iniiaiiio ca ?aooiie eai?oaeo ia?aceaeaio?a, ye? c
iia??oaiiyi o?iainiai? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i? ii/aee aeaiaeeoe eai?oaee c
?eieo; ?eiie aea?aeiae?aaoe?e aoa iaei?eaaaeea?oei naeoi?ii aeeaaeaiiy
aaie?anueeeo eai?oae?a, ui iaiaaeoaaei e?aaeeooaaiiy ?aaeueii?
aeiiii?ee.

Ie ia?aeiiai?, ui ?eiie aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a ? aaaiiei o?iainiaei
?ano?nii aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo. Aeey a?aeiiaeaiiy iiaiioe?iiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeueiai ?eieo, a ia?oo /a?ao, iaiao?aeii aa?aiooaaoe
aeia??o ?iaanoi??a. Ia iaoo aeoieo, iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie nenoaie
aioo??oi?o aea?aeaaieo iicee iiaeiai ia?aaeaa/aoe oae? oiiae: ianyae
caeo/aiue aea?aeaaith eioo?a ia o?iainiaiio ?eieo iaiao?aeii aecia/aoe
aeoiaey/e ?c ?aaeueieo iiaeeeainoae iiaa?iaiiy; eiooe, caiice/ai? oeyoii
aeioneo iicee, ianaiia?aae, ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe a ?iaanoeoe?eieo
oe?eyo (ia iaioa 60-70% caeo/aiue); aeioe?eueii ?icoe?eoe eiei ai?aiaeo
?ino?oiaio?a ?eieo aea?aeaaieo iicee aeey aeoea?caoe?? i?ioeano
caeo/aiiy eioo?a o?ce/ieo in?a oa ae??aieo ?iaanoi??a; ia ii/aoeiaiio
aoai? aea?aeaai? oe?ii? iaia?e aeioe?eueii aeioneaoe iii?iiaaieie a
aeiea?ao aai ?a?i; iaiao?aeii aeio?eioaaoeny oaiaeaioe?? ciaioaiiy
aeioiaeiino? aea?aeiae?aaoe?e, yea ia iiaeiia ia?aaeuoaaoe iioeiaeueii
anoaiiaeaiiai ??aiy, oa ca?eueoaiiy no?ie?a ia?ao iae?aaoe?e ; aeey
i?aeaeuaiiy i?eaaaeeaino? aea?aeiae?aaoe?e iniaeeao oaaao ne?ae iaaeaoe
caaacia/aiith ?eieiaeo oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a
aea?aeaae, i?aeaeuaiiy ?o e?ea?aeiino?, ?icoe?aiith aoi?eiiiai ?eieo
iae?aaoe?e o?yaeo.

Ioaea, iacaaaeath/e ia oaia??oi?e, a?aeiinii iaaaeaeee aoai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aioo??oi?o iicee, aea?aeaai? iae?aaoe?? ?
iaiao?aeiei o?iainiaei

?ino?oiaioii, yeee i?e iaeaaeiiio aeei?enoaii? aea? ciiao aea?aeaa?
ni?yiiaoaaoe ?iaanoeoe?ei? iioiee a iaiao?aeieo iai?yieao oa iie?eaaoe
/anoeio aeaeaoe?a athaeaeaoo.

O?aoy a?oia i?iaeai iia’ycaia ?c aena?oeaiiyi noaio aioo??oiueiai
aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao Oe?a?ie, iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy iei oa o?iainiai?
iie?oeee iioei?caoe?? aioo??oiuei? caai?aiaaiino? Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae.

Aea?aeaaiee ai?a aenooia? iane?aeeii athaeaeaoieo aeao?oeeo?a ?
a?aeiia?aeieo ?i iice/eiaeo iia?aoe?e. Aioo??oi?e aea?aeaaiee ai?a
neeaaea?oueny c on?o aeiouaieo ? iaiiaaoaieo ai?aiaeo ciaia’ycaiue
aea?aeaae, aeeth/ath/e iaaeiea/ai? a?aenioee oa aeaeai? aa?aio?? ca
e?aaeeoaie. O?yae aeionea? aea?aeaai? oe?ii? iaia?e aeey iiaaoaiiy
aeao?oeeoo athaeaeaoo, ioaea iaa?iiaaeaeaia noia iice/aieo o?yaeii
eioo?a aeey o?iainoaaiiy athaeaeaoieo aeao?oeeo?a ? ? aea?aeaaiei
ai?aii. Ia iaoo aeoieo, aea?aeaaiee ai?a ia iiaeia oeoia/eoe ye noio
an?o iaiiea/aieo aea?aeaaieo ciaia’ycaiue, o oiio /ene? ? ii ca?ia?oi?e
ieao?, iain?yi oiui. Inoaii? noia?a/eoue e?aaeeoi?e noo? aea?aeaaiiai
ai?ao.

A neeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa iie?oe/ieo ia?aaeoiia i?ioyaii
1995-1998 ??. aea?aeaaiee aioo??oi?e ai?a Oe?a?ie nooo?ai c??n. Ia
?enoieo 2 iiaeaii oaeoe/iee ?ici?? aioo??oiueiai aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao o
1995-1998 ??.

Oaeoe/iee ??aaiue aioo??oiueiai ai?ao i?ioyaii 1996-1998 ??. ia
ia?aaeuoaaa caeiiiaeaa/i anoaiiaeaiiai a?aie/iiai ??aiy. Aea no??iea
c?inoaiiy ianya?a ai?aiaeo ciaia’ycaiue o?yaeo i?e caa?aaeaii? aenieiai
??aiy aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao oa niaaeo ae?iaieoeoaa iaieio/a cieaeoaaee
aeia??o aei o?yaeo c aieo e?aaeeoi??a, a ioaea i?ecaiaeeee aei ciaioaiiy
oa?i?io caeo/aiy eioo?a ? c?inoaiiy i?ioeaioieo noaaie oa aa?oino?
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ai?ao. O oaaeeoe? 1 iiaeaii aeai? uiaei caai?aiaaiino? ca
IAAeI, yea ia 01.10.98. neeaea 11,1 ie?ae. a?i., aeo?aoe ia aeieaoo
caai?aiaaiino? oa a?aenioe?a ca aea?aeiae?aaoe?yie i?ioyaii 9 i?nyoe?a
1998 ?. neeaee 7,199 ie?ae. a?i. – 10,2% AAI, ui na?ae/eoue i?i
iaaei??ia c?inoaiiy aeo?ao ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ai?ao.

Aaee/eia ai?ao (oiaoi /anoea aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao o AAI) ? aa?o?noue eiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy (ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?aaeueii? aa?oino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy ai?ao
? oaii?a aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo), ? iniiaieie iieacieeaie ?acoeueoao?a
oi?aae?iiy aeeiai?eith aea?aeaaii? caai?aiaaiino?. I?ioyaii
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo niinoa??aaeany iaaaoeaia oaiaeaioe?y
iaaei??iiai c?inoaiiy oeeo iieaciee?a (aeea. oaae. 1), ui i?ecaaei aei
ca?eueoaiiy iaaoaeoeaieo athaeaeaoieo aeo?ao oa na?ae/eei i?i
iaiiaeeea?noue ia?iuaiiy ai?ao ca aeaieo oiia.

Aiane?aeie aeiooaieo ianoaaei, a oaeiae aeiiouaieo iiieeie o iie?oeoe?
caiice/aiue noi?ioaaeany ia?aoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a aioo??oiueiai ai?ao
Oe?a?ie. Iniiaia /anoeia aioo??oiuei? caai?aiaaiino? aoea
ei?ioeioa?i?iiaith, ui ia?aoeiaeaeaei aeei?enoaiith o?aaeeoe?eieo
iaoiae?a iioei?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy ai?ao. Oei ia/a, o
1996-1997 ??. cia/ia /anoea aioo??oiuei? caai?aiaaiino? aoea ioi?ieaia
ia?eieiaeie iiceeaie, ui oaeiae iaiaaeoaaei ?acoeueoaoeai?noue iie?oeee
oi?aae?iiy aea?aeai?aii.

Eiiaa?n?y ai?ao o?yaeo ia?aae e?aaeeoi?aie aeicaieeea ia?aianoe eiai
iiaaoaiiy ?c 1998-1999 ??. ia 2000-2004 ??. I?iaaaeaia ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?y
ai?ao cana?ae/eea iaiiaeeea?noue aea?aeaae aeeiioaaoe nai? ciaia’ycaiiy
oa aeaui i?ae??aaea aeia??o e?aaeeoi??a. I?e/eiaie oeueiai aoee
eii’thieoo?i? ianoaaeie oa aeaye? iaaeie?ee a oi?aae?ii? oa
ianeoaiaoaaii? aea?aeai?aii, ye? oiiaii iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea?
eaoaai???: i?iaeaie no?aoaa?/iiai oi?aae?iiy oa i?iaeaie
aaciina?aaeiueiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ai?ao. Ie ?icae?ey?ii aeoieo oeo
niaoe?ae?no?a, ooi aaaaea? ui aei ia?oi/a?aiaeo i?iaeai no?aoaa?/iiai
oi?aae?iiy a?aeiinyoueny: iaaia iaa?aeiia?aei?noue oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaiei aioo??oi?i ai?aii oe?eyi caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee
Oe?a?ie, ui iieyaa? o iaiaa?oioiaaiiio c?inoaii? aioo??oiuei?
ei?ioeioa?i?iiai? caai?aiaaiino? oa aeaeaoe?a ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ai?ao;
ca ?aooiie caeo/aieo eioo?a o?iainoaaeeny iaaoaeoeai? iioi/i? aeaeaoee
athaeaeaoo, ui coiiaeei noai?aiiy neooaoe?? ?ao?iainoaaiiy “o?iainiai?
i??ai?aee” ia ?eieo aea?aeaaieo ciaia’ycaiue; ?icaeoie niaeoeyoeaieo
oaiaeaioe?e ia ?eieo IAAeI ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy /anoee
ei?ioeioa?i?iiai? caai?aiaaiino?. Aei i?iaeai aaciina?aaeiueiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy ai?ao ne?ae a?aeianoe: iai?ici??noue ? cae?eo?noue ?eieo;
iacaaeainiaai?noue a?ao?e?a i?iaaaeaiiy aoeoe?ii?a ? aeieao;
anoaiiaeaiiy oe?i ia aoeoe?iiao aac a?aooaaiiy ?aaeueiiai iiieoo oa
i?iiiceoe??.

C iaeyaeo ia aeuaia?a?aoiaai? iaaaoeai? iiiaioe ? na?oiao i?aeoeeo
oi?aae?iiy oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy aea?aeaaiei aioo??oi?i ai?aii ia aeieea?
noii?ao, ui a?o/eciyia nenoaia iio?aao? aaeineiiaeaiiy oa iioei?caoe??.
Ia ia?oee ieai aenoaa?oueny caaaeaiiy ?ic?iaeoe o?iainiao iie?oeeo
iioei?caoe?? caai?aiaaiino? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, iniiai? iai?yiee oa
neeaaeia? yei? aecia/ai? a aeena?oaoe??.

Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui iniiaieie i???ioe?aie o?iainiai? iie?oeee a noa??
aea?aee?aaeeoo iiaeii? aooe: anoaiiaeaiiy iioeiaeueieo ?ici???a
aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao; aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy caeo/aieo eioo?a ia oe?e?
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie; iaenei?caoe?y /anoee aeiaaioa?i?iiai?
caai?aiaaiino?; i?i?i?caoe?y aa?oino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao.
Ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui ai?ae aea?aeaae aei?aaaeai? eeoa o aeiaaeeao, yeui
cae?enithaai? ca ?o ?aooiie aeo?aoe ni?eythoue ca?eueoaiith iaeaooi?o
athaeaeaoieo aeioiae?a aai nei?i/aiith iaeaooi?o aeo?ao. Aei oaeeo
aeo?ao a?aeiinyoueny ?iaanoeoe?? oa aeo?aoe ia i?iaaaeaiiy no?oeoo?ieo
?aoi?i.

?aoe?iiaeueia no?aoaa?y “iiaeiaaeaiiy” oa?i?i?a iiaaoaiiy iiaeiia
aacoaaoeny ia i?eioeei? oe?eani?yiiaaiiai oi?ioaaiiy aeiaaino?ieiai?
e?eai? aeioiaeiino?. Ciaioaiith aa?oino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy aioo??oiueiai
ai?ao ni?eyoeia ?ici?uaiiy ciai?oi?o iicee ia ?eieia?e iniia?. I?e
ia?iuoaaii? aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao on? coneeey ne?ae ni?yiiaoaaoe ia
ciaioaiiy ?aaeueii? aa?oino? eiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy oa aeia?aaeaeaiiy
oaii?a aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo iaae aeeiai?eith caai?aiaaiino?. Oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeai?aii iiaeiii aooe ni?yiiaaia ia iaeo?ae?caoe?th iaaaoeaieo
iane?aee?a c?inoaiiy caai?aiaaiiino?.

A i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? o?iainiai? iie?oeee iioei?caoe?? aioo??oiuei?
caai?aiaaiino? Oe?a?ie, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui aac ae??oaiiy
i?iaeaie a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aeiiii?ee, iaeaaeiiai iiiiaiaiiy aeioiaeii?
/anoeie athaeaeaoo iaiiaeeeai aeinyaiooe aaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Eeoa i?e
eiiieaeniiio ai?iaaaeaeaii? ?aoi?i a on?o noa?ao aeiiii?ee o?iainiaee
?eiie a?ae?aaao? iiceoeaii ? aea?aeaaiee ai?a noaia ia oyaa?ai aeey
e?a?ie, a aeoeaii iaoe??, yeee ni?eyoeia aeia?iaooo onueiai
noni?euenoaa.

AENIIAEE ? I?IIICEOe??

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ie i?eeoee aei
oaeeo oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue.

1. Iiaoaeiaa iacaeaaeii?, i?aaiai?, aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae oa
nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?i? iiaeiia
ia?aaeaa/aoe ?icaeoie aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a, ?iaiaioiith neeaaeiaith yeeo
? aea?aeaaiee e?aaeeo. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo —
iaa?ae’?iia iciaea aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ?
aeaiie?ao??.

2. Iayai?noue athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo ia’?eoeaii ia?aoai?th? aea?aeaao
a nenoai? aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo ia?aaaaeii a ai?aeieea. Ine?eueee
aea?aeaaa iiaea caeo/aoe eiooe oeyoii aeioneo iicee ia oiiaao
aeia?ia?eueiino?, ieaoiino? oa iiaa?iaiino?, iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
i?aeo?eiaiiy aeia??e iioaioe?eieo ?iaanoi??a aei aea?aeaae ? iie?oeee
o?yaeo. A ia?niaeoea? oea ni?eyoeia ciaioaiith aa?oino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy
?eieo aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a Oe?a?ie, ui ? iaeiei ?c iniiaieo
caaaeaiue o?iainiai? iie?oeee.

3. Aeei?enoaiiy eioo?a, caiice/aieo aea?aeaaith ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo,
aeey ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e oa eai?oaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?e
ni?eyoeia ca?eueoaiith ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aeiiii?ee. A oea, a naith
/a?ao, aeicaieeoue ca?eueoeoe a iaeaooiueiio aeo?aoe ia nioe?aeuei?
i?ia?aie, o?iainiaai? c athaeaeaoo. Aoaeoeaii ooieoe?iioth/ee ?eiie
aioo??oi?o caiice/aiue iiaeiai noaoe aeueoa?iaoeaith i?aeaeuaiiy noaaie
iiaeaoe?a oa iieaaoeoe oyaa? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.

4. Ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae ye iice/aeueieea a?ioiaeo eioo?a aieeaa? ia
??ci? noi?iie aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy, ia?aae on?i, ia iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy
eai?oaeo. Oiio oi?aae?iiy aioo??oi?i aea?aeaaiei ai?aii Oe?a?ie iiaeiii
aooe ni?yiiaaia ia iaiaaeaiiy ? iaeo?ae?caoe?th iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaae ia o?iainiaiio ?eieo oa c?inoaiiy caai?aiaaiino?.

5. O no?oeoo?? aioo??oiuei? caai?aiaaiino? i??i?eoao iiaeiai iaeaaeaoe
na?aaeiuei- oa aeiaaino?ieiaei ciaia’ycaiiyi. Aaeaea /ei aeiaoee oa?i?i
iiaaoaiiy ai?ao, oei aoaeoeai?oa iiaeia iei oi?aaeyoe, oei ??aiii??i?oa
iiaeia ?iciiae?eeoe oyaa? ai?ao a /an? oa i?ae ??cieie a?oiaie
?iaanoi??a.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia
cai?iiiioaaoe ?yae i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e.

1. ?icaeoie ?eieo aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a iiaeiai noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny
no?oeoo?ieie aeiiii?/ieie ?aoi?iaie, ciaioaiiyi iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y oa
ca?eueoaiiyi ?iaanoeoe?e.

2. I???ioe?ii i?e oi?ioaaii? iie?oeee caai?aiaaiino? ia? aooe “cieioa
i?aaeei aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a”, — oiaoi aaee/eia athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo
iiaeiia aei??aithaaoe noi? aea?aeaaieo ?iaanoeoe?e. Iie?ath/enue ia
na?oiaee aeina?ae, aeioe?eueii caoaa?aeaeoaaoe iioi/iee aacaeao?oeeoiee
athaeaeao ? athaeaeao ?icaeoeo, aeao?oeeo yeiai ne?ae o?iainoaaoe ca
?aooiie aeioneo aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a.

3. ?icaeoie ?eieo aea?aeaaieo caiice/aiue iiaeiai caaacia/oaaoeny
ia?iuaiiyi a?o/eciyiiai o?iainiaiai eai?oaeo. Iaiao?aeii noai?eoe
iaeaaei? oiiae aeey caeo/aiiy eioo?a a?o/eciyieo ?iaanoi??a, oaeiae
aeioe?eueii a?aei?ieoe iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aeioiae?a ii aea?aeiae?aaoe?yo,
io?eiaieo ia ia?aeiiiio oa aoi?eiiiio ?eieao.

4. Caeo/ai? aea?aeaaith eiooe ca ?aooiie aeioneo iae?aaoe?e iiaeii?
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey o?iainoaaiiy ?aaeueieo ?iaanoeoe?e. Ie
aaaaea?ii, ui ia aeaiiio aoai? 60-70% on?o caeo/aieo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a
iaiao?aeii ni?yiiaoaaoe ia o?iainoaaiiy eiie?aoieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo
i?ia?ai. Ca ?aooiie eioo?a, caeo/aieo ia ?eieo aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo
iaia??a, ne?ae o?iainoaaoe aaeoc?, ?icaeoie yeeo ni?eyoeia oaeaeeiio
ca?eueoaiith ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

5. Iniaeeao oaaao ne?ae caa?iooe ia caeo/aiiy eioo?a o?ce/ieo in?a ia
?eiie aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a oeyoii aeioneo iae?aaoe?e aioo??oiuei?
aea?aeaaii? iuaaeii? iiceee (IAAeII) ?c ??cieie oa?i?iaie iiaaoaiiiy
(a?ae 1 aei 5-10 ?ie?a) oa, ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai?, aa?aioiaaiith
aeioiaei?noth 8-10% ??/ieo o aeiea?ao aai ?a?i.

6. Aeione eiaeiiai aeaeo aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a ia? ia?aaeaa/aoe
eiie?aoio iaoo. Oae, ia iie?eooy iioi/ieo aeaeaoe?a athaeaeaoo oa
caaacia/aiiy eiai eaniaiai aeeiiaiiy ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe eiooe a?ae
i?iaeaaeo eacia/aenueeeo ciaia’ycaiue, ye? iio??aii aeioneaoe ?c
oa?i?iaie iiaaoaiiy aei 1 ?ieo (3, 6 ? 12 i?nyoe?a). A iio?aae
athaeaeaoo ?icaeoeo ne?ae caaacia/oaaoe ca ?aooiie i?iaeaaeo IAAeI ?c
oa?i?iaie iiaaoaiiy a?eueoa 1 ?ieo. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui aeioiaee a?ae
i?iaeaaeo na?aaeiueino?ieiaeo oa aeiaaino?ieiaeo aea?aeiae?aaoe?e, ye?
aeioneathoueny aeey o?iainoaaiiy eiie?aoieo ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a,
ne?ae iiai?noth ca?eueieoe a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.

7. Iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe ?eieia? oiiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaieo
iae?aaoe?e i?aeaeuoaaoe ?o e?ea?aei?noue, ?icoe?thaaoe aoi?eiiee ?eiie
o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a aea?aeaae.

8. Oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei aioo??oi?i ai?aii iiaeiii aooe ni?yiiaaia ia
ca?eueoaiiy na?aaeiueiai oa?i?io iiaaoaiiy caai?aiaaiino? oa nei?i/aiiy
aeo?ao ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ai?ao. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii ca?eueooaaoe o
caaaeueiiio aeioneo IAAeI /anoeo aea?aeaaieo ai?aiaeo ciaia’ycaiue ?c
oa?i?iii iiaaoaiiy a?ae 1,5 aei 5 ?ie?a, aeio?eioth/enue iie?oeee
ieaiii??iiai ciaioaiiy noaaie aeioiaeiino?. Oea aeanoue ciiao
?ao?iainoaaoe caai?aiaai?noue aea?aeaae, aeei?enoiaoth/e ??ci? iaoiaee
oi?aae?iiy oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy ai?ao.

9. Iio??aii oe?iei aena?oethaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th uiaei noaio oa ia?niaeoea
?icaeoeo aioo??oiuei? caai?aiaaiino? Oe?a?ie, iai?yi?a aeei?enoaiiy
caeo/aieo eioo?a. Oea ni?eyoeia ci?oeiaiith aeia??e ?iaanoi??a aei
o?iainiai? iie?oeee aea?aeaae, ui ? iaei??th ?c aieiaieo canaae
oni?oiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaieo iicee.

?aae?caoe?y cai?iiiiiaaieo caoiae?a, ca iaoei niiae?aaiiyi, ni?eyoeia
aoaeoeaiiio ooieoe?iioaaiith ?eieo aioo??oi?o aea?aeaaieo iicee ye
aaaiiiai o?iainiaiai ?ano?no, iineoao? ?icaoaeia? aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a
oa iie?auaiith o?iainiaiai noaio Oe?a?ie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

Iiainaae E.ss. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aaeoiiae ? iae?iaeiiii?/i?
iane?aeee aea?aeaaii? caai?aiaaiino?//O?iaine
Oe?a?ie.-1998.-?6.-N.37-42.-0,5 ae.a.

Iiainaae E. Aeiiii?/ia, iie?oe/ia ? aoe/ia i?e?iaea aea?aeaaiiai
e?aaeeoo//Iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Ean?
Oe?a?iee. Aeiiii?/i? iaoee.-1997.-?8.-N.59-63.-0,7 ae.a.

Iiainaae E.ss. Iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy oa i?iaeaie ianeoaiaoaaiiy
aioo??oiueiai aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao//?aoi?ia o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Ean? Oe?a?iee.-Eooeuee, 1998.-N.52-58.-0,5
ae.a.

Aai/ (Iiainaae) E.ss. Oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe o?neaeueii? aeeeaie
“iiaeaoee-iiceee”//?aoi?ia o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.Ean? Oe?a?iee.-Eooeuee, 1997.-N.62-70.-0,5 ae.a.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iiainaae E.ss. Aioo??oi? iiceee ye o?iainiaee ?ano?n aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.04.01 – o?iaine, a?ioiaee ia?a ? e?aaeeo.-
Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1998.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny aioo??oi? iiceee ye o?iainiaee ?ano?n
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo. Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy nooi?nii-oai?aoe/ieo
canaae aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeoo aeiaaaeaii, ui aea?aeaaiee e?aaeeo ?
?iaiaioiith neeaaeiaith aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a. I?iaaaeaiee i?aeoe/iee
aiae?c ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie aioo??oi?o aea?aeaaieo iicee oa noaio
aioo??oiueiai aea?aeaaiiai ai?ao Oe?a?ie, aecia/ai? iniiai? iai?yie
o?iainiai? iie?oeee iioei?caoe?? caai?aiaaiino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aea?aeaaiee e?aaeeo, o?iainiaee ?ano?n, aioo??oi?
aea?aeaai? iiceee, athaeaeaoiee aeao?oeeo, aea?aeaaiee ai?a.

Aiiioaoeey

Iiainaae E.ss. Aioo?aiiea caeiu eae oeiainiaue ?ano?n ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.04.01 — oeiainu, aeaiaaeiia ia?auaiea e e?aaeeo. —
Eeaaneee iaoeeiiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1998.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony aioo?aiiea caeiu eae oeiainiaue ?ano?n
ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa. Iino?iaiea aeaiie?aoe/aneiai,
nioeeaeueiiai, i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa, eae ii?aaeaeaii a Eiinoeoooeee
Oe?aeiu, o?aaoao eioaineaiiai eniieueciaiey anao eiathueony oeiainiauo
?ano?nia, yooaeoeaiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo
oeiainia. Iaiaoiaeeii iioeiaeueii caaeaenoaiaaoue ana aiciiaeiua
enoi/ieee oeiaine?iaaiey ?anoiaeia athaeaeaoa. I?eaea/aiea n?aaenoa ia
oeiainiaii ?uiea n iiiiuueth auionea oeaiiuo aoiaa – cia/eoaeueiue
oeiainiaue ?ano?n ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, niinia iie?uoey
athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa.

Ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo yaeyaony eiaiaioiie ninoaaeythuae
ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeiainia a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi ainoaea?noai a naiae
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaeaea anaai enoiaeeo ec oeneaeueiuo niia?aaeaiee,
eioi?ua ia?aie/aiu o?iaiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. I?aiaeieaoue aa?uea?
iaaeaeo eiathueieny n?aaenoaaie e aeiiieieoaeueiie iaiaoiaeeiie
iio?aaiinoueth a ieo aiciiaeii ca n/ao ainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoa, n
iiiiuueth eioi?iai aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa, caeinoaiaaiiua ia ?uiea
nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia, eniieuecothony ainoaea?noaii, ?anoe?yy aai oeiaiiaua
?ano?nu. A ?aaioa ?anniao?eaaaony yaiethoeey oai?aoe/aneeo
eioa?i?aoaoeee i?iaeaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieaa e e?aaeeoa; nia?aiaiiia
ninoiyiea oai?ee aine?aaeeoa.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee i?iaaaeai i?aeoe/aneee aiaeec
ooieoee-iie?iaaiey nenoaiu aioo?aiieo ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiia.
Yieoe?iaaiiua i?aaeoaeuenoaii oeaiiua aoiaae ia i?ioyaeaiee
enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea yaeyeenue aunieiaeioiaeiuie e e?aoein?i/iuie
iaycaoaeuenoaaie. Ainoaea?noai ii?aaeaeyei oeaio oeiaiiauo ?ano?nia e
eiioeaio?e?iaaei iniiaiua oeiaiiaua iioiee, ?aciauay aunieiaeioiaeiua
iaeeaaoeee e oai naiui ecuiay aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa ec ?aaeueiie
yeiiiieee. Ca n/ao ?uiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa i?aaeoaeuenoai
?aoaei i?iaeaio oeiaine?iaaiey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa, eciaiea
yienneiiiia e?aaeeoiaaiea ia aeieaiaia, ia o/eouaay iaaaoeaiua
iineaaenoaey.

?uiie ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa ia/ae eniieiyoue ?ieue
aeaoeoeeoiia?acothuaai oaeoi?a. N oeaeueth oiaiueoaiey aeaaeaiey ia
?anoiaeioth /anoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa auea i?iaaaeaia
eiiaa?ney ainoaea?onaaiiuo iaeeaaoeee. Aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey iieiioeaiiiai
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ?uiea ainoaea?noaaiiuo oeaiiuo aoiaa iaiaoiaeeii
i?aaei?eiyoue eiiieaen iioeiecaoeeiiiuo ia?, a /anoiinoe, ia?aie/eoue
aeioiaeiinoue, oaaee/eoue n?iee ia?auaiey oeaiiuo aoiaa, eniieueciaaoue
caaiiua n?aaenoaa a eiaanoeoeeiiiuo oeaeyo.

A ?aaioa ?anniio?aiu aii?inu ninoiyiey aioo?aiiaai ainoaea?noaaiiiai
aeieaa, iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiui aeieaii e oeiainiaay
iieeoeea iioeiecaoeee aioo?aiiae caaeieaeaiinoe Oe?aeiu.
Ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea Oe?aeiu nouanoaaiii oaaee/eeny ia i?ioyaeaiee
1995-1998 aiaeia aneaaenoaea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo e iieeoe/aneeo
i?aaeiinueie, /oi i?e nio?aiaiee aunieiai o?iaiy ainoaea?noaaiiuo
?anoiaeia e nie?auaiee i?iecaiaenoaa iaecaaaeii oiaiueoaei aeiaa?ea
e?aaeeoi?ia e i?aaeoaeuenoao e oaaee/eaaei noieiinoue ianeoaeeaaiey
aeieaa. Aaee/eia aeieaa e noieiinoue aai ianeoaeeaaiey yaeyaony
iniiaiuie iieacaoaeyie ?acoeueoaoia oi?aaeaiey aeeiaieeie
ainoaea?noaaiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe. Ia i?ioyaeaiee enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea
iaaethaeaeanue iaaaoeaiay oaiaeaioeey oaaee/aiey yoeo iieacaoaeae i?e
nio?aiaiee iacia/eoaeueiiai n?iea iiaaoaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaiaaei i iaaiciiaeiinoe ia?aueaaiey aeieaa a aeaiiuo
oneiaeyo.

Aneaaenoaea aeiiouaiiuo i?in/aoia a oi?aaeaiee ainaeieaii
noi?ie?iaaeanue ia?aoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a aioo?aiiaai aeieaa Oe?aeiu.
Iniiaiay /anoue aioo?aiiae caaeieaeaiiinoe auea e?aoein?i/iie, /oi e
i?aoyonoaiaaei eniieueciaaieth o?aaeeoeeiiiuo iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey
aeieaii. A ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony i?iaeaiu no?aoaae/aneiai
oi?aaeaiey e iaiin?aaenoaaiii ianeoaeeaaiey ainaeieaa. Aiaeece?oy
iaaeinoaoee oi?aaeaiey ainaeieaii, ia aucuaaao niiiaiee
iaiaoiaeeiinoue ?ac?aaioee oeiainiaie iieeoeee iioeiecaoeee
caaeieaeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu, iniiaiua i?eaioe?u e ninoaaeythuea eioi?ie
ii?aaeaeaiu a aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ainoaea?noaaiiue e?aaeeo, oeiainiaue ?ano?n, aioo?aiiea
ainoaea?noaaiiua caeiu, athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo, ainoaea?noaaiiue aeiea.

Annotation

Novosad L.Ya. Internal borrowing as financial resources of the
government budget. — Manuscript.

The thesis seeking for the scientific degree of a Candidate of Economic
Sciences, speciality 08.04.01 “Finance, Currency Circulation and
Credit”.-Kyiv National University of Economics, Kyiv, 1998.

In the thesis the internal borrowing as financial resources of the
government budget are investigated. On the basis of research of
essential theoretical points of the government credit it is proved, that
the government credit is an immanent part of public finances. The
practical analysis of functioning of internal government borrowing and
the condition of the internal government debt of Ukraine is carried out,
the basic directions financial politics of optimization indebtednass are
determined.

Key words: government credit, financial resources, internal government
borrowing, budget deficiency, government debt.

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 01.02.99. Oi?iao 60o84 1/16

Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Caiiaeaiiy ?24

?aae.-aeae. a?aeae?e Aieeinueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo

?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee

263000, Aieeinueea iae., i.Eooeuee i?. Aie?,13.

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