Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee einioaoii/iee oiiaa?neoao

OAeE 630*421

Eaeooeueeee Iaai Oaaei?iae/

AIO?IAAEE IA IIAII*II-NOIAeIIIO

IAE?INOEEI OE?A?INUeEEO EA?IAO

Niaoeiaeueiinoue 06. 03. 03 — einiciaanoai i einiaieoeoai

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Eueaia — 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?i einiaieoeoaa Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
einioaoii/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo Iiiinaioe Oe?a?ie oa ia aaci
Iaaii-O?aieianueeiai iaeaniiai oi?aaeiiiy einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa
Aea?aeeiiioaoo einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

i?ioani? Eaeiiii Ieoaeei Iaaiiae/,

Ieeiea?anueea oieiy Iaoeiiiaeueiiai

oiiaa?neoaoo «Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeaiiy»,

i?ioani? aeaia?oaiaioo aeieiai?

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe — aeieoi? aiieiai/ieo iaoe,

aeaaeaiie IAI Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? Aieoaaoeue

Ieoaeei Aiae?ieiae/, Iinoeooo aeieiai?

Ea?iao IAI Oe?a?ie, aee?aeoi?

aeieoi? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

i?ioani? Aaini?oe Noaiai Aioiiiae/,

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee einioaoii/iee

oiiaa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e einiaieoeoaa

aeieoi? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,

i?ioani? Inoaiaiei Ai?en Oaaei?iae/,

Oa?eianueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee

oiiaa?neoao, caaiaeoaa/ eaoaae?e einiaieoeoaa,

iaeii?aoei? i aeieiai?

I?iaiaeia i?aaiicaoeiy — Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeineiaeiee iinoeooo

einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa i aa?ieiniiaeii?aoei?

ii. A. I. Aenioeueeiai Aea?aeaaiiai eiiioaoo

einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?eia

Caoeno aeena?oaoei? aiaeaoaeaoueny «_20__»_____10______ 1999 ?. i __12_
aiaeeii ia caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.072.02 a
Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio einioaoii/iiio oiiaa?neoaoi ca aae?anith:
290057, Eueaia, aoe. aai. *oi?eiee, 103, Oe?AeEOO, cae caniaeaiue.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a iaoeiaie aiaeiioaoei
Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai einioaoii/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo ca aae?anith:
290057, Eueaia, aoe. aai.*oi?eiee, 101.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee «_20__» _____09_______ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.I.Caeainueeee

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. Oa?eoi?iy Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao noaiiaeoue 2.8 iei.
aa aai 6.2% aiae ieiui Oe?a?ie. Einenoinoue Ea?iao — aieueoa 60%. Ooo
neiioeaio?iaaii 21% einiaiai oiiaeo Oe?a?ie i iaeaea iieiaeia caiano
noeaeiai eino. Oei aeaii naiae/aoue i?i oa, ui Ea?iaoe ? aaaiiei
aeaea?aeii aea?aaii? ne?iaeie. Aeieiai/ii oiiae oeueiai ?aaiiio
caaacia/othoue aeniei i?e?inoe aea?aaeie. Aiaeii/an, neeaaeia i?ia?aoiy,
a ii?aeiaiii c iioeie i?e?iaeieie oaeoi?aie, ni?ey? aeieeiaiith iaaieo
iani?eyoeeaeo yaeu. Iaeiei c ieo ? aio?iaaee aea?aainoaiia. Caeoee, ui
iia’ycaii c aio?iaaeaie — aaee/acii. Aiie aeeth/athoue a naaa ao?aoe
oeiiii? aea?aaeie, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy oai?ia i oeiaeieeia o iaaeieeoii
eininoaie, cieaeaiiy aiaeiioi?iiieo i aiaei?aaoethaaeueieo ooieoeie
eino, iineeaiiy a?icieieo i?ioeania, aeiaeaoeiai aeo?aoe ia ?ic?iaeo
aea?aainoaiia, iioeiaeaeaieo aio?ii oa iioa. Nenoaiaoe/ii
iiaoi?thth/enue i ioiiethth/e aeineoue cia/ii ieiui, aio?iaaee
ii?ooothoue i?e?iaeii ca’ycee iiae aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeie oaeoi?aie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua i ni?e/eiythoue aeiaaio?eaaei iaaaoeaii ciiie
aeieiai/ieo oiia ye a ai?nueeeo, oae i ?iaieiieo ?aaiiiao Oe?a?ie. C
iaeyaeo ia oea, aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae oa?eoi?iaeueiiai ?iciiaeieo,
caeiiiii?iinoae oi?ioaaiiy, niiniaia iiia?aaeaeaiiy i oaoiieiaie
eieaiaeaoei? aio?iaaeia ? iaeiith c iaeaeooaeueiioeo i?iaeai o
ea?iaonueeiio ?aaiiii.

Iaoa i caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiue. Iniiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe ?
iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy i?e?iaee aio?iaaeia, ?o caeaaeiinoi aiae
oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieo oaeoi?ia oa iniiaieo aeaeia einiainiiaea?nueei?
aeiyeueiinoi, ii?aoethaaiiy iaoeiaeo iniia iiia?aaeaeaiiy oeueiai
i?e?iaeiiai yaeua oa noai?aiiy aio?inoieeeo eininoaiia.

Caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiue ia?aaeaa/aee:

— aea/aiiy caeaaeiinoi iioaineaiinoi aio?iaaeia aiae aenioe iinoeaainoi
iaae ?iaiai ii?y oa aeniiceoei? noeeia;

— aeineiaeaeaiiy aieeao ?oaie aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy, i?ioiaeieo ?oaie,
aeai?eiaeo naiioa?ieo ?oaie, ia?aaei aei?ia, o?an iaooi- i aacii?iaiaeia
ia cieaeaiiy aio?iaaeinoieeinoi aea?aainoaiia;

— i?iaiicoaaiiy aio?iaaeia;

— aeieiai-aeiiiii/ia ioeiiea caeoeia aiae aio?iaaeia;

— ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi?i? iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iae?inoeeo Oe?a?inueeeo
Ea?iao ca iciaeith aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi;

— ?ic?iaea nenoaie i?ioeaio?iaaeueiiai aaaeaiiy einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa a
ai?nueeeo oiiaao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Aia?oa aeineiaeaeaii oa iaoaiaoe/ii
ai?ieneiiaaii oa?aeoa? caeaaeiinoi iioaineaiinoi aio?iaaeueiiai i?ioeano
aiae i?ia?aoi/ii? aoaeiae oa?eoi?i?, aenioe iinoeaainoi iaae ?iaiai ii?y
e aeniiceoeie noeeia. Aenia?eiaioaeueii aeineiaeaeaii aieea iniiaieo
aeaeia einiainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia ia iioaineaiinoue aio?iaaeia.
Aeyaeaii iniaeeainoi oi?ioaaiiy aio?iaaeia caeaaeii aiae aiioe/ieo
aeanoeainoae aea?aaieo ii?iae, aieo, neeaaeo e i?inoi?iai? aoaeiae
eininoaiia.

Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iaoeiai i?eioeeie i i?iaaaeaii ?aeiioaaiiy
iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iae?inoeeo Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao ca iciaeaie
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi, ii?aoeueiaaii iaoiaeieiaith i iaoiaeeee
eiiieaenii? aeieiai-aeiiiii/ii? ioeiiee aio?iaaeia, iaa?oioiaaii
iiaeeeainoue aecia/aiiy ?iaiy aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi ie?aieo
aea?aainoaiia, o?i/eu, einiaeo ianeaia i ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeieiaith
i?iaiicoaaiiy aio?iaaeia. ?ic?iaeaii oaeiae iaoeiai iniiae i?aaiicaoei?
i aaaeaiiy einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa a oiiaao iiaeaeuaii?
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi, i?eoaiaiii? ai?nueeei oa?eoi?iyi.

I?aeoe/ia oeiiiinoue oa ?aaeicaoeiy ?iaioe. I?iaaaeaii aeineiaeaeaiiy
aeaee iiaeeeainoue aaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaee, i?eeiie i oaoiieiai? aaaeaiiy
einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa a oiiaao iiaeaeuaii? aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi c
o?aooaaiiyi iniiaieo oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieo iniaeeainoae ?aaiiio
aeineiaeaeaiue. Cai?iiiiiaaia ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi?i? ca iciaeaie
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi caaacia/o? iiaeeeainoue aeeoa?aioeieiaaiiai
canoinoaaiiy i?ioeaio?iaaeueieo caoiaeia o ?icieo /anoeiao ?aaiiio.

Anoaiiaeaii iniaeeainoi aieeao ie?aieo einiainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia ia
cieaeaiiy aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi aea?aainoaiia. Cai?iiiiiaaia nenoaia
aaaeaiiy einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa caaacia/o? iiaeaeuaiiy
aio?iaaeinoieeinoi einiaiai iie?eao a ai?nueeeo oiiaao i cia/ii cieaeo?
?iaaiue iaaaoeaiiai aieeao noeoi?.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue ciaeoee i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy a einiaeo
ainiiaea?noaao iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao. Nenoaia
i?ioeaio?iaaeueiiai caoenoo einia ? ia?iaiaioiith aeey aeei?enoaiiy a
iaaeao iiaaeaiii-caoiaeiiai iaaanoeeo Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao, a oaeiae o
einiaiio ainiiaea?noai iioeo aea?aeaa Ea?iaonueeiai ?aaiiio. Iaoa?iaee i
?acoeueoaoe ?aeiioaaiiy iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoaii iiae /an i?iaaaeaiiy einiaii?yaeeoaaeueieo
?iaio aeniaaeeoeiyie «Eini?iaeo». Oai?aoe/ii ?ic?iaee oa i?aeoe/ii
?aeiiaiaeaoei? aeena?oaoei? aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueieo
aeenoeeieiiao «Einiaieoeoai», «I?aaiicaoeiy einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa»,
«Einiaa ei?aiaciaanoai» oa iioeo.

Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy, yei aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— caeaaeiinoue iioaineaiinoi aio?iaaeia aiae aenioe iinoeaainoi iaae
?iaiai ii?y oa aeniiceoei? noeeia;

— ?aeiioaaiiy iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao ca
iciaeaie aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi;

— aieea iniiaieo einiainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia: ?oaie aieiaiiai
ei?enooaaiiy, i?ioiaeieo ?oaie, aeai?eiaeo naiioa?ieo ?oaie, ia?aaei
aei?ia, o?an iaooi- i aacii?iaiaeia ia cieaeaiiy aio?iaaeinoieeinoi
aea?aainoaiia;

— iaoiaeieiaiy i?iaiicoaaiiy aio?iaaeia;

— iaoiaeieiaiy i iaoiaeeea eiiieaenii? aeieiai-aeiiiii/ii? ioeiiee
aio?iaaeia.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe. Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue oa ?aeiiaiaeaoei?
uiaei ?o i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy aeiiiaiaeaeenue i iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
iaoeiai-oaoii/ieo eiioa?aioeiyo Oe?AeEOO, iaoeiai-oaoii/ieo ?aaeao
Oe?IAeIai?ein, ia?aaeao Aea?aeeiieinainio Oe?a?ie.

Ioaeieaoei?. Ii oaii aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii iiiia?aoith «Aio?iaaee ia
iiaii/ii-noiaeiiio iae?inoeei a Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iaoao» (ia`?iii 13.75
ae?. a?e.), o?e ?icaeiee a iiiia?aoi? «Aio?iaaee a ai?nueeeo oa
ia?aaeai?nueeeo ?aaiiiao Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao» (ia’?iii 3 ae?. a?e.) oa
14 iaoeiaeo noaoae.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny ic anooio, 9
?icaeieia, caaaeueieo aeniiaeia oa aeiaeaoeia. Ianya aeena?oaoei? — 254
noi?iiee iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 34 oaaeeoei oa 31 ?enoiie. Nienie
aeei?enoaii? eioa?aoo?e iinoeoue 214 aeaea?ae, o oiio /enei 39 ?iaio
iiicaiieo aaoi?ia. Aeiaeaoee aeeth/athoue 133 noi?iiee.

CIINO ?IAIOE

?icaeie 1. Aio?iaaee — ?oeiiaia noeoiy einiaeo aeinenoai

Ia iiaenoaai aiaeico eioa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae iaaiaeeoueny iaeyae
ia?iiaee/iinoi, /anoioe oa iioaineaiinoi aio?iaaeia ye noeoieiiai eeoa
oiceei-aaia?aoi/ii? oa iaoai?ieiai/ii? i?e?iaee. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a
ai?nueeie /anoeii Ea?iao ca noi?i/iee ia?iiae c 1869 ?ieo aei 1969 ?ieo
caoieniaaii 12 aeiaaeeia eaoano?ioi/iiai i?iyao aio?iaaeia (Noieei,
1965, Bordei, 1971; Capecki, 1971, 1977; Cermak a kol., 1968; Chudikova,
Chudik, 1969; Zlatnik, 1935). Aiaecia/aia ia?iiaee/iinoue ?o i?iyao
(Dissescu, 1962; Vicena, 1964, 1970; Wilczkiewicz, 1956).

Iiae /an eaoano?ioi/iiai i?iyao aio?iaaee ioiieththoue cia/io oa?eoi?ith
i ?oeiothoue aeanyoee oeny/, a oi i iieueeiie eoai/ieo iao?ia aea?aaeie
(Aaini?oe, 1971; O?eaoi, 1968; Vicena, 1964; Zlatnik, 1935, 1960).
Aeoeaioo?oueny oaaaa ia oa, ui aio?iaaee ? ianeiaeeii i?iyao eiiieaeno
aio?iaaeioai?ieo oaeoi?ia eeiiaoe/ii?, einiaiieiai/ii?, i?ia?aoi/ii? oa
aaeaoi/ii? i?e?iaee (Aaini?oe, 1971; Aa?aneiia, 1972; Aa?ooeinueeee,
1958, 1975; Aoeinaoaiei, 1956; Iaaithe, 1995; Eeneeaaneee-Aaaeiei, 1972;
Eiiaa, 1985; Eiaaiaonean, 1973; Ieeea? e ae?., 1970; ?iee, Einothe,
1968; ssianeo, 1975; Bordei, 1971; Bruning, 1972; Burgess, 1978; Chrust,
1980; Jewuta, 1970).

Iiaee?anethth/e oe?ieo aaia?aoith iioe?aiiy aio?iaaeia, caa?oa?oueny
oaaaa ia oa, ui i?e?iaei aio?iaaeia aeanoeai iiaoi?ii i?iyae ia oie
naiie oa?eoi?i? /a?ac iaaiee aiae?icie /ano (Aoo, 1970; Aana/ei, 1968;
Eiaaeiia, 1972, 1973; I?io, 1971; O?eaoi, 1964; Jewuta, 1975; Kodrik,
1972; Iarcu, 1969).

?icaeie 2. I?e?iaeii oiiae ye /eiiee aio?iaaeueieo noeoie

Oe?a?inueei Ea?iaoe iathoue oa?aeoa? nioae oe?eiith a na?aaeiueiio 100
ei, aeiaaeeiith 280 ei, yea aeoyaiooa c iiaii/iiai caoiaeo ia iiaaeaiiee
noiae. Oea na?aaeiueiaeniei ai?e, aea ?i i?eoaiaiii
aioo?ioiueioa?eoi?iaeueii i?ia?aoi/ii oa oiceei-aaia?aoi/ii aiaeiiiiinoi
c ?iceith eiii?th ia?aoiaeo aiae iaeii? aei iioi? iaci- i iae?ino?oeoo?
(Aieoaaoeue, 1978; Canoaaiee, 1994; Oeenue, 1952, 1962). Aaieiai/ia
aoaeiaa Ea?iao oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cia/iith eieueeinoth ai?nueeeo
ooai?aiue ic niaoeeoi/ieie iciaeaie, ?iciiiaiioiinoth aaiii?oieiai? a
iaaeao ii?iaiyii iacia/ii? oa?eoi?i?, ui coiiaeth? ?? nooo?ao
neeaaeiinoue i iica?/iinoue a?oioiaiai iie?eao (Aiae?ouaiei, 1957;
Aiiaea?/oe, 1956; Aaini?oe, 1964, 1975; Aieoaaoeue, 1983). Oea ciaeoei
aiaeia?aaeaiiy o oiceei-aaia?aoi/iiio ?aeiioaaiii (Oeenue, 1952).

Oe?a?inueei Ea?iaoe ? iiaii/iith /anoeiith Noiaeieo Ea?iao c
aaniethoieie aenioaie 1200 i i.?.i. o iiaii/ii-caoiaeiie /anoeii i
iiiaae 2000 i i.?.i. o iiaaeaiii-noiaeiie. Ca no/aniith oaeoiii/iith
aoaeiaith ooo aeaeiey?oueny o?e ciie: aioo?ioiy aioeeeiiaeueia
(aieiaia), oeaio?aeueia neieeiiaeueia i ciaiioiy aioeeeiiaeueia.
Iaeaeaaiioi aiaeeeaaee — e?enoaei/ii, nethaeenoi, a?aiioiai neaioei oa
eaa?oeeoe — i?eoaiaiii ?aoianueeiio ianeao i *ea/einueeei ai?ai.
?iciianthaeaeaii oeioiai aiaeeeaaee c ?iciieiiiiiaioiei neeaaeii. Ia
aa?oiaeiao Iieiieinueeiai o?aaoa, Ai?aaiao, Naeaeiaoei, *i?iiai?i
iioe?aii eueiaeiaeeiai aiaeeeaaee.

Cia/iie /anoeii oa?eoi?i? i?eoaiaiii neaeaoii ai?nueei-einiai a?oioe ia
aiaeiiaiaeieo i?iaeoeoao aeaio?thaaiiy. Oea einiai oa ao?icaiii
neaaiiiaecieenoi oeie iacia/ii? iiooaeiinoi (Iieioeia, 1966; Inoaiaiei,
1978; Ianoa?iae, 1967; ?aiacia, 1965). ?iciiuaiiy ?icieo oeiia a?oioia
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenioiith ciiaeueiinoth (Aecaiaa?a oa iioi, 1975;
Aiae?eaiia, 1957; Aiae?ouaiei, 1957; Ao/einueeee, 1971; Aaini?oe, 1957,
1981; Aa?ooeinueeee, 1971; Ianoa?iae, 1967). Einiaa ?ineeiiinoue oaeiae
ia? aa?oeeaeueio ciiaeueiinoue, coiiaethth/e oi?ioaaiiy aiaeiiaiaeieo
oeiia a?oioo. No/aniee ?iciiaeie a?oioiaiai iie?eao aiaeiinii
noaaieueiee: ia iiaaeaiieo i iiaaeaiii-caoiaeieo noeeao a?oioe
i?aaenoaaeaii ai?nueei-einiaeie ao?eie oa oaiiiao?eie iaiiiaecieaieie
aai neaaiiiiaecieaieie ?iciiaeaeiinoyie, ia noeeao iiaii/ii? i
iiaii/ii-noiaeii? i?i?ioaoeie — iiiaecieaieie, /anoeiai iaea?ieie
a?oioaie. Oei i iiooaeiinoue a?oioo cia/iith ii?ith coiiaeththoue
oa?aeoa? ?icaeoeo ei?aiaaeo nenoai aea?aaieo ii?iae.

Eeiiao ?aaiiio oi?io?oueny iiae aieeaii Aci?nueeiai i Neai?nueeiai
iaeneioiia. Noia aeoeaieo oaiia?aoo? ciaioo?oueny ia 150° N ia eiaeii
100 i aenioe iaae ?iaiai ii?y, ui coiiaeei aeaeieaiiy 6 eeiiaoe/ieo cii.
Aiieiooaea na?aaeiio iiny/ieo oaiia?aoo? — 22-25°N, iaeiae aeua 700 i
i.?.i. aiia iaioa 22°N (Aecaiaa?a oa iioi, 1975; Aiae?iaiia, 1957;
Ao/einueeee oa iioi, 1971). Na?aaeiy eieueeinoue iiaaeia 600-800 ii, ic
caieueoaiiyi aenioe iaae ?iaiai ii?y aiia c?inoa?, aeinyaath/e 1400-1600
ii. Iiooaeiinoue niiaiaiai iie?eao aeinyaa? 1.5-2.0 i. A ie?aii ?iee
oi?iaeiaae 2-3 aeia iiaea aeianoe aieueoa 300 ii iiaaeia ia cia/ieo
oa?eoi?iyo. Oaei iiaaee coiiaeththoue eaoano?ioi/ii iiaaii oa iioi
iani?eyoeeai yaeua. Iaeaieueoa iiaaeia aeiaaea? ia iiaaeaiii-caoiaeieo
iaaio?yieo noeeao. Aeey aio?iaiai ?aaeeio oa?aeoa?iith ? cia/ia
oaeaeeinoue aio?ia — 15 i/n i aieueoa. Caeaaeii aiae ?aeue?oo ie?aieo
/anoei iaaanoeeo aiie iathoue iai?yiee ?icieo ?oiaia. Iaeiae o 81-84%
aeiaaeeao neeueii aio?e iathoue iiaii/ii-caoiaeiee iai?yiie. Ceiith
neeueii aio?e noi?iaiaeaeothoueny caiaoieyie, iaeaeaaeyie, a iaaanii,
eioii i ainaie — ceeaaie, a?aaeii, a?icaie. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeeainoth
iaaanoeeo ? oi?ioaaiiy aio?iaeo iacino?oiaiia c iiaeaeuaiith oaeaeeinoth
aio?o.

Ioaea, i?e?iaeii-eeiiaoe/ii oiiae ni?eythoue aeieeiaiith aio?iaaeia.
Iaeinoioiioeie aio?iaaeioai?ieie oaeoi?aie ? eieueeinoue i oa?aeoa?
aoiinoa?ieo iiaaeia oa aio?iaee ?aaeei o ii?aeiaiii c a?oioiaei iie?eaii
i einiaiieiai/ieie iniaeeainoyie einiaeo ii?iae. Aaaeeeaei ? aieea
aenioe iaae ?iaiai ii?y oa aeniiceoeie noeeia ye i?ia?aoi/ieo oaeoi?ia,
ui coiiaeththoue ia?a?iciiaeie iiaaeia oa ciiio oa?aeoa?o ?o aeiaaeaiiy
i caeieniththoue inoioiee aieea ia aio?iaee ?aaeei iinoeaainoi.

?icaeie 3. Iaoiaeieiaiy, iaoiaeeea oa ia’?eoe aeineiaeaeaiue

O ?icaeiei ia iiaenoaai aiaeico iaoaiicio aio?iaaeueieo i?ioeania
noi?ioeueiaaii iiiyooy aio?iaaeia, aio?ieiiia eino, aeaii aecia/aiiy
aio?iaaeueii? ieiui, aio?iaaeinoieeinoi oa aio?iaaeueiinoi eino,
aio?iaaeioai?ieo oaeoi?ia. ?ic?iaeaia i i?aaenoaaeaia oeaea aecia/aiiy
nooiaiy aio?iaaeinoieeinoi oa aio?iaaeueiinoi eino, a oaeiae oeaea
ioeiiee aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi neooaoei?.

Caaaeueia iaoiaeieiaiy aea/aiiy aio?iaaeia ii?aeio? i aca?iiiia’yco? a
iaeia oeiea eiiieaen iaoiaeee aecia/aiiy oa?aeoa?o aieeao ia
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue neooaoei? i?iaiaeieo oaeoi?ia aaiioe/ii? i
einiaiieiai/ii? i?e?iaee. Aiia aaco?oueny ia aeciaiii a yeinoi iniiaieo
ia?oii?e/eiieo aio?iaaeioai?ieo oaeoi?ia i?ioeane oiceei-aaia?aoi/ii?
i?e?iaee a ?o iae?iiaoai?ieiai/iiio i?iyai. I?iaiaeieie na?aae
aaiioe/ieo aio?iaaeueieo oaeoi?ia aeciathoueny aio?iaee ?aaeei, oa?aeoa?
aeiaaeaiiy i eieueeinoue aoiinoa?ieo iiaaeia. O a?oii aiioe/ieo oaeoi?ia
i?iaiaeia iinoea caeiathoue iniaeeainoi einiaie/i-oaenaoeieii? no?oeoo?e
aea?aainoaiia, yei aecia/athoueny ye iioiaeii aiae a?oioiai-eeiiaoe/ieo
oiia i oi?iothoueny iiae aieeaii iiooaeii? aio?ii?ani?. I?aaenoaaeaia
noaia aeai?eoio ooieoeiiioaaiiy einia o oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieo oiiaao c
ia?iiaee/iei i?iyaii aio?iaaeia, yea eaaeeoue a iniiai eiioeaioei? i?i
oa, ui aeieeiaiiy aio?iaaeiiaaacia/ieo neooaoeie oa ?o aieea ia einiai
ianaaeaeaiiy ? i?e?iaeiei yaeuai, yea ia caa?iaeo? cieuaiith einiaeo
anioeiaoeie, a ? iaeii?th c oiia ?o ?icaeoeo a /aniaiio i?inoi?i.
I?ioei?e?iaeiei ? aio?iiii?aniia, yeee ii?ooo? caaeainiaaio nenoaio
aeai?eoio.

Iaoiaeeea aea/aiiy aieeao einiainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia: ?oaie aieiaiiai
ei?enooaaiiy, i?ioiaeieo ?oaie, aeai?eiaeo naiioa?ieo ?oaie, ia?aaei
aei?ia, o?an iaooi- i aacii?iaiaeia ia aio?iaaeueii i?ioeane iieyaaea o
aecia/aiii ciie aieeao oeeo caoiaeia ia einiai ianeae, aeyaeaiii
eieueeinoi oa iioaineaiinoi aio?iaaeia o oeeo ciiao oa niianoaaeaiii
iaea?aeaieo aeaieo c eiio?ieai (aeieyiee, aea caaaeaii
einiainiiaea?nueei caoiaee aiaenooii). Iieacieee aio?iaaeueiinoi
aecia/aeenue oaeiae iaoiaeii iiaeaenaoei?. Oeae iaoiae iieyaa? o
aecia/aiii iiaeaena-iieacieea nooiaiy aio?iaaeueiinoi, oeyoii
niianoaaeaiiy eieueeinoi aai iioaineaiinoi aio?iaaeia o ciii, ui
ciaoiaeeoueny iiae aieeaii aeaiiai oaeoi?o, aei ieiui einia oei?? ciie.

Eiioeaiooaeueia iniiaa iaoiaeeee aeineiaeaeaiue einiaeieiai/iiai oa
einiaeiiiii/iiai aieeao aio?iaaeia iieyaaea o aeciaiii oiai, ui
aio?iaaee ye i?e?iaeia noeoieia yaeua iathoue oiceei-aaia?aoi/io
i?e?iaeo i ? iaeiei c aeaiaioia i?ioeano ooieoeiiioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
einiaeo ianeaia ?aaiiio, a yeee ethaeeia ao?o/a?oueny ainiiaea?nueeith
aeiyeueiinoth. I?e oeueiio aea/aee aaciina?aaeiie oa iiina?aaeeiaaiee
aieea aio?iaaeia ia ?acoeueoaoe ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi. Aei
iieacieeia aaciina?aaeiueiai aieeao aiaeiineee: cieaeaiiy yeinoi oa
ainiiaea?nueei? i?eaeaoiinoi aea?aaeie, ciaioaiiy caiano aea?aaeie,
caieueoaiiy aeo?ao ia nooeieueio ?ic?iaeo aio?iaaeueieo ieiu i caeoee
aianeiaeie aeaci?aaiicaoei? ae?iaieoeoaa. Iiina?aaeeiaaiee aieea
aio?iaaeia aea/aee /a?ac aeyaeaiiy iani?eyoeeaeo ciii a aeieiai/iie
neooaoei?, aecia/aiiy iaaaoeaii? aei? ia oaoio i i?iioioaoio oa
?iciianthaeaeaiiy oeiaeeeaeo eiiao i oai?ia.

I?inoi?iao niaoeeoieo i /aniao aeeiaiieo aio?iaaeia aea/aee c
aeei?enoaiiyi a?oiaieo i ea?oia?aoi/ieo iaoa?iaeia, aiiniiao?e/ieo ea?o
i ieaioaoia.

Ca aaciao iniiao aecia/aiiy oa?eoi?ie iae?inoeeia oa ?o i?i?ioaoeie
i?eeiyoi aiaeiaeieueii eiii? 1-ai ii?yaeeo. Aaia?aoi/ia ?iciiuaiiy ?o
i?eeiaee ca aaiiao?e/iee aacen oa?eoi?i? iae?inoeeo. Oa?eoi?iy
iae?inoeeo, iaeii?iaeia ca oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieie aeaieie, i?ia?aoi/ieie i
eeiiaoe/ieie oiiaaie, oaenoaaeanue ye aiaeiiaiaeia ciia
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi.

Iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy i?e/ei aio?iaaeia aacoaaeanue ia eeaneoieaoei?
oaeoi?ia aio?iaaeueiinoi ca nooiaiai ?o aca?iiaieeao i
aca?iicoiiaeaiinoi. Oaea eeaneoieaoeiy i ?aiaoaaiiy oaeoi?ia aeaee
iiaeeeainoue aecia/eoe ia?oii?e/eiii oaeoi?e aaiioe/ii? i?e?iaee, yei
coiiaeththoue aio?iaaee. E?eoa?i?i aiaeianaiiy aiaeiiaiaeii? oa?eoi?i?
aei oiai /e iioiai ?aeiio aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi neoaeeea ei?aeyoeiy
iioaineaiinoi i?iyao aio?iaaeia c eiaeiei ic ia?oii?e/eiieo oaeoi?ia
aio?iaaeueiinoi. Nooiiiue aieeao eiaeiiai c oaeoi?ia aecia/aany ca
iaoiaeii iiaeaenaoei?, yeee iieyaa? o aecia/aiii niiaaiaeiioaiiy
aiaeiiniiai iieacieea i?iyao aio?iaaeia iiae aieeaii aeaiiai oaeoi?o aei
aiaeiiniiai iieacieea eieueeinoi einiaeo ieiu, yei ciaoiaeeeenue iiae
oeei aieeaii. Iaea?aeaii iao?eoei iiaeaenia aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi a?aee
ca iniiao iao?eoeue ?aeiioaaiiy.

Ia’?eoe aeineiaeaeaiue. Ia’?eoe aeineiaeaeaiue iiaeae?aee ca i?eioeeiii
iaeneiaeueii iiaii? ?ai?acaioaoeaiinoi aaiii?oieiai/ieo iaeanoae i
?aeiiia iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao. A iaaeao
oa?eoi?ie ia’?eoia aeineiaeaeaiue aea/aee ani aio?iaaee, yei iaee iinoea
o 1983-1993 ?ieao (356 aeieyiie caaaeueiith ieiuath 568.4 aa). Aeey
aecia/aiiy aieeao aieiaieo ?oaie oa ia?aaei aei?ia aea/aee aio?iaaee, ui
aiaeaoeeny oi?iaeiaae inoaiiueiai 17-?i/iiai ia?iiaeo ia ieiui 3600 aa.
Caaaeueia ieiua einia, ioiieaieo aeineiaeaeaiiyie, neeaea 121426 aa.
E?ii oeueiai, i?iaiaeiciaaii oa aeei?enoaii aeaii aeniaaeeoeieieo
ianoaaeaiue aio?iaaeia 1964 ?ieo ia ieiui 34206 aa.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy caeiiiii?iinoae aio?iaaeueieo i?ioeania o /ani
ioiiethaaee ani aio?iaaee, ui aiaeaoeeny o einiaiio oiiaei
Iaaeai?iyinueeiai aea?aeeinainio ca 26-?i/iee ia?iiae (1970-1996 ??.).
Ieiua ianoaaeaieo aio?iaaeia, ui aiaeaoeeny ca oeae ia?iiae, neeaaea?
8431.0 aa, a oiio /enei nooeieueieo — 787.0 aa.

Aieea nooeieueieo ?oaie, i?iaaaeaieo oi?iaeiaae 26-?i/iiai ia?iiaeo, ia
aio?iaaeinoieeinoue aea?aainoaiia aea/aiee o Iaaeai?iyinueeiio i
Aa?oiaeinueeiio aea?aeeinainiao ia ieiui 8833.0 aa.

?icaeie 4. I?e?iaeii i?e/eie aio?iaaeia

Iniiaiei /eiieeii aio?iaaeia eino ? aioa?. Aio?iaaee aiaeaoaathoueny i?e
oaeaeeinoi aio?o 15 i/n i aieueoa, eiee iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e?iio ia?aaeuo?
17 ea/i2. Caieueoaiith iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e?iie ni?eythoue iiaaee o
aeaeyaei ceea, iie?iai niiao. E?eoe/iith ? oaeaeeinoue aio?o 25 i/n.
Aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue neooaoei? c?inoa? ic caieueoaiiyi iane/aiinoi
a?oioo aieiaith. Eaoano?ioi/ii aio?iaaee ? ?acoeueoaoii aei?
iae?iaoiinoa?ieo yaeu, yei iiaeooue ia iaeiie i oie naiie ieiui iiaoi?ii
caeienithaaoe ?oeioaaiiy, iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui oaeoi?e
einiaiieiai/iiai oa?aeoa?o caeeoathoueny noaaieueieie. Oae,
eaoano?ioi/iee aio?iaae 12-14 a?oaeiy 1957 ?ieo aoa coiiaeaiee
aoiinoa?ieie aeai?aniyie c oeaio?aie iaae O?aioei?th i iiaii/iith
?a?iiith. ?oo iiaio?yieo ian iaae oa?eoi?i?th ?aaiiio iaa oaeaeeinoue ia
aenioi 3 ei — 16-28 i/n, ia aenioi 5 ei — 28-40 i/n, aiey iiaa?oii caiei
iaioaaee aio?e iiaaeaiiiai i iiaaeaiii-noiaeiiai iai?yieia c oaeaeeinoth
15-17 i/n, a a ie?aii ia?iiaee — 20 i/n. Iiaaee o aeaeyaei ceea neeaee
49.2-90.5 ii ia aeiao. Aio?iaaeaie ia cia/iie ieiui ?aaiiio iioeiaeaeaii
5.2 iei. i3 aea?aaeie. Anueiai ia oa?eoi?i? Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao ia ieiui
519.6 aa aoei iioeiaeaeaii 21.3 oen. i3 aea?aaeie. 2-6 eeiiy 1964 ?ieo
ia oeie ieiui aiaeaoany iiaoi?iee aio?iaae, ui ooai?eany iiae aieeaii
oeeeeiio, aeiaiao? yeiai aeinyaaa 1600 ei. Iaeaieueoa eieueeinoue
iiaaeia o ciii oeeeeiio aeiaea a Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iaoao, oaeaeeinoue
aio?o neeaaeaea 20-24 i/n c ii?eaaie aei 34 i/n. 21-23 a?oaeiy 1964 ?ieo
iaae Ea?iaoaie ciiao i?ieoia oeeeeii c Oai?nueei? ieciaeie. Ciiio oeneo
iiaio?y aeeeeeaei iiaeneeaiiy aio?o noiaeiiai iai?yieo oaeaeeinoth aei
20-27 i/n oa iiaii/iiai iai?yieo — 34 i/n. Aio?iaaee, ui aiaeaoeeny iiae
aieeaii oeeo aoiinoa?ieo yaeu iioeiaeeee aiey 5 iei. i3 aea?aaeie,
nooeieueii aio?iaaee ioiieee ieiuo 8.3 oen. aa, /anoeiai — 91.5 oen. aa.

Iaaaaeaia na?iy aio?iaaeia aiaeaoeany iiae aieeaii iae?iiaoai?ieiai/ieo
yaeu ca aeineoue ei?ioeee aiae?icie /ano (eeiaiue 1957 ?. — a?oaeaiue
1964 ?.) ia iaeiie i oie aea oa?eoi?i?, oi/a einiaiieiai/ii
oa?aeoa?enoeee einiaeo ianeaia ca oeae /an inoioii ia ciiithaaeenue.

Aio?iaaee aiaeaoaathoueny ia noeeao aoaeue-yei? e?ooecie, iaeiae aeayea
iiaeaeuaiiy /anoioe ?o aeieeiaiiy i?eoaiaiia e?ooecii 36-45°, ui
iia’ycaii ic ciiiith iiooaeiinoi a?oioo. Inoioiee aieea ia /anoioo
i?iyao oa iioaineaiinoue aio?iaaeia iathoue aenioa e aeniiceoeiy noeeia,
yei aieeaathoue ia iniiaii aio?iaaeioai?ii oaeoi?e — aioa?, oa?aeoa? i
eieueeinoue iiaaeia.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ia?aaaaeia eieueeinoue aeineiaeieeia iaeii?th c
i?e/ei aeieeiaiiy aio?iaaeia aaaaeathoue cia/io o/anoue yeeie a neeaaei
aea?aainoaiia, neiae aiaecia/eoe, ui iiae /an iioaineaieo aio?iaaeueieo
i?ioeania iioeiaeaeothoueny aea?aainoaie c o/anoth anio iniiaieo
einioai?ieo ii?iae. I?e oeueiio inio? ei?aeyoeiy iiae aiaeiiniith
ieiuath aea?aainoaiia oi?? /e iioi? ii?iaee, iioeiaeaeaiith aio?iaaeaie,
i aiaeiiniith ieiuath, yeo aiie caeiathoue ia aeaiie oa?eoi?i?.
Iai?eeeaae, o Ai?iooyinueeiio, Iaaeai?iyinueeiio, Iniieiaenueeiio
einieiiaiiaoao ieiua iioeiaeaeaieo o 1957 ?ioei yeeiieeia neeaaeaea
76-97%, a ieiua aea?aainoaiia c ia?aaaaeiith o/anoth yeeie — 77-93%.
Aeineiaeaeaiiy A.I.Iaaithea (1995), ic canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo
iiaeaenaoei?, iieacaee oaeo iineiaeiaiinoue c?inoaiiy aio?iaaeinoieeinoi
ii?iae — yeeia, aoe, yeeoey, aeoa.

Aio?iaaee aiaeaoaathoueny o oe?ieiio aieiaiio aeiaiaciii — aiae
na?aaeiueiaieiaeo aei noeaeeo aea?aainoaiia. Iieacieee aio?iaaeueiinoi
ia ei?aeththoue c iiaiioith aea?aainoaiia. Aeaui aieueoa aiaeiinia
aio?iaaeueiinoue ia?anoeaeeo i noeaeeo aea?aainoaiia iiynith?oueny ?o
aiieiai/iei noaiii, a aiaecia/aii i?ioe?i//y uiaei aieeao iiaiioe —
aaiacenii ?? oi?ioaaiiy.

I?e?iaeii oaeoi?e iioeiaeaeaiiy einiaeo ianeaia aio?iaaeaie iaie
iiaeieythoueny ia a?oio noaaieicoth/eo i a?oio ?oeioth/eo. Aei a?oie
noaaieicoth/eo oaeoi?ia iaeaaeaoue: aaiii?oieiaiy, ?aeue?o, eeiiao,
a?oioiaa ae?eooy, inoi?e/ii anoaiiaeaia einiaiieiai/ia noaaieueiinoue.
Aei a?oie ?oeioth/eo — ?icea aiaeoeeaiiy ie?aieo iaoai?ieiai/ieo
oaeoi?ia (aioa?, iiaaee) aiae ?o na?aaeiuei?i/ieo cia/aiue oa oaeoi?e,
ui ciaioothoue einiaiieiai/io noaaieueiinoue (ainiiaea?nueei caoiaee,
iiaaci? oai?ia, oeiaeeeaeo eiiao).

?icaeie 5. Aio?iiiaaiii /eiieee aio?iaaeia

Aio?iiiaaiiee i?an ia eine Ea?iao iniaeeai iioaineaii noaa i?iyaeyoenue
o eiioei XVII-ii/aoeo XVIII noieioue, eiee ao?oeeaee ?icaeoie iaea?aeaea
oiii/ia i iaoaii/ia ia?a?iaea aea?aaeie. Oea aeeeeeaei ciaioaiiy ae?eoi?
einii ieiui c ia?aaaaeaiiyi /anoeie ?? o nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueea
ae?iaieoeoai. A eiioei XVIII — ia ii/aoeo XIX noieioue aiaeaoeany
oe?ieiianooaaia caiiia ei?iiieo ciioaiieo oaieii-eenoyieo aea?aainoaiia
ia /enoi yeeiiai. Ao?o/aiiy ethaeeie a i?e?iaeo einia coiiaeei cieaeaiiy
einenoinoi o ?aaiiii aei 37.8%, a a eiai ai?nueeie /anoeii aei 53.2%.
Ieiua aoeiaeo eininoaiia ca inoaiii 200 ?ieia nei?ioeeany a Oe?a?inueeeo
Ea?iaoao c 680 oen. aa aei 272 oen. aa, a ieiua nia?aeiaeo einia
caieueoeeany c 393 aei 691 oen. aa. O aeaiee /an ieiua ianaaeaeaiue c
ia?aaaaeiith o/anoth yeeie cae/aeii? a Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iaoao neeaaea?
46.6%, aoea einiaiai — 37.7%, yeeoei aiei? — 6.8%. Oaeei /eiii, yeeia
noaea ia?aaaaeiith einioai?iith ii?iaeith. Noi?ioaaeenue aeai yeinii
?icieo ca aio?iaaeinoieeinoth ciie yeeiiaeo einia: ciia i?e?iaeiiai
aaiaceno oa ciia ooo/iiai ?icoe?aiiy a?aaeo yeeie c iiieaeaiith
aio?iaaeinoieeinoth.

Aaaaea?oueny, ui ?oaee aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy ni?eythoue iiyai
aio?iaaeia. Oae, ca aeaieie Ea?iaonueeiai oieiaeo Oe?IAeIEAA c 35
ianoaaeaieo aio?iaaeia 1957 ?ieo a ssneiyinueeiio einieiiaiiaoi 22
aeieyiee i?eeyaathoue aei c?oao; ic 104 aio?iaaeia 1964 ?ieo a
Iniieiaenueeiio einieiiaiiaoi 101 aeieyiea iaaeo? c eininieith
iiia?aaeiio ?ieia. Iaeiae aeineiaeaeaiiy oaeoe/iiai nooiaiy aieeao ?oaie
aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy ia aio?iaaeueiinoue i?e oeueiio ia aoee
i?iaaaeaii. Aiaeic iioaineaiinoi aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy naiae/eoue, ui
?ic?aooieiaa ?i/ia eininiea a 1948-1951 ?ieao neeaaeaea 2716.0 oen. i3,
oiaoi ca 4 ?iee — 10864.0 oen. i3. Oaeoe/ii ae?oaaii 26536.5 oen. i3
(2.5 ?ic?aooieiai eininiee). Ca ianooiii 5 ?ieia (1952-1956) i?e
?ic?aooieiaie eininioei 18333.9 oen. i3 ae?oaaii 27722.4 oen. i3 (1.5
?ic?aooieiai? eininiee). Oaeei /eiii, ca aeaa’youe ?ieia (1948-1956), ui
ia?aaeoaaee ianiaei aio?iaaeai 1957-1958 ?ieia aoei c?oaaii aea?aaeie a
1.9 ?acia aieueoa ?ic?aooieiai? eininiee. Iaeai?oith neeaeany neooaoeiy
a ciii iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo, aea i?e ?ic?aooieiaie eininioei
12028.7 oen. i3 ca aeaa’youe ?ieia aoei ae?oaaii 28474.0 oen. i3 (2.5
?ic?aooieiaeo eininiee). Oea aea? iiaenoaae ?icaeyaeaoe ?oaee aieiaiiai
ei?enooaaiiy a yeinoi oaeoi?a, yeee ni?ey? aeieeiaiith aio?iaaeia.

I?ioiaeii ?oaee, ?ic?iaeaii e ai?iaiaaii a oiiaao ?iaieiiiai ?aeue?oo,
i?e neeaaeiie ai?nueeie i?ia?aoi? ia caaaeaee caaacia/othoue «naioeiaee
i?e?ino» aea?aaeie, aea iaieio/a ii?ooothoue caaaeueio iiiieioiinoue
ia?aaei ei?aiaaeo nenoai a aea?aainoaiao. I?e ?o i?iaaaeaiii iaieio/a
iioeiaeaeo?oueny /anoeia aea?aa, ui ia aiaeaiaeyoueny a ?oaeo,
?oeio?oueny iiaa?oiy a?oioo. Ana oea ii?ooo? caaeainiaaiinoue
aiiaaioeaiico i i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiaeaeuaiiy aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi. Aei
oiai ae a einao Ea?iao c?inea aei?iaeia ia?aaea, cia/ii ?icoe?eeenue
?iaioe c i?ieeaaeaiiy o?an iaooi-, aacii?iaiaeia.

Caaaeii iiae aieeaii ainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia ciaoiaeeoueny any
einiiie?eoa ieiua ?aaiiio. Ainiiaea?nueea aeiyeueiinoue a aeaiee /an
noaea aecia/aeueiei oaeoi?ii aieeao ia aio?iaaeinoieeinoue einiaeo
ianaaeaeaiue i ca nai?th aaaiiinoth aiia iiaeiia ?icaeyaeaoenue a
eiiieaeni aio?iaaeioai?ieo oaeoi?ia oiceei-aaia?aoi/iiai oa?aeoa?o.

C iaoith aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aea/aiiy nooiaiy aieeao ie?aieo aeaeia
ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi ia aio?iaaeinoieeinoue aea?aainoaiia aoee
ianoaaeaii ani aeiaaeee aio?iaaeia ia oa?eoi?i? Iaaeai?iyinueeiai AeEA.
Aeineiaeaeaii 356 aeieyiie aio?iaaeia caaaeueiith ieiuath 568.4 aa.

Na?aaeiueicaaaeaia o/anoue yeeie a aea?aainoaiao, iioeiaeaeaieo
aio?iaaeaie ia eiio?iei neeaaea? 8.1 iaeeieoeue. 64.9% iioeiaeaeaieo
eininoaiia — /enoi yeeiieee, 17.1% — /enoi aoeiai aea?aainoaie oa
eininoaie c ia?aaaaeiith o/anoth yeeoei oa o/anoth yeeie iaioith ca
na?aaeiueicaaaeaio.

Na?aaeiueicaaaeaia iiaiioa iioeiaeaeaieo aea?aainoaiia — 0.55. Iiaiioo
0.7-0.8 iaee 52.3%, iiaiioo 0.3-0.4 — 14.9% aeieyiie. Na?aaeiueicaaaeaia
iiaiioa iioeiaeaeaieo aea?aainoaiia ia 20.4% ieae/a na?aaeiueicaaaeaii?
iiaiioe anio aeieyiie, ui ciaoiaeeeeny a ciii eiio?ieth, oiaoi aei
aio?iaaeia aieueo noeeueii iecueeiiiaiioii aea?aainoaie.

Na?aaeiueicaaaeaiee aie iioeiaeaeaieo aea?aainoaiia — 67 ?ieia, 15.3%
aeieyiie iaee aie aei 40 ?ieia, 55.0% — 41-60 ?ieia, 20.7% — 61-80
?ieia, 21.6% — 81-170 ?ieia. Iioeiaeaeaii aea?aainoaie o aioei 81-170
?ieia iaee iiaiioo 0.4-0.6. Iaaaaeaii aeaii naiae/aoue i?i oa, ui aieea
iiaiioe ia caieueoaiiy aio?iaaeueiinoi aeiiiio? iaae aieeaii aieo
aea?aainoaiia.

Iaeaieueoa eieueeinoue aeieyiie ia? iioaineaiinoue iioeiaeaeaiiy ia
10-40%, cia/ii iaioa — 41-60%, ua iaioa — 61-80% (?en. 3). Aiaeii/an
iiiioia eieueeinoue aeieyiie (16.8%) iioeiaeaeaia aio?iaaeaie ia
91-100%.

Aieea ie?aieo aeaeia ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi ia? naith niaoeeoieo.

Aieea nooeieueieo ?oaie. A inoaiii aeanyoe?i//y nooeieueii ?oaee
i?iaiaeyoueny a ?icii?i ?ic?aooieiai? eininiee. Oe?eia eininie (100-250
i) caeaaeeoue aiae e?ooecie noeeia, iaeneiaeueia ieiua ia noeeao
iiaaeaiieo aeniiceoeie — 10 aa, iiaii/ieo — 15 aa, i?eieeaiiy
aaciina?aaei? c oa?iiiii o 3-5 ?ieia. A ianaaeaeaiiyo, yei
aaciina?aaeiuei i?eieeathoue aei c?oaia ieioeeo ?ieia caoieniaaii 34
aeiaaeee aio?iaaeia (9.6% aiae eieueeinoi aio?iaaeia ca ia?iiae
1983-1996 ??.) ieiuath 66.1 aa (11.6%). Na?aaeiueicaaaeaia o/anoue yeeie
a oeeo ianaaeaeaiiyo — 7.4 i?ioe 8.1 ia eiio?iei. 41.2% aiae caaaeueii?
eieueeinoi iioeiaeaeaieo aea?aainoaiia — /enoi yeeiieee. Iiaiioa
ianaaeaeaiue — 0.57 (ia 0.06 aeua, iiae ia eiio?iei),
na?aaeiueicaaaeaiee aie — 81 ?ie. Ia aiaeiiio aiae eiio?ieth ooo a 2.6
?acia iaioa eieueeinoue aeieyiie c nooeieueiei iioeiaeaeaiiyi (?en. 3).

?en. 3. Aieea ainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia ia iioaineaiinoue iioeiaeaeaiiy
aea?aainoaiia aio?iaaeaie: 1 — aac aieeao ainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia; 2 —
aieea aei?ia; 3 — aieea aeai?eiaeo naiioa?ieo ?oaie; 4 — aieea
nooeieueieo ?oaie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ia’?ie nooeieueieo ?oaie ia aeeeeeathoue a ianooiii
ia?iiaee caieueoaiiy aio?iaaeia (?en. 4). I?ineiaeeiao?oueny neeaaeia i
aaaeeeaa caeiiiii?iinoue o aca?iica’yceo iiae nooeieueieie ?oaeaie i
aeieeiaiiyi aio?iaaeia. Nooeieueii aio?iaaee coiiaeththoue caieueoaiiy
ieiui nooeieueieo ?oaie, a ia iaaiaee. A naith /a?ao, caieueoaiiy
nooeieueieo ?oaie aeeeeea? caieueoaiiy eieueeinoi aio?iaaeia (oaae. 1).

Aeyaeaia caeiiiii?iinoue /ioei i?iyaey?oueny oaeiae o caoiaeiie /anoeii
iaaanoeeo (Aieaoianueeee AeEA) (?en. 4).

O noiaeiie /anoeii ?aaiiio (Aa?oiaeinueeee AeEA) aieea nooeieueieo
aio?iaaeia ia caieueoaiiy ?oaie o ianooiii ?iee iaio ae?aaeaiee (?en.
4).

?en. 4. ?iciiaeie nooeieueieo ?oaie (1) i nooeieueieo aio?iaaeia (2) ca
3-?i/ii ia?iiaee a ?icieo /anoeiao iaaanoeeo: I — oeaio?aeueia
(Iaaeai?iyinueeee AeEA), II — caoiaeia (Aieaoianueeee AeEA), III —
noiaeia (Aa?oiaeinueeee AeEA).

Oaaeeoey 1. E?euee?noue nooe?eueieo ?oaie ? a?o?iaae?a ca 1970-1996
?iee

o oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? iaaanoeeo, Iaaea??iyinueeee AeEA, %

Nooe?euei? ?oaeeA?o?iaaee, anueiaiNooe?euei? a?o?iaaee??ea iioi/-iiioca
iiia?aaei? ?ieea iioi/-iiioca iiia?aaei? ?iee *a iioi/-iiioca iiia?aaei?
?iee
*?ioe?35?ioe?35?ioe?3519704.94.31.219714.37.22.519722.913.23.314.82.05.7
19732.312.14.414.92.06.519742.69.518.57.615.326.87.511.515.219752.67.817
.01.013.023.50.510.014.519763.27.514.74.413.020.73.111.115.519773.58.413
.63.99.321.320.223.833.319783.39.314.20.89.117.70.423.731.719793.810.015
.23.17.813.20.120.724.319804.910.616.43.47.315.61.92.425.719813.612.018.
73.09.514.20.62.623.219822.812.319.13.09.413.30.32.83.319833.911.318.43.
59.516.00.11.03.019843.310.319.02.99.415.80.81.23.719854.010.018.52.18.5
14.50.11.01.919863.311.217.62.17.113.61.32.22.619874.210.617.34.08.214.6
0.62.02.919883.911.518.75.011.116.16.98.89.719894.711.418.73.912.917.13.
511.012.419906.312.820.16.014.921.011.221.623.519913.914.922.47.317.226.
210.124.832.319924.014.923.04.017.326.20.922.232.619932.814.222.82.413.7
23.65.616.631.319943.510.721.71.27.620.95.211.733.019953.910.320.52.05.6
16.97.818.629.619962.010.218.10.94.110.53.616.623.1* — aeeth/ai?
a?o?iaaee ca iioi/iee ??e

A onio /anoeiao iaaanoeeo niinoa?iaa?oueny iaaaoeaia oaiaeaioeiy —
iinooiiaa caieueoaiiy eieueeinoi einiaeo ieiu, ia yeeo iiaiinoth
ae?oao?oueny ein. Oey caeaaeiinoue aeia?a ai?ieneio?oueny ?iaiyiiyie
aiiiia ae?oaiai i o?aoueiai ii?yaeeia:

— oeaio?aeueia /anoeia — Y = 22.9 — 2.1x + 0.35×2 — 0.02×3;

— noiaeia /anoeia — Y = 11.52 + 0.37x — 0.026×2;

— caoiaeia /anoeia — Y = 10.18 — 0.46x + 0.13×2 — 0.01×3.

aea Y — aiaeiiniee ?icii? nooeieueii? ?oaee, o — ?iee.

Iaaaaeaii aeaii naiae/aoue, ui neeaaeiee oa?aeoa? i i?ioean aca?iiaieeao
ia’?iia nooeieueieo ?oaie i aio?iaaeia o eiioeaaiio ?acoeueoaoi
i?ecaiaeeoue aei caieueoaiiy ia’?iia nooeieueieo ?oaie. Aeaia iieiaeaiiy
? nooo?ai aaaeeeaei o i?aeoe/iiio aiaeiioaiii. Aiii coiiaeth?
iaiaoiaeiinoue aaaaeaiiy ciii a i?aaiicaoeith einiei?enooaaiiy o
?aaiiii.

Nooeieueii aio?iaaee iathoue o oa?eoi?iaeueiiio aniaeoi ia?iaiaioiee
i?iya, ui aeeeeea? aeaci?aaiicaoeith einiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
Aeaii ?en. 5 iieacothoue, ui caaaeyee ia?iaiaioiinoi aio?iaaeia einiai
ainiiaea?noaa ia ciiaee ai?iaeiaae 6 ?ieia caaacia/eoe iiaio
eieaiaeaoeith ?o ianeiaeeia. Ia?aaaaeii ia oea aieeioea ia?iaiaioiinoue
nooeieueieo aio?iaaeia.

?en. 5. Aeeiaiiea nooeieueieo i /anoeiaeo aio?iaaeia oa ?ic?iaeaieo
aio?iaaeueieo aeieyiie a aea?aeeinainiao Iaaii-O?aieianueeiai iaeaniiai
oi?aaeiiiy einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa.

Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeeaioeo iieacieeia, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue nooiiiue aieeao
nooeieueieo ?oaie ? ii?iaiyiiy /anoioe aeieeiaiiy aio?iaaeia o ciii, ui
iiiaaea? iiae aieea nooeieueieo ?oaie, aei /anoioe ?o i?iyao iica oei?th
ciiith. Aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui eieueeinoue aio?iaaeia c ?ic?aooieo
ia iaeio oeny/o aaeoa?ia neeaea: a ciii aieeao nooeieueieo ?oaie — 8.5;
iica oei?th ciiith — 6.7. Ioaea, iiaeaen aio?iaaeueiinoi a ciii aieeao
nooeieueieo ?oaie a 1.3 ?acia aeuee, iiae o ciii iica ?o aieeaii.

Oaeei /eiii, aiaeiinia eieueeinoue aio?iaaeia ia aeieyieao o ciii aieeao
nooeieueieo ?oaie iacia/ia (9.5% aiae caaaeueii? eieueeinoi oa 11.6%
aiae ieiui aio?iaaeia). Cia/iith ii?ith aio?iaaeaie iioeiaeaeothoueny
/enoi yeeiieee (41.2%). Aie iioeiaeaeaieo aea?aainoaiia cia/ii aieueoee,
iiae ia eiio?iei (81 i?ioe 67 ?ieia). Ia?aaaaeia /anoeia aio?iaaeia
aiaeiineoueny aei /anoeiaeo (94.1%). Aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue a oiiaao
aieeao nooeieueieo ?oaie a 1.3 ?acia aeua, iiae a oiiaao, aea oeae aieea
aiaenooiie.

Aieea aeai?eiaeo naiioa?ieo ?oaie. Naiioa?iee noai einiaeo ianeaia
iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao ca ?acoeueoaoaie
einiiaoieiai/ieo ianoaaeaiue 1985-1986 ??. aaaaea?oueny caaeiaieueiei. O
caoiaeiie eiai /anoeii (Aieaoianueeee AeEA) caei?iai ianaaeaeaiiy
neeaaeathoue 90.6%, o oeaio?aeueiie (Iaaeai?iyinueeee AeEA) — 92.7%, o
noiaeiie (Aa?oiaeinueeee AeEA) — 99.4%. ?acii c oei aeyaeaia
ca?aaeaiinoue aea?aainoaiia iiaiueeii i ei?aiaaith aoaeith. Oae o
Aieaoianueeiio aea?aeeinainii 22.0% oaieieo aea?aainoaiia (2038 aa)
aiaeianaii aei eaoaai?i? ineaaeaieo, iayaiinoue ei?aiaai? aoaee aeyaeaia
ia ieiui 7423 aa, iiaiueea — ia 5462 aa. Neeueiee nooiiiue o?aaeaiinoi
niinoa?iaa?oueny ia ieiui 2185 aa. O Iaaeai?iyinueeiio aea?aeeinainii
caaaeueia o?aaeaia ieiua neeaaea? 8663 aa (ei?aiaaa aoaea — 6348 aa,
iiaiueie — 988 aa). O Aa?oiaeinueeiio aea?aeeinainii iacaaeiaieueiee
naiioa?iee noai caoieniaaii eeoa ia 147 aa.

Ioaea, aio?iaaeueiinoue 1983-1996 ?ieia aeineiaeaeoaaeany ia oiii
caaeiaieueiiai naiioa?iiai noaio, a oiiaao noaiaea?oiiai ?aaeeio
i?iaaaeaiiy naiioa?ieo ?oaie. Aeyaeaii 52 aeieyiee aio?iaaeia, ia yeeo a
iiia?aaeiie ia?iiae aoee i?iaaaeaii naiioa?ii ?oaee. Oea neeaaea? 14.6%
aiae caaaeueii? eieueeinoi aio?iaaeia i 14.9% aiae ?o caaaeueii? ieiui.

Na?aaeiueicaaaeaia o/anoue yeeie cae/aeii? ia aio?iaaeueieo ieiuao —
7.3, ui ia 0.8 iaioa, iiae ia eiio?iei. Na?aaeiueicaaaeaia iiaiioa —
0.51, ui ia 0.04 iaioa, ii?iaiyii c eiio?ieai. Caieueoeeanue eieueeinoue
iioeiaeaeaieo aeieyiie c iiaiioith iaioa 0.5. Aie iioeiaeaeaieo
aea?aainoaiia cia/ii ieae/ee, iiae ia eiio?iei (aiaeiiaiaeii 69 i 84
?iee).

Iaaaaeaii aeaii naiae/aoue i?i oa, ui i?e i?iaaaeaiii naiioa?ieo ?oaie
ia?aaaaeii ae?oaoaaeanue yeeia. Iiae ?o aieeaii ia ioiieaieo ieiuao
cieceeanue iiaiioa aea?aainoaiia. O ca’yceo c oei, ui ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
caoai?thaaiue iaei iinoea o aiaeiinii iieiaeeo aea?aainoaiao,
na?aaeiueiaeaaaeaiee aie aio?iaaeueieo ianaaeaeaiue a oiiaao aieeao
naiioa?ieo ?oaie inoioii cieceany ii?iaiyii c eiio?ieai. Ia 13.9% c?inea
eieueeinoue aeieyiie c iacia/iei iioeiaeaeaiiyi (aei 20%), a 1.7 ?acia
caieueoeeanue o/anoue aeieyiie c iioaineaiinoth iioeiaeaeaiiy 60.1-90.0%
i a 2.9 ?aca ciaioeeenue nooeieueii aio?iaaee. Ioaea, aeai?eiai
naiioa?ii ?oaee noeioethaaee ia?oi noaaei? ia?iaiaioiinoi aio?iaaeia.

Iiaeaen aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi aeai?eiaeo naiioa?ieo ?oaie noaiiaeoue
1.6. Ioaea, oei ?oaee ia caaacia/othoue cieaeaiiy aio?iaaeueiinoi aei
?iaiy, yeee inio? a caei?iaeo ianeaao eino. Iiae ieiuath naiioa?ieo
?oaie, ui i?iaaaeaii a iiia?aaeiie ia?iiae i ieiuath aio?iaaeia aeyaeaii
oiniee ca’ycie.

Oaeei /eiii, aeai?eiai naiioa?ii ?oaee inoioii ciaioothoue o/anoue yeeie
a neeaaei aea?aainoaiia, iioeiaeaeaieo aio?iaaeaie, caieueoothoue /anoeo
iecueeiiiaiioieo aea?aainoaiia, iiaeaeuothoue eieueeinoue aio?iaaeia
iaei? oa aeniei? iioaineaiinoi i ciaioothoue eieueeinoue nooeieueieo
aio?iaaeia, caieueoothoue nooiiiue aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi.

Aieea i?ioiaeieo ?oaie i i?i?iaeaeaiue. Aio?iaaee caoieniaaii ia 9
aeieyieao, aea oei ?oaee aoee i?iaaaeaii. Ia 6 aeieyieao ca ?ie aei
aio?iaaeueii? neooaoei? aoei i?iaaaeaii i?i?iaeaeaiiy iioaineaiinoth 15%
ca ianith. Aie aea?aainoaiia 29-33 ?iee, iiaiioa iiney i?i?iaeaeaiiy i
iiae /an aio?iaaeo — 0.8, e?ooecia noeeia — 10°, 12°, 30°. Aie
aea?aainoaiia, aea i?ieoee i?ioiaeii ?oaee — 52-60 ?ieia, iiaiioa iiae
/an aio?iaaeo — 0.7-0.9. Na?aaeiueicaaaeaia iiaiioa — 0.76, ui ia 0.21
aeua, iiae ia eiio?iei, na?aaeiueicaaaeaia o/anoue yeeie — 8.7, aai ia
0.6 aieueoa, iiae ia eiio?iei. Ani aio?iaaeia aiaeaoeeny /a?ac
iaeei-aeaa ?iee iiney i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioiaeieo ?oaie i i?i?iaeaeaiue. A
ianaaeaeaiiyo, i?ieaeaieo i?ioiaeieie ?oaeaie i i?i?iaeaeaiiyie,
eieueeinoue aio?iaaeia c?inoa? a 1.4 ?acia.

Aieea ia?aaei aei?ia, o?an iaooi- i aacii?iaiaeia. Iane/aiinoue
oa?eoi?i? oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie iaaanoeeo aei?iaaie neeaaea? 6.9 ei ia
1000 aa. Aei 1970 ?ieo iiaoaeiaaii 47.2% aiae caaaeueii? eieueeinoi
aei?ia, ca 1971-1980 ??. — 18.7%, 1981-1990 ??. — 18.7%, 1991-1996 ??. —
15.6%. Iane/aiinoue ia?aaei aei?ia o caoiaeiie /anoeii ?aaiiio neeaaea?
8.8 ei, o noiaeiie — 6.1 ei ia 1 oen. aa ieiui. Acaeiaae aei?ia,
i?ieeaaeaieo aei 1990 ?ieo, noi?ioaaeenue aio?iaaeinoieei oceinny
ia?aaaaeii c naiiniao eenoyieo ii?iae. Aeaoaeueieie aeineiaeaeaiiyie a
oeaio?aeueiie /anoeii ?aaiiio anoaiiaeaii, ui ooo aoei iioeiaeaeaii
aio?iaaeaie 118 aeieyiie eino, yei ciaoiaeeeenue aaciina?aaeiuei aiey
aei?ia. Oea neeaaea? 33.1% aiae caaaeueii? eieueeinoi iioeiaeaeaieo
aeieyiie i 33.3% aiae caaaeueii? iioeiaeaeaii? ieiui, ui i?aeoe/ii ia
aiae?iciy?oueny aiae eiio?ieueieo iieacieeia. Aea?aainoaie ia
aaniethoiie aieueoinoi iioeiaeaeaieo aeieyiie aoee /enoeie yeeiieeaie
(61.8%). Aea i?eioeeiiaei aeaea?oueny oie oaeo, ui ooo aoee a cia/iie
eieueeinoi iioeiaeaeaii aea?aainoaie c ia?aaaaeiith o/anoth
aio?iaaeinoieeeo ii?iae. Iaeneiaeueiee aie eininoaiia, iioeiaeaeaieo o
ciii aieeao aei?ia neeaaea? 130 ?ieia, ia eiio?iei — 170 ?ieia. Oea
naiae/eoue i?i iioaineaiioa ae?oaoaaiiy aea?aainoaiia noa?oiai aieo.

Iaoiaeii iiaeaenaoei? anoaiiaeaii, ui iioaineaiinoue aio?iaaeueiinoi a
ciii aieeao aei?ia o 2.7 ?acia aieueoa, iiae ia oa?eoi?i?, aea oeae
aieea aiaenooiie. Aieea aeeiaiiee aoaeiaieoeoaa aei?ia ia aeieeiaiiy
aio?iaaeia oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeaieie ?en. 6.

I?eaaaeaii aeaii naiae/aoue i?i iayaiinoue aiaeiiaiaeii? neio?iiiinoi
iiae oaiiaie aoaeiaieoeoaa aei?ia e iioaineaiinoth aio?iaaeia.
Caieueoaiiy oaiiia aoaeiaieoeoaa aei?ia ianooia? iiney aio?iaaeia, ui
iiynith?oueny iaiaoiaeiinoth ?o i?ieeaaeaiiy aei aio?iaaeueieo aeieyiie.

Na?aaeiueicaaaeaia o/anoue yeeie a neeaaei aea?aainoaiia, ui c?inoathoue
acaeiaae aei?ia oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie iaaanoeeo 9.7 iaeeieoeue (ia 1.6
iaeeieoei aieueoa, iiae ia eiio?iei), 11 aeieyiie — /enoi yeeiieee.
Na?aaeiueicaaaeaia iiaiioa — 0.67. Aie aieueoinoi iioeiaeaeaieo
aea?aainoaiia — 40-50 ?ieia, na?aaeiueicaaaeaiee aie — 54 ?iee, ui ia 35
?ieia iaioa, iiae ia eiio?iei. Ia cia/iie eieueeinoi aeieyiie (39.9%)
iioaineaiinoue iioeiaeaeaiiy 10-20%. Iiaeaen aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi a
ciii aieeao aei?ia neeaaea? 2.7, oiaoi ai?iaiaeiinoue i?iyao aio?iaaeia
o iaaeao aieeao aei?ia o 2.7 ?acia aieueoa, iiae ca iaaeaie oei?? ciie.

Ioaea, a ciii aieeao aei?ia aio?iaaeaie caieueoo?oueny iioeiaeaeaiiy
aea?aainoaiia iieiaeoiai aieo, inoioii c?inoa? eieueeinoue aeieyiie c
iioaineaiinoth iioeiaeaeaiiy 60.1-90.0%, ?icei caieueoo?oueny
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue neooaoei?. Oaiie caieueoaiiy aei?iaeii? ia?aaei
ei?aeththoue c iiyaith aio?iaaeia, iaeiae i?ii?eoaoiei o oeueiio
aca?iica’yceo ? iioaineaiinoue aio?iaaeueieo i?ioeania.

?en. 6. Oaiie aoae?aieoeoaa aei??a (1) oa ?ioaineai?noue a?o?iaae?a (2)
o iiia?aaei? ia??iaee.

Iiaeeco o?an iaooi- i aacii?iaiaeia oa EAI o oeaio?aeueiie /anoeii
iaaanoeeo aoei ianoaaeaii 18 aeieyiie, iioeiaeaeaieo aio?iaaeaie.
Na?aaeiueicaaaeaia o/anoue yeeie ia oeeo aeieyieao — 9.7, iiaiioa —
0.67, aie — 54 ?iee. Ia aieueoie eieueeinoi aeieyiie (39.9%)
iioaineaiinoue iioeiaeaeaiue neeaaea? 10-20%. Iiaeaen
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi — 2.7, oiaoi oaeee ye aeey ia?aaei aei?ia. Oea
naiae/eoue i?i iaeaioe/iinoue aieeao oeeo aeaeia ainiiaea?nueei?
aeiyeueiinoi ia aio?iaaeueiinoue, ui aeeeeeaii iaeaioe/iinoth oa?aeoa?o
?o ooai?aiiy i aieeao ia iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua.

Ocaaaeueithth/e io?eiaii iaie aeaii, iaiaoiaeii aiaeiioeoe, ui aio?iaaee
a i?e?iaeii-aaia?aoi/ieo oiiaao Ea?iao ? iaeiei c iinoieii aeith/eo
oaeoi?ia oi?ioaaiiy i ?icaeoeo einiaiai ae?eooy, yeee inio? iacaeaaeii
aiae ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi ethaeeie. A aaiethoeieiiio aniaeoi
aio?iaaee oeyoii i?e?iaeiiai aeiai?o oi?iothoue a oiiaao ai?nueeeo
oa?eoi?ie aiieiai/ii noieei ei?iiii aea?aainoaie, caeaoii aeo?eioaaoe
cia/ii aiaeoeeaiiy iaoai?ieiai/ieo oaeoi?ia aiae ?o na?aaeiuei?i/ieo
cia/aiue. Ia iinoei aio?iaaeia ca ei?ioeee ia?iiae aiaeiiaeth?oueny
iieiaeee ein i ani eiai na?aaeiaeuaoai?ii ooieoei?. Ainiiaea?nueea
aeiyeueiinoue iiaeiia i?iaiaeeoenue c o?aooaaiiyi inioth/iai noeoieiiai
i?e?iaeiiai oaeoi?a — aio?iaaeia, ye yaeua ?iaiiai c iioeie ia’?eoeaii
inioth/eie oaeoi?aie na?aaeiaeua. Ani aeaee ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi
aieeaathoue iaaaoeaii ia aio?iaaeinoieeinoue aea?aainoaiia. C
einiainiiaea?nueeeo iiceoeie aio?iaaee eino ? iaeiei c iaeaieueo
iaaaaeaieo i?e?iaeieo yaeu, ui caaaaeathoue iaaiith ii?ith
aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e?iaeio iioaioeieio i?iaeoeoeaiinoue eino.
Ainiiaea?nueea aeiyeueiinoue o einao Ea?iao aeieeea i noi?ioaaeanue a
oiiaao eiiieaeno iani?eyoeeaeo oaeoi?ia na?aaeiaeua. ?? aieea ia einiaa
na?aaeiaeua ciaioo? aiieiai/io noieeinoue ianaaeaeaiue i ni?ey?
aeieeiaiith aio?iaaeia. Oea coiiaeth? iaiaoiaeiinoue i?aaiicaoei? i
aaaeaiiy einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ca i?eioeeiiai iiaith nenoaiith, yea a
a?aoiaoaaea noeoieia aeieeiaiiy aio?iaaeia i caiaeeea aei iiiiiaeueiiai
?iaiy ?o iaaaoeaiee aieea ia aiieiai/io noieeinoue einiaeo ianaaeaeaiue.

?icaeie 6. Aeiiiii/ii ianeiaeee aio?iaaeia

Iiae aieeaii aio?iaaeia inoioii ciaioo?oueny eieueeinoue eieaiaeii?
aea?aaeie. Oea aiaeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy eieueeinoi iaeaieueo
oeiiieo ni?oeiaioieo a?oi. Aeoiae ae?iayii? aea?aaeie c?inoa? aieueoa,
iiae o 4 ?ace. O niiaaiaeiioaiii ni?oeiaioieo a?oi aeieiai? aea?aaeie
(e?oiia, na?aaeiy, ae?iaia) inoioieo ciii iiae aieeaii aio?iaaeia ia
niinoa?iaa?oueny. Aio?iaaee coiiaeththoue cia/ia cieaeaiiy ?icii?o
aa?oinoi eieaiaeii? aea?aaeie. Oea cieaeaiiy aiaeaoaa?oueny ca ?aooiie
ciaioaiiy aeieiai? aea?aaeie anio ni?oeiaioieo a?oi. Aieueoa, iiae o 4
?ace iiaeaeuo?oueny aa?oinoue ae?iayii? aea?aaeie aianeiaeie
aiaeiiaiaeiiai caieueoaiiy ?? aeoiaeo. ?icii? caieueoaiiy aa?oinoi
ae?iayii? aea?aaeie inoioii ia aieeaa? ia ciaioaiiy ?icii?o caaaeueiiai
cieaeaiiy aa?oinoi eieaiaeii? aea?aaeie.

Aio?iaaee nei?i/othoue ia?iiae i?iaeoeoaaiiy aea?aaeie ia iaaio
eieueeinoue ?ieia, a iiiaei ia aeineoue cia/iee ia?iiae. Oeae ia?iiae
aecia/a?oueny ye ?icieoey iiae aieii aieiaii? ?oaee i aieii
aea?aainoaio, yeee aoa c?oeiiaaiee aio?iaaeii. Aeey ia’?eoia iaoeo
aeineiaeaeaiue aie aieiaii? ?oaee anoaiiaeaiee o 90 ?ieia. Aie, a yeiio
aea?aainoai aoa c?oeiiaaiee aio?iaaeii, ia aaniethoiie aieueoinoi
aeieyiie (70% aiae caaaeueii? eieueeinoi) ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao aiae 31
aei 80 ?ieia. Na?aaeiueicaaaeaiee aie aeineiaeaeaieo aio?iaaeia — 81.2
?ieia. Ioaea, aio?iaaee i?eieieee i?iaeoeoaaiiy aeaieo aea?aainoaiia ca
60-10 ?ieia aei aieo aieiaii? ?oaee. Ai?iaeiaae iaaiiai /ano
aio?iaaeueii ieiui aoaeooue i?iaeoeoaaoe iaiaaeaio eieueeinoue
aea?aaeie. Iiney noai?aiiy iiaeo eoeueoo? i?e?ino aea?aaeie ai?iaeiaae
20-30 ?ieia aoaea inoioii iaioei ii?iaiyii c na?aaeiuei?i/iei i?e?inoii
noi?iiaaiiai eininoaio. ?acii c oei, ainiiaea?noai ciooaia ianoe
aeiaeaoeiai aeo?aoe ia noai?aiiy einiaeo eoeueoo?.

Ia aeineiaeaeaieo ieiuao iaaeiiaea?aeaii 10183 i3 eieaiaeii? aea?aaeie
aa?oinoth 56247 a?i., aai a na?aaeiueiio ia eiaeiiio aaeoa?i
aio?iaaeueieo ieiu ao?a/aii 87 i3 aa?oinoth 482 a?i. Noia?ii caeoee aiae
iaaeiiaea?aeaiiy aea?aaeie i aeino?ieiaiai noai?aiiy einiaeo eoeueoo?
aei?iaiththoue 549.2 a?i. ia aaeoa?. A na?aaeiueiio ia ?ic?iaeo eiaeiiai
aaeoa?o aio?iaaeueii? ieiui aeiaeaoeiai aeo?a/aii 509.8 a?i.

?icaeie 7. Iaoeiai iniiae iiia?aaeaeaiiy i caoenoo einia aiae aio?iaaeia

Ia?oii?e/eiii oaeoi?e aio?iaaeueiinoi — aioa? i aoiinoa?ii iiaaee ?
aeaiaioaie oiceei-aaia?aoi/iiai na?aaeiaeua i ia caeaaeaoue aiae iioeo
oaeoi?ia. ?aeue?o iinoeaainoi coiiaeth? ia?a?iciiaeie ?o eieueeinoi,
aia?ai? i?iyao i eieaeueiinoue eiioeaio?aoei?.

I?e?iaeii iniaeeainoi Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao coiiaeththoue inoioii
aiaeiiiiinoi o oa?aeoa?i eieaeueiiai i?iyaeaiiy aio?iaiai ?aaeeio i
iiaaeia o ?icieo /anoeiao oa?eoi?i?. Oea, a naith /a?ao, coiiaeth? ?icio
iioaineaiinoue i oa?aeoa? aio?iaaeia o ?icieo /anoeiao oa?eoi?i?
Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao iaaioue i?e iaeiaeiaie caaaeueiie
eeiiaoi-iaoai?ieiai/iie neooaoei?.

Aiaeic aio?iaaeia iiia?aaeiio ia?iiaeia naiae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaeaieueo
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iith a Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iaoao ? ciia iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai
iaaanoeeo. Iaeii?th c aaaeeeaeo i i?eioeeiiaeo iniaeeainoae oeueiai
?aaiiio ? oa, ui aenioa ?iciiuaiiy eiai ai?nueeeo ianeaia iaae ?iaiai
ii?y inoioii caieueoo?oueny c iiaii/iiai caoiaeo ia iiaaeaiiee noiae.
Oea coiiaeth? niaoeeoi/iinoue aio?iaiai ?aaeeio i oa?aeoa?o iiaaeia o
ie?aieo /anoeiao ?aaiiio oa /ioei aiaeia?aaea?oueny a iniaeeainoyo
aenioii-ciiaeueiiai ?iciiaeieo einiai? ?ineeiiinoi (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2. Iniaeeainoi aenioii-ciiaeueiiai ?iciiaeieo einiai?
?ineeiiinoi iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao

AenioaAenioi? /anoeieiaae ??aiaiiecueea,

Aieao?anueeee AeEAna?aaeiy, Iaaea??iyinueeee AeEAaeniea,

Aa?oiaeinueeee AeEAii?y, iieiua e?n?a, aa%ieiua e?n?a, aa%ieiua e?n?a,
aa%401-500671626.614352.7—501-600565122.426885.1—601-700360814.333696.
4560.2701-800301111.949209.43561.2801-90020828.3932217.814084.7901-10001
7196.81059020.2320910.81001-110015546.1865516.5507017.01101-12007342.959
1911.3578019.31201-13001700.727295.2623520.91301-1400—13972.7418414.014
01-1500—6261.226739.01501-1600—5131.08422.81601-1700—2970.5250.1Anuei
ai252451005246010029838100

Iaeaieueoa /anoeia einia a oiiaao iecueeiai ?iciiuaiiy ciaoiaeeoueny ia
aenioi 401-800 i i.?.i. (75.2%); a oiiaao na?aaeiueiai ?iciiuaiiy — ia
aenioi 801-1200 i i.?.i. (65.8%); a oiiaao aieueo aenieiai ?iciiuaiiy —
ia aenioi 901-1400 i i.?.i. (82.0%). Aa?oiy iaaea einia o aenioieo ciiao
aiaeiiaiaeii caeia? iieiaeaiiy — 1300, 1700, 1700 i iaae ?iaiai ii?y.

Aenioia ciiaeueiinoue aio?iaaeia iaaiith ii?ith ei?aeth? c ciiaeueiinoth
?iciiuaiiy einia (?en. 7). ?iciiaeie einiaeo ieiu ca aenioieie
a?aaeaoeiyie i ?iciiaeie ieiu aio?iaaeia caaaeii iiaeii?yaeeiaaii
iniaeeainoyi ii?iaeueiiai ?iciiaeieo. Niiaaiaeiioaiiy aiaeiiniiai
?iciiaeieo ieiu aio?iaaeia i ieiu einia ca aenioieie a?aaeaoeiyie
aeicaieeee iaea?aeaoe iieaciee, yeee oa?aeoa?eco? nooiiiue
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi ia aiaeiiaiaeieo aenioao. Aeyaeaii, ui iieacieee
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi oa aenioe iaae ?iaiai ii?y ciaoiaeyoueny o aeoaea
oiniiio aca?iica’yceo, ui iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aenieeie eiaoioei?ioaie
ei?aeyoei? o anio /anoeiao ?aaiiio (r = 0.76+0.14 — 0.93+0.04). Oey
caeaaeiinoue aeey anio /anoei ?aaiiio iieno?oueny ?iaiyiiyi ia?aaiee
2-ai ii?yaeeo (?en. 8).

?en. 7. ?iciiae?e ieiu aea?aainoai?a (1) ? e?eueeino? a?o?iaae?a (2)

ca aenioaie iaae ??aiai ii?y. Aea?aee?nainie: I — Aieao?anueeee,

?? — Iaaea??iyinueeee, ??? — Aa?oiaeinueeee.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee iieaciee (eiaoioei?io) aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi iiaeiai
a?aoiaoaaoenue i?e ?ic?iaoei iaoeiaeo iniia iiia?aaeaeaiiy aio?iaaeia i
caoenoo einia aiae ?o aieeao. O aiaeiiaiaeiinoi c iei o?aaa
eii?aeeioaaoe nenoaio einiainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia.

?en. 8. Iiaeaene aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi aiaeiiaiaeii aenio iinoeaainoi
iaae ?iaiai ii?y. *anoeie ?aaiiio: I — caoiaeia, II — oeaio?aeueia, III
— noiaeia.

Iniiaith aeey iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy i?eioeeiia aaaeaiiy einiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa ? oaeiae aiaeic ?iciiaeieo i niianoaaeaiiy ieiui einia i
ieiui aio?iaaeia ca aeniiceoeiyie noeeia. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeeainoth
i?ia?aoi? iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo Ea?iao ? aeiiiioth/a o/anoue o
caaaeueiie ieiui ?aaiiio noeeia iiaii/ii-caoiaeii?, iiaaeaiii-caoiaeii?,
iiaaeaiii-noiaeii? oa iiaii/ii-noiaeii? aeniiceoeie (oaae. 3). Oea
coiiaeaii i?i?ioaoei?th iniiaieo ai?nueeeo o?aaoia ?aaiiio c iiaii/iiai
caoiaeo ia iiaaeaiiee noiae i ?ic/eaiiaaiinoth noeeia ?i/eiaeie
aeieeiaie, ouaeeiaie, ia?aaaaeii, a ia?iaiaeeeoey?iiio iai?yieo aei
o?aaoia. Aianeiaeie oeueiai noeee iiaii/ii?, caoiaeii?, iiaaeaiii? i
noiaeii? aeniiceoeie caeiathoue cia/ii iaioo ieiuo: a caoiaeiie /anoeii
?aaiiio — 5.2-9.0%, o oeaio?aeueiie /anoeii — 5.7-12.8%, o noiaeiie —
8.1-9.0% aiae caaaeueii? ieiui ?aaiiio.

Iieacieee iiaeaeno aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi naiae/aoue i?i oa, ui
aeniiceoeiy noeeia coiiaeth? inoioiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/ieo neooaoeie i aeieeiaiiy aio?iaaeia (oaae. 3).

Iaeaieueoi ieiui aio?iaaeia — o caoiaeiie (iecueeie) /anoeii ?aaiiio
niinoa?iaathoueny ia noeeao iiaaeaiii-caoiaeii? oa iiaii/ii-noiaeii?
aeniiceoeie (24.6 i 21.0%); o oeaio?aeueiie /anoeii — ia noeeao
iiaaeaiii-noiaeii? i iiaii/ii-caoiaeii? aeniiceoeie (20.5 i 16.4%); o
noiaeiie (aeuie) /anoeii — ia noeeao iiaaeaiii-caoiaeii? oa
iiaii/ii-caoiaeii? aeniiceoeie (27.3 i 25.6%). Iaeieae/a o/anoue
iioeiaeaeaieo einia o caoiaeiie /anoeii aiaeii/aia ia noeeao iiaii/ii?
(2.5%), caoiaeii? (7.0%) i noiaeii? (7.6%) aeniiceoeie; o oeaio?aeueiie
/anoeii — iiaii/ii? (9.4%), caoiaeii? (8.8%) i noiaeii? (8.2%)
aeniiceoeie; o noiaeiie /anoeii — caoiaeii? (2.8%), iiaaeaiii? (3.8%) i
noiaeii? (4.4%) aeniiceoeie. Oei aeaii aeathoue oyao i?i aaniethoiee
oa?aeoa? ?iciiaeieo aiaeiinieo ieiu einia i aio?iaaeia. Iiaeaen
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi aieueo aeeaiei i ia’?eoeaii oa?aeoa?eco? aieea
aeniiceoeie noeeia ia aio?iaaeueio neooaoeith. Ioaea, c aeaieo oaae. 3
aa/eii, ui iaeaieueo aio?iaaeiiaaacia/ieie ?: a caoiaeiie /anoeii —
noeee iiaaeaiii?, iiaaeaiii-caoiaeii? i caoiaeii? aeniiceoeie; o
oeaio?aeueiie /anoeii — noeee caoiaeii?, noiaeii? i iiaaeaiii-noiaeii?
aeniiceoeie; o noiaeiie /anoeii — noeee iiaaeaiii-caoiaeii?, iiaii/ii? i
iiaii/ii-caoiaeii? aeniiceoeie.

Oaaeeoey 3. Iieacieee a?o?iaaeueiino? ianaaeaeaiue ia noeeao ??cieo
aeniiceoe?e

Aeniiceoe?yIeiua e?n?a ia noeeao,

aa %Ieiua a?o?iaae?a,

aa %?iaeaen

a?o?iaaei-iaaacia/-iino?Aieao?anueeee
aea?aee?nainiIi22169.011.62.50.27IiCo427617.355.911.80.68Co12765.232.97.
01.35IaeCo396816.1116.324.61.53Iae18357.460.312.81.73IaeNo440317.860.012
.70.71No18087.335.87.61.04IiNo489519.999.121.01.06Anueiai29840100371.910
0-Iaaea??iyinueeee
aea?aee?nainiIi637912.654.79.40.74IiCo828116.495.516.41.00Co28835.751.38
.81.54IaeCo878417.476.213.10.75Iae560311.161.910.60.96IaeNo771615.3119.5
20.51.34No29845.947.98.21.39IiNo782815.675.813.00.84Anueiai50458100582.8
100-Aa?oiaeinueeee
aea?aee?nainiIi26709.058.516.51.85IiCo684622.990.625.61.12Co18346.19.82.
80.45IaeCo403313.596.927.32.02Iae21307.113.33.80.53IaeNo410213.851.814.6
1.06No18866.315.54.40.69IiNo633921.317.75.00.24Anueiai24667100354.1100-I
?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue aieeao aenioe iinoeaainoi iaae
?iaiai ii?y i aeniiceoeie noeeia ia nooiiiue aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi
aeathoue iaoeiao iniiao iioeiicaoei? aaaeaiiy einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa a
eiie?aoieo i?e?iaeieo oiiaao aio?iaaeueiinoi.

?icaeie 8. ?aeiioaaiiy ca iciaeaie aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeineiaeaeaiue nooiaiy aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi aenioieo
a?aaeaoeie i aeniiceoeie noeeia neeaaeaii iao?eoei iiaeaenia
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi. A ieo aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue eiaeii? aenioii?
a?aaeaoei? iicia/aia iiaeaenii, a oaeiae aiaeiiaiaeiei eiio aaeii (oaae.
4).

Oaaeeoey 4. Iao?eoey iiaeaenia aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi a?aaeaoeie aenio

Aenioa*anoeie iaaanoeeoiaae ??aiaicao?aeiaoeaio?aeueiano?aeiaii?y,
i?iaeaenaae?iaeaenaae?iaeaenaae401-5001.671501-6001.2411.602601-7001.062
1.393701-8000.9631.2540.099801-9000.6541.1050.328901-10000.4450.9260.547
1001-11000.2260.7370.7361101-12000.00870.5280.9051201-13000.00280.2891.0
551301-14000.03101.1731401-15001.2721501-16001.341

Iaeaeuee ?iaaiue aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi niinoa?iaa?oueny a nioci
801-1100 i, aea aiia aecia/a?oueny iiaeaenaie: o oeaio?aeueiie /anoeii —
1.10-0.73; caoiaeiie /anoeii — 0.65-0.22; noiaeiie /anoeii — 0.32-0.73.
Aeey ciie einia, yea i?ioiaeeoue ia ?iaii 501-1300 i,
na?aaeiueicaaaeaiee iieaciee aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi (Anca), ae?aooaaiee
ca oi?ioeith:

(S501-1300 Ia)

Bnca = ———————— ,

S501-1300

oa?aeoa?eco?oueny o caoiaeiie /anoeii — 0.352; oeaio?aeueiie — 1.018;
noiaeiie — 0.982. Oea naiae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaaioue ia iaeiiio aenioiiio
?iaii aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue ia? ?icii cia/aiiy a ?icieo /anoeiao
?aaiiio, ui iiaee?aneth? neeaaeii iniaeeainoi i?e?iaee aio?iaaeia a
oiiaao Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao.

I?eaaaeaii aeaii iiaeoaa?aeaeothoue iaiiaeeeainoue ?aeiioaaiiy ca
i?eioeeiii aeaeieaiiy oa?eoi?iaeueii oeieinoieo ?aeiiia, ineieueee a
eiaeiie /anoeii iaaanoeeo iathoue iinoea ?ac?iciaii ieiui c iaeiaeiaei
cia/aiiyi aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi.

Iao?eoey iiaeaenia aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi aeniiceoeie noeeia iaaaaeaia a
oaae. 5.

Oaaeeoey 5. Iao?eoey iiaeaenia aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi aeniiceoeie noeeia

Aeniiceoe?y*anoeie
iaaanoeeonoee?acao?aeiaoeaio?aeueiano?aeia?iaeaenaae?iaeaenaae?iaeaenaae
Ii0.2780.7481.852IiCo0.6871.0041.123Co1.3531.5410.457IaeCo1.5320.7572.02
1Iae1.7310.9650.536IaeNo0.7161.3431.064No1.0451.3920.695IiNo1.0640.8460.
248

Ia iniiai iao?eoeue iiaeaenia aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi aenioieo a?aaeaoeie
i aeniiceoeie noeeia (oaae. 4, 5) ?ic?iaeaii iao?eoei iioaa?iaaii?
ioeiiee nooiaiy aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi ?icieo /anoei ?aaiiio
aeineiaeaeaiue. sse i?eeeaae, iaaaaeaia iao?eoey oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie
iaaanoeeo (oaae. 6).

Oaaeeoey 6. Iao?eoey iioaa?iaaii? ioeiiee nooiaiy aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi
a?aaeaoeie aenio i aeniiceoeie noeeia o oeaio?aeueiie /anoeii
iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo

Aeniiceoe?yCoNoIaeNoIiCoIaeIiNoIaeCoIiAenioa,
iaaee12345678401-500123456789501-6002345678910601-70034567891011701-8004
56789101112801-9005678910111213901-1000678910111213141001-11007891011121
314151101-120089101112131415161201-1300910111213141516171301-14001011121
31415161718

Ioaea, iioaa?iaaii iieacieee nooiaiy aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi
oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie iaaanoeeo oa?aeoa?ecothoueny noiith aaeia aiae 2
(aenioa 401-500 i aeey caoiaeii? aeniiceoei?) aei 18 (aenioa 1301-1400 i
aeey iiaii/ii? aeniiceoei?). Iao?e/ia iiea iiaeieaia ia 6 ?aeiiia
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi:

1 ?aeii — aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue iniaeeai aeniea. A?oie noia?ieo aaeia
2, 3.

2 ?aeii — aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue aeoaea aeniea. A?oie noia?ieo aaeia
4-6.

3 ?aeii — aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue aeniea. A?oie noia?ieo aaeia 7-9.

4 ?aeii — aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue na?aaeiy. A?oie noia?ieo aaeia 10-12.

5 ?aeii — aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue iecueea. A?oie noia?ieo aaeia 13-15.

6 ?aeii — aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue iacia/ia. A?oie noia?ieo aaeia 16-18.

Aeaeieaii ?aeiie ioiieththoue anth oa?eoi?ith iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai
iaaanoeeo. Aeno?aiieyoeiy aaiii?oieiai/ieo, einiaiieiai/ieo, a?oioiaeo i
eeiiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae ?ai?acaioiaaieo oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieo iaeanoae i
?aeiiia ia aecia/aii ?aeiie aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi aeicaieeea iaea?aeaoe
?o eiiieaenio oiceei-aaia?aoi/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo.

I?iaaaeaia ?aeiioaaiiy aia?oa aea? iiaeeeainoue ii?iaiyeueii? ioeiiee
ie?aieo oa?eoi?ie Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao ca aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoth. Oea
aiaee?eaa? oeyo aeey ?ic?iaee aeeoa?aioeieiaaieo nenoai aaaeaiiy
einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ic canoinoaaiiyi aiaeiiaiaeieo oaoiieiaie,
iai?aaeaieo ia iiaeaeuaiiy aio?iaaeinoieeinoi aea?aainoaiia i
?aoeiiiaeueia aaaeaiiy einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa a oiiaao
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/ieo oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieo eiiieaenia.

Iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy i?e?iaee aio?iaaeia, aecia/aiiy nooiaiy aieeao ia
cieaeaiiy aio?iaaeinoieeinoi ie?aieo aeaeia einiainiiaea?nueei?
aeiyeueiinoi aeicaieeei ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeieiaith i iaoiaeeeo
i?iaiicoaaiiy aio?iaaeia. Iaoiaeieiaiy aaco?oueny ia coiiaeaiinoi
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi eiie?aoiiai aea?aainoaio eiiieaeniei aieeaii
iiia?aaeiio aio?iaaeia oa aeaaaeaiii i?iaiinoe/ii? ioeiiee iiiai?iinoi
ianooiiiai aio?iaaeo oa eiai iioaineaiinoi. Na?aaeiueicaaaeaiee iieaciee
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi noeoiiinoi aea?aainoaiia aiaeiiaiaeii? oa?eoi?i?
aai ainiiaea?noaa (Eai) oa?aeoa?eco? ?aaeueio aio?iaaeiiaaacia/io
neooaoeith anio ianaaeaeaiue ia aeaiie oa?eoi?i? (S), yea i?iaiico?oueny
ye iaaeniea, aeniea, aeoaea aeniea i eaoano?ioi/ia.

Aieueo neeaaeiei ? i?iaiicoaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ainiiaea?nueei?
aeiyeueiinoi (Eai.?aa). Iioaa?iaaii oeae aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieia
iieno?oueny oi?ioeith:

Eai (S — Sae.o. — Sa.n.?. — Snooe.?.) + Eai (Sae.o. Iae.o. +
Sa.n.?.Ia.n.?. + Snooe.?. Icooe.?.)

Eai.?aa. =
————————————————————————
—————————————

S

aea:

— Sae.o., Sa.n.?., Snooe.?. — ieiui einia, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a ciii
aieeao aei?ia (o?an), aeai?eiaeo naiioa?ieo ?oaie, nooeieueieo ?oaie;

— Iae.o., Ia.n.?., Inooe.?. — iiaeaene aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi
aiaeiiaiaeieo aeaeia ainiiaea?nueei? aeiyeueiinoi.

?icaeie 9. Nenoaia i?ioeaio?iaaeueiiai caoenoo eino

O ?icaeiei iaa?oioiao?oueny no?oeoo?a ainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia, yei
neeaaeathoue nenoaio i?ioeaio?iaaeueiiai caoenoo eino. Neeaaeiaeie oei??
nenoaie ?:

— i?ioeaio?iaaeueia i?aaiicaoeiy oa?eoi?i?;

— eiiieaen einiainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia;

— einiaeiiiii/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie;

— eiiieaen caoiaeia c ?ic?iaee aio?iaaeueieo ieiu i aiaeoai?aiiy ia ieo
einiai? ?ineeiiinoi.

I?ioeaio?iaaeueia i?aaiicaoeiy oa?eoi?i? aaco?oueny ia aeaeieaiii
?aeiiia aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi. A iaaeao eiaeiiai ?aeiio i?iaiaeeoueny
aiaeic i ioeiiea ?iaiy aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi anio einiaeo aeieyiie,
o?i/eu, einieoeoa. Ia iniiai oeeo aeaieo neeaaeathoueny ieaioaoe i
ea?oe-noaie aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi oa?eoi?i? i iiaea?oueny i?iaiinoe/ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea aeieeiaiiy aio?iaaeia. I?ioeaio?iaaeueia i?aaiicaoeiy
oa?eoi?i? ? iniiaith eiiieaeno ainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia, yei
iacia/athoueny c o?aooaaiiyi nooiaiy aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi
aiaeiiaiaeiiai ?aeiio. A ?iaioi iaa?oioiaaia iiaeeeainoue aeeo/aiiy c
einiei?enooaaiiy /anoeie ieiu o ?aeiiao iiaeaeuaii?
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi e ooai?aiiy ia ?o aaci aenieiai?nueeiai
aio?icaoeniiai i?ioeaio?iaaeueiiai eaioethaa (ciie).

?aaeaiaioo?oueny canoinoaaiiy iinooiiaeo ?oaie aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy.
Aiie i?ecia/athoueny eeoa a 5-6-io ?aeiiao aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi. O
4-io ?aeiii ?o canoinoaaiiy iaaaaeaia, a a 1-3-io ?aeiiao ?
iaaeiionoeiei.

I?iaaaeaiiy aieiaieo ?oaie a 1 i 2 ?aeiiao aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi
naieoeiiio?oueny eeoa iiney niaoeiaeueiiai einiaie/i-aeiiiii/iiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o aeioeieueiinoi c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ia cieaeaiiy
aio?iaaeinoieeinoi i?eeaaeeo o?i/eu. Oe?eia eininie anoaiiaeth?oueny c
o?aooaaiiyi caa?aaeaiiy aio?iaaeinoieeinoi iaaeoth/iai einiaiai ianeao.
Aiinyoueny ciiie a oaoiieiaith nooeieueieo ?oaie, iai?aaeaieo ia
iiia?aaei? oi?ioaaiiy caoenii? ciie acaeiaae a?aieoeue eininiee.

Iiaeeeainoue canoinoaaiiy i?ioiaeieo ?oaie iaiaaeo?oueny 5 i 6 ?aeiiaie.
?ic?iaeaia iiaeeoieiaaia noaia canoinoaaiiy i?ioiaeieo ?oaie aeey
oi?ioaaiiy aio?icaoenieo oceinue acaeiaae a?aieoeue eininie iaeaooiio
nooeieueieo ?oaie. ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny ia i?iaiaeeoe aeai?eiai ?oaee o
na?aaeiueiaieiaeo, i?enoeaath/eo i noeaeeo aea?aainoaiao, oaeiae
aeeeth/a?oueny ?o iiaoi?ia i?iaaaeaiiy ia oie naiie ieiui.

Aeey oi?ioaaiiy ia?aaei aei?ia ?ic?iaey?oueny aaia?aeueiee ieai
/a?aiainoi ?o i?ieeaaeaiiy. Inoaii? neiae i?iaiaeeoe c o?aooaaiiyi
i?ioeaio?iaaeueiiai noaio aea?aainoaiia, /a?ac yei aiie aoaeooue
i?ioiaeeoe. Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny i?iaaaeaiiy iiaeaioia/eo caoiaeia, yei
caaacia/othoue iiia?aaei? oi?ioaaiiy nioa oceinue acaeiaae iaeaooiuei?
o?ane aei?ia.

I?e i?iaaaeaiii i?ioeaio?iaaeueii-aeiiiii/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
aeioeieueiinoi ?ic?iaeaiiai ieaio i?ieeaaeaiiy aei?ia aeiionea?oueny
iiaeeeainoue caieueoaiiy aeiaaeeie aei?iaeii? o?ane aiaeiinii ??
i?iaeoii? aeiaaeeie.

Ia?aaeaa/a?oueny oaeiae iiaeeoieaoeiy oaoiieiai? ?iaio i?e caeieniaiii
?oaie ia o?anao iaeaooiio iaooi-, aacii?iaiaeia i EAI.

O nenoaii i?ioeaio?iaaeueiiai caoenoo eino aaaeeeaa iinoea caeiathoue
einiaeieiai/ii caoiaee, ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi yeeo ? aeinoiai?ia
aecia/aiiy ao?ao, caaaeaieo aio?iaaeaie, oa ia/eneaiiy einiaeiiiii/ii?
aoaeoeaiinoi ie?aieo aeaeia i eiiieaeno einiainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia
uiaei caaacia/aiiy aio?iaaeinoieeinoi ianaaeaeaiue. Einiaeiiiii/ii
caoiaee ?ic?iaeythoueny ca oaeith no?oeoo?ieiai/iith noaiith
(aeai?eoiii): 1 [i?yii caeoee aiae aio?iaaeo + caaoaeueiaaii caeoee] — 2
[nooiiiue aieeao aiaeiiaiaeieo einiainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia ia ciaioaiiy
aio?iaaeueiinoi] — 3 [aeiiiii/ia ioeiiea ciaioaiiy aio?iaaeueiinoi iiney
eiaeiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai caoiaeo] — 4 [iaa?oiooaaiiy aeiiiii/ii?
aeioeieueiinoi ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oeo /e iioeo caoiaeia oa ?o oaoiieiaie] —
5 [eiiieaenia aeiiiii/ia ioeiiea nenoaie i?ioeaio?iaaeueiiai caoenoo
eino o aeaiiio ainiiaea?noai].

Einiaie/i-oaoiieiai/ii aeiiae uiaei eieaiaeaoei? ianeiaeeia aio?iaaeia
iiaeiii a?aoiaoaaoe, ui i?ioeane i?e?iaeii? ?aaaieioaoei? iioeiaeaeaieo
einiaeo ianeaia aiaeaoaathoueny oi?iaeiaae aeiaaiai ia?iiaeo /ano, yeee
aeeth/a? ciiio aeaeieueeio ianooiieo iieieiiue eino. Ooo/ia
?aaaieioaoeiy ?aaeico?oueny ia iacia/iiio aiae?iceo /ano a oiiaao
aeaoi?iiaaiiai a?oioiaiai iie?eao oa caoa?auaiinoi oa?eoi?i?. Iniiaii
caaaeaiiy i oeiei, ui noaaeyoueny i?e oeueiio iieyaathoue o i?iaaaeaiii
oaeeo caoiaeia: caaacia/aiiy ?ic?iaee i aeaacaiiy aio?iaaeueii?
aea?aaeie c iaoith ?? aeei?enoaiiy a ia?iaeiiio ainiiaea?noai; i/euaiiy
ieiui aio?iaaeo aiae caoa?auaiinoi oeaieaie aea?aaeie; noai?aiiy einiaeo
eoeueoo? a oiiaao aeaoi?iiaaii? einiaiieiai/ii? neooaoei? aeey
caaacia/aiiy i?enei?aiiai ?? aiaeiiaeaiiy; ae?iuoaaiiy aio?iaaeinoieeeo,
oeiiieo aea?aainoaiia. Oaoiieiai/ia i?iaaaeaiiy ooo/ii? ?aaaieioaoei?
iiaeiii aeeeth/aoe ?icaeoie a?ici?, ni?eyoe aeeiiaiith
einiaie/i-aeieiai/ieo aeiia uiaei caaacia/aiiy aio?iaaeinoieeinoi
ianaaeaeaiue.

AENIIAEE

1. Aio?iaaee eino a ?aeiii iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo Oe?a?inueeeo
Ea?iao ? ia?iaiaioiei noeoieiei i?ioeanii, ui ia? aaciina?aaeiie aieea
ia oi?ioaaiiy i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e einiaeo ianeaia, ?o noai i
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue.

2. Aio?iaaeiiaaacia/ii neooaoei? oi?iothoueny iiae aieeaii
aio?iaaeioai?ieo oaeoi?ia oiceei-aaia?aoi/ii?, einiaiieiai/ii? e
aio?iiiaaiii? i?e?iaee.

3. Iniiaieie aio?iaaeioai?ieie oaeoi?aie ? neeueii aio?e (15 i/n i
aieueoa) o ii?aeiaiii c iioaineaieie aoiinoa?ieie iiaaeaie o aeaeyaei
ceea /e iie?iai niiao.

4. Ai?nueea i?ia?aoiy aieeaa? ia ia?a?iciiaeie eeiiaoe/ieo oaeoi?ia —
eieueeinoue iiaaeia, neeo i iai?yiie aio?o, aeaoi?iaoeith aio?iaeo
iioieia c oi?ioaaiiyi iacino?oiaiia iiaeaeuaii? oaeaeeinoi,
oaiia?aoo?iee ?aaeei i a ca’yceo c oeei ia iiaeeoieaoeith eieaeueieo
aio?iaaeueieo neooaoeie.

5. Iaeinoioiioee aieea ia iniiaii aio?iaaeioai?ii oaeoi?e — aio?iaee
?aaeei, eieueeinoue i oa?aeoa? aeiaaeaiiy iiaaeia iathoue aenioa
iinoeaainoi iaae ?iaiai ii?y oa aeniiceoeiy noeeia, ui aea? iiaenoaao
aeey ?o aeei?enoaiiy i?e aecia/aiii ?iaiy aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi
aiaeiiaiaeii? oa?eoi?i?.

6. Iiaii/ii-noiaeiee iaaanoee Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iaiaeii?iaeieie oiceei-aaia?aoi/ieie oiiaaie (aenioith ai?nueeeo
ianeaia, iaiiaieie aeniiceoeiyie, e?ooeciith i aeiaaeeiith noeeia,
aeeaeiith ?o ?ic/eaioaaiiy), ui coiiaeth? niaoeeoi/iinoue aio?iaaeueiiai
?aaeeio caoiaeii? (Aaneeaenueei?), oeaio?aeueii? (Ai?aainueei?) i
noiaeii? (*i?iiai?i-*ea/einueei?) eiai /anoei.

7. Ic ciiiith aenioe iaae ?iaiai ii?y ciiith?oueny einenoinoue
oa?eoi?i?, i?iyaey?oueny aenioia ciiaeueiinoue ?ineeiiiai iie?eao i
a?oioia, o eiaeiie /anoeii iaaanoeeo oi?io?oueny naie aenioiee niaeo?
iiyniinoi. A onio /anoeiao iaaanoeeo iaeaieueoa eieueeinoue einia
i?eoaiaiia na?aaeiii aenioiei ?iaiyi. Iaeaieueoa eieueeinoue aio?iaaeia
cina?aaeaeaia a oaia?ioiie aio?iiiaaiiie nioci nia?aeiaeo einia.

8. Iaeiaio aio?inoieeith ii?iaeith ? yeeia cae/aeia, i?ioa aio?iaaee i
aio?ieiie ia ? ?iaeeinieie o yeeoeaaeo, ni?iaieueoiaeo i aoeiaeo einao.

9. Iieaciee ieiui aio?iaaeia aei ieiui einia (iiaeaen
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi) ? oa?aeoa?iei aeey eiaeiiai aenioiiai nooiaiy
iaaanoeeo. Caoiaeia, oeaio?aeueia i noiaeia /anoeie iaaanoeeo
aiae?iciythoueny nai?ie niaoeeoi/ieie iiaeaenaie aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi.

10. ?iciiaeie ieiui einia iaaanoeeo ca aeniiceoeiyie noeeia ?iciee:
iaiiaieie ? noeee iiaii/ii-noiaeii?, iiaaeaiii-noiaeii?,
iiaaeaiii-caoiaeii? i iiaii/ii-caoiaeii? aeniiceoeie. Iaeaieueoi
aiaeiinii ieiui aio?iaaeia o caoiaeiie /anoeii iaaanoeeo i?eiaaeathoue
ia noeee iiaaeaiii-caoiaeii? aeniiceoei?, o oeaio?aeueiie /anoeii — ia
noeee iiaaeaiii-noiaeii?, a a noiaeiie /anoeii — ia noeee
iiaaeaiii-caoiaeii? i iiaii/ii- caoiaeii? aeniiceoeie.

11. Iaeaeui iieacieee (iiaeaene) aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi o caoiaeiie
/anoeii iaaanoeeo oa?aeoa?ii aeey noeeia caoiaeii?, iiaaeaiii-caoiaeii?
oa iiaaeaiii? aeniiceoeie; o oeaio?aeueiie /anoeii — caoiaeii? i
iiaaeaiii-noiaeii?; a a noiaeiie /anoeii — iiaii/ii-caoiaeii? i
iiaaeaiii-noiaeii? aeniiceoeie.

12. Ainiiaea?nueei caoiaee — ?oaee aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy, aeai?eiai
naiioa?ii ?oaee, i?ioiaeii ?oaee i i?i?iaeaeaiiy, i?ieeaaeaiiy aei?ia i
o?an iaooi-, aacii?iaiaeia i EAI o ciiao naiai aieeao ciaioothoue
aio?iaaeinoieeinoue aea?aainoaiia. Nooiiiue caieueoaiiy
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi iiae aieeaii oeeo caoiaeia aecia/a?oueny
iiaeaenaie: nooeieueii ?oaee — 1.3; aeai?eiai naiioa?ii ?oaee — 1.6;
aei?iae — 2.7; o?ane — 2.7. Nooeieueii ?oaee i oi?ioaaiiy ia?aaei aei?ia
o ?o aca?iica’yceo ia ? aecia/aeueieie uiaei iioaineaiinoi aio?iaaeia.

13. Iiae ia’?eoaie nooeieueieo ?oaie oa iioaineaiinoth ianooiieo
aio?iaaeia caeaaeiinoue aiaenooiy. ?icii?e aio?iaaeia o ?iee c
iiaeaeuaiith aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iith neooaoei?th ia caeaaeaoue aiae
?icii?ia iiia?aaeiio nooeieueieo ?oaie, yeui inoaiii i?iaaaeaiii a
iaaeao ?ic?aooieiai? eininiee.

14. O iineyaio?iaaeueii ia?iiaee caieueoo?oueny eieueeinoue ieiu,
iaieaieo aiae aea?aainoaiia ia eeoa aianeiaeie nooeieueieo ?oaie, aea e
nooeieueieo ?ic?iaie aio?iaaeia. Ia?iaiaioiinoue aio?iaaeia coiiaeth?
iinoieia caieueoaiiy oaeeo ieiu. Ca 24-?i/iee ia?iiae iaoeo
aeineiaeaeaiue oaea caieueoaiiy o caoiaeiie /anoeii iaaanoeeo noaiiaeei
30%, oeaio?aeueiie — 14%, noiaeiie — 10%, c iaeneiaeueieie cia/aiiyie a
ia?iiaee 1980-1986, 1986-1992 ?ieia.

15. Aeai?eiai naiioa?ii ?oaee ia caaacia/othoue cieaeaiiy nooiaiy
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi aea?aainoaiia. Iiney oeeo ?oaie aea?aainoaie
iathoue o neeaaei iaioee aiaenioie yeeie, iaioo iiaiioo, iaioee aie
ii?iaiyiii c aeieyieaie, ia yeeo naiioa?ii ?oaee ia i?iaiaeeeeny.
Caaaeii, aeai?eiai naiioa?ii ?oaee ni?eythoue a ianooiii
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/ii ia?iiaee iineeaiith /anoeiaeo aio?iaaeia, a iiciioa
cieuaiith oaeeo eininoaiia nooeieueieie aio?iaaeaie.

16. Iiae aonoioith ia?aaei einiaeo aei?ia oa ianyaii ianooiieo
aio?iaaeia caeaaeiinoue aiaenooiy. Aiaeiinia caieueoaiiy eieueeinoi
aei?ia niinoa?iaa?oueny a ?iee iiney aio?iaaeia.

17. I?ieeaaeaiiy o?an iaooi-, aacii?iaiaeia i EAI caieueoo?
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoue o ciiao ?o aieeao, ui neiae a?aoiaoaaoe iiae /an
oaoiiei-aeiiiii/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o aoaeiaieoeoaa.

18. I?ioiaeii ?oaee i i?i?iaeaeaiiy ciaioothoue aio?iaaeinoieeinoue
aea?aainoaiia. O ?aci i?iyao aio?iaaeiiaaacia/ieo neooaoeie o ianooiii
iiney ?o i?iaaaeaiiy ?iee ai?iaiaeiinoue aio?iaaeia ia oeeo ieiuao
caieueoo?oueny.

19. Ia iniiai aiaeico i?inoi?iai? niaoeeoiee, oiceei-aaia?aoi/ii?
coiiaeaiiinoi oa aio?iiiaaiii? iioaineoieaoei? aio?iaaeia, a oaeiae ca
aeiiiiiaith aecia/aiiy eiaoioei?ioia aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi ia
aeineiaeaeoaaiie oa?eoi?i? aeaeieaii oinoue ?aeiiia
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi.

20. Einiaa ainiiaea?noai a oiiaao iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo
Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao iiaeiii aeeth/aoe nenoaio i?aaiicaoeieieo
ainiiaea?nueeeo oa aeiiiii/ieo caoiaeia, a yeeo a?aoiaaia ?aeiiia
niaoeeoiea aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi, nooiiiue aio?iiiaaiiiai cieaeaiiy
aio?iaaeinoieeinoi aea?aainoaiia oa einiaie/i-aeiiiii/ia aeioeieueiinoue
i?iaaaeaiiy oeo /e iioeo i?ioeaio?iaaeueieo caoiaeia.

I?IIICEOeI? AE?IAIEOeOAO

1. C iaoith iiia?aaeaeaiiy aio?iaaeia i ciaioaiiy aiae ieo caeoeia ia
iiaii/ii-noiaeiiio iaaanoeei Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao iaiaoiaeii: ia iniiai
?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi?i? ca iciaeaie aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi ai?iaaaeeoe
nenoaio aaaeaiiy einiaiai ainiiaea?noaa, ui caaacia/o? cieaeaiiy i?iyao
aio?iaaeueieo noeoie.

2. Aecia/aiiy ianyao ?ic?aooieiai? eininiee neiae i?iaiaeeoe c
o?aooaaiiyi eieueeinoi aea?aaeie, ui iaaeoiaeeoue c aio?iaaeueieo ieiu.

3. O aenieiai?nueeeo ?aeiiao c iiaeaeuaiith aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoth
aeeo/eoe c aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy oi ieiui, yei iiaeooue aeeiioaaoe
ooieoei? aio?iaaeicaoenieo nioa.

4. Iiae /an ieaioaaiiy aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy a ia?oo /a?ao aiaeaiaeeoe
iiae nooeieueii ?oaee c?iaeaeaii oa iecueeiiiaiioii aea?aainoaie. C
iaoith iiia?aaeaeaiiy aio?iaaeiiaaacia/ieo neooaoeie, aeiioneaoe
aiaeaaaeaiiy iiae nooeieueio ?oaeo iecueeiiiaiioieo aea?aainoaiia o
aioei ia 10% ieae/iio aiae i?eeiyoiai aieo aieiaii? ?oaee.

5. Aecia/aiiy oe?eie eininie nooeieueieo ?oaie i?iaiaeeoe c o?aooaaiiyi
ciie ?o aieeao ia cieaeaiiy aio?iaaeinoieeinoi noiiaeieo aea?aainoaiia.

6. Iaiaaeeoe canoinoaaiiy iinooiiaeo ?oaie aieiaiiai ei?enooaaiiy a
?aeiiao c aenieei ?iaiai aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi.

7. Ia?aaeyiooe e?eoa?i? aeioeieueiinoi i?iaaaeaiiy aeai?eiaeo naiioa?ieo
?oaie i cieceoe ?iaaiue nooiaiy o?aaeaiinoi, ca yeiai i?ecia/athoueny
nooeieueii naiioa?ii ?oaee.

8. Aeeo/eoe c eaoaai?i? nooeieueieo naiioa?ieo ?oaie aiaeaaaeaiiy oa
iaeie ?ic?iaie nooeieueieo aio?iaaeia.

9. I?eieieoe i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioiaeieo ?oaie o ?aeiiao c iaeaieueo aenieei
?iaiai aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi (I-III).

10. ?icoe?aiiy ia?aaei aei?ia i?iaiaeeoe ia iiaenoaai aaia?aeueiiai
(ia?niaeoeaiiai) ieaio c aecia/aiiyi ia?oi/a?aiai? ?? ?icaoaeiae ia
iaeiaio aio?iaaeiiaaacia/ieo oa?eoi?iyo.

11. I?ieeaaeaiiy o?an aeey aoaeiaieoeoaa aei?ia i?iaiaeeoe eeoa iiney
iiia?aaeiueiai oi?ioaaiiy acaeiaae ieo aio?iaaeinoieeeo oceinue.

12. O ?aci aiaeaiaeo oa?eoi?ie iiae iaooi-, aacii?iaiaee i EAI
aiaeoeiaeiaoaaoe caeoee, ui oi?iothoueny aianeiaeie cieaeaiiy
aio?iaaeinoieeinoi noiiaeieo einiaeo ianeaia.

13. Noai?eoe nenoaio iiiioi?eiao aio?iaaeia c ioiieaiiyi oeieiai
iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao.

INIIAII IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOeI? AEEEAAeAII A OAEEO ?IAIOAO:

1. Eaeooeueeee I.O. Aio?iaaee ia iiaii/ii-noiaeiiio iae?inoeei a
Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iaoao. — Eueaia: «Eiiiaiiy «Iaione?eio», 1998. — 204 n.

2. Eaeiiii I.I., Eaeooeueeee I.O., Iaaithe A.I. Aio?iaaee a ai?nueeeo oa
ia?aaeai?nueeeo ?aaiiiao Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao. — Eueaia: «Eiiiaiiy
«Iaione?eio», 1998. — 208 n.

3. Eaeooeueeee I.O., Iaaithe A.I. Aeayei aniaeoe i?e?iaee aio?iaaeia (ia
i?eeeaaei einia Aeaeyoeinueeiai einieiiaiiaoo). — Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO,
1994. — 12 n.

4. Eaeooeueeee I.O. Aieea aio?iaaeia ia ciiio ni?oeiaioii? no?oeoo?e
aea?aainoaiia // Iaoeiaee ainiee: Ca. iaoe.-oaoi. i?. — Einiaieoeueei
aeineiaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?ii. — Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO, 1996. — Aei. 5. — N.
114-117.

5. Eaeooeueeee I.O. Aieea aeai?eiaeo naiioa?ieo ?oaie ia
aio?iaaeueiinoue eino a oiiaao iiaii/ii-noiaeiiai iaaanoeeo Oe?a?inueeeo
Ea?iao // Iaoeiaee ainiee: Ca. iaoe.-oaoi. i?. — Einiaieoeueei
aeineiaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?ii. — Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO, 1996. — Aei. 5. — N.
117-121.

6. Eaeooeueeee I.O. Aieea einiaeo aei?ia ia aio?iaaeueiinoue eino //
Iaoeiaee ainiee: Ca. iaoe.-oaoi. i?. — Einiaieoeueei aeineiaeaeaiiy a
Oe?a?ii. — Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO, 1996. — Aei. 5. — N. 121-124.

7. Eaeooeueeee I.O. Ia?iaiaioiinoue i i?iaiicoaaiiy aio?iaaeia //
Iaoeiaee ainiee: Ca. iaoe.-oaoi. i?. — Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO, 1997. — Aei. 7.
— N. 18-22.

8. Eaeooeueeee I.O. Aieea aoaeiaieoeoaa aei?ia oa iioeo ainiiaea?nueeeo
caoiaeia ia aio?iaaeueiinoue eino a Ea?iaoao // Iaoeiaee ainiee: Ca.
iaoe.-oaoi. i?. — Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO, 1998. — Aei. 9. — N. 6-11.

9. Eaeooeueeee I.O. Iiaa eiioeaioeiy aecia/aiiy aeieiai-aeiiiii/iiai
cia/aiiy aio?iaaeia // I?aoei iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ii. O.A.Oaa/aiea.
Aeieiai/iee cai?iee. — Eueaia, 1999. — O. 3. — N. 132-135.

10. Eaeooeueeee I.O. Aio?iaaee a Ea?iaoao i oaoiieiaiy ?ic?iaee
aio?iaaeueii? aea?aaeie // Iaoeiaee ainiee: Ca. iaoe.-oaoi. i?. —
Einiaee eiiieaen iaia?aaeiaeii XXI noieiooy: inaioa, iaoea,
ae?iaieoeoai. — Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO, 1999. — Aei. 9.6. — N. 49-52.

11. Iaaithe A.I., Eaeooeueeee I.O., Eaeiiii I.I. Iniaeeainoi oi?ioaaiiy
aio?iaaeia o einao Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao // Iaoeiaee ainiee: Ca.
iaoe.-oaoi. i?. — No/ania aeieiaiy i i?iaeaie noaeiai ?icaeoeo
noniieuenoaa. — Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO, 1999. — Aei. 9.7. — N. 200-205.

12. Eaeooeueeee I.O., Iaaithe A.I. Iniaeeainoi aieeao aenioe iinoeaainoi
iaae ?iaiai ii?y ia oi?ioaaiiy aio?iaaeia eino // Iaoeiaee ainiee: Ca.
iaoe.-oaoi. i?. — Aeineiaeaeaiiy, ioi?iia oa caaaa/aiiy aii?iciiiaiiooy.
— Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO, 1999. — Aei. 9.9. — N. 223-226.

13. Iaaithe A.I., Eaeooeueeee I.O. Aio?iaaee eino a Ai?aaiao // Iaoeiaee
ainiee: Ca. iaoe.-oaoi. i?. — Aeineiaeaeaiiy, ioi?iia oa caaaa/aiiy
aii?iciiiaiiooy. — Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO, 1999. — Aei. 9.9. — N. 227-229.

14. Eaeooeueeee I.O., Iaaithe A.I. Aei ieoaiiy i?i ia?iiaee/iinoue
aio?iaaeia eino a Ea?iaoao // Iaoeiaee ainiee: Ca. iaoe.-oaoi. i?. —
Einiaieoeueei aeineiaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?ii. — Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO, 1999. — Aei.
9.10. — N. 123-127.

15. Eaeooeueeee I.O. Iaoiaeeea aeieiai-aeiiiii/ii? ioeiiee aio?iaaeia //
Iaoeiaee ainiee Iaoeiiiaeueiiai aa?a?iiai oiiaa?neoaoo: Ca. iaoe.-oaoi.
i?. — Einiaieoeoai. — E.: IAO, 1999. — Aei. 17. — N. 97-101.

16. Eaeooeueeee I.O. I?iaiicoaaiiy aio?iaaeia // Einiaee i ieneeanueeee
aeo?iae. — 1999. — ?1. — N. 15.

17. Eaeooeueeee I.O. Aieea iae?iaoiinoa?ieo yaeu ia aio?iaaeueiinoue
eino // Einiaee i ieneeanueeee aeo?iae. — 1999. — ?2-3. — N. 22.

18. Eaeooeeee E.O. Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey yeiiiiee nu?ueaauo,
iaoa?eaeueiuo e oiieeaii-yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia a Auaiaeneii
eanieiiaeiaoa // Oacenu aeieeaaeia iao/.-oaoi. eiio. «Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee
i?ia?ann e oaoie/aneia ia?aaii?oaeaiea i?aaei?eyoee eaniie e
aea?aaiia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe a XII iyoeeaoea». —
Eaaii-O?aieiane: IEOE. — 1987. — N. 143-144.

19. Eaeooeueeee I.O. Cia/aiiy einiainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia o oi?ioaaiii
aio?iaaeia eino // Oace iiaeia?. eiio. «I?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo
einiaie/i? inaioe, iaoee oa ae?iaieoeoaa». — Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO. — 1999. —
N. 64.

20. Eaeooeueeee I.O., Iaaithe A.I. Aio?iaaeueiinoue aea?aainoaiia a
iniiaieo oeiao eino Ai?aai // Oace iiaeia?. eiio. «I?iaeaie oa
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo einiaie/i? inaioe, iaoee oa ae?iaieoeoaa». —
Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO. — 1999. — N. 65.

21. Eaeooeueeee I.O., Iaaithe A.I. I?iaeaie einiaiaeiiaeaiiy ia
aio?iaaeueii-ao?aeiiieo ieiuao // Oace iiaeia?. eiio. «I?iaeaie oa
ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo einiaie/i? inaioe, iaoee oa ae?iaieoeoaa». —
Eueaia: Oe?AeEOO. — 1999. — N. 65-66.

22. Eaeooeeee E.O., Eaaithe A.I. Aeeyiea nieioiuo ?oaie, i?ioiaeiuo
?oaie e i?i?aaeeaaiee ia aao?iaaeueiinoue eana // Iaoa?eaeu Ana?inn.
iao/.-oaoi. eiio. «Iiauoaiea oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy iaoei eaniiai
eiiieaena». — Ai?iiaae. — 1999. — N. 30-33.

Eaeooeueeee I.O. Aio?iaaee ia iiaii/ii-noiaeiiio iae?inoeei Oe?a?inueeeo
Ea?iao. ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 06. 03. 03 —
einiciaanoai i einiaieoeoai. — Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee einioaoii/iee
oiiaa?neoao, Eueaia, 1999.

Aio?iaaee eino caaaeathoue cia/ieo caeoeia einiaiio ainiiaea?noao
Oe?a?ie. Iniiaii i?e?iaeii oaeoi?e, yei aeeeeeathoue oea noeoieia eeoi —
neeueii aio?e a ii?aeiaiii c iioaineaieie iiaaeaie. A oiiaao ai?nueei?
i?ia?aoi? aio?iaee ?aaeei aeaoi?io?oueny iiae aieeaii iai?yieia
ai?nueeeo o?aaoia. Eieueeinoue i oa?aeoa? aoiinoa?ieo iiaaeia
ciiith?oueny caeaaeii aiae aenioe i aeniiceoei? noeeia.

Noeoiiinoue ?icieo ?iaiia iiaeaenia aio?iaaeueiinoi aenio i aeniiceoeie
aecia/eea a?aaeaoei? ?aeiiia aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi. Aeaeieaii i iienaii
6 ?aeiiia aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi.

I?iaaaeaia ?aeiioaaiiy aia?oa aeaei iiaeeeainoue ii?iaiyeueii? ioeiiee
ie?aieo oa?eoi?ie Oe?a?inueeeo Ea?iao ca ?o aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoth, ui
caaacia/o? aiaeiiaiaeio aeeoa?aioeiaoeith nenoai einiei?enooaaiiy.
Aeeiiaii a oeueiio aniaeoi aeineiaeaeaiiy aieeao iniiaieo
einiainiiaea?nueeeo caoiaeia iieacaee, ui aio?iaaeinoieeinoue
aea?aainoaiia o ciii ?o aieeao cieaeo?oueny ia 40-70%.

Eeth/iai neiaa: aio?iaaee eino, oaeoi?e, ?aeiioaaiiy
aio?iaaeiiaaacia/iinoi, i?iaiicoaaiiy, nenoaia caoiaeia.

Calutscy I.F. Windfalls on North-Eastern macroslope in Ukrainian
Carpathian mountains. Manuscript.

Dissertation on the defence of the scientific degree of a Doctor of
agricultural sciences on the speciality 06. 03. 03 — Forest Science and
Sylviculture. — Ukrainian State University of Forestry and Wood
Technology, Lviv, 1999.

Windfalls in forests make significant harm to forest industry of
Ukraine. The main natural factors which are causing this disaster are
strong winds in combination with strong precipitation. Under conditions
of mountainous orography the wind regime is deformted by directions of
mountain ridges and altitude. Amount and character of precipitation
differ by height and slope exposition.

Combination of different levels of windfall indines of heights and
expositions identified levels of windfall areas. It was shown and
described 6 areas of windfall incidence.

The regionalisation has allowed, for the first time, to compare some
territories of Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains by their windfall
incidence, which will make possible differentiation of forest
management. The researches of influence of main forestry measures have
showed that stand windfall resistance in zone of their influence
deminishes up to 40-70%.

Key words: windfalls in forests, factors, regionalisation of windfall
incidence, prognostication, system of measures.

Eaeooeeee E.O. Aao?iaaeu ia naaa?i-ainoi/iii iae?ineeiia Oe?aeineeo
Ea?iao. ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06. 03. 03 — eaniaaaeaiea e eaniaiaenoai,
Oe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue eanioaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eueaia, 1999.

Aao?iaaeu eania iaiinyo cia/eoaeueiue oua?a eaniiio oicyenoao Oe?aeiu e
ae?oaeo ainoaea?noa a i?aaeaeao oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneie iaeanoe Ea?iao.
Aao?iaaeiiianiua neooaoeee oi?ie?othony iiae aeeyieai eiiieaeniiai
aeaenoaey i?ia?aoe/aneeo, iaoai?ieiae/aneeo, eaniaeieiae/aneeo,
aio?iiiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia. Iniiaiua i?e?iaeiua oaeoi?u aucuaathuea yoi
noeoeeiia aaaenoaea — neeueiua aao?u a ni/aoaiee n iaeeueiuie inaaeeaie.
A oneiaeyo ai?iie i?ia?aoee aao?iaie ?aaeei aeaoi?ie?oaony iiae aeeyieai
iai?aaeaiee ai?iuo o?aaoia e auniou ianoiiieiaeaiey oa??eoi?ee.
Eieee/anoai e oa?aeoa? aoiinoa?iuo inaaeeia eciaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io
auniou e yeniiceoeee neeiiia. Aeaiiia iieiaeaiea iicaieeei a ea/anoaa
iniiaiuo aao?iaaeiii?aaeaeythueo oaeoi?ia ?anniao?eaaoue aunioo
ianoiinoe iaae o?iaiai ii?y e yeniiceoeeth neeiiia.

Naaa?i-ainoi/iue iae?ineeii Oe?aeineeo Ea?iao oa?aeoa?ece?oaony
?acee/iuie oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeie oneiaeyie (aunioie ai?iuo o?aaoia,
yeniiceoeeyie, e?ooeciie e aeeeiie neeiiia), /oi iaoneaaeeaaao
niaoeeoe/iinoue aao?iaaeueiiai ?aaeeia caiaaeiie (Aaneeaeneie),
oeaio?aeueiie (Ai?aaineie) e ainoi/iie (*a?iiai?i-*ea/eineie) aai
/anoae. Auiieiaiiia eiaeaene?iaaiea eioaineaiinoe aao?iaaeueiinoe
auyaeei iaee/ea oaniie ei?aeyoeeiiiie nayce iaaeaeo aunioie iaae o?iaiai
ii?y e eiaeaenaie aao?iaaeiiianiinoe. Caaeneiinoue ai?ieneie?oaony
o?aaiaieai ia?aaieu aoi?iai ii?yaeea e eiaao iniaaiiinoe aeey eaaeaeie
oa??eoi?eaeueiie /anoe ?aaeiia. Caoeene?iaaiu aeinoiaa?iua iieacaoaee
caaeneiinoe eiaeaeia aao?iaaeueiinoe io yeniiceoeee neeiiia.

Ni/aoaiea ?aciuo o?iaiae eiaeaenia aao?iaaeueiinoe aunio e yeniiceoeee
ii?aaeaeeei a?aaeaoeee ?aeiiia aao?iaaeiiianiinoe. Auaeaeaii oanoue
?aeiiia a i?aaeaeao io ?aeiia n iniaaiii aunieie aao?iaaeiiianiinoueth e
?aeiio n iacia/eoaeueiie aao?iaaeiiianiinoueth. Auaeaeaiiua ?aeiiu
ioaaouaatho anth oa??eoi?eth naaa?i-ainoi/iiai iae?ineeiia.
Yeno?aiieyoeey aaiii?oieiae/aneeo, eaniaeieiae/aneeo, ii/aaiiuo e
eeeiaoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae i?aaenoaaeaiiuo oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeo
iaeanoae e ?aeiiia ia ii?aaeaeaiiua ?aeiiu aao?iaaeiiianiinoe iicaieeea
iieo/eoue eo eiiieaenioth oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo.

Auiieiaiiua n i?eiaiaieai iaoiaea eiaeaenaoeee enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey
iniiaiuo eanioicyenoaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee (nieioiuo, /anoe/iuo naieoa?iuo,
i?ioiaeiuo ?oaie, no?ieoaeuenoaa aei?ia, i?ieeaaeee eeiee
yeaeo?iia?aaea/, iaooa- e aacii?iaiaeia) iieacaee, /oi
aao?iaaeionoie/eainoue ae?aainoiaa a ciia eo aeeyiey nieaeaaony.
Noaiaiue oaaee/aiey aao?iaaeiiianiinoe iiae aeeyieai yoeo ia?ii?eyoee
ii?aaeaeyaony eiaeaenaie: nieioiua ?oaee — 1.3; /anoe/iua naieoa?iua
?oaee — 1.6; i?ioiaeiua ?oaee — 1.4; aei?iae — 2.7; o?anu — 2.7.

Eco/aiea i?e?iaeu aao?iaaeia, ii?aaeaeaiea noaiaie aeeyiey ia nieaeaiea
aao?iaaeionoie/eainoe ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia eanioicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe iicaieeee ?ac?aaioaoue iaoiaeieiaeth e iaoiaeeeo
i?iaiice?iaaiey aao?iaaeia.

I?iaaae?iiia ?aeiie?iaaiea aia?aua aeaei aiciiaeiinoue n?aaieoaeueiie
ioeaiee ioaeaeueiuo oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeineeo Ea?iao ii eo
aao?iaaeiiianiinoe, /oi iaania/eaaao aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth nenoai
eaniiieueciaaiey e i?eiaiaiea niioaaonoaothueo oaoiieiaee, iai?aaeaiiuo
ia iiauoaiea aao?iaaeionoie/eainoe ae?aainoiaa e ?aoeeiiaeueiia aaaeaiea
eaniiai oicyenoaa a oneiaeyo aao?iaaeiiianiuo oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeo
eiiieaenia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aao?iaaeu eana, oaeoi?u, ?aeiie?iaaiea
aao?iaaeiiianiinoe, i?iaiice?iaaiea, nenoaia ia?ii?eyoee.

Iiaeienaii aei ae?oeo c aioiaeo aeiaiiceoeaia 14.09.99 ?.

Oi?iao 6084/16. Iaii? ionaoi. ?1. Aa?iioo?a SchoolBook.

Ionaoiee ae?oe. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 2. Oiiai. oa?aiaiae. 2.

Iae. aeae. a?e. 1,74. Cai. ? 171.

Ae?oea?iy OcIA «Nieaei»

i. Eueaia, aoe. Eiia?iiea, 11.

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