IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

O?CEEI-IAOAI?*IEE ?INOEOOO ?i. A.A. EA?IAIEA

NEAeI?

Iao?i sseeiiae/

OAeE 626.194: 621.797: 621.793.7

AENIEIOAIIA?AOO?IA aoiiia i?OeI?NOUe

OEOAIIAEO NIEAA?A O AIAeIEO

NA?AAeIAEUAO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.02.01 – iaoa??aeiciaanoai

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o O?ceei-iaoai?/iiio ?inoeooo? ?i. A.A. Ea?iaiea IAI
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ieeeoi?/ei A?eai??e
Ieeieaeiae/, O?ceei-iaoai?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. A.A. Ea?iaiea IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ei?ic?eii-aiaeiaai? aeaa?aaeaoe?? oa caoenoo
iaoa??ae?a, i. Euea?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaae??ei A?eoi?
Ieeieaeiae/, O?ceei-iaoai?/iee ?inoeooo ?i.A.A. Ea?iaiea IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? i?oeiino? eiino?oeoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a, i. Euea?a, eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Ao?ae ?ai?
Aieiaeeie?iae/, Oa?iii?euenueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
?. Ioethy, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aa?noaoi?ino?oiaioaeueieo nenoai
aaoiiaoeciaaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaoai?ei-oaoiieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo, i.
Oa?iii?eue.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oaoiieia?/iee oi?aa?neoao Iiae?eey, eaoaae?a
oaoiieia?? ? onoaoeoaaiiy a?aeiiaeaiiy oa i?aeaeuaiiy ciinino?eeino?
aeaoaeae iaoei oa eiino?oeoe?e iaoai?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo, i.
Oiaeueieoeueeee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 24 » aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 16-30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.226.02 o
O?ceei-iaoai?/iiio ?inoeooo? ?i. A.A. Ea?iaiea IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
290601, i. Euea?a, INI, aoe. Iaoeiaa, 5.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? O?ceei-iaoai?/iiai
?inoeoooo ?i. A.A. Ea?iaiea IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 290601, i. Euea?a,
INI, aoe. Iaoeiaa, 5.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “ 23 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ieeeoi?/ei A.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Oeoaiia? nieaae oe?iei aeei?enoi-

aothoueny a aa?aeini?/i?e, noaeiiaoae?ai?e, o?i?/i?e, aia?aaoe/i?e

oa ?ioeo aaeocyo i?iieneiaino?, eiee iniaeeai aaaeeeaeie ?

aeniea ieoiia i?oei?noue oa ei?ic?eia o?eae?noue iaoa??aeo.

?acii c oei iaiao?aeiei ? ii?aeiaiiy i?aeaeuaieo iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae
iaoa??ae?a c? o?eae?noth ?o i?ioe ei?ic?eii-

iaoai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy, a oiio /ene? a oiiaao oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy.
Aeey aenieii?oeieo oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a iniaeeai

aeooaeueiei ? caaacia/aiiy aenieiai iii?o iioe?aiith

o??ueie. Ca?aene i?e ae??oaii? i?iaeaie iioei?caoe?? ?o

no?oeoo?iiai noaio iaiao?aeii eiiieaenii a?aoiaoaaoe

oa?aeoa?enoeee ? ca?iaeaeaiiy, ? iioe?aiiy o??uei.

A caaaeueiiio aaaaea?oueny, ui oeoaiia? nieaae neaai /ooeea?

aei a?eueoino? ei?ic?eieo na?aaeiaeu a oiiaao oeeee?/iiai

iaaaioaaeaiiy. ?acii c oei caeiiii??iino? iii?o oeeo

iaoa??ae?a ei?ic?ei?e aoii? ca i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo? aea/ai?
iaaeinoaoiuei, iacaaaeath/e ia iniaeea? ia?niaeoeae ?o

aeei?enoaiiy a aia?aaoe/iiio iaoeiiaoaeoaaii?. Ine?eueee ca

oiia o?eaaei? aenieoaoaoe?? a aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeuao iiaeeeaa
iaaiaeithaaiiy iaoa??ae?a, aaaeeeaei ? a?aooaaiiy ? aeaiiai

/eiieea i?e ioe?ioe? ?o ei?ic?eii-aoiiii? i?oeiino?. C ?ioiai

aieo a?aeiii, ui i?iaeaie ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/ii? i?oeiino? ?

aiaeiaai? e?eoeino? ? iniaeeai aino?eie noiniaii caa?ieo

c’?aeiaiue oa ca iayaiino? eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oaeaiue.

Iaoa ?iaioe. Anoaiiaeoe iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aoiiii? oa
ei?ic?eii-aoiiii? i?oeiino? ?yaeo oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a oa ?o

caa?ieo oa?a noiniaii aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo oiia aenieoaoaoe??
aia?aaoe/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae no?oeoo?ii-

iaoaeo?a?eiiai /eiieea, oeio aa?aneaieo na?aaeiaeu oa

iayaiino? eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oaeaiue.

Iinoaaeaio iaoo aeinyaaee ae??oaiiyi ianooiieo caaaeaiue:

1. Aeine?aeeoe aoiiio i?oei?noue aenieii?oeiiai nieaao AO-8 ia

noaae?yo ca?iaeaeaiiy oa iioe?aiiy o??uei a caeaaeiino? a?ae

aeaeo ai?y/i? aeaoi?iaoe?? caaio?aie oa ?aaeei?a oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee.

2. Anoaiiaeoe iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? aeo?eaaeino?
a-nieaa?a oeoaio oa ?o caa?ieo oa?a a ei?ic?eieo na?aaeiaeuao ??ciiai
neeaaeo, a oaeiae ?c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oaeaiue.

3. Aeynieoe iniaeeaino? aieeao iiia?aaeiueiai iaaiaeithaaiiy

ia aenieioaiia?aoo?io ei?ic?eii-aoiiio i?oei?noue oeoaiiaeo

nieaa?a ? ?oi?o caa?ieo oa?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Aeyaeaii, ui ??aiia?nia

ae??aiica?ienoa no?oeoo?a oeoaiiaiai nieaao AO-8

oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei iii?ii aaaaoioeeeeia?e aoii?, i?ioa

e aenieith /ooeea?noth aei eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oaeaiue ? iecueeei

iii?ii oeeee?/i?e o??ueiino?eeino?. Anoaiiaeaii

caeiiii??i?noue iiieaeaiiy aenioaiia?aoo?ii? ei?ic?eii-

aoiiii? i?oeiino? a-nieaa?a oeoaio a ?ic/eiao oei?eae?a ?c

ca?eueoaiiyi /anoioe oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ca iayaiino? iaoai?/iiai
eiioeaio?aoi?a iai?oaeaiue /e caa?ieo oa?a.

Iieacaii, ui iaeneiaeueia ao?aoa aoiiii? i?oeiino? a-nieaa?a

oeoaio a aiaeieo ?ic/eiao eoa?a ae?aiaciio eiioeaio?aoe?e 1…10%
aeinyaa?oueny ca 1% NaOH. Anoaiiaeaii iiceoeaiee aieea iiia?aaeiueiai
iaaiaeithaaiiy a iaeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo (~ 0,03 ian.

% I) ia ei?ic?eii-aoiiio i?oei?noue caa?ieo oa?a oeoaiiaeo

nieaa?a.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeaii i?ea?iaeuei?

iaoiaeeee ? iaeaaeiaiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/ii?

i?oeiino? iaoa??ae?a a aiae? ? ia?? ca i?aeaeuaieo oaiia?aoo? ?

oene?a. Iiaoaeiaaii e?iaoe/i? ae?aa?aie aoiiiiai ?oeioaaiiy ?

e?ea? aeo?eaaeino? ?yaeo oeoaiiaeo a-nieaa?a oa ?o caa?ieo

oa?a noiniaii aenieioaiia?aoo?ieo oiia aenieoaoaoe??

aia?aaoe/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy. Aeaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii iioei?caoe??
oa?iiiaoai?/ii? ia?iaee nieaao AO-8, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny

i?e aeaioiaeaii? aeaoaeae aa?aoe?eieo aeaeaoi?a. Io?eiaii oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeo?eaaeino? nieaa?a IO-7I, 27, IO-3A ? ?o

caa?ieo c’?aeiaiue a caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo aiaeith ? neeaaeo

ei?ic?eiiai na?aaeiaeua, ye? eyaee, ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia, a

iniiao ?ic?aooieo iaae?eiino? oa aeiaaia?/iino? niaoe?aeueiiai
aia?aaoe/iiai iaeaaeiaiiy.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. I?iaaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aoiiii? oa ei?ic?eii-aoiiii? i?oeiino?

aeine?aeaeoaaieo oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a oa ?o caa?ieo oa?a a

ei?ic?eieo na?aaeiaeuao ??ciiai neeaaeo, a oaeiae ?c

o?aooaaiiyi ?o iiia?aaeiueiai iaaiaeithaaiiy. I?iaiae?ciaaii

aieea ?aaeei?a oa?i?/ii? oa oa?iiiaoai?/ii? ia?iaee ia

aeo?eaae?noue oa oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue aenieii?oeiiai

nieaao AO-8. Aeyaeaii ?iaa?n?th aieeao /anoioe oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy
ia aenieioaiia?aoo?io aeo?eaae?noue nieaao IO-

7I a ?ic/eiao oei?eae?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaea?eueo

iaaacia/ieie c oi/ee ci?o ao?aoe aenieioaiia?aoo?ii?

ei?ic?eii-aoiiii? aeo?eaaeino? oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a ? ?ic/eie ?c ai?noii
eoao ~ 1%.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia III Anan. nai. «Aiaei?iae a iaoaeeao» (Aeiiaoeuee,

1982), VI I?aei. eiia?an? «Aoiia-96» (Aa?e?i, 1996) oa ia IV

I?aei. eiioa?aioe??-aenoaaoe? «I?iaeaie ei?ic?? oa i?ioeei?i-

c?eiiai caoenoo eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a» (Euea?a, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe aeeeaaeaii a 6

ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c?

anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo e?oa?aoo?ieo

aeaea?ae (247 iaeiaioaaiue) ? aeiaeaoeo. Caaaeueiee ianya noaiiaeoue

176 noi??iie ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, a oiio /ene? 93 ?enoiee, 15

oaaeeoeue.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaai?

iaoa ?iaioe, iaoeiaa iiaecia oa ?? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeaii ei?ioeee aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo

aeaea?ae ?c i?iaeaie aeo?eaaeino? oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a. Iniaeeaa

oaaaa i?eae?eaia ?o ei?ic?eii-aoiii?e aeo?eaaeino?, a oaeiae

aieeao iaaiaeithaaiiy ia iaoai?/i? oa aoiii? oa?aeoa?enoeee

oeeo iaoa??ae?a. Ia aac? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co o a?aeiia?aeiino? c

iaoith ?iaioe noi?ioeueiaaii caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeaia noenea oa?aeoa?enoeea

aeine?aeaeoaaieo nieaa?a, aeeeaaeaii aenia?eiaioaeuei? iaoiaeeee.
Aei?iaiaoaaee aenieii?oeiee nieaa AO-8 a ??cieo no?oeoo?ii-iaoaeo?a?eieo
noaiao oa ?yae a?aeiaeaieo a-nieaa?a: IO-7I, IO-

3A oa 27 (sA = 550, 990 oa 700 IIa a?aeiia?aeii). Nieaa AO-8
aeine?aeaeoaaee i?ney 5-oe ??cieo ?aaeei?a aa?y/i? aeaoi?iaoe?? ?
oa?iiia?iaee caaio?aie (AE130o210ii): 1 — a?eueia eoaaiiy c?

ci?iith iai?yieo aeaoi?iaoe?? (I210?I140®I210) a b-iaeano?

i?e 1050 °N c aeo?eieith i?e 970 °N i?ioyaii 1 aiae ? 2 aiae i?e

550 °N, ioieiaeaeaiiy ia iia?o??; 2 — inaaeaeaiiy (I210?190) a b-

iaeano? i?e 1050 °N, aeo?eiea 1 aiae i?e 920 °N, ioieiaeaeaiiy

ia iia?o??, aeo?eiea 2 aiae i?e 550 °N, ioieiaeaeaiiy ia iia?o??;

3 — inaaeaeaiiy (I210?I90) a (a+b)-iaeano? a?ae 980 °N, aeo?eiea

8 aiae i?e 970 °N ? 2 aiae i?e 550 °N, ioieiaeaeaiiy ia iia?o??; 4 —
ooaiioaaiiy (AE350o35 ii) a (a+b)-iaeano? a?ae 980 °N,

aeo?eiea 8 aiae i?e 970 °N, ioieiaeaeaiiy ia iia?o??, aeo?eiea

2 aiae i?e 550 °N, ioieiaeaeaiiy ia iia?o??; 5 — ooaiioaaiiy

(AE350o35 ii) a (a+b)-iaeano? a?ae 980 °N, aeo?eiea 8 aiae i?e

970 °N, ioieiaeaeaiiy a ia/? aei 550 °N, aeo?eiea 2 aiae,

ioieiaeaeaiiy ia iia?o??.

O aeiaaeeo aei?iaoaaiue caa?ieo c’?aeiaiue iaoae oaa

ioiiethaaa ?iai/o /anoeio c?ace?a ? aoa ?c oiai iaoa??aeo, ui e iniiaiee
iaoae.

Ii?? iaeioeeeeia?e aoii? ia iia?o?? aecia/aee ia ieineeo

c?aceao neiao?e/iei caeiii /anoioith 1 Aoe. Ia aaaaoioeeeeiao

aoiio aei?iaiaoaaee oeee?iae?e/i? c?acee ae?aiao?ii 5 ii, iaaaioaaeoth/e
/enoei e?oaiaei caeiii /anoioith 50 Aoe.

Oeeee?/io o??ueiino?ee?noue aecia/aee ia eiiiaeoieo c?aceao

ia iicaoeaio?iaee ?icoya /anoioith 15 Aoe oa aneiao???th oeeeeo

0,05. Aenia?eiaioe ia ei?ic?eio aoiio i?iaiaeeee a ae?aiacii? oaiia?aoo?
240…250 °N ? oeneo 4,0 IIa a oiiaao aaoieeaaieo aei?iaoaaiue
iecueei/anoioiei (0,83 Aoe) aai aeniei/anoioiei

(20 Aoe) iaaaioaaeaiiyi oeee?iae?e/ieo aeaaeeeo c?ace?a (AE4 ii)

oa c e?oaiaei eiioeaio?aoi?ii iai?oaeaiue. Ie?ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy

(o ?ic/ei? NaOH) i?iaaaeaii ca o??? ae oaiia?aoo?e ia o?oa/aoeo c?aceao
neiao?e/iei e?o/aiiyi.

Ei?ic?eieie na?aaeiaeuaie neoaeeee aeenoeeueiaaia aiaea oa

aiaei? ?ic/eie: 3% NaCl, 10% NaCl + 5% MgCl2, 1% NaOH +

21% Na2SO4 + 0,24% NaCl, 3,5% NaOH + 21% Na2SO4 + 0,24%

NaCl ? NaOH a ae?aiacii? eiioeaio?aoe?e 1…50%. Iiia?aaeiuei
iaaiaeithaaee c?acee o aa?iaoe/ieo eaia?ao ca oaiia?aoo?e

700 0N, aeaea?aeii aiaeith neoaeeee a?ae?eaee iaoae?a.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aii aeo?eaaeino? aenieii?oeiiai nieaao

AO-8 a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaeo aa?y/i? aeaoi?iaoe?? caaio?aie ?

?aaeei?a oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee. No?oeoo?a caaioiaee i?ney ia?iaee

1 – aeenia?nia noi?o a- ? ac-oac c iaeaea ??aiia?niei ca?iii a-

oace. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a- ? ac-oac ??aia 2, ?ici?? ca?ia ac-oace

6…16 iei. I?ney ia?iaee 2 oi?io?oueny ?ici???ioiaaia aei/ia
ae??aiiaeenia?nia ieanoei/anoa (a+ac)-no?oeoo?a c a-ca?iii (20–30)?(2–4)
iei. Ia?iaea 3 i?eaiaeeoue aei iiyae aiaeia?/ii?, ye ?

ca ?aaeeiii 1, no?oeoo?e, aea ?c ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi a- ? ac- oac

0,5. I?ney ia?iaee 4 aeieea? ci?oaia a?oaiieanoei/anoa

no?oeoo?a c iaeiiiai?aaeaiith i???ioaoe??th a-oace ana?aaeei?

aeo?aeiiai b-ca?ia oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi a/ac=1,3, ?ici??ii a-

ca?ai (9–50)?(4–10) iei. Ia?iaoe? 5 aeanoeaa ca??ia

?ae?enoae?caoe?y ? ca?ii iii?oii ?inoa.

?aaeei ia?iaee i?aeoe/ii ia aieeaa? ia a?aieoeth i?oeiino?

sa oa a?aeiinio aeaeiaao d. I?ioa i?ney ia?iaee 4 aeaui

ciaioo?oueny a?aeiinia caoaa y, ui iia’ycaii c oi?ioaaiiyi
a?oaiieanoei/anoi? no?oeoo?e. ??no ca?ia i?ae /an ia?iaee 5

coiiaeth? iacia/ia ciaioaiiy y ? nooo?aa iiieaeaiiy KCU.

Iaeioeeeeiaa aoiia aeaaeeeo c?ace?a ia caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaeo

?a?y/i? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?aaeei?a oa?iiia?iee. No?oeoo?ia

/ooeea?noue iii?o nieaao aoiiiiio ?oeioaaiith i?iyaey?oueny

i?e iayaiino? eiioeaio?aoi?a iai?oaeaiue, a oaeiae a

aaaaoioeeeeia?e iaeano?. Iaeneaaoa iie?athoueny iaeioeeeeia?e

aoii? iaae??cai? c?acee c ??aiia?niith ae??aiica?ienoith

no?oeoo?ith, i?e/iio a onueiio ae?aiacii? aiie?ooae a?aeiinii?
aeaoi?iaoe?? ea. Aeey ?aooe ?aaeei?a ia?iaee e?ea?

ia?aoeiathoueny ca ea = 0,18%. Iaeneiaeueiee ii?? aoii? i?e

aeueo aiie?ooaeao aeaoi?iaoe?? iathoue c?acee, ia?iaeai? ca

?aaeeiii 5, a i?e ieae/eo – ca ?aaeeiii 4.

A iaeano? iaiaaeaii? aeiaaia?/iino? aeuee ii?? aaaaoioeeeeia?e

aoii? /eiyoue ae??aiiaeenia?ni? no?oeoo?e, io?eiai? i?ney

aeaoi?iaoe?? a b-iaeano? (?aaeeie 1, 2), a oaeiae e?oiiica?ienoa,

yea ooai?th?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ca??ii? ?ae?enoae?caoe?? i?ney

?en. 1. E?ea? aoiie aeaaeeeo (a) ? iaae??caieo (a) c?ace?a nieaao AO-8:
iicia/aiiy e?eaeo a?aeiia?aeathoue iiia?ai ?aaeei?a ia?iaee.

aeaoi?ioaaiiy a (a+b)-iaeano?. Iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy s-1 ia? iaoa??ae
??aiia?nii? ae??aiica?ienoi? no?oeoo?e (?en. 1a).

Ia?ao?ae aei ieanoei/anoeo no?oeoo? iaooeeueii ciaioo?

a?aieoeth aeo?eaaeino?. Uiaei ?ici??o ca?ia, oi ? aeey

??aiia?nieo, ? ieanoei/anoeo no?oeoo? c eiai ca?eueoaiiyi iiieaeo?oueny
s-1. E??i oiai, aeey a?oaica?ienoi? no?oeoo?e

(?aaeei 5) a?aenooiy ai?eciioaeueia ae?eyiea ia e?ea?e aoiie,

oiaoi ia aac? 2*107 oeeee?a iaia? o?ce/ii? a?aieoe? aeo?eaaeino?.

Aeyaeaii ??cio /ooeea?noue ??cieo no?oeoo? aei eiioeaio?aoe??
iai?oaeaiue (?en. 1a). A?aeiia?aeia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy s-1 iaae??caieo ?
aeaaeeeo c?ace?a i?ney ia?iaie 1–4 oaea: 0,3; 0,45; 0,26; 0,33.

Cia/aiiy s-1 iaae??caieo c?ace?a ae??aiica?ienoeo ieanoei-

/anoeo no?oeoo? c? ni?ai??ieie ca ?ici??aie ??aiia?nieie

ca?iaie aeu? ii??aiyii c a?oaica?ienoeie. Ciaioaiiy

?ici??o ca?ia iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia ii?? aaaaoioeeeeia?e aoii?

e iaae??caieo c?ace?a iacaeaaeii a?ae ?aaeei?a aa?y/i? aeaoi?iaoe??

? oa?iiia?iaee.

Aeey e?iaoe/ieo ae?aa?ai aoiiiiai ?oeioaaiiy nieaao AO-8 oa?aeoa?ia
iayai?noue aeaio i?yiie?i?eieo ae?eyiie.

Iaeneiaeueio oeeee?/io a’yce?noue ?oeioaaiiy DKfc ia? nieaa
ieanoei/anoi? no?oeoo?e, aeaoi?iiaaiee a b-iaeano?. Ii?iaiaee ?iciao
eiao?oe??ioa ?ioaineaiino? iai?oaeaiue DKth

i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiaee aeey ieanoei/anoeo no?oeoo?, io?eiaieo

i?ney aeaoi?ioaaiiy a b- (?aaeei 2) ? (a+b)-iaeanoyo (?aaeei 4).
??aiia?ni? no?oeoo?e nieaa?a, aeaoi?iiaaieo a b-iaeano?, iathoue nooo?ai
iaio? cia/aiiy DKth, i?ae aeaoi?iiaaieo a (a+b)-iaeano?

(e?ea? 1, 3, 5). Aei oiai ae DKth c?inoa? c? ca?eueoaiiyi ca?ia.

??aiia?nia no?oeoo?a c ia?aaaaeaiiyi (a+ac)-oace ia? aeua

cia/aiiy DKth i?ioe no?oeoo?e, aea ia?aaaaea? a-oaca. C? ci?iith
?ici???a ca?ia a ??aiia?nieo no?oeoo?ao oa?aeoa?enoeee DKth ?

s-1n ci?iththoueny o i?ioeeaaeieo iai?yiao. ??ciee oa?aeoa?

no?oeoo?ii? /ooeeaino? ia?aiao??a DKfc i DKth aeaco? ia

iaiao?aei?noue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei no?oeoo?ii?

iioei?caoe?? oeoaiiaiai nieaao a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?aaeeio (iaei-

/e aaaaoioeeeeiaiai) iaaaioaaeaiiy.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? ei?ic?eii-aoiiii? i?oeiino? nieaa?a IO-

7I, IO-3A ? 27 oa ?o caa?ieo oa?a a na?aaeiaeuao ??ciiai neeaaeo.

A caaaeueiiio ?ic/eie oei?eae?a (3% NaCl, 10% NaCl + 5%

MgCl2) iaio aa?aneai? ca aeenoeeueiaaio aiaeo oa eoaei? ?ic/eie
noeueoao?a (1% NaOH + 21% Na2SO4 + 0,24% NaCl; 3,5% NaOH

+ 21% Na2SO4 + 0,24% NaCl). Ei?ic?eii-aoiiia i?oei?noue o

?ic/eiao oei?eae?a eeoa iacia/ii iinooia?oueny aeo?eaaeino? ia iia?o??
i?e o?e aea oaiia?aoo??. Nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy ?o

eiioeaio?aoe?? eeo iacia/ii cieaeo? ii?? nieaa?a ei?ic?ei?e

aoii? o anueiio aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ae?aiacii?. Noiniaii iii?o

ei?ic?ei?e aoii? nieaao IO-7I aeyaeaii caaaeueio

caeiiii??i?noue: aeey na?aaeiaeu, a?eueo aa?aneaieo a iaeano?

iaioeo aeiaaia?/iinoae, oa?aeoa?i? a?eueo aenie? cia/aiiy

oiiaii? a?aieoe? aeo?eaaeino? s-1n. Aiae?c ei?ic?eii-aoiiii?

i?oeiino? oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o i?oeiino? (a?ae

340 aei 760 MIa aeey oaiia?aoo?e aei?iaoaaiue) na?ae/eoue, ui

a?aieoey aeo?eaaeino? i?yiii?iii?oe?eia a?aieoe? i?oeiino?. Oaea
caeaaei?noue aeanoeaa aei?iaoaaiiyi ye a ?ic/eiao oei?eae?a,

oae ? a aenieiaa?aneaieo eoaeieo ?ic/eiao. Oea aeaco?, ui
aenieioaiia?aoo?ia ei?ic?eii-aoiiia i?oei?noue aeine?aeaeoaaieo
oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a aecia/a?oueny ye o?ceei-o?i?/ieie

aeanoeainoyie iiaa?oiaaeo ie?aie, oae ? iaoai?/ieie

?en. 2. E?ea? ei?ic?eii-aoiiii? aeo?eaaeino? c?ace?a c

eiioeaio?aoi?aie nieaao IO-7I aeey aeniei/anoioiiai (a) oa

iecueei/anoioiiai (a) iaaaioaaeaiiy o 3%-iiio ?ic/ei? NaCl (1) oa 3,5%

NaCl + 5% MgCl2 (2) oa 3,5% NaOH + 21% Na2SO4 + 0,24% NaCl (3) oa
aeenoeeueiaai?e aiae? (4).

oa?aeoa?enoeeaie nieaa?a. Ei?ic?eia aoiia c?ace?a c

eiioeaio?aoi?aie iai?oaeaiue ia? nai? iniaeeaino?. Ii-ia?oa,

aieea neeaaeo ei?ic?eieo na?aaeiaeu i?aaeth?oueny, iniaeeai a

iaeano? aaeeeeo aeiaaia?/iinoae ye ca aeniei-, oae ?

iecueei/anoioiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Ii-ae?oaa, aeyaeaii ?iaa?n?th

aieeao /anoioe iaaaioaaeaiiy (?en. 2). Ca?eueoaiiy /anoioe iaaaioaaeaiiy
aeaaeeeo c?ace?a cnoaa? ?o e?eao ei?ic?eii?

aoiie a iaeanoue a?eueoeo aeiaaia?/iinoae, ui a?aeiia?aea?

onoaeaiei iiiyooyi i?i aieea /anoioe oeeee?/iiai

iaaaioaaeaiiy ia ii?? ei?ic?eii-aoiiiiio ?oeioaaiith eiino?oeoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a. Ca?eueoaiiy /anoioe iaaaioaaeaiiy

c?ace?a c eiioeaio?aoi?aie cieaeo? ii?? ei?ic?ei?e aoii?

nieaao.

Iacaeaaeii a?ae ia?ee nieaao ? neeaaeo ei?ic?eiiai

na?aaeiaeua iaoa??ae caa?ieo oa?a nooo?ai onooia? iniiaiiio

iaoaeo ii iii?o ei?ic?ei?e aoii? ? ca iecueei-, ? iniaeeai ca
aeniei/anoioiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy (?en. 3). I?e aeine?aeaeaii?

aeaaeeeo c?ace?a ?c caa?iei oaii niioa??aa?oueny oaeoe/ii oa ae
caeiiii??i?noue aoaeoo /anoioe, yea ?ai?oa aoea cacia/aia aeey

c?ace?a ?c eiioeaio?aoi?aie iai?oaeaiue: aeey iniiaiiai iaoaeo

a?eueo?e /anoio? iaaaioaaeaiiy a?aeiia?aea? aeuee ii?? aoii?

(?en. 3a, e?ea? 1, 7), oiae? ye aeey iaoa??aeo caa?iiai oaa —

iaaiaee, ii?? aeniei/anoioiiio iaaaioaaeaiith ieae/ee (e?eaa

6), i?ae aeniei/anoioiiio (e?eaa 8).

Oaeei /eiii, a oiiaao ei?ic?eii? aoiie oeoaiiaiai nieaao

IO-7I iaoa??ae caa?iiai oaa iiaiaeeoue naaa iiae?aii iniiaiiio iaoaeo ca
iayaiino? iaoai?/iiai eiioeaio?aoi?a iai?oaeaiue. C

oe??? oi/ee ci?o eia?/ii, ui i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo caa?iiai oaa

aeaiiai nieaao ia aoei aeyaeaii aoaeoo eiioeaio?aoi?a

iai?oaeaiue: e?ea? ei?ic?eii? aoiie aeaaeeiai ? iaae??caiiai

c?ace?a i?aeoe/ii iaeeaeeny.

?en.3. E?ea? ei?ic?eii-aoiiii? aeo?eaaeino? inii-aiiai iaoaeo (1, 3, 5,
7, 9, 11) oa iaoaeo caa?iiai oaa (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12) nieaa?a IO-7I
(a), IO-3A (a, e?ea? 9, 10) oa 27 (a, e?ea? 11, 12) aeey aeniei- (1-6)
oa iecueei/anoioiiai (7, 8) iaaaioaaeaiiy o 3%-iiio ?ic/ei? NaCl (1, 2,
7, 8), 10% NaCl + 5% MgCl2 (3 4); 1% NaOH+ 21% Na2SO4 + 0,24% NaCl
(5, 6), 3,5% NaOH+21%Na2SO4 + 0,24% NaCl (9-12).

I?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao eiioeaio?aoe?? NaOH a aeenoeeueiaai?e
aiae? a ae?aiacii? 1…50% ia ii?? iaeioeeeeia?e

aoii? nieaa?a IO-7I oa IO-3A a aeaio noaiao: aeo?aeiiio oa

i?ney oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee, yea iieyaaea o 2-o aiaeeii?e aeo?eioe?

c?ace?a ca oaiia?aoo?e 675 0N c iaoith noai?aiiy ia iiaa?oi?

caoenii? aioeei?ic?eii? ie?aee. Aeey an?o na?aaeiaeu ??aaiue
i?eeeaaeaieo iai?oaeaiue aoa iaeeiaeiaei ? a?aeiia?aeaa

iaeioeeeeia?e iaeano? iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Aeyaeaii oaeiae nooo?ai ieae/o aeiaaia?/i?noue oa?i?/ii

ia?iaeaieo c?ace?a ii??aiyii ?c c?aceaie o aeo?aeiiio noai?,

ui coiiaeaii ?ici?oeiaiiyi iaoa??aeo a i?ioean? oa?i?/ii?

ia?iaee. Kiioeaio?aoe?ei? caeaaeiino? aeiaaia?/iino? c?ace?a

iaeaeaio nieaa?a aeacothoue ia caaaeueio caeiiii??i?noue: aeiaaaea a
aeenoeeueiaaio aiaeo 1% NaOH ni?e/eiy? iaeieae/o

aeiaaia?/i?noue, a ia?oo /a?ao aeey oa?i?/ii iaia?iaeaieo

c?ace?a. Ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? eoao aei 3,5% o an?o aeiaaeeao

i?eaaei aei aeayeiai i?aeaeuaiiy aeiaaia?/iino?, iaeiae iiaeaeueoa
ca?eueoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?? NaOH aei 10% ciiao i?iy? oa?aeoa?
eiioeaio?aoe?eii? caeaaeiino? a a?e cieaeaiiy iii?o ?oeioaaiith.
I?eaaaeai? aeaii? aeathoue i?aenoaao oaa?aeeoe, ui i?eiaei? a

ae?aiacii? 1…10% NaOH eiioeaio?aoe?y eoao a?ey 1% ? iaea?eueo
iaaacia/iith c oi/ee ci?o aieeao ei?ic?eiiai na?aaeiaeua ia iaeioeeeeiao
aoiio a oiiaao aenieioaiia?aoo?iiai

iaaaioaaeaiiy.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue

aieeao iiia?aaeiueiai iaaiaeithaaiiy a-nieaa?a oeoaio ia ?o
aenieioaiia?aoo?io ei?ic?eio aoiio a oiiaao aaoieeaaieo aei?iaiaoaaiue.

Iiia?aaei? iaaiaeithaaiiy c?ace?a ii ??ciiio i?iy?

aa?aneai?noue ei?ic?eieo na?aaeiaeu a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o neeaaeo,

a oaeiae a?ae aeaeo nieaao ? eiioeaio?aoe?? aiaeith (?en. 4, 5). Ca

iecueei? eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? (N ~ 0,035 ian% I) aai iineeth?
aa?aneai?noue o anueiio ae?aiacii? aeiaaia?/iinoae (oei?eaee — IO-

7I, noeueoaoe c ai?noii 1% NaOH — IO-7I, noeueoaoe c ai?noii

3,5% NaOH — IO-3A), aai iineaaeth? (oei?eaee — nieaa 27,

noeueoaoe c ai?noii 3,5% NaOH — IO-7I). Iiaeeeaa oaeiae

iineeaiiy aa?aneaiino? a iaeano? iaeeo aeiaaia?/iinoae oa

i?aeaeuaiiy s-1n (aeenoeeueiaaia aiaea — IO-7I). Ca a?eueo aeniei?
eiioeaio?aoe?? aiaeith (N ~ 0,05…0,06 ian% I) niinoa??aa?oueny ?
cai?ioi?e aoaeo (noeueoaoe c ai?noii 3,5% NaOH — IO-3A).

Noiniaii nieaao IO-7I a ?ic/eiao oei?eae?a, oi

iaaiaeithaaiiy aei i?eaaaeaieo eioeaio?aoe?e a iniiaiiio

caaino?th? i?iaeaio eiai aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? ei?ic?eii-

?en. 4. Ei?ic?eii-aoiiia aeo?eaae?noue nieaao IO-7I o 3%- io ?ic/ei?
NaCl (1, 1c), 10% NaCl + 5% MgCl2 (2, 2c), 1% NaOH + 21% Na2SO4 +
0,24 %NaCl (3, 3c), 3,5% NaOH + 21% Na2SO4 + 0,24% NaCl (4, 4c),
aeenoeeueiaai?e aiae? (5, 5c) oa ia iia?o?? (6) aeey iaia-aiaeiaieo
(1-6) oa iaaiaeiaieo aei eii-oeaio?aoe?e 0,03% (3c), 0,035% (1c, 2c, 4c)
oa 0,05% (5c).

aoiiii? i?oeiino?. sseui iaiaaiaeiaiee nieaa iiaeia aaaaeaoe

?ioiiei aei ?ic/ei?a oei?eae?a, oi a?aoiaoth/e iiia?aaei?
iaaiaeithaaiiy, oeueiai aaea ia iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe (iai?eeeaae,

s-1n aeey 3%-iiai ?ic/eio NaCl noaiiaeoue 215 IIa (e?eaa 1)

i?ioe 290 IIa (e?eaa 6) ca aei?iaoaaiue ia iia?o??). Ia

a?aei?io a?ae iaaaoeaiiai aieeao iaaiaeithaaiiy nieaao IO-7I
ei?ic?eii-aoiiia i?oeiinoue nieaao 27 i?aeaeuo?oueny.

Iiceoeaiee aieea c?inoa? ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ?ioaineaiino? iaaiaeithaaiiy ?
yeui ??cieoey a s-1n aeey iaeaeaio nieaa?a o

aeo?aeiiio noai? neeaaeaea anueiai 20 IIa, oi i?ney

iaaiaeithaaiiy aei 0,03…0,35%- aaea 105 IIa. Oea aeaco? ia

ia?aaaae nieaao 27 noiniaii aaaaoioeeeeiai? ei?ic?eii? aoiie o
aenieioaiia?aoo?iiio na?aaeiaeu? oei?eae?a ca oiiae

iiaeeeaiai iaaiaeithaaiiy iaoaeo.

Ii??aiyeueia ioe?iea aeine?aeaeoaaieo nieaa?a noiniaii iaeiiai

?c eoaeieo ?ic/ei?a noeueoao?a (?en. 5) iieacaea, ui a?aecia/aiee

?ai?oa aeey nieaao IO-7I neeueiee iiceoeaiee aieea

iiia?aaeiueiai iaaiaeithaaiiy aei N = 0,03% (e?ea? 1, 2) aeaui
ciaioo?oueny i?e ca?eueoaii? eiioeaio?aoe?? aei 0,05% (e?eaa 3).

Aeaeueoa ?ioaineo?eaoe?y iaaiaeithaaiiy aei N = 0,07%

?en. 5. Ei?ic?e- ii-aoiiia aeo?eaa- e?noue nieaa?a IO-7I (1-4), IO-3A
(5-8) oa 27 (9-11) a ?ic/ei? 3,5% NaOH + 21% Na2SO4 + 0,24% NaCl aeey
iaiaaiaeiaieo (1, 5, 9) oa iiia?aaeiuei iaaiaeiaieo aei eii-oeaio?aoe??
0,03% (2, 6, 10), 0,05% (3, 7), 0,06% (8) oa 0,07% (4, 11).

(e?eaa 4) i?iy? eiai aieea c iiceoeaiiai ia iaaaoeaiee

i?aeoe/ii aeey anueiai ae?aiaciio aeiaaia?/iinoae. Nieaao IO-3A aeanoea?
nai? iniaeeaino? (e?ea? 5-8). Iaaiaeithaaiiy aei

iaeiaioi? eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,03% (e?ea? 5, 6) aeaui cieaeo?

eiai aeo?eaae?noue o anueiio ae?aiacii? aeiaaia?/iinoae. I?ioa
ca?eueoaiiy N aei 0,05…0,06% aeyaey? ?iaa?n?th eiai aieeao

(e?ea? 7, 8): ca aenieeo iaaaioaaeaiue e?ea? cnoaathoueny ai?aai,
aeacoth/e ia i?aeaeuaiiy iii?o ?oeioaaiith, oiae? ye ca iecueeeo

— ae?ai, ui na?ae/eoue i?i cieaeaiiy oiiaii? a?aieoe?

aeo?eaaeino?. Oea ni?e/eieei aenieo e?ooecio e?eaeo

aeo?eaaeino? iaeneiaeueii iaaiaeiaieo c?ace?a, ui ?

i?eioeeiiai a?aei?iiei ii??aiyii ?c a?aeiia?aeieie e?eaeie aeey

nieaao IO-7I. Iaaiaeithaaiiy nieaao 27 iaeiicia/ii i?aeaeuo?

eiai aeo?eaae?noue (e?ea? 9-11), ca aeuiai eiai nooiaiy

a?eueoei ? iiceoeaiee aoaeo. Oae, a?aieoey s-1n ca?eueoo?oueny c

125 IIa aeey aeo?aeiiai noaio aei 230 IIa aeey nieaao ?c

eiioeaio?aoe??th aiaeith 0,07%. Oaeei /eiii, aeey aeaii? nenoaie

iaoae-na?aaeiaeua aiaeaiue, i?eiaei? aei eiioeaio?aoe?? 0,07%,

ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye aenieiaoaeoeaiee eaaoth/ee aeaiaio, yeee coiiaeth?
nooo?aa i?aeaeuaiiy aenieioaiia?aoo?ii? ei?ic?eii-

aoiiii? i?oeiino?.

Noiniaii iaae??caieo c?ace?a iaaiaeithaaiiy iaaaoeaii

aieeaa? ? ia iaiaaeaio aeiaaia?/i?noue, ? ia s-1n (aeiyoie neeaaea?

nieaa IO-7I c N = 0,03%, aeey yeiai ia?iaea i?aeaeuo? s-1n

anueiai ia 10 IIa). ??ciee oa?aeoa? aieeao iaaiaeithaaiiy ia
ei?ic?eii-aoiiio i?oei?noue aeaaeeeo oa iaae??caieo c?ace?a

coiiaea ?acth/i aaeeeo ??cieoeth a ?o aeo?eaaeino?. Iai?eeeaae,

s-1n iaiaaiaeiaieo aeaaeeiai ? iaae??caiiai c?ace?a neeaaea?

a?aeiia?aeii 125 ? 85 IIa, a iaaiaeiaieo aei N = 0,03% — 220 ? 45

IIa. Oea aeaco? ia iniaeeao iaaaciaeo ao?aoe eiino?oeoe?eii?

i?oeiino? iaaiaeiaieo oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a a oiiaao ei?ic?eii-

oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ca iayaiino? eiioeaio?aoi??a

iai?oaeaiue.

Iaaiaeithaaiiy i?aeaeuo? ii?? ?oeioaaiith caa?ieo oa?a

nieaao IO-7I a ?ic/eiao oei?eae?a, iaea?eueoa ca iaeiaioi?
eiioeaio?aoe?? N = 0,02%. Oiae? aeo?eaae?noue caa?ieo oa?a

iaaeeaea?oueny aei ??aiy, aeanoeaiai iaiaaiaeiaiiio iniiaiiio

iaoaeo (aeea. ?en. 4). Ine?eueee aeey iniiaiiai iaoaeo

iaaiaeithaaiiy cieaeo? iieacieee aoiiii? i?oeiino?,

niinoa??aa?oueny ??ciee oa?aeoa? eiai aieeao ia iniiaiee iaoae

? caa?iee oia.

Aiaeia?/ii aieeaa? iaaiaeithaaiiy ia aeo?eaae?noue caa?ieo

oa?a nieaao IO-7I ? o aeiaaeeo a?eueo aa?aneaieo eoaeieo

na?aaeiaeu. A?aecia/eii i?ioa iaaaoeaiee aieea ia?iaee aei N =

0,05% ia iaiaaeaio aeiaaia?/i?noue caa?ieo oa?a o ?ic/ei? ?c

3,5% NaOH. Oea a?aeiia?aea? caaaeuei?e oaiaeaioe?? cieaeaiiy

iiceoeaiiai aieeao aiaeith ?c ?inoii eiai eiioeaio?aoe?? aae aei

ci?ie oa?aeoa?o aieeao ia iaaaoeaiee. Aeey caa?ieo oa?a

nieaa?a IO-3A oa 27 caa??aathoueny aeanoea? aeey nieaao IO-7I

iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aoaeoo iaaiaeithaaiiy. Caoa

niinoa??aathoueny ? aeaye? a?aei?iiino? ii??aiyii ?c oa?aeoa?ii oa
?ioaineai?noth aieeao iaaiaeithaaiiy ia iiaaae?ieo iniiaiiai

iaoaeo oeeo nieaa?a. Oae, yeui iaaiaeithaaiiy iniiaiiai iaoaeo

nieaao 27 aei N = 0,03% i?aeaeuo? s-1n c 125 aei 220 IIa (aeea.

?en. 2), oi o aeiaaeeo caa?iiai oaa o?eueee c 65 aei 85 IIa.
Iaaiaeithaaiiy caa?ieo oa?a nieaao IO-3A aei N = 0,03%

i?aeaeuo?, a aei N = 0,05% — cieaeo? ii?? aoii? o anueiio

ae?aiacii? aeiaaia?/iinoae. Iniiaiiio iaoaeo oeueiai nieaao

aeanoeaee ??ciee oa?aeoa? aieeao iaaiaeithaaiiy ia iaiaaeaio
aeiaaia?/i?noue ? oiiaio a?aieoeth aeo?eaaeino? (aeea. ?en. 2).

Ca?aene ii??aiyiiy iniiaiiai iaoaeo ? iaoaeo caa?iiai oaa, iai?eeeaae,
ca iieacieeii s-1n, aeathoue a?aeiia?aeii oae?

?acoeueoaoe: aeey aeo?aeiiai noaio — 170 ? 165 IIa, aeey

iaaiaeiaiiai aei N = 0,03% — 145 ? 195 IIa ? aeey iaaiaeiaiiai aei

N = 0,05%- 120 ? 105 IIa. Oaeei /eiii, aeey oe??? nenoaie

nieaa-na?aaeiaeua ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ioeo ?icaeyiooeo nenoai ia

?nio? iniaeeai? i?iaeaie cieaeaiiy s-1n caa?iiai oaa. Iaaiaee,

ca ii??aiyii iacia/iiai iaaiaeithaaiiy (N = 0,03%) oiiaia

a?aieoey aeo?eaaeino? caa?iiai oaa nooo?ai aeua, i?ae

iniiaiiai iaoaeo.

Ca?aene, iayai?noue a eiino?oeoe?yo ?c oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a

caa?ieo oa?a a oiiaao iiaeeeaiai iaaiaeithaaiiy, ia a?aei?io

a?ae eiioeaio?aoi??a iai?oaeaiue, ia ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye oaeoi?
aeiaeaoeiaiai ?eceeo ei?ic?eii-iaoai?/iiai ?oeioaaiiy.

AENIIAEE

1. Ci?iith aeaeo aa?y/i? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa ?aaeei?a oa?iiia?iaee nieaao
AO-8 iiaeia nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia eiai aoiiio i?oei?noue. Iaeneiaeueiee
ii?? aaaaoioeeeeia?e aoii? aeanoeaee nieaao ?c ??aiia?niith
ae??aiica?ienoith no?oeoo?ith, (eoaaiiy a b-iaeano?

ca 1050 °N), ia?ao?ae aei ieanoei/anoeo no?oeoo? (inaaeaeaiiy a b-

iaeano? ca 1050 °N) ciaioo? a?aieoeth aeo?eaaeino?. ?acii c oei nieaae
?c ??aiia?niith no?oeoo?ith ? iaea?eueo /ooeea? aei eiioeaio?aoi??a
iai?oaeaiue ? a?aecia/athoueny iaeieae/ei iii?ii oeeee?/i?e
o??ueiino?eeino?.

2. Aenieioaiia?aoo?ia aeo?eaae?noue a-nieaa?a oeoaio ia

aeyaey? a oiiaao aeniei/anoioiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy cia/ii?

/ooeeaino? aei ae?? ?ic/ei?a oei?eae?a, caoa nooo?ai cieaeo?oueny a

eoaeieo ?ic/eiao noeueoao?a. Ca iayaiino? eiioeaio?aoi??a

iai?oaeaiue aeo?eaae?noue c?ace?a (nieaa IO-7I) ia caeaaeeoue a?ae

neeaaeo ei?ic?eiiai na?aaeiaeua.

3. Aeyaeaii ?iaa?n?th aieeao /anoioe oeeee?/iiai

iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aenieioaiia?aoo?io aeo?eaae?noue nieaao IO-

7I a ?ic/eiao oei?eae?a: ca?eueoaiy /anoioe i?aeaeuo?

aeiaaia?/i?noue aeaaeeeo c?ace?a ? iiieaeo? aeiaaia?/i?noue c?ace?a

?c eiioeaio?aoi?aie. Cacia/aia caeiiii??i?noue aoaeoo /anoioe noiniaii
c?ace?a ?c eiioeaio?aoi?aie aeanoeaa oaeiae aeaaeeei

c?aceai iaoa??aeo caa?ieo oa?a.

4. Oa?i?/ia ia?iaea ca oaiia?aoo?e 675 0N c iaoith

noai?aiiy ia iiaa?oi? aioeei?ic?eii? ie?aee ia aeyaey?

iiceoeaiiai aieeao ia aenieioaiia?aoo?io aeo?eaae?noue

nieaa?a IO-7I ? IO-3A a ?ic/eiao eoa?a eiioeaio?aoe?? 1…10%. Iaea?eueo
iaaacia/ieie c oi/ee ci?o ao?aoe aoiiii? i?oeiino?

oeeo nieaa?a ? ?ic/eie ?c ai?noii NaOH ~ 1%.

5. Iiia?aaei? iaaiaeithaaiiy iaiaeiicia/ii aieeaa? ia

ei?ic?eii-aoiiio i?oei?noue oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a: noiniaii nieaao

IO-7I iiieaeo? eiai aeo?eaae?noue, nieaao 27 — i?aeaeuo?, a

nieaao IO-3A — iiieaeo? ii?? ?oeioaaiith ca iecueeeo ?

i?aeaeuo? ca aenieeo iaaaioaaeaiue.

6. Iayai?noue iaoai?/ieo eiioeaio?aoi??a ? aaaeeeaei

/eiieeii iaaaoeaiiai aieeao iaaiaeithaaiiy ia ei?ic?eii-

aoiiio i?oei?noue oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a.

7. Iii??eiaaia iaaiaeithaaiiy (aei 0,03 ian % I) i?aeaeuo?
ei?ic?eii-aoiiio i?oei?noue caa?ieo oa?a oeoaiiaeo a-nieaa?a o

an?o aeine?aeaeoaaieo na?aaeiaeuao.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue

1. Enneaaeiaaiea nii?ioeaeaiey ei??iceiiii-onoaeinoiiio ?ac?ooaieth
naa?iuo iaaiaei?iaeaiiuo a-nieaaia oeoaia / TH.E.

Aaaae, A.E. Nuueeia, A.E. Eaaithoeia, I.ss. Nuaei? // Oac.

aeiee. III Anan. nai. «Aiaei?iae a iaoaeeao». -Aeiiaoee. — 1982. — N.

114.

2. Nii?ioeaeaiea ei??iceiiii-onoaeinoiiio ?ac?ooaieth iaaiaei?iaeaiiuo
a-nieaaia oeoaia / A.E. Nuueeia, I.ss.

Nuaei?, TH.E. Aaaae, A.E. Eaaithoeia, I.Ae. Eeaieea, // Oec.-

oei. iaoaieea iaoa?eaeia. — 1984. — ?5. — N. 117 — 118.

3. Nykyforchyn H.M., Klapkiv M.D., Sydor P.Ya. Influence of

titanium alloy treatment regime on its fatigue characteristics /

Proc. of the Sixth Intern. Fatigue Congress «Fatigue-96». —

Berlin, Pergamon. — 1996. — v.II. — P. 929 — 934.

4. Neaei? I.ss. Aieea aa?y/iai aeaoi?ioaaiiy oa

oa?iiia?iaee nieaao AO-8 ia eiai aeo?eaae?noue / O?c.-o?i.

iaoai?ea iaoa??ae?a. — 1996. — ?5. — N. 71 — 76.

5. Neaei? I.ss., Oee?oeueiee I.O., Iinoaaeei A.I. Aenieioaiia?aoo?ia
ei?ic?eia aoiia inaaaei a-oeoaiiaeo

nieaa?a / Ca. «I?iaeaie ei?ic?? ? i?ioeei?ic?eiiai caoenoo
eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a». — Euea?a, O?ceei-iaoai?/iee

?inoeooo IAI Oe?a?ie. — 1998. — N. 137 — 140.

6. Aieea iaaiaeithaaiiy ia aenieioaiia?aoo?io ei?ic?eio

aoiio nieaa?a a-oeoaio / A.I. Ieeeoi?/ei, I.ss. Neaei?, I.O.
Oee?oeueiee, I.Ae. Eeaie?a // O?c.-o?i. iaoai?ea iaoa??ae?a. —

1998. — ?3. — N. 84 — 90.

AIIOAOe?ss

Neaei? I.ss. Aenieioaiia?aoo?ia aoiiia i?oei?noue oeoaiiaeo

nieaa?a o aiaeieo na?aaeiaeuao. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa

oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.01 — iaoa??aeiciaanoai.-

O?ceei-iaoai?/iee ?inoeooo ?i. A.A. Ea?iaiea IAI Oe?a?ie,

Euea?a, 1999.

Aeine?aeaeaii aoiiio i?oei?noue aenieii?oeiiai nieaao AO-8 ia

noaae?yo ca?iaeaeaiiy oa iioe?aiiy o??uei a caeaaeiino? a?ae

aeaeo aa?y/i? aeaoi?iaoe?? caaio?aie oa ?aaeei?a oa?i?/ii?

ia?iaee. Anoaiiaeaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? aenieioaiia?a-

oo?ii? aeo?eaaeino? nieaa?a IO-7I, IO-3A, 27 oa ?o caa?ieo

oa?a o aiae?, aiaeieo ?ic/eiao oei?eae?a, noeueoao?a oa NaOH.

Aeyaeaii ?iaa?n?th aieeao /anoioe oeeee?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy ia
aeo?eaae?noue aeaaeeeo c?ace?a oa c?ace?a ?c iaoai?/ieie
eiioeaio?aoi?aie. Iieacaii ??ciee oa?aeoa? aieeao

iiia?aaeiueiai iaaiaeithaaiiy ia ei?ic?eii-aoiiio i?oei?noue

oeoaiiaeo nieaa?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?o o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, neeaaeo
na?aaeiaeua, iayaiino? eiioeaio?aoi??a ? caa?ieo oa?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oeoaiia? nieaae, no?oeoo?ia /ooeea?noue,

ei?ic?eii-aoiiia i?oei?noue, eiioeaio?aoi?e iai?oaeaiue,

aaoieeaai? aei?iaoaaiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Nuaei? I.ss. Aunieioaiia?aoo?iay onoaeinoiay i?i/iinoue oeoaiiauo
nieaaia a aiaeiuo na?aaeao. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa

oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.02.01 — iaoa?eaei-

aaaeaiea.- Oeceei-iaoaie/aneee einoeooo ei. A.A. Ea?iaiei

IAI Oe?aeiu, Eueaia, 1999.

Oeaeue aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaiou — onoaiiaeoue iniiaiua caeiii-ia?iinoe
onoaeinoiie e ei??iceiiii-onoaeinoiie i?i/iinoe

?yaea oeoaiiauo nieaaia (AO-8, IO-7I, 27, IO-3A) e eo

naa?iuo oaia i?eiaieoaeueii e aunieioaiia?aoo?iui

oneiaeyi yenieoaoaoeee yia?aaoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey a

caaeneiinoe io no?oeoo?ii-iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai ninoiyiey, oeia aa?aneaiuo
n?aae e iaee/ey eiioeaio?aoi?ia iai?yaeaiee.

Nieaa AO-8 enneaaeiaai iinea iyoe ?acee/iuo ?aaeeiia

aa?y/ae aeaoi?iaoeee e oa?iiia?aaioee caaioiaie.

Onoaiiaeaiii, /oi ?aaeeiu ia?aaioee ianouanoaaiii aeeytho ia naienoaa
i?i/iinoe e ieanoe/iinoe i?e ?anoyaeaiee, a oaeaea ia nii?ioeaeaiea
iaeioeeeeiaie onoaeinoe aeaaeeeo ia?acoeia. No?oeoo?iay
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue nieaaa e onoaeinoiiio

?ac?ooaieth i?iyaeyaony i?e iaee/ee eiioeaio?aoi?ia

iai?yaeaiee, a oaeaea a iiiaioeeeeiaie iaeanoe iaa?oaeaiey. A iineaaeiai
neo/aa iaeneiaeueiia nii?ioeaeaiea ?ac?ooaieth naienoaaiii nieaao n
?aaiiiniie iaeeica?ienoie no?oeoo?ie

(eiaea a b-iaeanoe i?e 1050 iN), ia?aoiae e ieanoei/anoui

no?oeoo?ai (inaaeaeaiea a b-iaeanoe i?e 1050 iN) oiaiueoaao

a?aieoeo auiineeainoe. Aianoa n oai nieaau n ?aaiiiniie

no?oeoo?ie yaeythony iaeaieaa /oanoaeoaeueiuie e

eiioeaio?aoi?ai iai?yaeaiee e ioee/athony ieieiaeueiui nii?ioeaeaieai
oeeeee/aneie o?aueiinoieeinoe.

Yenia?eiaiou ia ei??iceiioth onoaeinoue i?iaaaeaiu ia

nieaaao IO-7I, 27 e IO-3A a aeeaiaciia oaiia?aoo? 240…250

iN e aeaaeaiee 4,0 IIa a oneiaeyo aaoieeaaiuo eniuoaiee iecei/anoioiui
(0,83 Aoe) e auniei/anoioiui iaa?oaeaieai (20

Aoe) oeeeeiae?e/aneeo aeaaeeeo ia?acoeia e ia?acoeia n e?oaiaui
eiioeaio?aoi?ii iai?yaeaiee. Ei??iceiiiuie n?aaeaie

neoaeeee aeenoeee?iaaiiay aiaea e aiaeiua ?anoai?u oei?eaeia e
noeueoaoia, a oaeaea NaOH a aeeaiaciia eiioeaio?aoeee 1…50%.
I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia iaaiaei?aaeeaaiea ia?acoeia inouanoaeyee i?e

700 iN, enoi/ieeii aiaei?iaea neoaeeee aeae?eaeu iaoaeeia.

Aunieioaiia?aoo?iay auiineeainoue oeoaiiauo nieaaia ia iaia?oaeeaaao a
oneiaeyo auniei/anoioiiai iaa?oaeaiey

nouanoaaiiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe e aicaeaenoaeth ?anoai?ia

oei?eaeia, iaeiaei caiaoii nieaeaaony a uaei/iuo ?anoai?ao noeueoaoia.
I?e iaee/ee eiioeaio?aoi?ia iai?yaeaiee

auiineeainoue nieaaa IO-7I ia caaeneo io ninoaaa

ei??iceiiiuo n?aae. Onoaiiaeaii eiaa?neth aeeyiey /anoiou oeeeee/aneiai
iaa?oaeaiey ia aunieioaiia?aoo?ioth

auiineeainoue nieaaa IO-7I a ?anoai?ao oei?eaeia: oaaee/aiea /anoiou
oaaee/eaaao aeieaiaa/iinoue aeaaeeeo ia?acoeia e nieaeaao
aeieaiaa/iinoue ia?acoeia n eiioeaio?aoi?aie. Oeacaiiay caeiiiia?iinoue
yoaeoa /anoiou i?eiaieoaeueii e ia?acoeai n eiioeaio?aoi?aie naienoaaiia
oaeaea aeaaeeei ia?acoeai

iaoa?eaea naa?iuo oaia, o.a. a oneiaeyo ei??iceiiiie

onoaeinoe aeaiiiai nieaaa iaoa?eae naa?iiai oaa aaaeao naay

iiaeiaii iniiaiiio iaoaeeo i?e iaee/ee iaoaie/aneiai eiioeaio?aoi?a
iai?yaeaiee.

Enneaaeiaaiey aeeyiey eiioeaio?aoeee NaOH ia nii?ioeaeaiea
aunieioaiia?aoo?iie iaeioeeeeiaie onoaeinoe nieaaia IO-7I

e IO-3A iieacaee, /oi a aeeaiaciia 1…10% eiiaoeaio?aoeey

uaei/e ieiei 1% a iaeaieueoae noaiaie nieaeaao onoaeinoioth i?i/iinoue
nieaaia.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia iaaiaei?aaeeaaiea iaiaeiicia/ii aeeyao ia
ei??iceiiioth auiineeainoue oeoaiiauo nieaaia: i?eiaie-

oaeueii e nieaao IO-7I iiieaeaao aai auiinoeeainoue, nieaao 27

— iiauoaao, a nieaao IO-3A — iiieaeaao nii?ioeaeaiea

?ac?ooaieth i?e ieceeo e iiauoaao aai i?e aunieeo

iaa?oceao. Iaee/ea iaoaie/aneeo eiioeaio?aoi?ia yaeyaony

aaaeiui oaeoi?ii io?eoeaoaeueiiai aeeyiey iaaiaei?aaeeaaiey

ia ei??iceiiii-onoaeinoioth i?i/iinoue oeoaiiauo nieaaia.

Aianoa n oai oia?aiiia (aei 0,03 ian.% I) iaaiaei?aaeeaaiea

iiauoaao nii?ioeaeaiea ?ac?ooaieth naa?iuo oaia ai anao enneaaeiaaiiuo
n?aaeao.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeoaiiaua nieaau, no?oeoo?iay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue,
ei??iceiiii-onoaeinoiay i?i/iinoue, eiioeaio?aoi?u iai?yaeaiee,
aaoieeaaiua eniuoaiey.

ABSTRACT

Sydor P. Ya. The fatigue strength of titanium alloys in aqueous
environments under high temperature. – Manuscript.

Thesis for degree of Kandidat of Sciences (Engineering) in speciality
05.02.01 – material sciences. Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute of
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv, 1999.

The fatigue strength of high strength BT-8 alloy is studied for the
stages of crack nucleation and crack propagation depending on the hot
forming and heat treatment regimes. The main dependencies for high
temperature durability of IO-7I, IO-3A, 27 alloys and their weld joints,
operated in water, aqueous solutions of chlorides, sulfates and NaOH,
are clarified. The inversion of the effect of frequency of cyclic
loading on durability of smooth specimens and mechanically notched ones
is found. Different character of the preceding hydrogenation on the
corrosion-fatigue strength of titanium alloys, depending

on their chemical compound, environment compound and presence of notches
or welded joints in structural elements, is shown.

Key words: titanium alloys, structural sensitivity, corrosion-fatigue
strength, stress concentrators, autoclave testing.

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