Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

Ianeia Aaneeue ?aaiiae/

OAeE 533.9.01

AEANOEAINO? OA CAOAeAEAIIss IEACIIAEO IIAeA?EIEO OA??A, NIE?OII?A,
IAEAO?A ? OAEEUeIAEO CAO?AIUe A IA??AIIAAAEIEO OIIAAO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 01.04.08 — o?ceea ieacie

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a, 1999

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaoeiaiio oeaio?? Oa?e?anueeee
o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie c ieoaiue iaoee
oa ?ioaeaeooaeueii? aeaniino?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

· aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

EIIAe?AOAIEI Aiaoie?e Ieeieaeiae/;

· aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith o?ceee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aaoiiia?eueiiaei?iaeiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

IssOAE Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/;

· aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,

caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii eini?/ii? ieacie ?inoeoooo eini?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IEA IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a)

*A?AIIEO Ieaa Eiinoaioeiiae/

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — a?aeae?e oai??? ieacie Iaoeiaiai oeaio?o
«?inoeooo yaea?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue» IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Ee?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «22» aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 15 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae64.051.12 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 310108 , i. Oa?e?a, i?. Eo?/aoiaa, 31, aoae.
301

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o Oeaio?aeuei?e iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «2» na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee
Ienueiaiaoeueeee N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia oai?aoe/iiio
aeine?aeaeaiith aeanoeainoae oa caoaeaeaiiy oaeeueiaeo no?oeoo?:
ieaciiaeo iiaea?eieo oa??a, nie?oii?a, iaeao?a oa oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue a
oiiaao ia??aiiaaaeiino?, aaiethoe?? eiaa?aioieo oaeeueiaeo no?oeoo? a
no?oiia?e ieaci? oa ieaci? c io/eaie /anoie, a oaeiae ?ie? ?aciiainieo
/anoie a iae?i?ei?e aeeiai?oe? no?oeoo?. Oai?aoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy
iae?i?eieo oaeeueiaeo no?oeoo?, ?o caoaeaeaiiy oa aeeiai?ea a /an? a
no?oiia?e ieaci? oa ieaci? c io/eaie /anoie, caeeoa?oueny iaei??th c
aeooaeueieo caaea/ no/anii? o?ceee ieacie. Oi?ioaaiiy eieae?ciaaieo a
i?inoi?? oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue oa ?o iae?i?eia aeeiai?ea a /an?
niinoa??aathoueny a iaeii??aeiee ieaci? ye a /enaeueieo aenia?eiaioao, a
iaai?oinoa??, oae ? a eaai?aoi?ieo ieaciiaeo onoaiiaeao. Ianoaoe?iia?i?
iaiiiioiii? iiaea?ei? oa?e, ye? ? ianoaoe?iia?ieie iioaioe?eieie yiaie
c? no?eaeaie aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo a ?o iaaeao, caoaeaeothoueny ia
iiaeao eieeaaiue, ia yeeo a ??aiiaaaei?e ieaci? no?oeoo?e ia ?niothoue.
I?e ?iaeaeoe?? io/e?a aeaeo?ii?a c aonoeiith, aeecueeith aei aonoeie
ieacie, niinoa??aa?oueny, ui ia ?? a?aieoe? iiaeooue oi?ioaaoeny
iiaea?ei? oa?e aaeeei? aiie?ooaee, ui nooo?ai aieeaa? ia aeeiai?eo
io/e?a ? ieacie. Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o, yea c?iaeaii a oe?e
aeena?oaoe??, ? ni?aaae? aeooaeueiei.

Oae? oaeeueia? no?oeoo?e, ye nie?oiii? cao?aiiy oa iiaea?ei? oa?e,
caoaeaeothoueny ia iiaeao eieeaaiue c caeiiii aeenia?n?? aeecueeei aei
e?i?eiiai. Oiio a aeena?oaoe?? aea/ai? iia? yaeua, ye? aeyaeythoueny a
?acoeueoao? aca?iiae?? ?yaeo iiae eieeaaiue, ui aieiae?thoue oaeei
caeiiii aeenia?n??, c ?aciiainieie /anoeaie.

*anoi ?acoeueoaoii oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?eieo oa??a ? nie?oiiieo cao?aiue ?
i?enei?aiiy ca?yaeaeaieo /anoie ye a ooiaeaiaioaeuei?e, oae ? a
i?eeeaaei?e o?ceoe?. Oae niinoa??aa?oueny caoaeaeaiiy nie?oiiieo
e?eueaaoa?ieo cao?aiue, a oaeiae neeueieo iiaea?eieo oa??a i?e
oi?ioaaii? oaoiieia?/iiai iioieo ?ii?a. Oiio a aeena?oaoe??
aeine?aeaeaii ye oi?ioaaiiy neeueiiai iiaea?eiiai oa?o a ciai?oiueiio
aeaeo?e/iiio iie?, oae ? aeanoeaino? nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy, ui
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny c? oaeaee?noth na?oea.

Aeae?eueea neeueieo iiaea?eieo oa??a oi?iothoueny aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo
iano?eeino? I??na ia ?iiiiio i?ii?aeeo /ano. Oiio a aeena?oaoe??
?icaeyiooi aieea ?ooiiino? ?ii?a ia ii??a iano?eeino? I??na.

Aeae?eueea iaiiiioiiieo iiaea?eieo oa??a caoaeaeothoueny i?e ?icaeoeo
iiaeoeyoe?eii? iano?eeino?, oiio a aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooa iiaeeea?noue
?icaeoeo iiaeoeyoe?eii? iano?eeino? ? caoiieaiiy eaiaith??anueeeo
eieeaaiue ia aeaeo?iiiiio i?ii?aeeo /ano.

A eaai?aoi?ieo aenia?eiaioao a aeaea?aeao ooea?ai?a, aea aiie ?
a?ae’?iieie ?iiaie, niinoa??aa?oueny naiiocaiaeaeaia oi?ioaaiiy
iaiiiioiiiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiaea?eiiai oa?o, yeee nooo?ai aieeaa? ia
aeeiai?eo ieaciiaiai iioieo. A aeena?oaoe?? aea/aii aieea ia aeanoeaino?
iaiiiioiiieo aeaeo?e/ieo iiaea?eieo oa??a, ye? oi?iothoueny a ieaciiaiio
iioioe?, a?ae’?iieo oyaeeeo ?ii?a.

*anoi oaeeueia? no?oeoo?e caoaeaeothoueny ?c ia??aiiaaaeii?
oo?aoeaioiino?, aai caoaeaeaiiy oo?aoeaioiino? noi?iaiaeaeo? oi?ioaaiiy
oaeeueiaeo no?oeoo?. Oiio aaaeeeaa aeine?aeaeaiiy a aeena?oaoe??
oi?ioaaiiy nie?oiiieo cao?aiue ?c oo?aoeaioiino?, ui caoaeaeo?oueny a
ieaci? ?icieoei io/eii aeaeo?ii?a, a oaeiae iano?ee?noue neeueiiai
iiaea?eiiai oa?o a?aeiinii caoaeaeaiiy aeniei/anoioieo eieeaaiue.

A iaai?oinoa??, a eaai?aoi?ieo aenia?eiaioao c aeaeo?iiiith ieaciith oa
a aeaeo?iiiiio io/eo a neio?io?iiieo i?enei?thaa/ao niinoa??aa?oueny
oi?ioaaiiy nie?oiiieo cao?aiue, ui ?iciianthaeaeothoueny a?aeiinii
/anoie c ?o oaieiaeie oaeaeeinoyie. Oiio a aeena?oaoe?? iienai?
aeanoeaino? iiae?aieo nie?oiiieo cao?aiue.

Aieiaia iaoa ? caaea/? ?iaioe.

1. Aeanoeaino? iiaeoethaaiiy ia i?ieueioieo aeaeo?iiao aeniei/anoioieo
eieeaaiue c oe?ieei niaeo?ii a ieaci? c ?icieoei ii oaeaeeinoyi
aeaeo?iiiei io/eii.

2. Oiiae oa aeanoeaino? oii?yaeeoaaiiy iaeao?a aeaeo?iiieo eieeaaiue,
ye? caoaeaeothoueny ?icieoei ii oaeaeeinoyi aeaeo?iiiei io/eii a
caiaai?/ai?e iai?aiaiaaeai?e ? iaiaiaaeai?e a iiacaeiaaeiueiio iai?yieo
ieaci?.

3. Ci?ia c /anii eaac?iiiio?iiaoe/iiai iaeaoo aeniei/anoioieo eieeaaiue
a caiaai?/aiiio ieaciiiaiiaiaiiio oaeeaaiae? c ?icieoei ii oaeaeeinoyi
aeaeo?iiiei io/eii.

4. Iiaoaeiaa iieno caoaeaeaiiy nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy aeaeo?inoaoe/iiai
iioaioe?aeo a caiaai?/aiiio ieaciiiaiiaiaiiio oaeeaaiae? c ?icieoei ii
oaeaeeinoyi aeaeo?iiiei io/eii.

5. Iiaoaeiaa aiae?oe/iiai ??oaiiy o aeaeyae? aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai nie?oiia,
yeee ?ooa?oueny c? oaeaee?noth na?oea.

6. Aeanoeaino? iaiiiioiiiiai iiaea?eiiai oa?o ia iia?euei?e ?iii?e
iiae?.

7. Oiiae oi?ioaaiiy oa aeanoeaino? ?iiieo nie?oiiieo cao?aiue a
ia??aiiaaaei?e ieaci? c a?ae’?iieie ?iiaie.

8. Aeanoeaino?, oi?ioaaiiy ? c?oeioaaiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iiaea?eiiai oa?o,
noaa?e?ciaaiiai ?iaa?n??th iai?yieo iiacaeiaaeiueiai iaai?oiiai iiey.

9. Aeanoeaino? iiaea?eiiai oa?o, yeee oi?io?oueny i?e ?iaeaeoe?? a
ieacio aonoiai ?aeyoea?nonueeiai aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea.

10. Aeanoeaino? nie?oiiieo cao?aiue, ye? ?ooathoueny c oaieiaeie
oaeaeeinoyie /anoeiie ieacie.

11. Iiaoaeiaa iieno iineeaiiy nie?oiiieo cao?aiue i?e ?icaeoeo
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ?aciiainieo iano?eeinoae.

12. Aieea ?ooiiino? ?ii?a ia iano?ee?noue I??na.

13. Aeanoeaino? iiaeoeyoe?eii? iano?eeino? eaiaith??anueeeo oaeeue ia
aeaeo?iiiiio i?ii?aeeo /ano.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ye? neeaee ci?no aeena?oaoe??, i?iaaaeai? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c
aea?aeaaieie iaoeiai-aeine?aeieie i?ia?aiaie, ui aeeiiothoueny a
?inoeooo? ieaciiai? aeaeo?ii?ee oa iiaeo iaoiae?a i?enei?aiiy
ca?yaeaeaieo /anoie IIOe Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo,
cie?aia:

—ieaiia? athaeaeaoi? oaie IIOe Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo;

—I?ia?aia ?ia?o c aoiiii? iaoee ? oaoi?ee IIOe Oa?e?anueeee
o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo (iiia? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 08.05–EI/03–93).

I?aeoe/ia ? iaoeiaa oe?ii?noue ?acoeueoao?a. Iaea?aeai? aiae?oe/i?
ae?ace aeey oa?aeoa?enoee oaeeueiaeo no?oeoo?, ye? aeieeathoue a ieaci?
c? no?oiii ? c io/eaie aeaeo?ii?a, aeathoue e?euee?niee iien no?oeoo?,
ui niinoa??aathoueny. Oea iiaea ciaeoe i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy aeey
aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a nenoaie i?e ieaioaaii? aenia?eiaio?a.
Ciaeaeai? e?eoa??? aeieeiaiiy oaeeueiaeo no?oeoo? iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeey aecia/aiiy oiia ye?nii? ci?ie iiaaae?iee ia??aiiaaaeii?
ieacie.

Caoaeiaaiee iien ianoaoe?iia?ieo iiaea?eieo oa??a aeicaiey? iiynieoe ?
aiae?oe/ii iienaoe oi?ioaaiiy, yea niinoa??aa?oueny, i?e aeayeeo oiiaao
ie?aiiai ?iiiiai iiaea?eiiai oa?o ? eaioethaeea c iiaea?eieo oa??a, a
oaeiae i?enei?aiiy /anoie, ui niinoa??aa?oueny, a eiai iie?.

O?ce/i? iaoai?cie aca?iiae?? io/e?a aeaeo?ii?a c ieaciith, ye?
i?iiiiothoueny a ?iaio?, aeicaieythoue oi?aaeyoe eiai aeeiai?eith. A
naia, iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?eiiai oa?o ia io/eiai-ieaciia?e iiae?,
yeee iienaiee, aeicaiey? iiynieoe aca?iiae?th io/ea aeaeo?ii?a cia/ii?
aonoeie c ieaciith. Aea/aiiy caeiiii??iino? aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiiiai
io/ea c? cia/iei ?iceeaeii ii oaeaeeinoyi c iaiaaeaiith ? iaiaiaaeaiith
ieaciith aeicaiey? aea/eoe ?ieue ei?aeyoe?e iiey ? ?ooo /anoie i?e
?aeaenaoe?? iioie?a /anoie a ieaci?.

Caoaeaeaiiy iienaieo eieae?ciaaieo ?iiieo cao?aiue ia? aaaeeeaa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy a caaea/? i?i aiiiaeueiee ii?? ieacie.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Iiaeoeyoe?eia iano?ee?noue A* oo?aoeaioiino? ? eaac?iiiio?iiaoe/iiai
A* iaeaoo ia i?ieueioieo aeaeo?iiao a caiaai?/aiiio ieaciiiaiiaiaiiio
oaeeaaiae? c ?icieoei ii oaeaeeinoyi aeaeo?iiiei io/eii. Caoaao A*
eaiaith??anueeeo eieeaaiue i?e ?icaeoeo iiaeoeyoe?eii? iano?eeino? ia
aeaeo?iiiiio /an? ia? i?noea i?e aiie?ooae? nie?oiia, ui ?ooa?oueny c
oaieiaith oaeaee?noth aeaeo?ii?a, aeua e?eoe/ii?.

2. Iaeaoe A* eieeaaiue, ui caoaeaeothoueny ?icieoei ii oaeaeeinoyi
io/eii aeaeo?ii?a a iicaeiaaeiuei iaiaiaaeai?e nenoai? c oaciaeie
oaeaeeinoyie, aeecueeeie aei iaeneiaeueii?, a aeiaaeeo caeiio
aeenia?n??, aeecueeiai aei e?i?eiiai, noai?ththoue eaioethaeie nieane?a,
ye? a?aeaeaathoue ?aciiaini? aeaeo?iie. Oe? nieanee i?e aiie?ooaeao aeua
e?eoe/ii? ia?aoai?ththoueny a nie?oiii? cao?aiiy.

3. Nie?oiiia cao?aiiy ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny c? oaeaee?noth na?oea i?ae
eooii aei iaai?oiiai iiey a caiaai?/aiiio ieineiio ieaciiiaiiaiaiiio
oaeeaaiae?.

4. ?ie?aiaioe caoaeaeaiiy ianoaoe?iia?ieo ?iiieo yi iioaioe?aeo a
no?oiia?e ieaci? i?iii?oe?ei? no?oiia?e oaeaeeino? aeaeo?ii?a a noaiai?
3/2. ssie iioaioe?aeo — ianeiao?e/i?. No?eaee iioaioe?aeo a iaaeao yi
i?iii?oe?ei? ?o aiie?ooaeai ? no?oiia?e oaeaeeino? aeaeo?ii?a. Aeaye?
yie iioaioe?aeo oi?iothoueny i?e no?oiiaeo oaeaeeinoyo aeua ii?iaiai?.

5. ?iciiae?e aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo o aeaeyae? iiaea?eiiai oa?o, yeee
noaa?e?ciaaiee iiacaeiaaei?i iaiaeii??aeiei iaai?oiei iieai, a aeaea?ae?
?ii?a i?e ??ciiiai?oieo aonoeiao ieacie. Iiaea?eiee oa? ?oeio?oueny i?e
aonoeiao i?eeaoiaeii? ieacie aeua ii?iaiai? nce>Ho2/4e, ui aecia/a?oueny
aaee/eiith iaai?oiiai iiey Ho ? i?eeeaaeaiith ??cieoeath iioaioe?aeo .

6. Aeaeo?e/iee iiaea?eiee oa? oi?io?oueny i?e ?iaeaeoe?? a ieacio
?aeyoea?nonueeiai aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea c aonoeiith, ui aei??aith? iieiaei?
aonoeie ieacie. Iiaea?eiee oa? ?ooa?oueny c? oaeaee?noth, iaioith
oaieiai? oaeaeeino? aeaeo?ii?a ieacie. No?eaie iioaioe?aeo a iueiio
aeecueeee aei aia?a?? io/ea. Iiaea?eiee oa? ? no?eeei i?e aonoei?
iia?eueii? a?oie aeaeo?ii?a, yea aeua e?eoe/ii?.

7. I?e iaeeo aiie?ooaeao nie?oiiieo cao?aiue, ui ?ooathoueny c oaieiaeie
oaeaeeinoyie /anoeiie ieacie, ?oi? oe?eie ? oaeaeeino? ciaioothoueny, a
i?e aaeeeeo aiie?ooaeao ca?eueoothoueny i?e ca?eueoaii? aiie?ooaee.

8. ?ie?aiaio caoaeaeaiiy nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy i?e ?icaeoeo
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? ?aciiainii? iano?eeino? Aoiaiaia aecia/a?oueny
noaiaith 1/3 a?aeiioaiiy ian aeaeo?ii?a ? ?ii?a ieacie (me/mi)1/3, ye ?
o aeiaaeeo e?i?eii? a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? iano?eeino?.

9. Ia?aiao?, ui aecia/a? aieea ?ooiiino? ?ii?a ia ii??a ?icaeoeo
iano?eeino? I??na, ? a?aeiioaiiyi e?iaoe/ieo aia?a?e aeaeo?ii?a oa
?ii?a.

Oe? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue i?aaeiao ? iaoeiao
iiaecio.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A on?o i?aoeyo, iioae?eiaaieo ca oaiith
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, caeiaoaa/ a?aa aecia/aeueio o/anoue o
iinoaiiaoe? caaea/?. Iaienaiiy oaenoo on?o ?ia?o oaeiae i?ioiaeeei ca
eiai aaciina?aaeiueith aeoeaiith o/anoth. Caeiaoaa/ iniaenoi c?iaea oae?
aianee:

· ?icaeiai iaoiae iiaoaeiae iae?i?eieo ??aiyiue a /anoeiaeo iio?aeieo
aeey iieno ianoaoe?iia?ii? aeeiai?ee nie?oiiieo cao?aiue.

· Cai?iiiiiaaiee oa canoiniaaiee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy nie?oiiieo
cao?aiue iaiaeeo aiie?ooae, ye? ? ii?iaeieiaie a oaciaiio i?inoi??
/anoie.

· Cai?iiiiiaaiee oa canoiniaaiee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy caoaeaeaiiy
nie?oiiieo cao?aiue i?e ?icaeoeo a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ?aciiainieo
iano?eeinoae.

· I?iaaaeaiee oai?aoe/iee aiae?c oi?ioaaiiy neeueiiai aeaeo?e/iiai
iiaea?eiiai oa?a ia a?aieoe? iai?aiaiaaeaii? ieacie i?e ?iaeaeooaaii? a
ia? aonoiai io/ea aeaeo?ii?a.

· I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aoaeoo ?aciiainieo /anoie a i?ioean?
o?ueiooaeeueiai? aca?iiae??.

· Iaea?aeaii aiae?oe/ia ??oaiiy a aeaeyae? nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy, ui
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny c? oaeaee?noth na?oea.

· Aeine?aeaeaii iineeaiiy nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy a ieaciiaiio oaeeueiaiae?
?icieoei ii oaeaeeinoyi io/eii aeaeo?ii?a.

· I?iaaaeaiee aiae?oe/iee aiae?c aieeao ?ooiiino? ?ii?a ia ?icaeoie
iano?eeino? I??na.

· I?iaaaeaiee oai?aoe/iee aiae?c oi?ioaaiiy ieaciiaeo iiey?ecaoe?eieo
aeaeo?e/ieo iie?a a iaaeao iaai?oii? eioooee, aeinoaoi?o aeey
oieonoaaiiy ?iiieo io/e?a.

· Iienai neeueiee aeaeo?e/iee iiaea?eiee oa?, ui oi?io?oueny a aeaea?ae?
?ii?a a ciai?oiueiio aeaeo?e/iiio iie? ? iaiaeii?iaeiiio iaai?oiiio
iie?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ca oaiith
aeena?oaoe?? aeieeaaeaeenue ia Ananithci?e eiioa?aioe?? ii aca?iiae??
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue c ieaciith (Aeooaiaa, 1979?., 1991), II
I?aeia?iaei?e ?iai/?e a?oi? ii iae?i?eiei ? oo?aoeaioiei i?ioeanai a
o?ceoe? (Ee?a, 1983?, 1985, 1987), Ananithcieo nai?ia?ao ii
ia?aiao?e/i?e oo?aoeaioiino? ? iae?i?eiei yaeuai a ieaci? (Iineaa,
1983?., 1985?., 1987?.), 7 I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii o?ceoe? ieacie
(Ee?a, 1987?.), Ananithciiio nai?ia?? ii ieaciia?e aeaeo?ii?oe? (
Oa?e?a, 1988), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii i?enei?thaa/ai ca?yaeaeaieo
/anoie ( Iineaa, 1990 ), IV I?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? ii iiaea?eiei
oa?ai ? ?ioei iae?i?eiei no?oeoo?ai a ieaci? ( ?ina?oe, 1992 ),
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii i?iaeoo «AIAEN» ( Eeiaoeuee, 1990 ),
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii o?ceoe? a Oe?a?i? ( Ee?a, 1993 ), Aaniyi?e
oeie? ii o?ceoe? ieacie ( O???no, 1993 ), can?aeaiiyo Aia?eeainueeiai
o?ce/iiai oiaa?enoaa ii o?ceoe? ieacie ( NOA, 1994, 1995 ), i?nueeeo
iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao ( Ee?a, 1993, 1995 ), iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao OOO? AI
Oe?a?ie, nai?ia?ao i?iaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1992, 1994, 1995), 7
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii aeaea?aeai ?ii?a (?oae?y, 1997),
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii i?enei?thaa/ai ca?yaeaeaieo /anoie
(Aeoooa, 1997), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii o?ceoe? ieacie (Iieueua,
1997), I?aeaea?aeaaiiio nai?ia?? ii ieaciia?e aeaeo?ii?oe? ? iiaei
iaoiaeai i?enei?aiiy (Oa?e?a, 1998), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ii
o?ceoe? ieacie (Aeoooa, 1998), I?aeia?iaeiiio eiia?an? ii o?ceoe? ieacie
(I?aaa, *anueea ?anioae?ea, 1998), nai?ia?? yiiinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
(1998), I?aeia?iaei?e Oie? eiioa?aioe?? ii o?ceoe? ieacie (ssiii?y,
1998).

Ioae?eaoe?? . Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iaae?oeiaaii aeaaaeoeyoue iaeia
?iaioa ? ni?ie aeaa’youe aeiiia?aeae.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe?? . ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, ia?ae?eo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Ianya aeena?oaoe??
ai?uo? 270 noi??iie aieiaiiai oaenoo, 30 noi??iie oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e
? 16 iaethie?a.

CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaaiai?th?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noenei aeneiaeth?oueny
ci?no ?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aenoaathoueny ia
caoeno.

*anoi eieae?ciaai? a i?inoi?? oaeeueia? no?oeoo?e oi?iothoueny ?c
iaeii??aeii? oo?aoeaioiino?, ui caoaeaeo?oueny io/eaie /anoie. O ia?oiio
?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi aeaa iaoai?cie, ye? caaacia/othoue oi?ioaaiiy oaeeo
no?oeoo?. A naia, ?icaeyiooi oii?yaeeoaaiiy oaeeueiaeo iaeao?a ca
?aooiie ?o aca?iiae?? /a?ac ?aciiaini? /anoeiee. Oaeiae aeine?aeaeaii
oi?ioaaiiy oaeeueiaeo no?oeoo? aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo iiaeoeyoe?eii?
iano?eeino? i?e caoiieaii? iiaeoeueiaaieie oaeeyie i?ieueioieo /anoie c
ia??aiiaaaeiith ooieoe??th ?iciiae?eo ii oaeaeeinoyi. C oe??th iaoith a
ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeai? aaiethoe?? ye eaac?iiiio?iiaoe/iiai
iaeaoo aeniei/anoioieo oaeeue, oae ? aeniei/anoioieo eieeaaiue c oe?ieei
niaeo?ii, ?icaeoie iiaeoeyoe?eii? iano?eeino? ?o ia ?aciiainieo
aeaeo?iiao a iaeiii??i?e aacc?oeiaii?e ieaci? c io/eii aeaeo?ii?a,
oi?ioaaiiy a ieaci? c io/eii aeaeo?ii?a a?ao ? eaioethaeea
aeniei/anoioieo nieane?a, oi?ioaaiiy ianoaoe?iia?ii? yie aeaeo?e/iiai
iioaioe?aeo c? no?eaeii iioaioe?aeo iiaeeco ia?. Aeine?aeaeaii
oi?ioaaiiy oaeeueiaeo no?oeoo? a iaiaaeai?e, iai?aiaiaaeai?e ?
iaiaiaaeai?e ieaci? c io/eaie aeaeo?ii?a.

A ?icae?e? 1.1 iieacaii c eaac?e?i?eieo ??aiyiue, ui iaeii??aei?
iaeiii??i? aeniei/anoioi? eieeaaiiy c oe?ieei niaeo?ii aeinyaathoue
iane/aiino? ia iecueeiio ??ai? i?e oaeaeeino? io/ea a?eueoi?, ii??aiyii
c iaeneiaeueiith oaciaith oaeaee?noth eieeaaiue a nenoai?. I?e oeueiio
/anoeia ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?ii?a io/ea caeeoa?oueny
ia??aiiaaaeiith, a ??aaiue iane/aiino? iaeii??aeii? oo?aoeaioiino?
nooo?ai caeaaeeoue a?ae o?aooaaiiy oe?eie ?aciiaino /anoea-oaeey. Aeey
iieno iiaeaeueoi? aaiethoe?? nenoaie a ?icae?e? 1.1 aeei?enoai?
ia?aii?iiaai? eaac?e?i?ei? ??aiyiiy, ye? a?aoiaothoue e?ioeaao oe?eio
?aciiaino oaeey — /anoea ii Vph ? oaeaeeinoyi /anoie. I?e
ocaaaeueiaii? ?o ia aeiaaeie iaiaeii??aeiiai iiey eieeaaiue aoei
iieacaii, ui eieeaaiiy c oe?ieei niaeo?ii iano?ee? a?aeiinii iiaeoeyoe??
aiie?ooae i?e caoaao? i?ieueioieo aeaeo?ii?a c ia??aiiaaaeiith
ooieoe??th ?iciiae?eo. I?e oeueiio eieeaaiiy c iaeneiaeueiith oaciaith
oaeaee?noth i?aeea/othoue /anoee c ia??aiiaaaeiith ooieoe??th ?iciiae?eo
ii oaeaeeinoyi a ?aciiainio iaeanoue inoaiiuei? oo?aoeaioiino?.
Aecia/ai? oe?eie iiaeoeueiaaieo oeoa?a oa a?aenoaiue i?ae ieie, a oaeiae
?ie?aiaio iiaeoeyoe?eii? iano?eeino?.

A ?icae?e? 1.2 ?icaeyiooi caaea/o i?i caoaeaeaiiy ieaciiai?
oo?aoeaioiino? eineo oaeeue ?icieoei ii oaeaeeinoyi aeaeo?iiiei io/eii a
caiaai?/ai?e ieaci?, a oaeiae aeniei/anoioieo oaeeue, ye?
caoaeaeothoueny oaeei io/eii a caiaai?/aiiio ieaciiiaiiaiaiiio
oaeeaaiae?. Oacia? oaeaeeino? Vph oeeo ieaciiaeo oaeeue iathoue
iaeneiaeueio oaciao oaeaee?noue Vc . ?icaeyiooi aeiaaeie, eiee
oaeaeeino? aeaeo?ii?a io/ea ?ici?uai? a ?ioa?aae? V1Vc .
Iieacaii, ui a i?inoi?? eii?aeeiaoa-oaciaa oaeaee?noue iiaeooue
noai?thaaoenue, aiane?aeie iineeaiiy ei?aeyoe?e iiey ? ?ooo aeaeo?ii?a,
a?aoe /anoeiai oii?yaeeiaaii? noeoiiino? iaeao?a. Aeine?aeaeai?
aeanoeaino? oii?yaeeiaaii? noeoiiino? iaeao?a a i?inoi?ia?e caaea/?, i?e
?iaeaeoe?? aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea a iai?aiaiaaeaio ieacio, a oaeiae a
aaiethoe?ei?e /ania?e caaea/?, i?e ?aeaenaoe?? aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea a
iaiaiaaeai?e a iiacaeiaaeiueiio iai?yieo ieaci?. A aaiethoe?ei?e caaea/?
aeiaaeeia iaeaoa ?c a?ao aei??aith? lp(Vph-Vgr)/kVtr . Ooo Vph, Vgr —
oaciaa oa a?oiiaa oaeaeeino? oaeeue iaeaoo; Vtr — oe?eia a i?inoi??
oaeaeeinoae ?aciiainii? aca?iiae?? oaeeue ? /anoie. A i?inoi?ia?e
caaea/? iaeaoe ?c a?ao aeiaoa lpVph/kVtr . I?e Vph < Vc-Vtr(Vc) a?aoe iiae?ai? ?ai?oa aeine?aeaeai?e oii?yaeeiaai?e noeoiiino? iaeao?a eaiaith??anueeeo eieeaaiue . A /ania?e caaea/? ei?ioe? iaeaoe lp2/k c eaioethaeea iaeao?a c Vph Vc , yeee oi?io?oueny i?e V2 > Vc ,
a?aeaeaathoue ?aciiaini? aeaeo?iie. Ia iae?i?ei?e noaae?? oe? iaeaoe a
oaeeaaiae? i?e aiie?ooaeao k a?eueoeo c

k >c=(me/e)V2tr=(32/2)(me/e)Vc2(/p)2/[1-(/p)2]

o?ainoi?iothoueny a nie?oiii? cao?aiiy. Ooo — /anoioa oaee? a
oaeeaaiae?.

Aeey a?eueo aeaoaeuei?oiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aaiethoe?? eieeaaiue c VphVc
a ?icae?e? 1.3 aeine?aeaeaii aaiethoe?th eaac?iiiio?iiaoe/iiai iaeaoo
aeniei/anoioieo oaeeue c Vph-Vgr<>Vph-Vgr , oaeey iiaieueii, a ii?iaiyiii c
?aciiainieie aeaeo?iiaie, ?ooa?oueny aiaeiinii iaeiath/i? , oae ui
ia?aaaaeia /anoeia ?aciiainieo aeaeo?iiia, yei iaaeathoue ia caaeiie
o?iio iaeaoo, i ani, yei iaaeathoue ia ia?aaeiie o?iio, aiaeaeaathoueny.
Oae ye aeaeo?iie, yei iaaeathoue ia caaeiie o?iio, ia?aaeathoue aia?aith
iaeaoo, a oi, ui aiaeaeaathoueny aiae ia?aaeiueiai o?iioo i aeoiaeyoue
ic caoaaoo ia ia?aaeiii o?iioi — aiaeae?athoue, oi i?ioyaeiinoue iaeaoo
ciaioo?oueny aae aei aeiaaeeie, yea ii?iaiyiia c aeiaaeeiith oaee?. sse
a?aecia/aii aeua, oae? ei?ioe? iaeaoe ia iae?i?ei?e noaae??
o?ainoi?iothoueny a nie?oiii? cao?aiiy.

A ?icae?e? 1.4 aeine?aeaeai? aeanoeaino? oa aaiethoe?y oaeiai
nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy a?eueo aeaoaeuei?oa. Oaea yia aeaeo?e/iiai
iioaioe?aeo iineeth?oueny a aenia?eiaioao aeaeo?iiiei io/eii

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000000ef0200000f40000000000000000000

c? cia/iei ?iceeaeii ii oaeaeeinoyi a caiaai?/aiiio ieaciiiaiiaiaiiio
oaeeueiaiae?. ?icaeyiooi iaeiii??io aeeiai?eo aeaeo?ii?a. Iioaioe?eia
yia a?aeia?aaea? ?aciiaini? aeaeo?iie ? a?aeae?a? o ieo aia?a?th. Oea
i?eaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy aiie?ooaee yie. Aiane?aeie a?aeia?aaeaiiy
?aciiainieo aeaeo?ii?a c ianeiao?e/iith a?aeiinii oaeaeeino? yie Vo
ooieoe??th ?iciiae?eo iaaeiei yie ii?ooo?oueny eaac?iaeo?aeuei?noue: ia
ia?aaeiueiio o?iio? yie aeieea? iaaeinoa/a aeaeo?ii?a, a ia ae?oaiio
o?iio? — ?o iaaeeeoie. A?aeiiaeth?oueny eaac?iaeo?aeuei?noue ca ?aooiie
i?enei?aiiy aai aaeueioaaiiy ia?aciiainieo aeaeo?ii?a. Oeth ?ieue
aeeiio? no?eaie aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo , ui naiiocaiaeaeaii aeieea?
eiei yie.

I?e ca?eueoaii? aiie?ooaee yie aei aecia/aii? aaee/eie ianoa? iia?eueia
ii??aiyii c aeeiai?eith iniiaii? /anoeie aeaeo?ii?a aaiethoe?y yie. Oea
cae?enith?oueny, eiee cai?ioiee /an
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0000 aca?iiae?? iniiaii? /anoeie aeaeo?ii?a c yiith ii??aith?oueny c
?ie?aiaioii
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ffff000000000001030000000000000a4002000c01000000000000000000 ca?eueoaiiy
aiie?ooaee yie aai ia?aaeuo? eiai
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000000cc0002001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccdd040000002d01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 I?e oeueiio
?aciiaini? aeaeo?iie c ooieoe??th ?iciiae?eo ii oaeaeeinoyi, yea
ci?ieeany aiane?aeie a?aeaeooy, ?ooathoueny a?ae yie c a?aeiiniith
oaeaee?noth, i?eaeecii ??aiith Vtr.

Aeei?enoaii iia?eueio aaiethoe?th yie aeey iiaoaeiae iieno oeueiai
i?ioeano a ?aieao ?iceeaaeo ii iaeiio ia?aiao?o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. Iaa?aoiaaia iaaae?aaaoe/ia aeeiai?ea aeaeo?ii?a c?
oaeaeeinoyie V — Vo Vtr a iie? ianoaoe?iia?ieo oaino?a
iioaioe?aeo, ine?eueee a?aooaaiiy iaaae?aaaoe/ii? aeeiai?ee caaacia/o?
iaeee aeiaeaoie ii??aiyii c oeie, ui a?aoiaothoueny. Ianoaoe?iia?iinoue
oaino?a iioaioe?aeo aecia/a?oueny ?o ?icoe?aiiyi c? oaeaee?noth Vtr .

Oacia? o?a?eoi??? aeaeo?ii?a, ye? iienothoueny ??aiyiiyie oa?aeoa?enoee
e?iaoe/iiai ??aiyiiy Aeaniaa, a nenoai? niieith yie a?aeiia?aeathoue
ni?aa?aeiioaiith

= mu2/2 — e(t, ) = const

u=V-Vo , = z-tVo , Vo — oaeaee?noue yie aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo.

Caaaeyee no?eaeo iioaioe?aeo ?aciiainia iaeanoue, oe?eia yei? ii
oaeaeeinoyi iica yiith, <0 , aoae/a, i?ae ia?aae iath, >0 , ia
aaee/eio no?eaea.

C o?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui ?aciiaini? aeaeo?iie a?aeia?aaeathoueny a?ae yie,
aeey ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?ii?a io/ea ia?ii ?c e?iaoe/iiai ??aiyiiy
ianooiiee ae?ac
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A()=(2e/m)1/2 ; Vb — oaeaee?noue io/ea.

Aeey iieno iia?eueii? aaiethoe?? yie ?icaeyiooi ??oaiiy ??aiyiue Ioaniia
? Aeaniaa a aeaeyae? yie aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo. I?e oeueiio
a?aoiaaii, ui aiie?ooaea o ci?ith?oueny iia?eueii. ?icaeyiooi
aaiethoe?th yie a iaaeeaeaii? iaeeo e/Tb , (Vb-Vo)/Vbth . Ooo Tb , Vbth
— oaiia?aoo?a oa oaieiaa oaeaee?noue io/ea. Aeei?enoiaoth/e ae?ac aeey
ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?ii?a io/ea ? aecia/ath/e ?c a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo
??aiyiue ae?ac aeey cao?aiiy aonoeie aeaeo?ii?a ieacie, io?eiaii ?c
??aiyiiy Ioaniia iae?i?eia aaiethoe?eia ??aiyiiy a /anoeiaeo iio?aeieo
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oa oaeaee?noue yie, aeei?enoiaoth/e
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No?eaie iioaioe?aeo neeuei?oee ii??aiyii c aeiaaeeii, eiee a?aeia?aaeai?
a?ae yie ?aciiaini? /anoeiee aeinyaathoue a?aieoeue nenoaie a
iiacaeiaaeiueiio iai?yieo. Ia?aaei?e o?iio yie e?oo?oee caaeiueiai,
oe?eia yie ?c c?inoaiiyi aiie?ooaee ciaioo?oueny, a oaeaee?noue
ca?eueoo?oueny.

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee aaiethoe?? yie a /an? ciaeaeaii ?ie?aiaio c?inoaiiy
aiie?ooaee yie =lno/t . Aeey oeueiai aeei?enoaii a aaiethoe?eiiio
??aiyii? =-o

picscalex100010009000003850400000500170000000000050000000902000000000400
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0500000013029f05350f0500000014020205230d050000001302de04630d09000000fa02
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020004000000f00104000300000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff00000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000

Aecia/ath/e lim , iaea?aeaii

picscalex100010009000003ca0400000400170000000000050000000902000000000400
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00000b0200000000050000000c020008e0221200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffb0ffffffa0220000b00700000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000c00109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
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2d0101000500000014029d0185060500000013023702e106040000002d01000005000000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05000000140277007f170500000013027700bf180500000014026f00d611050000001302
bf02181110000000fb02b9fc1601000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002
040000002d01020004000000f001030008000000320a84020809010000005b0010000000
fb02b9fc1601000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010300
04000000f001020008000000320a8402d618010000005d00050000001402bf00631f0500
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050000001402e601ba19050000001302af02161a040000002d010000050000001402af02
1e1a0500000013027700921a0500000014027700921a0500000013027700252105000000
1402a004fe050500000013021007350510000000fb0247fc110100000000900100000002
0002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001030008000000320a0207
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6f6c0002040000002d01030004000000f001020008000000320a0207c608010000002900
050000001402a004490d0500000013026607640c050000001402a0042219050000001302
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040000002d01020004000000f001030008000000320a1d074709010000005b0010000000
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04000000f001020008000000320a1d07e019010000005d0010000000fb0220fe00000000
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09000000320a27023e00010000006700c40009000000320a2702a117010000007000fe00
0a000000320a27027e1b02000000626a11011f0109000000320a9806e809010000007700
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c005a503010000003300c00009000000320ac0058e07010000003200c00009000000320a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000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000

?ie?aiaio caoaeaeaiiy yie aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo caeaaeeoue a?ae ??
aiie?ooaee ? i?iii?oe?eiee ??cieoe? oaeaeeinoae io/ea oa yie.

A oaia??oi?e /an aaeeea oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny aca?iiae?? aeoaea ei?ioeeo
?iioeuen?a eaca?iiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy c ieaciith. Oea iaoiiaeaii oe?ieei
canoinoaaiiyi oeueiai i?ioeano, na?aae yeeo — iia? iaoiaee i?enei?aiiy
ca?yaeaeaieo /anoie ? noai?aiiy aeaea?ae iiooaeiiai aei?noieiai
aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy. Oae i?e /enaeueiiio iiaeaethaaii?
niinoa??aaeinue oi?ioaaiiy e?eueaaoa?iiai aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai nie?oiia,
yeee ia iiaea aooe iienaiei a iaaeeaeaii? iaeiath/i?. A ?icae?e? 1.5
?icaeyiooi oe?eaao caaea/o aeey i?iaeaie e?eueaaoa?iiai iaoiaea
i?enei?aiiy ca?yaeaeaieo /anoie, a naia, aiae?oe/ia ??oaiiy o aeaeyae?
nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy, yea ?ooa?oueny c? oaeaee?noth na?oea.

A caiaai?/ai?e ieaci? iaeia ?c iiae aeniei/anoioieo eieeaaiue, ui
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny i?ae eooii aei neeueiiai iaai?oiiai iiey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 , ia? ianooiiee
caeii aeenia?n?? =ckpcos/(p2+c2k2)1/2 . Ooo p — ieaciiaa /anoioa
aeaeo?ii?a ieacie; , k — /anoioa ? oaeeueiaee aaeoi? , c — oaeaee?noue
na?oea. Aeey p <t, iaeiae ii?iaiaei ii no?oiia?e oaeaeeino?
aeaeo?ii?a caniaii. Ii??a ciaioo?oueny c? ciaioaiiyi . Iaea?aeaiee
ii??a ii no?oiia?e oaeaeeino? aeaeo?ii?a aeecueeee aei oiai, ui
niinoa??aa?oueny a /enaeueieo ? eaai?aoi?ieo aenia?eiaioao.

I?e >t iiaea oi?ioaaoenue ?iiii-caoeiaee ai?a aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo.

A ?icae?e? 2.3 iienai? aeanoeaino? iaiiiioiiiiai iiaea?eiiai oa?o, yeee
yaey? niaith yio aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo c? no?eaeii iioaioe?aeo a ??
iaaeao, yea ?ooa?oueny c? oaeaee?noth, ui iaaeeaeaia aei oaieiai?
?iiii?. Iieacaii, ui yia aeecueea ii aeanoeainoyi aei aeua ?icaeyiooi?,
oi?io?oueny aacii?iaiaei caniaii ii no?oiia?e oaeaeeino? aeaeo?ii?a,
iaeiae oi?io?oueny i?e a?aeiioaii? oaiia?aoo? aeaeo?ii?a ? ?ii?a aeua
ii?iaiaiai. Oey yia aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo oi?io? ii?iaeieio a
oaciaiio i?inoi?? ?ii?a.

A ?icae?e? 2.4 oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeaii oi?ioaaiiy, aeanoeaino? oa
no?ee?noue aeaeo?e/iiai iiaea?eiiai oa?o, yeee oi?io?oueny a iaaeao
?iaa?n?? iiacaeiaaeiueiai iaai?oiiai iiey a ciai?oiueiio aeaeo?e/iiio
iie?. ?icaeyiooi aeanoeaino? iiaea?eiiai oa?o i?e ??ciiiai?oieo aonoeiao
ieacie a i?eeaoiaei?e ? i?eaiiaei?e iaeanoyo. Iiaea?eiee oa? ?
aeaea?aeii ?ii?a ? noaa?e?ciaaiee a i?inoi?? ? a /an? i?inoi?iaith
ci?iith iai?yieo (?iaa?n??th) ciai?oiueiai iaai?oiiai iiey a na?aaeei?
nenoaie. Iieacaii, ui i?e iaeeo aonoeiao ieacie a i?eeaoiaei?e iaeano? ?
a iaeano? ?iaa?n?? aanue i?eeeaaeaiee ciai?oi?e iioaioe?ae
?iciiae?eth?oueny a oeeo iaeanoyo. I?e aaeeeeo aonoeiao ieacie aanue
i?eeeaaeaiee aei ia? iioaioe?ae ?iciiae?eth?oueny a iaaeao ?iaa?n??
iiacaeiaaeiueiai iaai?oiiai iiey Ho o aeaeyae? neeueiiai iiiioiiiiai
aeaeo?e/iiai iiaea?eiiai oa?o. Iaeiae, a iaaeao ?iaa?n?? naiiocaiaeaeaii
aeieea? no?auaia eiio?ao?aoe?y aeaeo?e/iiai ? iaai?oiiai iie?a. Oea
i?eaiaeeoue aei naiiocaiaeaeaiiai caoaeaeaiiy aceiooaeueieo no?oi?a
aeaeo?ii?a. Oe? no?oie ia?aaoaeiaothoue eiio?ao?aoe?th iaai?oiiai iiey.
Iieacaii, ui i?e ia?aaeuaii? aonoeie ieacie cia/aiiy ne>Ho2/4e
iiaea?eiee oa? naiiocaiaeaeaii ?oeio?oueny aceiooaeueieie no?oiaie, ui
noai?ththoueny no?auaiith eiio?ao?aoe??th ciai?oiueiai iaai?oiiai iiey,
iiacaeiaaeiueiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey iiaea?eiiai oa?o ? ?aae?aeueiiai
aeaeo?e/iiai iiey iiey?ecaoe?? aeaeo?ii?a ieacie a?aeiinii ?ii?a. Oea
?aae?aeueia iiea iiey?ecaoe?? c’yaey?oueny aiane?aeie cnoao aeaeo?ii?a
a?ae in? oeee?iae?e/ii? nenoaie acaeiaae e?i?e iaai?oiiai iiey i?ae
aieeaii aeaeo?e/iiai iiey iiaea?eiiai oa?o.

Aeaye? neeuei? iiaea?ei? oa?e oi?iothoueny i?e ?icaeoeo iano?eeino?
I??na ia ?iiiiio i?ii?aeeo /ano. Eeane/iee ae?iae I??na — oea ? nenoaia,
a ye?e oieiaeiee io/ie aeaeo?ii?a ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny ia oii? ia?ooiieo
iaeo?ae?coth/eo ?ii?a, i?ae aeaea?aeii, ui ?icoaoiaaiee a ieiuei? x=0 ,
oa e?ioeai, ui ?icoaoiaaiee a ieiuei? x=L . Oey nenoaia
aeei?enoiao?oueny ye iiaeaeue aaaaoueio i?eeaae?a. *anoi aeaeo?iie
?iaeaeoothoueny ?acii c ?iiaie aeey caaacia/aiiy iaeo?ae?caoe??
i?inoi?iaiai ca?yaeo. Iaeiae, ?nio? iaiaaeaiiy ia iaeneiaeueiee no?oi,
ui aeinyaa? e?ioey. ? oea ? ?acoeueoaoii iano?eeino? I??na. Iano?ee?noue
I??na ia? i?noea, eiee ia?aiao? I??na Lp/Voe ia?aaeuo? , aea p —
ieaciiaa /anoioa aeaeo?ii?a ? Voe — oaeaee?noue ?iaeaeoe?? aeaeo?ii?a.
sse a?aeiii, ? iaiaaeaia ?ioi?iaoe?y ui aei aieeao a?aeiinii? oaeaeeino?
aeaeo?ii?a oa ?ii?a ia iano?ee?noue I??na ca aeiyoeii aeiaaeeo ioeueiai?
oaeaeeino? ?ii?a. A inoaiiueiio aeiaaeeo ? iiaiee iien. Oiio ?icae?e 2.5
i?enay/aiee o?aooaaiith aieeao ?ooiiino? ?ii?a ia ii??a ?icaeoeo
iano?eino? iaeii??aeiiai noaio a ae?iae? I??na. ?icaeyiooi e?ioeaao iano
?ii?a oa ??ciiiai?oi? ?o oaeaeeino?. Aeei?enoai? eii?aeeiaoe Eaa?aiaea c
o?aooaaiiyi oiia ia iaaeao oa ?ooii?noue ?ii?a. Iieacaii, ui ?ooii?noue
?ii?a nooo?ai aieeaa? ia ii??a ?icaeoeo iano?einoe iaeii??aeiiai noaio a
ae?iae? I??na. Iiia?aaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ocaaaeueiai? ia aeiaaeie
aeia?eueii? oaeaeeino? ?iaeaeoe?? ?ii?a. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui
? oi?aa?naeueiee ia?aiao?, yeee oa?aeoa??co? oeae aieea. Iaea?aeaii oeae
oi?aa?naeueiee ia?aiao?, = meVie2/miVii2 , yeee ? a?aeiioaiiyi
e?iaoe/ieo aia?a?e aeaeo?ii?a ? ?ii?a. Iieacaii, ui aeei?enoiaoth/e oeae
ia?aiao?, iiaeia ca?eueoeoe no?ee?noue iaeii??aeiiai noaio a ae?iae?
I??na.

?icae?e 2.6 i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith oieonoaaiiy ?iiiiai io/ea AAE
iecueei/anoioiith oaeeath a ieaci? a iaiaeii??aeiiio iaai?oiiio iie?
ei?ioei? eioooee. Iieacaii, ui ?icaeoie iano?eeino? a no?oiia?e ieaci?,
caoaao aeaeo?ii?a ieacie iieai caoaeaeo?ii? iecueei/anoioii? oaee? ? ?o
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?acii c oaeeath acaeiaae in? iaai?oii? eioooee
i?eaiaeeoue aei oi?ioaaiiy ?aae?aeueiiai aeaeo?e/iiai iiey iiey?ecaoe??
aeaeo?ii?a ieaciiaiai iioieo. Iaoiaeii eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy
aeine?aeaeaii oieonoaaiiy ?iiiiai io/ea oeei iieai iiey?ecaoe??.
?ic?aoiaai? ia eiii’thoa?? o?a?eoi??? io/eiaeo ?ii?a, ye? oieonothoueny.
Iieacaii, ui i?e aaeeeeo e?eueeinoyo aeiaaeei oaeeue ia aeiaaeei?
iaai?oii? eioooee ? eiee aanue io/ie ?iciiae?eaiee ii ?aae?ono ia
?ioa?aae?, aea aonoeia ieacie ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ?aae?ona, io/ie
oieono?oueny aei iaeeo ?aae?aeueieo ?ici???a.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?eiiai oa?o ia a?aieoe?
ieacie i?e ?iaeaeoe?? a ia? aonoiai ?aeyoea?nonueeiai io/ea aeaeo?ii?a.

A?aeiii, ui i?e ?iaeaeoe?? a iai?aiaiaaeaio ieacio io/ea aeaeo?ii?a c
aonoeiith nb , yea ii??aiyia, aea iaioa ca aonoeio ieacie, ia a?aieoe?
eiai ?iaeaeoe?? noai?th?oueny i?iaae aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo. Iaeiae
i?e iiaeaethaaii? ia AII niinoa??aaeinue, ui ia aaeeeiio i?ii?aeeo /ano
i?iaae iioaioe?aeo o?ainoi?ioaaany a ai?a iioaioe?aeo aaeeei?
aiie?ooaee. I?e aeayeeo oiiaao a?ae oeueiai ai?aa a?aeae?eyany
aeaeo?e/iee iiaea?eiee oa? ? ?ooaany a ieacio. Oi?ioaaiiy oaeiai ae
iiaea?eiiai oa?o iiaeeeai i?e ?iaeaeoe?? aonoiai io/ea aeaeo?ii?a a
ieacio c aeaeo?e/ia ?cieueiaaiiai aeaea?aea. A ?icae?e? 3.1 iieacaii, ui
i?e aonoeiao ?aeyoea?nonueeiai io/ea nb , ye? i?eaeecii aei??aiththoue
iieiaei? aonoeie ieacie ni

nb=[ni/2-no(To/2eo)]o/(o+1) ,

ia a?aieoe? eiai ?iaeaeoe?? iiaeeeai noai?aiiy aeaeo?e/iiai iiaea?eiiai
oa?o, yeee a?aeaeaa? io/ie. Ooo no , To — aonoeia oa oaiia?aoo?a
iia?eueii? a?oie aeaeo?ii?a. Iia?eueia a?oia aeaeo?ii?a naiiocaiaeaeaii
aeieea? ia i?ii?aeeo /ano oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?eiiai oa?o. ?? aonoeia, yea
iaiao?aeia aeey oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?eiiai oa?o, aei??aith?

no=[1+(To/eo)o/(o+1)]ni/(o+1) .

No?eaie aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo a iiaea?eiiio oa?? o i?eaeecii
aei??aith? e?iaoe/i?e aia?a?? io/ea bmec2(o-1) . Ooo o —
?aeyoea?nonueeee oaeoi?. A nenoai? niieith iiaea?eiiai oa?o aeaeo?iie
?ooathoueny ii o?a?eoi??yi, ui iienothoueny ??aiyiiyi

mec2(-1) — e = const.

— aeaeo?e/iee iioaioe?ae iiaea?eiiai oa?o. I?e oeueiio aonoeia io/ea
ci?ith?oueny a i?inoi?? noiniaii ianooiii? caeaaeiino?

nb(z)= nb(1-o-2)1/2[1-(1+e(z)/mec2)-2]-1/2

Oa? ?ooa?oueny a ieacio c? oaeaee?noth iaaaaaoi iaioith, i?ae
oaeaee?noue io/ea, i?enei?thth/e aeaeo?iie ieacie iacono??/ io/eo ?
ianooo?ai cao?thth/e aonoeio ?ii?a. Oe?eia iiaea?eiiai oa?o x=2Vbp-1 a
ia?aeyoea?nonueeiio iaaeeaeaii? ? a ?aeyoea?nonueeiio iaaeeaeaii?

x = (c/2p) o

ii??aiyia c aeiaaeeiith oaee? iaea?eueo iano?eei? iiaee io/eiai?
iano?eeino?. Oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?eiiai oa?o i?e ?iaeaeoe?? aeaeo?iiiiai
io/ea a ieacio niinoa??aaeinue i?e iiaeaethaaii? ia AII.

I?e /enaeueiiio iiaeaethaaii? caoaeaeaiiy neeueiiai iiaea?eiiai oa?o ia
a?aieoe? ieacie i?e ?iaeaeoe?? a ia? aonoiai io/ea aeaeo?ii?a
niinoa??aa?oueny iae?i?eia yaeua. A naia, i?e oi?ioaaii? ia aaeeeiio
i?ii?aeeo /ano eaioethaeea a?o??a a oaciaiio i?inoi?? aeaeo?ii?a oe?
a?o?? iano?eee. *anoeia aeaeo?ii?a a?aeae?ey?oueny a?ae a?o??a c
iaeiaioeie iiaeeeaeie oaeaeeinoyie. Oiaoi niinoa??aa?oueny ia caoiieaiiy
io/ea iieai, a iiaeaeueoa eiai aaeueioaaiiy c i?aeaeuaiiyi iai?io
aia?a??th c a?o?ai. A aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeai? oiiae oaeiai i?ioeano
?aeaenaoe?? io/ea aeaeo?ii?a.

A ?icae?e? 3.1 ?icaeyiooi aeiaeaoeiaee ii??aiyii c aeiaaeeii caoaaoa
iai?i aia?a??th caoiieaiiai aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea c oaeeath. ?icaeyiooi
iae?i?eia yaeua aeoiaeo caoiieaiiai oaeeath aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea ?c
caoaaoo c ia?aaea/ath aia?a?? oaee?.

Iieacaii, ui i?e ?icaeoeo iano?eeino? oieiaeiiai aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea a
ieaci? aeayea eiai aeiey, caaaeyee neeuei?e iaa?iai?e caeaaeiino?
oaciai? oaeaeeino? oaee?, yea aaia?o?oueny io/eii, a?ae aiie?ooaee, ia
caoiieth?oueny iieai oaee?, a, aaeueioth/enue, o?ainoi?io?oueny ?c
ia?aciiainii? iaeano? oaeaeeinoae V aeaeo?ii?a io/ea V-Vph >Vtr ,
a?eueoeo oaciai? oaeaeeino? oaee? V >Vph, a ia?aciiainio iaeanoue
oaeaeeinoae aeaeo?ii?a io/ea, iaioeo oaciai? oaeaeeino? V < Vph. Ooo Vtr = (eEk/kme)1/2 - oe?eia ?aciiaino oaeey - /anoeiea a i?inoi?? oaeaeeinoae aeaeo?ii?a io/ea, Ek , k - aiie?ooaea ? oaeeueiaee aaeoi? oaee?, yea caoaeaeo?oueny aeaeo?iiiei io/eii. Inoaii? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny aeiaeaoeiaith ia?aaea/ath aia?a?? a?ae io/ea oaee?. A ?icae?e? 3.2 ?icaeyiooi oi?ioaaiiy eieaeoeaieo iie?a, ye? i?enei?ththoue ?iie a iaaeao eini?/iiai aia?aoa i?e ?iaeaeoe?? ?c iueiai aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea. A eaai?aoi?i?e eaac?iaeo?aeuei?e ieaci? oa a nooi aeaeo?iii?e ieaci?, a iaai?oinoa??, a aeaeo?iiiiio io/eo a aenia?eiaioao ii neio?io?iiiiio i?enei?aiith niinoa??aathoueny nie?oiii? cao?aiiy, ye? ?iciianthaeaeothoueny a?aeiinii ca?yaeaeaieo /anoie c ?o oaieiaeie oaeaeeinoyie. Oiio a /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiai? nie?oiii? cao?aiiy, ye? ?ooathoueny c oaieiaeie oaeaeeinoyie /anoie ieacie. A ?icae?eao 4.1, 4.2 aeine?aeaeai? aeanoeaino? nie?oii?a, ye? niinoa??aathoueny a aenia?eiaioao ? ?ooathoueny c? oaeaeeinoyie, ye? aeecuee? aei oaieiaeo oaeaeeinoae aeaeo?ii?a ? ?ii?a ieacie. Iien iiae eieeaaiue, oa?aeoa?i? oaeaeeino? yeeo ii?yaeeo oaieiaeo oaeaeeinoae /anoie, iio?aao? e?iaoe/iiai ?icaeyaeo. A?aeiii, ui aeey iaeeo aiie?ooae oe?eie oa oaeaeeino? oeeo nie?oii?a ciaioothoueny c ?inoii aiie?ooae. A aeiaaeeo cia/ieo aiie?ooae, eo/Te>1, ?c ??aiyiiy Aeaniaa ciaeaeaii
ae?ac aeey ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo aeaeo?ii?a ieacie (aac aeaeo?ii?a, ye?
caoiieai? iieai nie?oiia)

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Ooo fo — ooieoe?y ?iciiae?eo Iaenaaea. Oaeei /eiii iaea?aeaia ??aiyiiy
aeey oi?ie nie?oiia

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e/Te, y=Vo/Vthe2 . ?c oeueiai ??aiyiiy ia?ii

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040000002d01030004000000f001020003000000000000000000.

Oe?eia nie?oiia c?inoa? c o . Ioaea, iaiao?aeii a?aooaaoe caoiieai?
iieai nie?oiia aeaeo?iie. Aeei?enoiaoth/e aeey ?o aonoeie ae?ac
picscalex100010009000003aa0100000300150000000000050000000902000000000400
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53797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000000000000000000,
ciaeaeaii, ui aeey aaeeeeo aiie?ooae caeaaei?noue a?ae aiie?ooaee
ci?ith?oueny ii??aiyii c aeiaaeeii iaeeo aiie?ooae: c ?? ?inoii oe?eie
oa oaeaeeino? oeeo nie?oii?a ?inoooue. Nie?oiiia cao?aiiy, ui ?ooa?oueny
c oaieiaith oaeaee?noth aeaeo?ii?a ieacie, ooai?th? ii?iaeieio a
aeaeyae? a?o?y a oaciaiio i?inoi?? aeaeo?ii?a. I?e oeueiio ieiua
ii?iaeieie i?e iaeeo aie?ooaeao i?eaeecii ??aia x(eo/m)1/2 ? ia
caeaaeeoue a?ae aiie?ooaee o. Nie?oiiia cao?aiiy, ui ?ooa?oueny c
oaieiaith oaeaee?noth ?ii?a ieacie, ooai?th? ii?iaeieio a oaciaiio
i?inoi?? ?ii?a.

A ?icae?e? 4.3 ?icaeyiai? aeanoeaino? nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy, yea
?ooa?oueny c aeaeo?iiiith oaeaee?noth ? noai?th?oueny a ieaci? c
aeaiooaiia?aoo?ieie aeaeo?iiaie.

A aenia?eiaioao ? i?e /enaeueiiio iiaeaethaaii? niinoa??aa?oueny
oi?ioaaiiy nie?oiiieo cao?aiue i?e ?icaeoeo iano?eeino? Aoiaiaia, a
oaeiae i?e oiiaao iano?eeino? oieiaeiiai ?iiiiai io/ea a ieaci?. Oe?
iano?eeino? ? a?ae?iaeeiai?/i? ?aciiaini? iano?eeino?. A ?icae?eao 4.4 —
4.6 iienaii caoaeaeaiiy nie?oiiieo cao?aiue i?e ?icaeoeo
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ?aciiainieo iano?eeinoae, ?ie?aiaioe yeeo
aecia/athoueny noaiaith 1/3 iaeiai ia?aiao?o.

?icae?e 4.4 i?enay/aiee iieno caoaeaeaiiy nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy a
aeaeyae? ai?aa aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo
picscalex100010009000003290200000300150000000000050000000902000000000400
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630e01000000320008000000320a9701d60d010000002f0008000000320a97012a0d0100
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0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00007b040000002d01010004000000f001
020008000000320a6002b61002000000313508000000320a6002250f0100000078000800
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0f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102
022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000000000000ff c
caoaa/aieie aeaeo?iiaie i?e ?icaeoeo iano?eeino? Aoiaiaia. Ooo
ii?iiaaiee ia oaiia?aoo?o aeaeo?ii?a, oaeaeeino? — ia oaieiao
oaeaee?noue aeaeo?ii?a,
picscalex100010009000003910200000300170000000000050000000902000000000400
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01000000000010000000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d
00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010200030000000000000000005b00000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000003000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000 , — ia?aiao? caoaaoa aeaeo?ii?a ai?aii
aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo.
picscalex100010009000003a70000000300170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02a00180011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffff0800000040010000a80100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
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320a60014000010000007600f0000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001000
0000fb021400090000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01
020004000000f001010003000000000000fc000100000000000000000000000000000000
000000ffffff00000000000101000000000000004e0000000000000aca020000000000ff
ffff — no?oiiaa oaeaee?noue aeaeo?ii?a. A iaaeeaeaii? ia?ooiieo ?ii?a
oea cao?aiiy noaoe?iia?ia. A oeueiio iaaeeaeaii? aiii ? oeio AAE. ?c
e?iaoe/iiai ??aiyiiy Aeaniaa aeey aeaeo?ii?a oa a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo
??aiyiue aeey ?ii?a iaea?aeaii ??aiyiiy a /anoeiaeo iio?aeieo o?aoueiai
ii?yaeeo aeey iieno caoaeaeaiiy oeueiai cao?aiiy

picscalex100010009000003540000000000120000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02800240011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa8ffffff00010000280200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
000060000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000000300000000000000000000ff
ffff000a9d010000000000ffffff00ffffff00006f000002022200000000000000000002
001000696d6500204e650000000000000000picscalex100010009000003ea0300000300
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1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffffb9ffffff201b000059050000
0b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650000300109000000fa020000100000000000
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01000000660008000000320aec01d91001000000b60008000000320aec01710d01000000
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00020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a
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1000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d0101000400
0000f001020003000000000000000000

“’”=/x , =me/mi . ??oaiiy oeueiai ??aiyiiy ciaeaeaii a aeaeyae?
picscalex100010009000003ca0200000200150000000000050000000902000000000400
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0a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc01020222
53797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001000003000000000000000000,
(x)=ch-4[x/(o)] , (o) — oe?eia nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy. A?aoiaaia ci?ia
oaeaeeino? nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy vo c ?inoii aiie?ooaee.

Iieacaii, ui caeaaei?noue iae?i?eiiai ?ie?aiaioo a?ae iaeiai ia?aiao?o
(me/mi)1/3 naia oaea, ui ? aeey e?i?eiiai ?ie?aiaioo iano?eeino?
Aoiaiaia.

A ?icae?eao 4.5, 4.6 ?icaeyiooi caoaeaeaiiy ?iiieie io/eaie aeaeo?iiiiai
? ?iiii-caoeiaiai nie?oiiieo cao?aiue. Iaea?aeai? iae?i?ei? ??aiyiiy a
/anoeiaeo iio?aeieo o?aoueiai ii?yaeeo. ?c oeeo ??aiyiue iieacaii, ui
caeaaei?noue iae?i?eiiai ?ie?aiaioa oa cnoao oaeaeeino? nie?oiiiiai
cao?aiiy a?ae iaeiai ia?aiao?o (nb/no)1/3 oaea ae, ye ? aeey e?i?eiiai
?ie?aiaioo ? cnoao oaciai? oaeaeeino? io/eiai? iano?eeino?.

Oae? oaeeueia? no?oeoo?e, ye nie?oiii? cao?aiiy ? iiaea?ei? aeaeo?e/i?
oa?e, oi?iothoueny aiane?aeie oe?o/aiiy oaeeueiaeo o?iio?a ?
ia?aea/oaaiiy aia?a?? ii niaeo?o a ?acoeueoao? iae?i?eii? aca?iiae??
oaeeue. I?e caoaeaeaii? oaeeueiaeo no?oeoo? iioieaie /anoie ca ?aooiie
?aciiainii? aca?iiae?? oaeey — /anoeiea aaaeeea? ?aciiaini? /anoeiee.
Oeueiio aaaeeeaa ieoaiiy i?i aieea ?aciiainieo /anoeiie ia i?ioean
iae?i?eii? aca?iiae?? oaeeue. A i’yoiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaii aieea
?aciiainieo /anoie ia i?ioean o?ueiooaeeueiai? aca?iiae?? AAE oa?eue.

I?e aeaiae? ??aiyiue, ye? iienothoue o?ueiooaeeueiao aca?iiae?th,
cae/aeii i?eionea?oueny, ui ona?aaeiaia ii oeoeooaoe?yi ooieoe?y
?iciiae?eo ii oaeaeeinoyi, yea aoiaeeoue a oe? ??aiyiiy, —
iaenaae?anueea, aac o?aooaaiiy niioai?aiiy iieyie oaeeue. Oiae?
?ioaineai?noue aaia?oaaiiy oaee? c oaeeueiaei aaeoi?ii k
i?iii?oe?eia aiie?ooaeai aca?iiae?th/eo oaeeue. Iaeiae ooieoe?y
?iciiae?eo ?aciiainieo /anoie niioai?th?oueny, neiao?ecoth/enue ii
oaeaeeinoyi a?aeiinii oaciai? oaeaeeino? oaee? Vph. Niioai?aiiy ooieoe??
?iciiae?eo nooo?ai, yeui aiia aoea aei aca?iiae?? /anoie c iieai oaee?
ianeiao?e/iith ii oaeaeeinoyi a?aeiinii Vph , ? yeui a ?aciiain?
ciaoiaeeoueny cia/ia aeiey /anoie.

?icaeyiooi o?ueiooaeeueiao aca?iiae?th ia i?eeeaae? aca?iiae?? aeaio
iiia?a/ieo aeaeo?iiaai?oieo ? iaei??? iiacaeiaaeiuei? aeaeo?iiii?
oaeeue, eiee ?aciiaini? /anoeiee ? o?eueee o iaei??? iiacaeiaaeiuei?
oaee?. Iieacaii, ui ?ioaineai?noue aca?iiae?? ? ??aiyiiy, yea iieno?
oeth aca?iiae?th, iiaeooue nooo?ai ci?ieoeny. A?aoiaaiee aeeaae
?aciiainieo aeey A* iiacaeiaaeiuei? oaee? aeaeo?ii?a a ae?ac aeey
?ioaineaiino? aaia?oaaiiy aeaeo?iiaai?oii? oaee? c oaeeueiaei aaeoi?ii
k i?e aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiaai?oii? c k ? iiacaeiaaeii?
aeniei/anoioii? c oaeeue. Iieacaii, ui Ek/t, c o?aooaaiiyi aeeaaeo
?aciiainieo /anoie, iiaea cia/ii ci?ieoeny ii aaniethoi?e aaee/ei? ?
aecia/aoeny a?eueo neeueiith iae?i?ei?noth, noaiaith 3/2.

Ine?eueee aeaye? nie?oiii? cao?aiiy ? iiaea?ei? oa?e oi?iothoueny
aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo iiaeoeyoe?eii? iano?eeino? eieeaaiue, ?icae?e o?noue
i?enay/aii iiaeoeyoe?ei?e iano?eeino? eineo aeniei/anoioieo
aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue a caiaai?/ai?e ieaci? ? caoaaoo aeniei/anoioieo
eaiaith??anueeeo eieeaaiue oaciaith ii?iaeieiith aeaeo?ii?a ia
aeaeo?iiiiio i?ii?aeeo /ano.

A ?icae?e? 6.1 ?icaeyiooi iiaeeea?noue caoaaoo aeniei/anoioieo
eaiaith??anueeeo oaeeue ia aeaeo?iiiiio i?ii?aeeo /ano, eiee ?ooii?noue
?ii?a ieacie ianooo?aa. Oaeei /eiii, oea yaeua ia a?aeiineoueny aei
a?aeiiiai i?ioeano, yeee ia? i?noea a neeuei?e eaiaith??anuee?e
oo?aoeaioiino? ia ?iiiiio i?ii?aeeo /ano. Aeniei/anoioi? eaiaith??anuee?
oaee? caoiieththoueny oaciaith ii?iaeieiith aeaeo?ii?a. Oey oaciaa
ii?iaeieia aeaeo?ii?a ? nie?oiiiei cao?aiiyi aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo ?
yiith aonoeie aeaeo?ii?a ? ?ooa?oueny c? oaeaee?noth, ii??aiyiith c
oaieiaith oaeaee?noth aeaeo?ii?a ieacie. Iieacaii, ui caoaao
aeniei/anoioieo eaiaith??anueeeo oaeeue iiaeeeaee i?e aiie?ooae? oaciai?
ii?iaeieie aeaeo?ii?a a?eueoa e?eoe/ii?. Oea yaeua — iiaeoeyoe?y
aeniei/anoioieo eieeaaiue ia aeaeo?iiiiio i?ii?aeeo /ano niinoa??aaeinue
a aenia?eiaio?. A oeueiio aenia?eiaio? ?iaeaeooaaeenue aeaa aeaeo?iiieo
io/ea iacono??/ iaeei iaeiiio. Oaeeueia? iaeaoe, ui caoaeaeoaaeenue,
?iciianthaeaeoaaeenue c? oaeaee?noth, i?eaeecii ??aiith oaieia?e
oaeaeeino? aeaeo?ii?a ieacie (0,3-3)Vthe . ?iiiee no?oi ia
niinoa??aaany ia ei?ioeiio i?ii?aeeo /ano, oae ui ia iiaea aooe aeeaaeo
?iiii? aeeiai?ee a aaiethoe?th oe??? neeueii? oo?aoeaioiino?.

A ?icae?e? 6.2 ?icaeyiaia iiaeoeyoe?eia iano?ee?noue eineo
aeniei/anoioieo aeaeo?iiaai?oieo oaeeue a caiaai?/ai?e ieaci?. ?c
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aacia?a?aiino? iioieo aeniei/anoioii? aia?a?? ?
iaea?aeaieo ??aiyiue iieacaii, ui a caiaai?/ai?e ieaci? ?icaeoie
iiaeoeyoe?eii? iano?eeino? iiaea aooe aac caoaaoa eineo aeaeo?iiieo
oaeeue c? cia/ieie a?oiiaeie oaeaeeinoyie, a oie /an, ye iiaeoeyoe?eia
iano?ee?noue aeaeo?iiieo oaeeue a iacaiaai?/ai?e ieaci?
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ?o caoaaoii.

AENIIAEE

Iaaaaeaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ye? iaea?aeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?.

· Aeine?aeaeai? aeanoeaino? oa caoaeaeaiiy a?aeie?aieaii? oaee?, yea
iineeth?oueny aeaeo?iiiei io/eii c? cia/iei ?iceeaeii ii oaeaeeinoyi a
caiaai?/aiiio ieaciiiaiiaiaiiio oaeeaaiae?. Io?eiaii ??aiyiiy oeio EaeA,
yea iieno? a?aeie?aieaio oaeeth. Iieacaii, ui a iaaeao iioaioe?eii? yie
oi?io?oueny no?eaie iioaioe?aeo, ia?aaei?e o?iio yie e?oo?oee, i?ae
caaei?e, c ?inoii aiie?ooaee oe?eia yie ciaioo?oueny. ssia ooai?th?oueny
aeaiia iiaeaie c aeecueeeie aei e?i?eiiai caeiiaie aeenia?n??:
aeaeo?iiiei caoeii ? oaeeath a caiaai?/aiiio ieaciiiaiiaiaiiio
oaeeaaiae?.

· ?icaeyiooi caoaeaeaiiy eineo aeniei/anoioieo oaeeue a caiaai?/ai?e
ieaci?, a oaeiae aeniei/anoioieo oaeeue i?e nooo?aiio aieea? ia ?o caeii
aeenia?n?? «aa?y/iai» aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea ? ieaciiaeo oaeeue a iaoaeaaiio
caiaai?/aiiio oaeeaaiae?. ?icaeyiooi oea caoaeaeaiiy ye ?icieoei ii
oaeaeeinoyi io/eii aeaeo?ii?a a iaiaiaaeai?e a iiacaeiaaeiueiio iai?yieo
nenoai?, oae ? i?e ?iaeaeoe?? aeaeo?iiiiai io/ea a iai?aiaiaaeaio
nenoaio. Iieacaii, ui iiaea oi?ioaaoenue oii?yaeeiaaia a i?inoi??
“eii?aeeiaoa oaciaa oaeaee?noue” noeoii?noue iaeao?a c oaciaeie
oaeaeeinoyie, aeaeaeeie a?ae iaeneiaeueii?. Oe? iaeaoe i?ici?? aeey
aeaeo?ii?a. I?e caoaeaeaii? ieaciiaeo oaeeue ?icieoei ii oaeaeeinoyi
io/eii aeaeo?ii?a a iaiaiaaeai?e a iiacaeiaaeiueiio iai?yieo nenoai?
iiaea oi?ioaaoenue eaioethaeie a?aeaeaath/eo ?aciiaini? aeaeo?iie oeoa?a
c iaeneiaeueiith oaciaith oaeaee?noth. Oe? oeoae ia iae?i?eiee noaae??
?o iiaaae?iee o?ainoi?iothoueny a nie?oiii? cao?aiiy.

· Iiaoaeiaaii iae?i?eia ??aiyiiy ? io?eiaii eiai aiae?oe/ia ??oaiiy o
aeaeyae? aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy, yea
?iciianthaeaeo?oueny c? oaeaee?noth na?oea i?ae eooii aei iaai?oiiai
iiey a ieineiio iaoaeaaiio ieaciiiaiiaiaiiio oaeeaaiae?. Iieacaii, ui
oaeaee?noue nie?oiiiiai cao?aiiy c?inoa?, a oe?eia eiai ciaioo?oueny c
?inoii eiai aiie?ooaee. Aeey oi?aae?iiy aeanoeainoyie nie?oiiiiai
cao?aiiy ? o?e ia?aiao?a: iiia?a/iee ?ici?? oaeeaaiaea, aonoeia ieacie
oa eoo aei iaai?oiiai iiey, i?ae yeei ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny cao?aiiy.

· Aeine?aeaeai? aeanoeaino? nie?oii?a, ye? niinoa??aathoueny a
aenia?eiaioao ? ?iciianthaeaeothoueny c? oaeaeeinoyie, aeecueeeie aei
oaieiaeo oaeaeeinoae aeaeo?ii?a ? ?ii?a ieacie. Iieacaii, ui caeaaeiino?
oe?ei ? oaeaeeinoae nie?oii?a a?ae aiie?ooaee i?ioeeaaei? aeey iaeeo ?
aaeeeeo aiie?ooae: i?e iaeeo aiie?ooaeao c ?? c?inoaiiyi oe?eie ?
oaeaeeino? nie?oii?a ciaioothoueny, a i?e aaeeeeo aiie?ooaeao oe?eie ?
oaeaeeino? c?inoathoue.

· Ca aeiiiiiaith aneiioioe/ieo ?iceeaaeaiue ?icaeiaii iaoiae iiaoaeiae
??aiyiue, ye? iienothoue caoaeaeaiiy aeniei/anoioieo eieeaaiue c oe?ieei
niaeo?ii ? eaac?iiiio?iiaoe/iiai iaeaoo a iaeiii??i?e ieaci? c ?icieoei
ii oaeaeeinoyi aeaeo?iiiei io/eii, ii/eiath/e a?ae e?i?eii? noaae??
io/eiai? iano?eeino? ? cae?i/oth/e iae?i?eiith noaae??th iane/aiiy oa
anoaiiaeaiiy eaac?noaoe?iia?iiai noaio.

· Iieacaii, ui iaeii??aeia noaoe?iia?ia ??oaiiy eaac?e?i?eieo ??aiyiue
iano?eea. ?c-ca iayaiino? i?ieueioieo /anoeiie c ia??aiiaaaeiith
ooieoe??th ?iciiae?eo ?icaeaa?oueny iiaeoeyoe?eia iano?ee?noue, yea
noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny caoaaoii iiaeoeueiaaiei iieai i?ieueioieo aeaeo?ii?a.
Iiea eieeaaiue i?e oeueiio ?icaeaa?oueny ia eaioethaeie ei?ioeeo
aeiaaioaeeueiaeo oeoa?a, i?ii?aeie i?ae yeeie iaaaaaoi a?eueoee i?ioyao
oeoao. Io?eiai? iae?i?ei? ?ie?aiaioe iiaeoeyoe?eii? iano?eeino?
eieeaaiue c oe?ieei niaeo?ii ? eaac?iiiio?iiaoe/iiai iaeaoo.

· Aeecuee?noue oaciai? oa a?oiiai? oaeaeeinoae aeiaaioaeeueiaeo
aeniei/anoioieo eieeaaiue i?eaiaeeoue aei ia?aoiaeo iaeaoa, i?ici?iai
aeey /anoeiie, a a?aeia?aaeath/ee ?aciiaini? /anoeiee i?e aeinyaiaii?
iaaieo aiie?ooae. Iienaii yaeua nei?i/aiiy aeiaaeeie aeniei/anoioiiai
iaeaoo c caeiiii aeenia?n??, aeecueeei aei e?i?eiiai, a ?acoeueoao?
iai?io eieeaaiue aia?a??th c aeaeo?iiaie, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoueny a?ae
ia?aaeiueiai o?iioo iaeaoa ? ye? aeoiaeyoue ?c caoaaoo.

· ?icaeyiooi iiaeeea?noue caoaaoo aeniei/anoioieo eaiaith??anueeeo
oaeeue ia aeaeo?iiiiio i?ii?aeeo /ano, eiee ?ooii?noue ?ii?a ieacie
ianooo?aa. Aiae?oe/ii iieacaii, ui oaeee caoaao iiaeeeaee oaciaith
ii?iaeieiith aeaeo?ii?a, yea ?iciianthaeaeo?oueny c? oaeaee?noth,
ii??aiyiith c oaieiaith oaeaee?noth aeaeo?ii?a ieacie.

· Aeine?aeaeaii aeanoeaino? ? io?eiaii iae?i?eiee ?ie?aiaio c?inoaiiy
aiie?ooaee nie?oiia, yeee oi?io?oueny ia iia?euei?e ?iii?e iiae? a
no?oiia?e ieaci?. Iieacaii, ui nie?oii ?ooa?oueny c? oaeaee?noth,
aeecueeith aei oaieiai? ?iiii? ? oi?io?oueny i?e a?aeiioaii? oaiia?aoo?
aeaeo?ii?a ? ?ii?a aeua ii?iaiaiai.

· Aiae?oe/ii aeine?aeaeai? aeanoeaino? ? iineeaiiy ianeiao?e/ieo
nie?oiiieo cao?aiue, ye? oi?iothoueny a ieaciiaiio iioioe? ? a no?oiia?e
ieaci? c a?ae’?iieie ?iiaie ooea?ai?a. Iiaoaeiaai? ? aeine?aeaeai?
iae?i?ei? ??aiyiiy a /anoeiaeo iio?aeieo, ye? iienothoue oe? cao?aiiy.
Io?eiai? ae?ace aeey ?o oaeaeeinoae ? iae?i?eieo ?ie?aiaio?a c?inoaiiy
aiie?ooae. Aeey oi?ioaaiiy yie aaeeei? aiie?ooaee no?oiiaa oaeaee?noue
iiaeiia aooe aeua ii?iaiai?, ui ? niinoa??aa?oueny. ssia aaeueio?oueny c
?inoii aiie?ooaee; oe?eia yie ciaioo?oueny c? c?inoaiiyi aiie?ooaee.
Ia?aaei?e o?iio yie e?oo?oee caaeiueiai. Io?eiaii ae?ac aeey no?eaea
iioaioe?aeo, yeee oi?io?oueny a iaaeao yie.

· Iiaoaeiaaiee aiae?oe/iee iien iineeaiiy nie?oiiieo cao?aiue i?e
?icaeoeo a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ?aciiainieo iano?eeinoae, ?ie?aiaioe yeeo
aecia/athoueny noaiaith 1/3 iaeiai ia?aiao?o. ?icaeyiooi iineeaiiy
nie?oiia i?e ?icaeoeo iano?eeino? Aoiaiaia, iineeaiiy aeaeo?iiiiai ?
?iiii-caoeiaiai nie?oii?a ?iiieie io/eaie.

· I?e iaaieo ia?aiao?ao ieacie ? oaee? o?aooaaiiy ?aciiainieo /anoie
i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai ia?aii?ioaaiiy ae?aca aeey ?ioaineaiino?
o?ueiooaeeaai? aca?iiae??. I?e oeueiio oaeaee?noue aaia?oaaiiy ?icn?yii?
aeaeo?iiaai?oii? oaee? i?e o?ueiooaeeaa?e aca?iiae?? aeaeo?iiaai?oii? ?
iiacaeiaaeiuei? aeniei/anoioii? oaeeue c o?aooaaiiyi caoaaoo aeaeo?ii?a
iieai iiacaeiaaeiuei? oaee? aecia/a?oueny a?eueo neeueiith
iae?i?ei?noth, noaiai? 3/2, ia a?aei?io a?ae eaaae?aoe/ii? aac
o?aooaaiiy caoaaoo /anoie.

· Iieacaii, ui o?aooaaiiy ?ooiiino? ?ii?a nooo?ai aieeaa? ia ii??a
?icaeoeo iano?eeino? I??na. Io?eiaii oi?aa?naeueiee ia?aiao?, yeee
oa?aeoa?eco? oaeee aieea. Oeae ia?aiao? ? a?aeiioaiiyi e?iaoe/ieo
aia?a?e aeaeo?ii?a ? ?ii?a.

· Iieacaii, ui iineeaiiy ieaciiaei iioieii, yeee ciaoiaeeoueny a
ciai?oiueiio aeaeo?e/iiio iie?, iecueei/anoioieo eieeaaiue ? caoaaoo
oeeie eieeaaiiyie ?aciiainieo aeaeo?ii?a, ye? ?ooathoueny ?acii c
oaeeath acaeiaae in? ei?ioei? eioooee, i?eaiaeeoue aei aeiaeaoeiai?
?aae?aeueii? iiey?ecaoe?? aeaeo?ii?a.

· Aiae?oe/ii aeine?aeaeai? aeanoeaino? aeaeo?e/iiai iiaea?eiiai oa?o,
yeee noaa?e?ciaaiee i?inoi?iaith ?iaa?n??th iai?yieo iiacaeiaaeiueiai
iaai?oiiai iiey. Iieacaii, ui i?e iaaieo oiiaao aanue i?eeeaaeaiee
iioaioe?ae ?iciiae?ey?oueny a iaaeao ?iaa?n?? iaai?oiiai iiey o aeaeyae?
iiaea?eiiai oa?o. Io?eiaia oiiaa ?oeioaaiiy iiaea?eiiai oa?o.

· I?iaaaeaii aiae?c iiaeeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy a?ey a?aieoe? ieacie
neeueiiai aeaeo?iiiiai iiaea?eiiai oa?o, yeee iiaeaaey? iio?e
?aeyoea?nonueeeo aeaeo?ii?a, ui ?iaeaeoothoueny a ieacio. Io?eiai? oiiae
oi?ioaaiiy, aeanoeaino? iiaea?eiiai oa?o ? noai?iue eiai aieeao ia
ieacio. Aeine?aeaeaii iiaea?eiee oa? ia no?ee?noue.

Aieiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iaae?oeiaai? a ianooiieo ?iaioao:

1. Aaeae A.N., Ianeia A.E., Neeaaiei A.E., Nieiaeiaieeia A.E. I
aiciiaeiinoe eaai?aoi?iiai iiaeaee?iaaiey i?ioeannia ?ani?ino?aiaiey
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei a iaiaeii?iaeiie eiiinoa?a // ?ani?aaeaeaiea
yeaeo?iiia e oece/aneea i?ioeannu a iiey?iie eiiinoa?a. –Aiaoeou: 1981.
-N. 90-96.

2. Maslov V.I. Electron beam reflection from the plasma due to double
layer formation // Nonlinear and Turbulent Processes in Physics.
–Singapore: 1990. -P.898-909.

3. Ianeia A.E. Onei?aiea eiiia aeaieiui neiai, oiie?oaiui ?aeyoeaenoneei
neeueiioi/iui io/eii // I?iaeo «AIYEN». Iao/iua caaea/e, iiaeaee?iaaiea,
iaoiaeeea e oaoieea i?iaaaeaiey yenia?eiaioa. -I: Iaoea, 1992. -N.
137-141.

4. Maslov V.I. Properties and evolution of nonstationary double layers
in nonequilibrium plasma // Double Layers and Other Nonlinear Structures
in Plasmas. –Innsbruck: 1992. -P.82-92.

5. Ianeia A.E. Iaiai yia?aeae caoaa/aiiiai io/ea yeaeo?iiia n aieiie //
Oeceea ieaciu. -1990. -O.16, N3. -N. 394-397.

6. Ianeia A.E. Yaiethoeey eiiii-caoeiaie iioaioeeaeueiie yiu a oieiaie
ieacia // Oeceea ieaciu. -1990. -O.16, N6. -N. 759-763.

7. Maslov V.I.The influence of wave-trapped particles on the intensity
of a three-wave interaction // Phys. Lett. A. -1990. -V.148, N5.
-P.267-268.

8. Ianeia A.E. Aeaieiie neie, oiie?oaiue ?aeyoeaenoneei neeueiioi/iui
io/eii // Oeceea ieaciu. -1992. -O.18, N10. -N. 1310-1316.

9. Maslov V.I. The electron beam excitation of the potential well in a
magnetized plasma waveguide // Phys. Lett.A. -1992. -V.165, N1.
-P.63-68.

10. Schamel H., Maslov V.I. Ion dynamical effects in the Pierce diode
problem // Phys. Rev. Lett. -1993. -V.70, N8. -P.1105-1107.

11. Maslov V.I., Schamel H. Growing electron holes in drifting plasmas
// Phys. Lett.A. -1993. -V.178, N1-2. -P.171-174.

12. Schamel H., Maslov V.I. Adiabatic growth of electron holes in
current-carrying plasmas // Physica Scripta. -1994. -V.T50. -P.42-46.

13. Maslov V.I., Onishchenko I.N. Evolution of localized perturbations
propagating with ion velocities in ionosphere // Turkish J. of Physics.
-1994. -V.18, N11. -P.1276-1278.

14. Maslov V.I. The enhancement by resonant electrons of intensity of
stimulated scattering // Physica Scripta. -1995. -V.52. -P. 330-333.

15. Maslov V.I., Miroshnichenko V.I., Onishchenko I.N. Stochastic
dissipation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves in ferrites //
Ukr.J.Phys. -1995. -V.40, N5. -P. 504-506.

16. Eaaiia A.E., Eeoeaiei A.A., Ianeia A.E., Iieuaiei E.I. Iaoaieci
ia?aciaaiey ieaciaiiie eeicu aeey oieone?iaee eiiiuo io/eia IYA
aeeaiaciia // AAIO. Na?ey: ssaea?ii-oece/aneea enneaaeiaaiey. -Oa?ueeia:
1997. -O. II. Aui. 4,5(31, 32). -N.111-113.

17. Maslov V.I., Oraevsky V.V., Ruzhin Yu.Ya. Ion acceleration in
collective fields at electron beam injection from spacecraft in
experiment «APEX» // Physica Scripta. -1998. -V.57. -P.453-455.

18. Aai?ia A.I., Ianeia A.E. Iaeeiaeiue yeaeo?iiaaieoiue naa?ooe?ieee ii
/anoioai eiioeuen // Aii?inu aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. Na?ey: Ieaciaiiay
yeaeo?iieea e iiaua iaoiaeu onei?aiey. -Oa?ueeia: 1998. Aui. 1(1). -N.
76.

19. Eaioei A.E., Ianeia A.E., Iieuaiei E.I. C60- onei?aiea ec iaeanoe
oi?ie?iaaiey naiiniaeaniaaiiui nieeoiiiui yeaeo?e/aneei iieai // Aii?inu
aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. –Oa?ueeia: 1998. Aui. 1(1). -N. 45.

20. Lapshin V.I., Maslov V.I., Onishchenko I.N., Volkov M. Excitation of
electromagnetic soliton by an electron beam // ECA. -1998. -V.22c.
-P.1027-1030.

21. Egorov A.M., Maslov V.I. Nonlinear electromagnetic pulse superwide
in frequency space. // Aii?inu aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. Na?ey: Oeceea
ieaciu. -Oa?ueeia: 1999. Aui. 1(1), 2(2). -O.1. -N. 138-139.

22. Lapshin V.I., Maslov V.I. Excitation of ion-acoustic solitary
perturbations in a plasma flow with heavy negative ions. // Aii?inu
aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. -Oa?ueeia: 1999. Aui. 1(1), 2(2). -O.1. -N.
140-141.

23. Lapshin V.I., Maslov V.I., Onishchenko I.N. C60- acceleration
outside the production region by selfconsistent solitary electric field.
// Aii?inu aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. -Oa?ueeia: 1999. Aui. 3(3), 4(4).
-O.2. -N. 189-190.

24. Bizukov A.A., Kashaba A.Y., Maslov V.I., Sereda K.N., Sereda N.D.
Field distribution and plasma evolution in ion beam source with
stabilized electric double layer. // Aii?inu aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee.
-Oa?ueeia: 1999. Aui. 3(3), 4(4). -O.2. -N. 209-211.

25. Maslov V.I., Onishchenko I.N. Ion-beam focusing by BGK low-frequency
oscillations in plasma placed in nonhomogeneous magnetic field. //
Aii?inu aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. -Oa?ueeia: 1999. Aui. 3(3), 4(4). -O.2.
-N. 221-223.

26. Belan V., Butenko V., Ivanov B., Kiselev V., Kitsenko A., Linnik A.,
Maslov V., Ognivenko V., Onischenko I., Prishchepov V., Yegorov A.
Focusing of large energy ion beams by removal currents of coaxial plasma
source. // Aii?inu aoiiiie iaoee e oaoieee. -Oa?ueeia: 1999. Aui. 3(3),
4(4). -O.2. -N. 224-226.

27. Ianeia A.E., Ieueoaineee A.A. Acaeiiaeaenoaea eiiii-caoeiauo
eieaaaiee n /anoeoeaie a oieiaie ieacia. -Oa?ueeia: 1990. –8 n. (I?ai?.
/ OOOE; 90 – 55).

28. Maslov V.I. A double layer induced by a relativistic beam. –Kharkov:
1990. –10 p. (Preprint / KhPhTI; 90-38).

29. Maslov V.I. Change of three-wave interaction intensity by resonant
particles // Proc. of Conf. «Plasma Electronics». –Kharkov: 1988.
-P.190-191.

30. Ianeia A.E. Yaiethoeey eiiii-caoeiaiai nea/ea e yiu iioaioeeaea //
Oac. aeiee. eiioa?aioeee «Oeceea einie/aneie ieaciu». –A?aaai: 1989. -N.
81-82.

31. Ianeia A.E. Aeiiieieoaeueiue yia?aaoe/aneee iaiai aieiu n
caoaa/aiiuie yeaeo?iiaie // Oac. aeiee. «Oeceea einie/aneie ieaciu».
–A?aaai: 1989. -N.83-84.

32. Maslov V.I. High-density beam-plasma interaction // Proc. of 4th
Int. Workshop on Nonlinear and Turb. Proc. in Physics. –Kiev: 1989.
-P.391-394.

33. Ianeia A.E. Onei?aiea eiiia aeaieiui neiai, oiie?oaiui
?aeyoeaenoneei neeueiioi/iui io/eii // Oac. aeiee. Ananithci. niaauaiey
ii onei?eoaeyi ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe. -I.: 1990. -N.134-135.

34. Ianeia A.E. Ia?aii?ie?iaea ?aciiainiuie yeaeo?iiaie auioaeaeaiiiai
?annayiey yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei // O?. 6-e Ananithci. eiioa?aioeee
«Acaeiiaeaenoaea yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo eceo/aiee n ieaciie». –Aeooaiaa: 1991.
-N.157.

35. Ianeia A.E. Oneeaiea nieeoiia yeaeo?iiiui io/eii a caiaaie/aiiii
ieaciaiiii aieiiaiaea // O?. 6-e Ananithci. Eiio. «Acaeiiaeaenoaea
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo eceo/aiee n ieaciie». –Aeooaiaa: 1991. -N.89.

36. Maslov V.I., Onishchenko I.N. Potential well with potential shock in
its vicinity on slow ion mode. // Proc. of Int. Workshop on plasma
physics. –Kiev: 1992. -P.90-93.

37. Maslov V.I. Resonant electron renormalization of intensity of
electromagnetic wave stimulated scattering // Proc. of Workshop on
turbulent and nonlinear processes in plasma. Contributed papers. -Kiev
(Ukraine). –1992. -P.87-89.

38. Maslov V.I. Potential well with the potential shock in its vicinity
at a slow ion mode // Proc. of workshop on turbulent and nonlinear
processes in plasma. Contributed papers. -Kiev (Ukraine). –1992.
-P.90-93.

39. Maslov V.I. The excitation of three-dimensional nonmonotonous double
layer in a magnetized, plasma waveguide // Proc. of 4th Symposium on
Double Layers and Other Nonlinear Potential Structures in Plasmas.
–Innsbruck: 1992. -P.381-385.

40. Maslov V.I. A double layer induced by a relativistic electron beam
// Proc. of 4th Symposium on Double Layers and Other Nonlinear Potential
Structures in Plasmas. –Innsbruck: 1992. -P.386-389.

41. Maslov V.I.Double layer at a slow ion mode // Proc. of 4th Symposium
on Double Layers and Other Nonlinear Potential Structures in Plasmas.
–Innsbruck: 1992. -P.390-394.

42. Maslov V.I. Back-wave wake-field excitation by bunches of
relativistic electrons // Proc. of Workshop “Physics and applications of
microwaves”. –M.: 1993.

43. Maslov V.I. Evolution and properties of wave structures in
nonequilibrium plasma // Physics in Ukraine. Int. Conference.
Contributed Papers. Plasma Physics. –Kiev (Ukraine). –1993. -P.172-174.

44. Schamel H., Maslov V.I. Adiabatic growth of electron holes in
current-carrying plasmas // Spring College on Plasma Physics. -Trieste
(Italy). –1993.

45. Maslov V.I. Resonant electron renormalization of intensity of
electromagnetic wave stimulated scattering//Proc. of 36th Meeting of
DPP. -Minneapolis (USA). -1994.-P.1764.

46. Maslov V.I. Additional energy exchange of wave and wave-trapped
electrons // Proc. of 36th Meeting of DPP APS. -Minneapolis (USA).
–1994. -P.1764.

47. Maslov V.I. Growth of electron solitary perturbation in
ion-beam-plasma system // Proc. of 36th Meeting of DPP APS. -Minneapolis
(USA). –1994. -P.1764.

48. Bakai A.S., Maslov V.I. Modulation instability of plasma turbulence
with taking into account the wave-particle resonance width // Proc. of
36th Meeting of DPP APS. -Minneapolis (USA). –1994. -P.1764.

49. Bakai A.S., Maslov V.I. Ordering of high frequency turbulence
excited by electron beam in plasma-filled waveguide // Bull. of APS.
37th Annual Meeting of DPP. -Louisville (Kentucky). -1995. -V.40, N11.
-P.1807.

50. Maslov V.I., Schamel H. Beam-plasma mechanism of ion-acoustic
soliton excitation by double layer // Bull. of the APS. 37th Annual
Meeting of DPP. -Louisville (Kentucky). -1995. -V.40, N11. -P.1853.

51. Maslov V.I., Oraevsky V.V., Ruzhin Yu.Ya. Ion acceleration in
collective fields at electron beam injection from spacecraft in
experiment «APEX». // Bull. of the APS. 37th Annual Meeting of DPP.
-Louisville (Kentucky). -1995. -V.40, N11. -P. 1853.

52. Maslov V.I., Onishchenko I.N. Induced scattering of electromagnetic
waves by plasma with corrugated distribution function of particles //
Bull. of the APS. 37th Annual Meeting of DPP. -Louisville (Kentucky).
-1995. -V.40, N11. -P.1856.

53. Bakai A.S., Maslov V.I. Kinetic shortening and nondispersive
broadening of wave packet with linear dispersion relation // Bull. of
APS. 37th Annual Meeting of DPP. -Louisville (Kentucky). -1995. -V.40, N
11. — P. 1857.

54. Bizukov A.A., Maslov V.I., Sereda K.N. Particle dynamics in
technological ion beam source with space stabilized double layer //Proc.
of 38th Meeting of DPP APS.-USA.-1996.-V.41.

55. Maslov V.I., Schamel H. Fast modulation of electron waves in
magnetized plasma // Proc. of 38th Meeting of DPP APS. -USA. -1996. -V.
41.

56. Bakai A.S., Maslov V.I. Evolution and properties of chain of
solitary perturbations in magnetosphere // Proc. of 38th Meeting of DPP
APS. -USA. -1996. -V. 41.

57. Bakai A.S., Maslov V.I. Bump-on-tail instability in the earth’s
electron foreshock // Proc. of 38th Meeting of DPP APS. -USA. -1996. -V.
41.

58. Ivanov B.I., Maslov V.I., Onishchenko I.N. Longitudinal polarization
of plasma flow in the field of magnetic barrier as a lens for focusing
of ion beam // Int. Conference on Particle Acceleration. -1997.

59. Bizukov A.A., Maslov V.I., Sereda K.N. Field distribution and plasma
evolution in ion beam source. // Proc. of 39th Meeting of DPP APS. -USA.
-1997. -V. 42.

60. Maslov V.I. Analytical description of soliton excitation in
plasma-filled waveguide by cold electron beam. // Proc. of 39th Meeting
of DPP APS. -USA. -1997. -V. 42.

61. Lapshin V.I., Maslov V.I. Modulation instability of electron waves
in magnetized plasma // Proc. of 39th Meeting of DPP APS. -USA. -1997.
-V. 42.

62. Lapshin V.I., Maslov V.I. Modulation instability on ion time scale
of high-frequency waves in magnetized plasma // Proc. of the Conf. On
Plasma Physics. -Poland. -1997.

63. Lapshin V.I., Maslov V.I. Ion-acoustic soliton excitation by ion
beam. // Proc. of the Conf. On Plasma Physics. -Poland. -1997.

64. Maslov V.I., Onishchenko I.N. Plasma flow in nonhomogeneous magnetic
field as a lens for focusing of ion beams // The 24th IEEE Int. Conf. on
Plasma Science (ICOPS’97). -1997. -P.106.

65. Maslov V.I. Ion acoustic well of electrostatic potential formation
in a dusty plasma flow // Int. Conf. on Plasma Physics. -Praha (Czech
Republic). -1998.

66. Lapshin V.I., Maslov V.I., Onishchenko I.N., Volkov M. Excitation of
electromagnetic soliton by electron beam // Int. Conf. on Plasma
Physics. -Praha (Czech Republic).-1998.

67. Maslov V.I. Excitation of Ion Solitary Perturbations in
Current-Carrying Plasmas. // Proc. Conf98 on Dusty Plasmas. -USA. -1998.

68. Maslov V.I. Formation of Slow Electrostatic Potential Well in
Nonequilibrium Plasma with Negative Ions C60-. // Proc. Conf98 on Dusty
Plasmas. -USA. -1998.

69. Maslov V.I. Excitation of Ion-Acoustic Soliton by Cold Ion Beam in
Dusty Plasma. // Proc. Conf98 on Dusty Plasmas. -USA. -1998.

70. Lapshin V.I., Maslov V.I. Excitation of ion-acoustic solitary
perturbations in a plasma flow with heavy negative ions. // Abstracts of
the VI Ukrainian Conference and School on Plasma Physics and Controlled
Fusion. -Alushta (Ukraine). -1998. -P.76.

71. Maslov V.I., Onishchenko I.N. Ion-beam focusing by BGK low-frequency
oscillations in plasma placed in nonhomogeneous magnetic field. //
Abstracts of the VI Ukrainian Conference and School on Plasma Physics
and Controlled Fusion. -Alushta (Ukraine). -1998. -P.117.

72. Lapshin V.I., Maslov V.I., Onishchenko I.N. C60- acceleration
outside the production region by selfconsistent solitary electric field.
// Abstracts of the VI Ukrainian Conference and School on Plasma Physics
and Controlled Fusion. -Alushta (Ukraine). -1998. -P.104.

73. Egorov A.M., Maslov V.I. Nonlinear electromagnetic pulse superwide
in frequency space. // Abstracts of the VI Ukrainian Conference and
School on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. -Alushta (Ukraine).
-1998. -P. 75.

74. Belan V., Butenko V., Ivanov B., Kiselev V., Kitsenko A., Linnik A.,
Maslov V., Ognivenko V., Onischenko I., Prishchepov V., Yegorov A. Ion
beam focusing by plasma gun. // Proc. of the 6th European Particle
Accel. Conf. (EPAC’98). –Stockholm. –1998. -P. 1321.

75. Bizukov A.A., Kashaba A.Y., Maslov V.I., Sereda K.N., Sereda N.D.
Field distribution and plasma evolution in ion beam source with
stabilized electric double layer. // Abstracts of the VI Ukrainian
Conference and School on Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. -Alushta
(Ukraine). -1998. -P. 113.

76. Belan V., Butenko V., Ivanov B., Kiselev V., Kitsenko A., Linnik A.,
Maslov V., Ognivenko V., Onischenko I., Prishchepov V., Yegorov A.
Focusing of large energy ion beams by removal currents of coaxial plasma
source. // Abstracts of the VI Ukrainian Conference and School on Plasma
Physics and Controlled Fusion. . -Alushta (Ukraine). -1998. -P. 118.

77. Bakai A.S., Maslov V.I. Controversies in quasilinear theory and wave
structure formation in current-carrying plasma and at beam-plasma
interaction. // Abstracts of Int. Toki Conf. On Plasma Physics and
Contr. Fusion (ITC-9). — Toki (Japan). –1998. -P-II-40.

78. Egorov A.M., Kiselev V.A., Maslov V.I., Onishchenko I.N. Ion-beam
focusing by BGK low-frequency oscillations in plasma placed in
nonhomogeneous magnetic field. // Abstracts of Int. Toki Conf. On Plasma
Physics and Contr. Fusion (ITC-9). — Toki (Japan). — 1998. — P-II-41.

Ianeia A.?. “Aeanoeaino? oa caoaeaeaiiy ieaciiaeo iiaea?eieo oa??a,
nie?oii?a, iaeao?a ? oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue a ia??aiiaaaeieo oiiaao”.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.08 — o?ceea ieacie. Iaoe?iiaeueiee
iaoeiaee oeaio? “Oa?e?anueeee o?ceei-oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”. Oa?e?a. 1999.

Caoeua?oueny 21 iaoeiaa ?iaioa oa 49 aeiiia?aeae. Oai?aoe/ii
aeine?aeaeai? aeanoeaino? oa aaiethoe?y iiaea?eieo oa??a, nie?oii?a oa
iae?i?eieo oaeeue a no?oiia?e ieaci? ? ieaci? c io/eaie /anoie oa ?ieue
?aciiainieo /anoie. ?icaeyiooi oi?ioaaiiy no?oeoo? ?c A* oo?aoeaioiino?
ca ?aooiie ?? iiaeoeyoe?? ia aeaeo?iiao io/ea. Iiaoaeiaaii ??oaiiy a
aeaeyae? nie?oiia, ui ?ooa?oueny c? oaeaee?noth na?oea. Iienaii
caoaeaeaiiy a no?oiia?e ieaci? c a?ae’?iieie ?iiaie ?iiieo yi
aeaeo?e/iiai iioaioe?aeo c? no?eaeaie iioaioe?aeo eiei ieo. Aeey iieno
?o iiaoaeiaai? ??aiyiiy oeio EaeA. Iienaii oi?ioaaiiy a aeaea?ae?
?iiiiai io/ea iiaea?eiiai oa?o, ui noaa?e?ciaaiee iaiaeii??aei?noth
iaai?oiiai iiey. Aeine?aeaeai? aeanoeaino? iiaea?eiiai oa?o, ui
oi?io?oueny i?e ?iaeaeoe?? a ieacio ?aeyoea?nonueeiai aeaeo?iiiiai
io/ea, a oaeiae aeanoeaino? nie?oii?a, ui ?ooathoueny c oaieiaeie
oaeaeeinoyie /anoie ieacie. Io?eiaii ia?aiao?, ui aecia/a? aieea
?ooiiino? ?ii?a ia iano?ee?noue I??na, a oaeiae ?ie?aiaio iineeaiiy
nie?oiia i?e iano?eeino? Aoiaiaia. Iieacaii, ui caoaao A* eieeaaiue ia
aeaeo?iiiiio i?ii?aeeo /ano iiaeeeaee i?e aiie?ooae? oaciai? ii?iaeieie
aeaeo?ii?a aeua ii?iaiai?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oaeeueiaa no?oeoo?a, ia??aiiaaaeia ieacia, iae?i?eia
aeeiai?ea, nie?oii, iiaea?eiee oa?.

Maslov V.I. “Properties and excitation of double layers, solitons,
packets and wave perturbations in nonequilibrium plasma.”.

Doctor of Science thesis in physics and mathematics on speciality
01.04.08 – physics of plasma. National Science Centre “Kharkov Institute
of Physics and Technology”. Kharkov. 1999.

21 scientific works and 49 reports are defensed. The properties and
evolution of double layers, solitons and wave perturbations in
current-carrying plasmas and in plasma with electron beam have been
investigated theoretically The effect of resonant electrons on nonlinear
dynamics of structures has been investigated. The structure formation
from excited by electron beam HF turbulence has been considered. The
solution in type of soliton propagating with light velocity has been
constructed.

The excitation of wells of electric potential with potential jumps in
their vicinities in nonequilibrium plasmas with negative ions has been
described. The equations of KdV type have been constructed for their
description.

Formation of double layer, stabilized by magnetic field nonhomogeneity,
has been described. The properties of double layer, formed by electron
beam on plasma boundary, has been investigated. Properties of solitary
perturbations, propagating with thermal velocities of plasma particles,
have been considered.

The parameter, described the effect of ion mobility on Pierce
instability, and growth rate of soliton amplitude at Bunemann
instability have been obtained.

It has been shown that the trapping of HF waves on electron time scale
is possible for amplitude of phase-space hole larger than threshold.

Key words: wave structure, nonequilibrium plasma, nonlinear dynamics,
soliton, double layer.

Ianeia A.E. “Naienoaa e aicaoaeaeaiea ieaciaiiuo aeaieiuo neiaa,
nieeoiiia, iaeaoia e aieiiauo aiciouaiee a ia?aaiiaaniuo oneiaeyo”.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.08 — oeceea ieaciu. Iaoeeiiaeueiue iao/iue
oeaio? “Oa?ueeianeee oeceei-oaoie/aneee einoeooo”. Oa?ueeia. 1999.

Caueuaaony 21 iao/iay ?aaioa e 49 aeieeaaeia. Oai?aoe/anee enneaaeothony
naienoaa e aicaoaeaeaiea aieiiauo no?oeoo?: ieaciaiiuo yeaeo?e/aneeo
aeaieiuo neiaa, auno?uo e iaaeeaiiuo nieeoiiiuo aiciouaiee, iaeaoia
auniei/anoioiuo eieaaaiee e iaeeiaeiuo aiei a ia?aaiiaaniuo oneiaeyo. A
oaeaea ?anniao?eaaaony yaiethoeey eiaa?aioiuo aieiiauo no?oeoo? a
oieiaie ieacia e a ieacia n io/eaie ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe e ?ieue
?aciiainiuo /anoeoe a iaeeiaeiie aeeiaieea aiei e aieiiauo no?oeoo?.

?anniio?ai iaoaieci oi?ie?iaaiey aieiiauo no?oeoo? ec iaeii?iaeiie
auniei/anoioiie oo?aoeaioiinoe n oe?ieei niaeo?ii e ec
eaaceiiiio?iiaoe/aneiai iaeaoa auniei/anoioiuo eieaaaiee, aicaoaeaeaaiuo
?aciuoui ii nei?inoyi yeaeo?iiiui io/eii a ieacia, ca n/ao eo
iiaeoeyoeee ia i?ieaoiuo yeaeo?iiao io/ea.

Eco/ai yooaeo oii?yaei/aiey iaeaoia yeaeo?iiiuo eieaaaiee e nieeoiiiuo
aiciouaiee a eiaeaeoeeiiiie e a?aiaiiie caaea/ao i?e aicaoaeaeaiee eo
?aciuoui ii nei?inoyi yeaeo?iiiui io/eii.

I?eiaieoaeueii e eeeueaaoa?iui iaoiaeai onei?aiey ca?yaeaiiuo /anoeoe
iino?iaii aiaeeoe/aneia ?aoaiea a aeaea nieeoiiiiai aiciouaiey,
aeaeaathuaainy ni nei?inoueth naaoa iiae iaeui oaeii e aiaoiaio
iaaieoiiio iieth a ieineii ieaciiiaiieiaiiii aieiiaiaea.

Iienaii ii?iaiaia e aacii?iaiaia aicaoaeaeaiea a oieiaie ieacia eae n
io?eoeaoaeueiuie eiiaie ooeea?aiia, oae e aac ieo ?acee/iuo eiiiuo yi
yeaeo?e/aneiai iioaioeeaea ni nea/eaie iioaioeeaea a eo ie?anoiinoyo.
Ii?ia ?aaeecoaony eae ii oieiaie nei?inoe yeaeo?iiia ieaciu, oae e ii
ioiioaieth oaiia?aoo? yeaeo?iiia e eiiia. Aeey eo iienaiey iieo/aiu e
enneaaeiaaiu o?aaiaiey oeia EaeA. Iaeeiaeiinoue a yoeo o?aaiaieyo aieaa
neeueiay ii n?aaiaieth n eaaae?aoe/iie. Ec yoeo o?aaiaiee iieo/aiu
au?aaeaiey aeey oe?ei e nei?inoae nieeoiiiuo yi yeaeo?e/aneiai
iioaioeeaea, aeey nea/eia iioaioeeaea, oi?ie?othueony a ie?anoiinoyo yi,
aeey eie?aiaioia ia?anoaiey aiieeooae yi e aeey ii?iaia eo
aicaoaeaeaiey. Oaeaea iieo/aiu caaeneiinoe naienoa nieeoiiiuo yi
yeaeo?e/aneiai iioaioeeaea io eo aiieeooae.

Iienaii oi?ie?iaaiea e ?ac?ooaiea a enoi/ieea eiiiiai io/ea neeueiiai
yeaeo?e/aneiai aeaieiiai neiy, noaaeeece?iaaiiiai iaiaeii?iaeiinoueth
i?iaeieueiiai iaaieoiiai iiey. Iieo/aii oneiaea ?ac?ooaiey yoiai
aeaieiiai neiy.

Enneaaeiaaiu iaiaoiaeeiua aeey oi?ie?iaaiey yeaeo?e/aneiai aeaieiiai
neiy ia?aiao?u yeaeo?iiiiai io/ea e naienoaa yoiai aeaieiiai neiy,
oi?ie?othuaainy i?e eiaeaeoeee a iieoia?aie/aiioth ieacio ieioiiai
?aeyoeaenoneiai yeaeo?iiiiai io/ea. Iieo/aiu naienoaa yoiai aeaieiiai
neiy, a oaeaea enneaaeiaaiu oneiaey aai oi?ie?iaaiey e aai onoie/eainoue
ioiineoaeueii auniei/anoioiuo e iecei/anoioiuo aiciouaiee.

Iienaiu naienoaa nieeoiiia, aeaeaathueony n oaieiauie nei?inoyie
yeaeo?iiia e eiiia ieaciu.

Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea iiaeaeaeiinoe eiiia ieaciu a eieeaeoeaiuo
yeaeo?e/aneeo iieyo ia iaonoie/eainoue Ie?na. Iieo/ai oieaa?naeueiue
ia?aiao?, ii?aaeaeythuee yoi aeeyiea iiaeaeaeiinoe eiiia ia ii?ia
iaonoie/eainoe Ie?na.

Iieacaii, /oi eie?aiaio oneeaiey nieeoiiiiai aiciouaiey i?e ?acaeoee
iaonoie/eainoe Aoiaiaia i?iii?oeeiiaeai ioiioaieth iann yeaeo?iiia e
eiiia a noaiaie 1/3, eae e a eeiaeiie iaonoie/eainoe Aoiaiaia.

Iieacaii, /oi caoaao auniei/anoioiuo eaiaith?ianeeo eieaaaiee i?e
?acaeoee iiaeoeyoeeiiiie iaonoie/eainoe ia yeaeo?iiiuo a?aiaiao
aiciiaeai i?e aiieeooaea oaciaie iieinoe yeaeo?iiia, oi?ie?othuae yio
ieioiinoe ieaciaiiuo yeaeo?iiia, auoa ii?iaiaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aieiiaua no?oeoo?u, ia?aaiiaaniay ieacia, iaeeiaeiay
aeeiaieea, nieeoii, aeaieiie neie.

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