13

EE?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE E?IAA?NOE*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

E?ENAIIAA Oaoyia Aiaoie??aia

OAeE 801.5 + 802.0

AENEIAETHAAIIss IAAAOEAII? IOe?IEE

AAe?ANAOA A NO*ANI?E AIAE?ENUeE?E IIA?

(EIIOI?EAOEAII-I?AAIAOE*IEE ANIAEO)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.04 – aa?iainuee? iiae

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aiae?enueei? o?eieia?? Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, a.i. i?ioani?a

?iaaothe Aeea ?aaai?aia,

eaoaae?a aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoa

?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Noa?eeiaa Ieaia Ieeiea?aia,

eaoaae?a aiae?enueei? o?eieia??

Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

*oao?ai? Oaia?a Aeieo??aia,

eaoaae?a eaeneeieia?? ?
noee?noeee

aiae?enueei? iiae

Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoeoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

(eaoaae?a aiae?enueei?
o?eieia??)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “24” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 12 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaiii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.054.02 c caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia io?eiaiiy a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a (eaiaeeaeaoa)
o?eieia?/ieo iaoe i?e Ee?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio e?iaa?noe/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? (252 620 IIN, Ee?a-5, aoe. Aaeeea Aaneeuee?annueea, 73).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a iaoeia?e
a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
(aoe.Aaeeea Aaneeuee?anueea, 73).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “22” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.A.Eaeeoa

O no/ani?e iaooe? i?i iiao iineeth?oueny ?ioa?an aei aea/aiiy
ooieoe?iiaeueii? noi?iie iiae ? iiaeaii?ai? iiaaae?iee eiioi?eaio?a.
Aiae?c eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aniaeoo iiaeaii?aeo yaeu
ia?aaeaa/a? ?icaeyae ieoaiiy i?i aca?iiae?th o/aniee?a eiioi?eaoe??,
cie?aia aieeao oaeoi?a aae?anaoa ia i?aai?caoe?th i?ioeano ni?eeoaaiiy
(I.Ae. A?oothiiaa, O.A. Aeiieo?, I.N. Eoa?yeiaa, I.A. Eyiii,
A.A. Ii/aioeia, TH.N. Noaiaiia, J.R. Searle, G.N. Leech oa ?i.).

?aoa?iaaia aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith
eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii?
ioe?iee aae?anaoa a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?.

Ioe?iea, ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia noaeaeaiiy ethaeeie, iayaia a aaaaoueio
noa?ao ?? ae?yeueiino?. ?icaeyae ioe?iee ye e?iaa?noe/ii? eaoaai???
ciaeoia oe?iea a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ?iaioao a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
iiaiciaaoe?a (I.Ae. A?oothiiaa, A.?. Aaia?o, I.I. Aieueo, N.A. Ai?ea/ia,
I.A. Eyiii, A.A. Ii/aioeia, ?.?. ?aoiaiiaa, A.I. Oae?y, N.N. Oeaeaeaeue,
A.?. Oaoianeee, J.R. Averil, W.D. Hudson, D.L. Perry oa ?i.). I?ioa aei
oeueiai /ano eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? aeneiaethaaiue
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia? ia aoee
i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oaaaa a/aieo aieiaiei /eiii
i?eae?eyeanue aiae?co iiaieo cania?a ?aae?caoe?? iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee ?
ia?aaea/? iaaaoeaiiai aiioe?eiiai noaio ethaeeie (?.?. Eaanthe,
A.I. Ee?eeiaa, A.A. Eioaeue, A.I. Eociaoeiaa, I.A. Iace/,
?.A. Ia?aaneoa?e?, A.?. Iioiueiee?ia, A.?. Naeoooae?iiaa). O ieai?
i?aaiaoe/iiai i?aeoiaeo e?iaa?noe aea/aee ?a/aiiy ioe?iii? naiaioeee c
aae?anaoii ye ia’?eoii ioe?iee (I.?. Oaaeioiaa),
eiioi?eaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? aeneiaethaaiue-ia?ac
(?.N. Nie?iiaa), a oaeiae aeneiaethaaiiy, ye? ?aae?cothoue eayooy
(N.A. Aei?aea).

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa a
no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?.

I?aaeiaoii aiae?co a ?iaio? aenooiathoue eiioi?eaoeai? oa i?aaiaoe/i?
iniaeeaino? aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia caaaeueiith ni?yiiaai?noth
no/anii? iaoee ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueii? noi?iie iiae, aea/aiiy
?ie? iniaenoino? a i?ioean? eiioi?eaoe??, iiaeaii?ai? iiaaae?iee
eiioi?eaio?a. Iiaiee ? aaeaeaaoiee aiae?c iiaiiai yaeua iaiiaeeeaee aac
eiai ?icaeyaeo a aniaeo? ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino?. C iaeyaeo ia oea
aaaeeeaei ? naiaioe/iee ? eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/iee aiae?c
aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa a caeaaeiino? a?ae
eiioi?eaoeaieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e inoaiiueiai, ?icaeyae e?iaa?noe/ii?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? i?aeiniaeno?nieo noinoie?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia a ?aieao
iaoeiai? oaie «Naiaioe/i?, noee?noe/i?, nioe?aeuei? oa i?aaiaoe/i?
iniaeeaino? iiaieo iaeeieoeue», yea ?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith
aiae?enueei? o?eieia?? Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean?
Oe?a?iee (oaia caoaa?aeaeaia ?aaeith AAeO ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee, i?ioieie
?9 a?ae 21 o?aaiy 1998 ?ieo).

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeyaeaiiy oa ??ciia?/ia
aea/aiiy eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae aeneiaethaaiue
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?. Iaoa ?iaioe
aecia/eea iaiao?aei?noue ?ica’ycaiiy eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue:

— eaae?o?eoaaoe iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee
aae?anaoa oa ?o i?noea a caaaeuei?e nenoai? ioe?iieo aeneiaethaaiue;

— aeyaeoe e iienaoe eiioi?eaoeai? oeie aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee
aae?anaoa;

— aecia/eoe i?aaiaoe/iee iioaioe?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeneiaethaaiue;

— cae?enieoe nenoaiiee iien iiaieo cania?a ?aae?caoe??
iaaaoeaii-ioe?iiiai noaaeaiiy iiaoey aei aae?anaoa;

— iieacaoe aieea nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a ia ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee;

— anoaiiaeoe ?ieue iaaa?aaeueieo eiiiiiaio?a a aenie?eaoe?? iaaaoeaii?
ioe?iee aae?anaoa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui ia iaoa??ae?
aiae?enueei? iiae aia?oa cae?eniaii ??ciia?/ia aea/aiiy aeneiaethaaiue
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa a aniaeo? ?o naiaioe/ieo, eiioi?eaoeaieo ?
i?aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae. I?eioeeiiai iiaei ? aiae?c iaaaoeaii-ioe?iieo
aeneiaethaaiue o ?one? i?aaiaoe/ii? e?iaa?noeee. A ?iaio? anoaiiaeaii e
iienaii eiioi?eaoeai? oeie aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa,
aeyaeaii ??cii??aiaa? iiai? caniae ?aae?caoe?? iaaaoeaiiai noaaeaiiy
iiaoey aei aae?anaoa, aecia/aii i?aaiaoe/iee iioaioe?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieo
aeneiaethaaiue, c’yniaaii noia?a/eeaee oa?aeoa? aeaiiai iiaiiai yaeua.

Iaoa??aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaoaaee 2 500 o?aaiaio?a ae?aeia?a, ui
i?noyoue aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa. I?eeeaaee aoee
i?ae?a?ai? iaoiaeii nooe?eueii? aea??ee c 310 ooaeiaei?o oai??a
aiae?enueeeo ? aia?eeainueeeo aaoi??a OO noie?ooy, caaaeueiei ianyaii
28 000 noi??iie.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe ? ?ica’ycaiiy eiie?aoieo caaaeaiue
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeei?enoai? oae? iaoiaee ? i?eeiie e?iaa?noe/iiai
aiae?co: eiiiiiaioiee, ?ioaioe?eiee, i?aaiaoe/iee, eiioi?eaoeaiee,
aeaiaioe i?anoiiceoe?eiiai oa eiioaenooaeueiiai aiae?c?a. Iaoiae
eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co canoiniao?oueny aeey aea/aiiy naiaioe/ii?
no?oeoo?e eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue, ui aaeeaathoueny aeey ae?aaeaiiy
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa. Iaoiaee ?ioaioe?eiiai, i?aaiaoe/iiai ?
eiioi?eaoeaiiai aiae?c?a aeei?enoiaothoueny c iaoith aea/aiiy oa
aecia/aiiy i?aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeneiaethaaiue.
Aaeeaaiiy aeaiaio?a i?anoiiceoe?eiiai oa eiioaenooaeueiiai aiae?c?a
aeicaiey? aeyaeoe aieea ?ieueiai? no?oeoo?e neooaoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy,
nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a ia iiaio naiaioeeo oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a iaea?aeaii? iiaeo ciaiue i?i
naiaioe/i? oa eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? aeneiaethaaiue
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaaiei
aianeii o ?ic?iaeo i?iaeaie aea/aiiy i?aaiaoe/iiai aniaeoo iiaeaii?ai?
eiioi?eaoe?? ? ni?eyoeiooue iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeyaeo oai?aoe/ieo aniaeo?a
i?aaiaoe/iiai neioaeneno. Aoei i?iaaaeaii ??ciia?/iee aiae?c
aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa, anoaiiaeaii eiioi?eaoeai?
oeie aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeneiaethaaiue a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiioi?eaoeaieo
iiaeeo?eaoe?e aae?anaoa, cae?eniaii aea/aiiy aa?aaeueieo oa
iaaa?aaeueieo cania?a ?aae?caoe?? iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee, aecia/aii
i?aaiaoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue iaaaoeaii-ioe?iieo aeneiaethaaiue, aeyaeaii
aieea nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a ia ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaieo
iiaieo yaeu. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eythoue ?icoe?aiith ciaiue
i?i i?e?iaeo aeneiaethaaiiy ye iaeeieoe? iiae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?? iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue ? ?acoeueoao?a o eo?n? oai?aoe/ii? a?aiaoeee (?icae?ee
«?a/aiiy», «Oai??y iiaeaii?aeo aeo?a»), a niaoeeo?n? c i?aaiae?iaa?noeee
(«Eiioi?eaoeai? oeie ?a/aiue»), ia caiyooyo ?c i?aeoeee aiae?enueei?
iiae aeey iaa/aiiy ae?aeia?/iiai iiaeaiiy. Iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeooue aooe oaeiae aeei?enoai? a iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e ?iaio? nooaeaio?a
aeey iaienaiiy eo?niaeo ? aeeieiiieo ?ia?o.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a
?c aeniiaeaie ii eiaeiiio c ieo, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, a?ae?ia?ao??,
nieneo aeaea?ae ?ethno?aoeaiiai iaoa??aeo.

O anooi? aea?oueny ia??oiooaaiiy oaie, aecia/athoueny ?? aeooaeuei?noue
? iiaecia, aeacothoueny ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, ?? oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy, oi?ioeththoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
aecia/athoueny iaoa??ae ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee, anoaiiaeththoueny eiioi?eaoeai?
iiaeeo?eaoe?? aae?anaoa, ia ?o iniia? aeae?eythoueny eiioi?eaoeai? oeie
aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa, iienothoueny iiai? caniae
?aae?caoe?? iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee, aeyaey?oueny aieea nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a
ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aea/athoueny naiaioe/i? e eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/i?
iniaeeaino? aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee i?yiiai aae?anaoa,
aeae?eythoueny iniiai? i?aaiaoe/i? oeie, ui ?aae?cothoue iaaaoeaio
ioe?ieo i?yiiai aae?anaoa, ?icaeyaeathoueny niiniae ae?aaeaiiy i?yiiai
aae?anaoa a eaeneei-a?aiaoe/i?e no?oeoo?? aeneiaethaaiiy,
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iiai? caniae ?aae?caoe?? i?yii? oa iai?yii?
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee inoaiiueiai.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny naiaioe/i?, eiioi?eaoeai? oa
i?aaiaoe/i? iniaeeaino? aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaioa ?
o?aouei? iniae, yea iiaea aooe i?enooiueith aai a?aenooiueith o
neooaoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy, aena?oeth?oueny ?ieue iaaa?aaeueieo eiiiiiaio?a a
aenie?eaoe?? ci?noo aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee i?yiiai aae?anaoa,
aae?anaioa ? o?aouei? iniae.

O caaaeueieo aeniiaeao i?aeaiaeyoueny i?aenoiee i?iaaaeaiiai
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, iae?aneththoueny ia?niaeoeae
iiaeaeueoi? ?iaioe c ia?aii? i?iaeaiaoeee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy e ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aoee
i?aaeiaoii iaaiai?aiiy ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e aiae?enueei? o?eieia??
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee, ia XLII,
XLIII, XLIV iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai
neeaaeo ? nooaeaio?a Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean?
Oe?a?iee (Eooeuee, 1996, 1997, 1998 ?.?.), ia ??? Iaoe?iiaeuei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “?ioi?iaoeea: oai??y, oaoiieia?y, oaoi?ea” – ?OOO
97 (Eooeuee, 1997), ia III I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
“Eiii’thoa?ia e?iaa?noeea oa aeeeaaeaiiy /oaeicaiieo iia o aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao” (Euea?a, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
a?aeia?aaeai? o 5 noaooyo ? 1 oacao i?aeia?iaeii? eiioa?aioe??.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo iiaiciaanoaa aeine?aeaeaiiy ioe?iieo
aeneiaethaaiue yaey? niaith cia/iee ?ioa?an: a?i iiynith?oueny oei, ui
ioe?iea, ye e?iaa?noe/ia eaoaai??y, ? iaeiei c iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a
i?ioeano eiioi?eaoe??. Iiiyooy ioe?iee a ?aoa?iaai?e aeena?oaoe??
o?aeoo?oueny ye ioe?iia (iiceoeaia /e iaaaoeaia) noaaeaiiy iiaoey aei
aae?anaoa, aea ?aae?co?oueny neea aieeao iiaoey, ui ni?yiiaaia ia
aeinyaiaiiy eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/iiai ?acoeueoaoo. Aeneiaethaaiiy
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa ia?aaeathoue iaaaoeaia ioe?iia noaaeaiiy
iiaoey aei aae?anaoa, ae?aaeathoue ?aaeoe?th iiaoey ia
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue ia’?eoa ioe?iee iaaiei ii?iai ? ioe?iiei noa?aioeiai,
iayaiei o na?aeiiino? noa’?eoa ioe?iee.

O aeai?e ?iaio? aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa
?icaeyaeathoueny ye aiioeaii-ioe?ii?, ine?eueee aiie ia?aaeaa/athoue ia
eeoa ?aoe?iiaeueiee (ioe?iiee) eiiiiiaio, aea e aiioeaiee (iaaaoeaiee
oa?aeoa? aiioe?e, a ioaea ? ioe?iee).

Aiae?c eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae iaaaoeaii-ioe?iieo
aeneiaethaaiue ia?aaeaa/a? aea/aiiy aca?iiae?? o/aniee?a ?ioa?aeoe?? –
iiaoey ? aae?anaoa. A aeena?oaoe?? iiaaoeue ? aae?anao aecia/athoueny ye
??aiii?aai? o/anieee eiioi?eaoeaiiai aeoo. Aiie ciaoiaeyoueny a
ia?ic?eai?e aca?iiae??, cae?enithth/e aieea iaeei ia iaeiiai.
Aenie?eaoe?y iaaaoeaii-ioe?iiiai aeneiaethaaiiy oi?ea?oueny ??cieo
noi??i iniaenoino? ia eeoa iiaoey, aea e aae?anaoa. Iiaaoeue i?iaeoeo?
aeneiaethaaiiy, nie?ath/enue ia nai? ciaiiy i?i aae?anaoa: eiai
nioe?aeueio ?ieue, eiiiaoaioi?noue, iiaeeeaino? ni?eeiyooy, a?e oa ?i.
A?ae oaeoi?a aae?anaoa iaaiith i??ith caeaaeeoue aea?? iiaoeai iiaieo
oi?i ae?aaeaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee, oni?oi?noue cae?eniaiiy
eiioi?eaoeaieo iai???a ni?a?iciiaiee?a, oa?aeoa? i?aaiaoe/iiai aoaeoo.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeyaeaii, ui oa?aeoa? aeneiaethaaiue
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa ? neeaaeiei ? noia?a/eeaei. C iaeiiai aieo,
iiaaoeue /?oei ? ynii ae?aaea? nai? iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei aae?anaoa o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?eioeeiii eiiia?aoe??. C ?ioiai aieo, iiaaoeue
ciaia’ycaiee oieeaoe iani?eyoeeaeo aeey aae?anaoa noaeaeaiue
a?aeiia?aeii aei i?eioeeio aa?/eeaino?. Aiae?ciaai? aeneiaethaaiiy
a?aeia?aaeathoue ? ?aaoeththoue aca?iia?aeiineie eiioi?eaio?a o i?ioean?
ni?eeoaaiiy. Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ia naiaioe/io no?oeoo?o e
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaaaoeaii-ioe?iieo aeneiaethaaiue cae?eniththoue aieea
??ci? nioe?aeuei? oaeoi?e: nioe?aeueiee ? ?ieueiaee noaoon eiioi?eaio?a,
?o a?e, noaoue, nooi?iue ineoieia?/ii? aeecueeino?.

A iniia? eiioi?eaoeaii? oeiieia?? aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee
aae?anaoa, cai?iiiiiaaii? a ?aoa?iaai?e aeena?oaoe??, eaaeaoue
ni?yiiaai?noue ae?aaeaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee, niin?a ?ai?acaioaoe??
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee, aniaeo ioe?iee, eiioi?eaoeaia iiaeeo?eaoe?y
aae?anaoa iaaaoeaii-ioe?iiiai aeneiaethaaiiy.

O caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?yiiaaiino? ae?aaeaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee
aeae?eythoueny noa’?eoii-i???ioiaai? oa ia’?eoii-i???ioiaai?
aeneiaethaaiiy. Noa’?eoii-i???ioiaai? aeneiaethaaiiy ia?aaeathoue
iaaaoeai? iciaee oa noaie iiaoey, aeeeeeai? aae?anaoii. Ae?aaeath/e nai?
iaaaoeai? ii/oooy e aiioe?? noiniaii aae?anaoa, iiaaoeue oei naiei
ioe?ith? eiai. Iniaeea?noth noa’?eoii-i???ioiaaieo aeneiaethaaiue ? oa,
ui aaoi? ? noa’?eo iiaeaiiy oa naia iniaa, yea aenie?oeeoii ae?aaeaia a
eaeneei-a?aiaoe/i?e no?oeoo?? aeneiaethaaiiy:“I hate and despise you”
(W.S. Maugham).

Ia’?eoii-i???ioiaai? aeneiaethaaiiy ae?aaeathoue iaaaoeaio
oa?aeoa?enoeeo iiaoeai yeinoae, aeanoeainoae, ae?e ? a/eie?a aae?anaoa.
Ia’?eoii-i???ioiaai? aeneiaethaaiiy a?aecia/athoueny oei, ui aaoi? ?
noa’?eo iiaeaiiy ? ??cieie iniaaie. Aae?anao aenie?oeeoii i?aaenoaaeaiee
o eaeneei-a?aiaoe/i?e no?oeoo?? aeneiaethaaiiy ? iiaea aooe ioe?iaiee ?
ye iniaeno?noue o oe?eiio, ? ca ie?aieie ia?aiao?aie: “You’re a beast
and a swine and a bloody, bloody thief!”(W. Golding).

Caeaaeii a?ae aniaeoo iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aeae?eythoueny
caaaeueiiiaaaoeai? ? /anoeiaiiaaaoeai? aeneiaethaaiiy. Aniaeoe
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aecia/athoueny yeinoyie e ae?yie ioe?ithaaiiai
ia’?eoa, ye? e aeeeeeathoue o iiaoey iaaaoeaii-ioe?iia noaaeaiiy.
Aen?ieia?/iee aniaeo caaaeueiiioe?iiiai noaeaeaiiy ?aae?co? iaaaoeaio
ioe?ieo aae?anaoa a oe?eiio ? aeeth/a? iaaiee iaa?? iciae, ye?
neeaaeathoue caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo ia’?eoa. A ?acoeueoao? caaaeueii?
ioe?iee ia’?eo oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye iiaaiee, a?eaeeee, aa?oee
i?ace?noaa, inoaeo, iaeaee ? o.ae. Iai?eeeaae:“Good gracious!” cried
mother irritably, “you’re bad as your father if it’s a bit dusk!”
(D.H. Lawrence). Aniaeo iaaaoeaiiai /anoeiaiioe?iiiai aeneiaethaaiiy
aaco?oueny ia iaei?e ?c iciae ia’?eoa, iaaaoeaii iienoth/e iaaio
aeanoea?noue, ye?noue, a/eiie /e noai aae?anaoa. Iai?eeeaae:“You are a
coward”, she said bluntly (D. Steel). “He looks miserable”, he sneered,
without looking at Joe (F.W. Dixon).

Aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa iiaea i?noeoe e?eueea
iaaaoeaieo /anoeiaeo ioe?iie ? iaceaaoe ??ci? aeanoeaino? iniaenoino?
aae?anaoa:“Nasty-looking bastard”, agreed Hannalh (F. Forsyth). Oae, o
iaaaaeaiiio o?aaiaio? iiaaoeue iaaaoeaii ioe?ith? ciai?oi?noue ?
ii?aeuei? yeino? aae?anaoa. Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe iaae?aci?noue iaae
i?ae caaaeueiei ? /anoeiaei aniaeoaie iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa.
Aaeaeaaoia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aniaeoo iaaaoeaii-ioe?iiiai noaeaeaiiy
iiaeeeaa eeoa o eiie?aoiiio neooaoeaiiio eiioaeno?.

Aiae?c i?aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee
aeicaieea aeyaeoe caeaaei?noue eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/iiai ci?noo
aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeneiaethaaiue a?ae eiioi?eaio?a ? neooaoe??
ni?eeoaaiiy.

Aea/aiiy eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae iaaaoeaii-ioe?iieo
aeneiaethaaiue i?iaiaeeeinue c o?aooaaiiyi ?o ni?yiiaaiino? ia
aae?anaoa. Caeaaeii a?ae eiioi?eaoeaieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e aae?anaoa a
aeena?oaoe?? aoei aeae?eaii oae? oeie aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee:
aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee i?yiiai aae?anaoa, aeneiaethaaiiy
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaioa ? aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee
o?aouei? iniae, aiia iiaea aooe i?enooiueith aai a?aenooiueith o
neooaoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy. O iiaeaii?a?e eiioi?eaoe?? aiae?ciaai?
aeneiaethaaiiy ?icaeyaeathoueny ye aeni?aneaiee i?aaiaoe/iee oei, yeee
cae?enith? ?aaoeyoe?th aiioe?eii-ioe?iii? e nioe?aeueii? noa?e
ae?yeueiino? eiioi?eaio?a, oiaoi iiaoey e aae?anaoa.

Aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee i?yiiai aae?anaoa ooieoe?iiothoue o
neooaoe?? aaciina?aaeiueiai ni?eeoaaiiy. I?yiei aae?anaoii
aeneiaethaaiiy ? ?iaeea?ae/?iaeea?aee, ia yeiai/yeeo aaciina?aaeiuei
ni?yiiaaia iaaaoeaia ioe?iea, ui ?? i?iaeoeo? iiaaoeue. Iai?eeeaae:“I’m
really very disappointed in you” (P. Shaffer). “You’re a fool”, her
father raged at her […] (D. Steel).

Eiioi?eaoeaiith ?ioaioe??th iiaoey i?e ae?aaeaii? iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee
aae?anaoa aenooia? ?aae?caoe?y iaaaoeaiiai noaaeaiiy aei
aaciina?aaeiueiai aae?anaoa (?/aai aei eiai a/eieo, ae??) c iaoith
aieeao ia eiai aiioe?eii-ineo?/io noa?o aeey iaea?aeaiiy caieaiiaaiiai
ia?eieooeaiiai aoaeoo.

A ?aoa?iaai?e aeena?oaoe?? aiae?c i?aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae
aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee i?yiiai aae?anaoa i?iaiaeeoueny ca
eeaneo?eaoe??th, ?ic?iaeaiith Aeae. Na?eai. ?aae?caoe?y eiioi?eaoeaii?
iaoe iiaoey iiaea cae?enithaaoenue aeneiaethaaiiyie c ??ciei
aeoiiiaeaii?aei iaiiaiaiiyi, na?aae ieo iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae?
i?aaiaoe/i? oeie: (aeania) aeni?aneae: “You villain, you down right
rascal!” (D.H. Lawrence), ?ai?acaioaoeae: […]“I was just telling Jack
here that you’re a moron” (E. Hemingway), aee?aeoeae: “Get your lousy
knees off my chest”, I told him (J.D. Salinger), eii?neae: “You crack me
in the mouth, and I’ll bust your head open at the left ear”
(W. Saroyan), aeaeea?aoeae: “Clyde Griffiths for the murder in the first
degree of Roberta Alden, you are convicted and sentenced to the
punishment” (Th. Dreiser).

Ia’?eoii iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee oaeiae iiaea aenooiaoe nai iiaaoeue. O
oaeiio aeiaaeeo iaaaoeaii-ioe?iia aeneiaethaaiiy ? naiiaae?aniaaiei. A
iniia? aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaioa eaaeeoue iaaaoeaia
naiiioe?iea iiaoey, aiia aeieea? aiane?aeie iaa?aeiia?aeiino? i?ae
ia?acii ?aaeueiiai “ss” ?iaeea?aea ? ia?acii ?aeaaeueiiai “ss”. Aeai?
aeneiaethaaiiy oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenie?oeeoiei ae?aaeaiiyi noa’?eoa
ioe?iee. Aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaioa ?niothoue o oi?i?
aioo??oiueiai iiaeaiiy iiaoey, eiee eiai iniaeno?noue ?icuaieth?oueny ia
aeaio ???a?o?/ii ia??aiii?aaieo ni?a?iciiaiee?a, oa o oi?i?
aa?aae?ciaaiiai iiaeaiiy, ?ic?aoiaaiiai ia neooa/a. sse aae?anao
aioo??oiueiai iiaeaiiy aenooia? nai???aeia ia’?eoeaiaaia ae?oaa “ss”
iiaoey. Iai?eeeaae: There she heard a different voice, with which she
argued, pleaded, excused […].

“Oh, thou failure”, said this voice.

“Why?” she questioned.

“Look at those about”, came the whispered answer. […] How would they
scorn to do what you have done (Th. Dreiser).

O iiaeaii?a?e neooaoe??, a ye?e iiaaoeue i?eionea? iayai?noue neooa/a,
eiioi?eaoeaia ?ioaioe?y aae?anaioa nea?iaaia ia ae?aaeaiiy naiai
iaaaoeaiiai aiioe?eiiai noaio, a oaeiae ia ci?io ineoieia?/iiai ee?iaoo
neooaoe??; iiaaoeue i?aaia aeeeeeaoe o neooa/a aeaeue, ni?a/oooy ? o. i.
Iai?eeeaae:

She clung to him desperately. “You’re so good to me, Michael, and I
hate myself. I’m a beast, I’m a slut, I’m just a bloody bitch, I’m
rotten through and through”.

“All that may be”, he smiled, “but the fact remains, that you’re a very
great actress” (W.S. Maugham).

Aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaioa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ii?aeiaiiyi aeaio i?aaiaoe/ieo ni?yiiaaiinoae. Ia?oa – aaoi?aoa?aioia –
iieyaa? a iaaaoeai?e naiiioe?ioe?. Ae?oaa – aeni?aneaia – ia? ca iaoo
ci?ieoe ineoieia?/iee noai naiiai iiaoey aai neooa/a. Aaeeaaiiy
aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaioa oaeiae iiaea aooe
iaoiiaeaia ae??th iaeneie ne?iiiino?, yea ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith
i?eioeeio aa?/eeaino? oa ia?aaeaa/a? oieeaoe iioaaee naiiai naaa.

Aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee o?aouei? iniae ooieoe?iiothoue o
neooaoe?yo aeaio oei?a: o ia?o?e ia’?eoii ioe?iee ? o?aoy iniaa,
i?enooiy i?e ?aae?caoe?? iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee; o ae?oa?e ia’?eo ioe?iee –
o?aoy iniaa a?aenooiy i?e iiaeaii?aiio ae?aaeaii? iaaaoeaii-ioe?iiiai
noaaeaiiy. O neooaoe?? i?enooiino? ia’?eo ioe?iee aenooia? iai?yiei
aae?anaoii aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee. Iiaaoeue ni?yiiao? nai?
aeneiaethaaiiy aei ae?oaiai o/anieea eiioi?eaoe??, iaae?eyth/e eiai
?ieeth i?yiiai aae?anaoa. Ia’?eo ioe?iee aenooia? neooa/ai, o?aoueith
iniaith, i?enooi?noue yei? o iiaeaii?a?e neooaoe?? a?aoiao?oueny
eiioi?eaioaie. Iai?yiee aae?anao aenie?oeeoii i?aaenoaaeaiee o
eaeneei-a?aiaoe/i?e no?oeoo?? aeneiaethaaiiy. Iiaaoeue, ioe?ithth/e
iai?yiiai aae?anaoa, i?eoiaaii aae?ano? eiio nai? aeneiaethaaiiy, a
iiaeaii?aee aieea cae?enith?oueny oae, uia iai?yiee aae?anao ni?eeiya
iia?aeiieaiiy ?, yeui iaiao?aeii, a?ae?aaaoaaa ia iueiai a aaaeai?e aeey
iiaoey oi?i?. Aeai? aeneiaethaaiiy ae?aaeathoue iaaaoeaiee aiioe?eiee
noai iiaoey ? eiai iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei iai?yiiai aae?anaoa. Eiai
aaeaeaaoia ?aaeoe?y ia aeneiaethaaiiy iiaoey na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui a?i
ona?aeiieth? naith ?ieue iai?yiiai aae?anaoa. Iai?eeeaae:

“Then we shall do it alone, old one”, he said and smiled.

“Without this coward”, Anselmo said.

“What did you say?” Pablo spoke to the old man.

“Nothing for thee. I did not speak to thee”, Anselmo told him
(E. Hemingway).

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeyaeaii ?nioaaiiy o aeneiaethaaii?
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee iai?yiiai aae?anaoa aeaio i?aaiaoe/ieo
iai?aaeaiinoae. Iaeia c ieo i?ecia/a?oueny i?yiiio aae?anaoo
aeneiaethaaiiy ? iieyaa? a eiinoaoaoe?? aoaeue-yeiai oaeoo, ui eiai
noino?oueny. Ae?oaa ia? ca iaoo iia?aeiieoe iai?yiiai aae?anaoa i?i
iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei iueiai iiaoey, oiaoi aenooia? ye ?ioi?iaoeaia
(oa?i?i H. Clark, T. Carlson). Ioe?iea o/anieea eiioi?eaoe?? ye o?aouei?
iniae ni?ey? iii’yeoaiith ae?aaeaiiy eaoaai?e/iino? inoaeo ? ianoaaeaiiy
ia’?eoa iai?yiiai aae?anaoa.

Iiaeaii?a? neooaoe?? c aeneiaethaaiiyi iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee o?aouei? iniae
a ?? a?aenooiino? ia?aaeaa/athoue iayai?noue iiaoey – noa’?eoa ioe?iee –
? aae?anaoa, yeiio i?ecia/a?oueny aeneiaethaaiiy. Ia’?eo iaaaoeaii?
ioe?iee aeeo/aiee ?c neooaoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy, ? eiai i?enooi?noue
eiioi?eaioaie ia ia?aaeaa/a?oueny. Ia ia’?eo ioe?iee ia iioe?th?oueny
?ioaioe?y iiaoey, a?i ia ? o/anieeii eiioi?eaoe??. Iiaaoeue,
i?iaeoeoth/e aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee o?aouei? iniae a ??
a?aenooiino?, ae?aaea? na?e aiioe?eiee noai ? iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei
ia’?eoa ioe?iee, a oaeiae cae?enith? aieea ia eiioi?eaioa c iaoith
aeeeeeaoe a iueiai caiaeo c iaaaoeaiei noaeaeaiiyi. Iai?eeeaae:

“Other people’s love-affairs are very tedious”, said George
sententiously.

“Oh, very” (R. Aldington).

Aeine?aeaeoaai? aeneiaethaaiiy oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?aaiaoe/iith
a?aaeaioi?noth ? i?noyoue aea? ?eieooeai? ni?yiiaaiino?: ana?oeaio
(oa?i?i Aeae. Na?ey), ui ia?aaeaa/a? ia?aaea/o iaaaoeaiiai noaeaeaiiy
noa’?eoa ioe?iee, ? aeni?aneaio, iaoa yei? – aiioe?eii aieeiooe ia
eiioi?eaioa. Eiioi?eaoeaiee ?acoeueoao iiae?aieo aeneiaethaaiue
caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, iiaiaeaeo?oueny /e ia iiaiaeaeo?oueny
ni?a?iciiaiee c ?noei?noth iaaaoeaiiai noaeaeaiiy i?i ioe?ithaaiiai
?iaeea?aea.

?aae?caoe?y iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee o aeneiaethaaiiyo iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee
aae?anaoa cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iaaiei /eiii i?aai?ciaaieo
??cii??aiaaeo iiaieo cania?a. Caeaaeii a?ae niiniao ?ai?acaioaoe??
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee a ?aoa?iaai?e aeena?oaoe?? aeae?eythoueny
aeneiaethaaiiy c i?yiith ? iai?yiith iaaaoeaiith ioe?ieith aae?anaoa.
I?yi? iaaaoeaii-ioe?ii? aeneiaethaaiiy oa?aeoa?ecothoue o?ce/i?,
ii?aeuei?, aiioe?eii-ineo?/i?, nioe?aeuei?, nioe?i-eoeueoo?i?
aeanoeaino? oa yeino? aae?anaoa. Iiaiith ?aae?caoe??th iaaaoeaii?
ioe?iee ? eaene/i? iaeeieoe? ??cii? /anoeiiiiaii? i?eiaeaaeiino? c
iaaaoeaiei ioe?iiei cia/aiiyi o naiaioe/i?e no?oeoo?? neiaa: ?iaiieee
(fool, idiot, sneak, brute, coward, snob, villain, phony, bitch, cad ?
o.ae.), i?eeiaoieee (bad, contemptible, despicable, stupid, cruel, vain,
selfish, rude ? o.ae.), ae??neiaa (hate, despise, disgust, scorn,
condemn, lye, betray ? o.ae.) ? i?ene?aieee (badly, cowardly, awfully ?
o.ae.).

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa iiaeooue aaeeaaoeny
naiaioe/i? iaeeieoe?, ui iaaoaathoue iaaaoeaii-ioe?iiiai cia/aiiy o
aecia/aiiio eiioaeno?. Oae, caiaaeoi thiee a?e aae?anaoa iiaea
ni?eeiaoeny iiaoeai ye iaaeie?e, a i?eeiaoiee young iaaoaaoe iaaaoeaiiai
cia/aiiy: “You’re too young, my dear; they won’t let you”
(J. Galsworthy).

Iiaia ae?aaeaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny yaeuai
eaene/ii? ao?aeoe??. Aiii ia?aaeaa/a? i?aeaeuaio ?ioaineai?noue
aaeeaaiiy iaaaoeaii-ioe?iieo eaene/ieo iaeeieoeue o iaaeao iaaaeeeiai
oaenoo, yeee ?aae?co? iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy iiaoey aei aae?anaoa, ?
a?aeia?aaeo? noai aiioe?eiiai iai?oaeaiiy eiioi?eaio?a o i?ioean?
ni?eeoaaiiy. Iai?eeeaae: “I feel like an animal. A pig or rabbit or a
dog. […] But it wasn’t the real me. I’m not that hateful, beastly,
lustful woman. I disown her. It wasn’t me that lay on that bed panting
for you when my husband was hardly cold in his grave and your wife had
been so kind to me, so indescribably kind. It was only the animal in me,
dark and fearful like an evil spirit, and I disown, and hate and despise
it” (W.S. Maugham).

Iaaaoeaia ioe?iea aae?anaoa o aeneiaethaaiiyo iiaea aooe i?aaenoaaeaia
noanoaioeaieie (sexless bastard, perfect swine), aae’?eoeaieie
(absolutely infamous, horribly dirty), ae??ne?aieie (detest smb., behave
badly) neiainiieo/aiiyie, aea oi/a a iaeei aeaiaio iaaaoeaii ia?eiaaiee,
a oaeiae o?acaieia?/ieie neiainiieo/aiiyie, i???ioiaaieie ia iaaaoeaio
ioe?ieo (drive smb. crazy, get on smb’s nerves, be off one’s nut, son of
a bitch oa ?i.).

Aiae?c oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aeey ia?aaea/?
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?
aeei?enoiaothoueny aeaineeaaei? ?a/aiiy, ye? a?aeia?aaeothoue
?ao?iniaeoeaio, ia?niaeoeaio ? iioi/io /aniao ni?yiiaai?noue. Ae?aaeaiiy
iaaaoeaiiai noaaeaiiy iiaoey aei aae?anaoa cae?enith?oueny
??ciiiai?oieie neioaene/ieie eiino?oeoe?yie: eiiia?aoeaieie c
ooieoe?iiaeueiei neiaii like oa ei?aethth/eie i?ene?aieeaie as…as
(like a fool, as disgusting as his farther), ae?ioe/ieie (the wild
Buccaneer), ?iia?aoeaieie, i?aaenoaaeaieie o oi?i? a?ooaeueieo iaeac?a ?
aeiia (Go to hell!), no?oeoo?aie, aea ae?aaeai? i?ieeyooy (Damn you!,
Woe betide you!). On?i eiioi?eaoeaiei oeiai iaaaoeaii-ioe?iieo
aeneiaethaaiue i?eoaiaiia aaeeaaiiy ??cieo cania?a ?ioaineo?eaoe??
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee: aoaeoeaieo i?eeiaoiee?a (terrible, awful, horrible
oa ?i.), ?ioaineo?eoth/eo i?ene?aiee?a (really, very, too, much, such),
aeac?aieo caeiaiiee?a (this, that, those), aeaoe?a (what, how), a oaeiae
iiaoi?o iaaaoeaii-ioe?iieo eiiiiiaio?a, ?iaa?n?? ? o.ae. Aiie ni?eythoue
iiai?e ?aae?caoe?? eiioi?eaoeaieo iai???a iiaoey.

O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeyaeaii, ui aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii?
ioe?iee aae?anaoa iiaeooue ia?aaeaaaoeny noaa?aeaeoaaeueieie ?
caia?a/ieie neioaene/ieie eiino?oeoe?yie, ye? aieeaathoue ia no?oeoo?o ?
ci?no aeneiaethaaiiy. O eaeneei-a?aiaoe/i?e no?oeoo?? aeneiaethaaiiy
caia?a/aiiy noaaeueiiai noaaeaiiy iiaoey aei aae?anaoa, eiai iiceoeaieo
yeinoae, aeanoeainoae ?aae?co?oueny neioaene/iith eiino?oeoe??th c
ia?ea?ii caia?a/aiiy, ae?aaeaiei /anoeith not. Caia?a/aiiy ?icoe?th?
naiaioeeo aeneiaethaaiiy, ia?aaea? aeiaeaoeiao ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
aiioe?eiee noai iiaoey: “[…] I just can’t stand the sonuvabitch”
(J.D. Salinger).

Aiae?c iaoa??aeo na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aaeeaaiiy iai?yieo cania?a ni?ey?
iii’yeoaiith eaoaai?e/iino? iaaaoeaiiai noaeaeaiiy ? anoaiiaeaiith
niie?eiiai, aaceiioe?eoiiai noeeth ni?eeoaaiiy. Ae?aaeaiiy iai?yii?
ioe?iee cae?enith?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith iaaaoeaii-ioe?iieo eaene/ieo
iaeeieoeue, i?e oeueiio iiaaoeue iaceaa? ae??, a/eiee ? i?aaeiaoe, ye?
iathoue aaciina?aaei? a?aeiioaiiy aei iniae aae?anaoa, iai?eeeaae: “Play
that off on your blasted fiddle”, he shouted (W.S. Maugham). ?aae?caoe?y
iai?yii? ioe?iee iiaeeeaa oaeiae aac iaaaoeaieo eaene/ieo ia?ea??a, o
oaeiio aeiaaeeo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y iaaaoeaiiai ci?noo aeneiaethaaiiy
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae aieeaii eiioaenoo ? neooaoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy,
iai?eeeaae: Julia’s manner had been for some minutes growing stiffer and
now, though gracious still, it was almost haughty. “I’m so sorry, but we
never allow strangers behind” (W.S. Maugham). O aeaiiio i?eeeaae?
iaeo?aeueia ca oi?iith aeneiaethaaiiy ia?aaea? iaaaaeaiiy iiaoey
(aeoi?ee oaao?o) cai?iooaaoe aae?anaoa aei nai?? a?eioaaeueii? e?iiaoe,
oea aeaiiino?o? iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aeo?ene aei ni?a?iciiaieea.

Aoei aeyaeaii, ui ?aae?caoe?y iaaaoeaii? iai?yii? ioe?iee iiaea
ia?aaeaaaoeny oaeiae aeneiaethaaiiyie, ye? aeeth/athoue eiino?oeoe?? c
iiaeaeuei?noth iiaeiiino? oa ii?aaee: should + Inf., you’d better +
Inf., ought + Inf., have + Inf., might + Inf., need + Inf., must + Inf.
A iniia? iiae?aieo aeneiaethaaiue eaaeeoue ioe?iea ae?e aae?anaoa ye
ianoaaeueieo, oaeeo, ye? ia a?aeiia?aeathoue oe?eyi ? aaaeaiiyi iiaoey:

Frederica. Perhaps you might surprise me for once (J. Osborne).

“I don’t think I dreamt”.

“You ought to dream”, Bill said. (E. Hemingway).

Iaei??th c oi?i ae?aaeaiiy iaaaoeaii? iai?yii? ioe?iee ? ?eoi?e/ia
ieoaiiy, yea ae?aaea? ianoaaeaiiy iiaoeai ae?e, a/eie?a, aeanoeainoae
aae?anaoa, a oaeiae ia?aaea? aeiaeaoeiao ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ineoieia?/iee
noai iiaoey: […] and then looked at himself carefully in the glass,
pulling down his long upper lip. “My God!” he said, “isn’t it an awful
face?” (E. Hemingway).

Ia?aaea/a iaaaoeaii? iai?yii? ioe?iee iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny ca aeiiiiiaith
aeneiaethaaiue ?c naiaioeeith aeaa/aiiy I’m sorry, Excuse me, Forgive
me, Pardon, I’m afraid. Aenie?eaoe?y aeaa/aiiy ia? ia oaac? eayooy,
iaaaoeaio ioe?ieo iiaoeai nai?o ae?e, a/eie?a, aeoiie. Aeaa/aiiy aeeiio?
oaeiae iaoaeiioi?eaoeaio ooieoe?th, ni?yiiaaio ia anoaiiaeaiiy eiioaeoo
c? neooa/ai, caeo/aiiy eiai aei eiioi?eaoe??:

“I’m sorry, Jake. Please forgive me”. […]

“Oh, that’s all right” (E. Hemingway).

“Forgive me for troubling you. I am afraid I have come at an
inconvenient moment” (W.S. Maugham).

Iaaaoeaia iai?yia ioe?iea ia?aaea?oueny ?iia?aoeaieie aeneiaethaaiiyie a
noaa?aeaeoaaeuei?e ? caia?a/i?e oi?iao. O aeneiaethaaiiyo a
noaa?aeaeoaaeuei?e oi?i? (be + A, be + (A) N) i?noyoueny eaene/i?
iaeeieoe? c naiith iiceoeaii? ioe?iee: “Be a good chap, Jake”
(E. Hemingway). I?iaeoeoth/e aeaia aeneiaethaaiiy, iiaaoeue ia? ia
aeoioe?“You are not a good chap, Jake” ? niiioea? aae?anaoa aei
aeeiiaiiy aaaeaieo aeey naaa ae?e. O aeneiaethaaiiyo a caia?a/i?e oi?i?
(don’t be + A, don’t be + (A) N, don’t + V + N, don’t + V + eiiia?aoeaia
eiino?oeoe?y) iiaaoeue, niiioeath/e aae?anaoa aei ci?ie o?ce/iiai aai
iaioaeueiiai noaio, iai?yii ioe?ith? eiai ae?? ye iaaaoeai?: “Don’t be
tiresome, Humphrey” (W.S. Maugham).

Iai?yieie ? oaeiae o? aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee, ye? i?noyoue
caia?a/aiiy yei?nue ae??, yeino?, a/eieo aae?anaoa, ui eaae?o?eothoueny
iiaoeai ye iiceoeai?. Iiae?ai? aeneiaethaaiiy ia aeeth/athoue aei naiai
neeaaeo eaene/ieo ?iaeeeaoi??a iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee, a ?o i?aaiaoe/ia
ni?yiiaai?noue aecia/a?oueny ia iniia? caaaeueieo oiiiaeo ciaiue
eiioi?eaio?a.

“Look here, my man”, said Hurstwood authoritatively. “You don’t
understand anything about this case […]” (Th. Dreiser).

Aeey ae?aaeaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee oaeiae iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue
??ii?y:

“Thy predecessor the famous Judas Iscariot hanged himself”, Pilar said.

“Don’t talk to me that way, woman”, Pablo said. […]“Don’t talk of Judas
nor nothing of that, I am back” (E. Hemingway).

Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe i?aaiaoe/io iaiaeiicia/i?noue aeneiaethaaiue
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa – ?o caeaoi?noue ia?aaeaaaoe ??ci?
eiioi?eaoeai? iai??e iiaoey. Caeaaeii a?ae ?ioaioe?? noa’?eoa ioe?iee
iaaaoeaia aeneiaethaaiiy iiaea iaaoaaoe iiceoeaiiai cia/aiiy.
Aaeaeaaoiee ioe?iiee ci?no, caeeaaeaiee o aeneiaethaaiiy iiaoeai,
aecia/a?oueny ia iniia? eiioaenoo ? caaaeueii? neooaoe?? ni?eeoaaiiy.
Iai?eeeaae:

“Ar, you was a wicked devil you was”, said Mrs. Pelumpton, with
reluctant admiration.

“Oh dear, oh dear!” Mr. Pelumpton chuckled. (J.B. Priestley).

A oiae? aiae?co aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee
aae?anaoa oa?aeoa?ecothoueny caeo/aiiyi iaaa?aaeueieo eiiiiiaio?a
eiioi?eaoe??, na?aae ieo iaea?eueo oaeeaaieie ? i?iniaee/i?, i?i?/i?,
e?iane/i?, i?ienai?/i?. O iiaeaii? oe? eiiiiiaioe iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoenue iaaienii aai niiioaiii, aiie caeiathoue iaaio
iiceoe?th o aeneiaethaaii?: ciaoiaeyoueny o i?aiiceoe??, noi?iaiaeyoue
aeneiaethaaiiy ? noiyoue o iinoiiceoe?? aei iueiai. Aaeeaaiiy
iaaa?aaeueieo cania?a eiioi?eaoe?? neoaeeoue aeey iaeiicia/ii?
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oa ?ioaineo?eaoe?? iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee.

O eiioaeno? iaaa?aaeuei? caniae ae?aaeaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee
ia?aaeathoueny eaene/ieie ? eaeneei-naiaioe/ieie iaeeieoeyie, ye?
a?ae??ciythoueny ca oa?aeoa?ii aeie?oeeoiiai oa ?iie?oeeoiiai
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c iaaa?aaeueieie eiiiiiaioaie ? c iaaaoeaiith ioe?ieith.

Oaeei /eiii, ?ieue aae?anaoa aieeaa? ia naiaioe/ia iaiiaiaiiy oa
i?aaiaoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue iaaaoeaii-ioe?iieo aeneiaethaaiue. A?aooaaiiy
iiaoeai oaeoi?a aae?anaoa ni?ey? oni?oi?e eiioi?eaoe??. Aea/aiiy ?ie?
aae?anaoa a i?aai?caoe?? iiaeaii?aiai i?ioeano ? aaaaoianiaeoiith
i?iaeaiith, yea iio?aao? anaa?/iiai e?iaa?noe/iiai ?icaeyaeo.

Ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy iaaaoeaii-ioe?iieo
aeneiaethaaiue, i?eeiyoee o aeaiiio aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?, ?
ia?niaeoeaiei aeey iiaeaeueoiai aiae?co iniaeeainoae ia?aaea/? ioe?iiiai
ci?noo. Ia?niaeoeaiei ? oaeiae ?icaeyae aeeneo?neaieo iniaeeainoae
aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. ?aai/aiei O.A. I?i eiiiiiaioe noa’?eoeaiiai cia/aiiy a iia? //
Iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – 1996. – ?1. –
N. 36-39.

2. ?aai/aiei O.A., ?iaaothe A. No?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee
ao?eaooeaieo neiainiieo/aiue, ui ia?aaeathoue i?ace?noai a no/ani?e
aiae?enuee?e iia? // Iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. – 1997. – ?5. – N. 14-15.

3. ?aai/aiei O.A. Eiioi?eaoeai? noa?e ?aae?caoe?? iiaieo cania?a, ui
ia?aaeathoue i?ace?noai a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia? // Iaoeiaee a?niee
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – 1997. – ?4. – N. 69.

4. ?aai/aiei O.A. Aeaye? eiioaenooaeuei? iniaeeaino? ia?aaea/?
iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa (ia iaoa??ae? no/anii? aiae?enueei? iiae)
// Iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – 1998. – ?3.
– N. 75-77.

5. Eaai/aiei O.A. Oeiieiaey aae?anaoiie iai?aaeaiiinoe auneacuaaiee
io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee a nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea // A?niee
Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – 1998. – ?416. – N. 58-62.

6. Eaai/aiei O.A. ?ieue aae?anaoiie iai?aaeaiiinoe auneacuaaiee
io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee a i?ioeanna iao/aiey eiino?aiiui ycueai // Oace
aeiiia?aeae 3-? I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? «Eiii’thoa?ia
e?iaa?noeea oa aeeeaaeaiiy /oaeicaiieo iia o aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao». – Euea?a. – 1998. – N. 216-217.

E?enaiiaa O.A. Aeneiaethaaiiy iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa a no/ani?e
aiae?enuee?e iia? (eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/iee aniaeo). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.04 – aa?iainuee? iiae. – Ee?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aea/aiith naiaioe/ieo oa
eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae aeneiaethaaiue iaaaoeaii?
ioe?iee aae?anaoa a no/ani?e aiae?enuee?e iia?. Ia iniia?
ooieoe?iiaeueii-i?aaiaoe/ieo e?eoa???a o ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaia
eiioi?eaoeaia oeiieia?y iaaaoeaii-ioe?iieo aeneiaethaaiue, cae?eniaii ?o
??ciia?/iee aiae?c. Aeyaeaii oa iienaii iiai? oa iaiiai? caniae, ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny o ?aae?caoe?? iaaaoeaii? ioe?iee aae?anaoa.
Anoaiiaeaii i?aaiaoe/iee iioaioe?ae aeine?aeaeoaaieo aeneiaethaaiue,
aeyaeaii aieea aeno?ae?iaa?noe/ieo oaeoi??a ia ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaaaoeaia ioe?iea, eiioi?eaoeaia oeiieia?y, i?aaiaoe/iee
iioaioe?ae, iiai? caniae, aae?anao, eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/i?
iniaeeaino?.

E?unaiiaa O.A. Auneacuaaiey io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee aae?anaoa a
nia?aiaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea (eiiioieeaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/aneee aniaeo). –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.04 – aa?iaineea ycuee. – Eeaaneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue eeiaaenoe/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eco/aieth naiaioe/aneeo e
eiiioieeaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae auneacuaaiee io?eoeaoaeueiie
ioeaiee aae?anaoa. Iiiyoea ioeaiee a ?aaioa o?aeooaony eae ioeaii/iia
(iieiaeeoaeueiia eee io?eoeaoaeueiia) ioiioaiea aiai?yuaai e aae?anaoo,
a eioi?ii ?aaeecoaony aicaeaenoaothuay neea aiai?yuaai ia aae?anaoa
auneacuaaiey, iai?aaeaiiay ia aeinoeaeaiea
eiiioieeaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa. Auneacuaaiey io?eoeaoaeueiie
ioeaiee aae?anaoa ?anniao?eaathony eae yiioeaii-ioeaii/iua, o.e. iie
i?aaeiieaaatho ia oieueei ?aoeeiiaeueiue (ioeaii/iue) eiiiiiaio, ii e
yiioeaiue, ia?aaeathuee eiiieaen yiioeee io?eoeaoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a. A
?aaioa aiai?yuee e aae?anao ii?aaeaeythony eae ?aaiiiieiaeaiiua
o/anoieee eiiioieeaoeaiiai aeoa, iaoiaeyueany a ia?ac?uaiii
acaeiiaeaenoaee. Io oaeoi?a aae?anaoa a ii?aaeae?iiie noaiaie caaeneo
auai? aiai?yuei ycueiauo oi?i au?aaeaiey iaaaoeaiie ioeaiee, oniaoiinoue
inouanoaeaiey eiiioieeaoeaiuo iaia?aiee eiiioieeaioia, oa?aeoa?
i?aaiaoe/aneiai yooaeoa.

A enneaaeiaaiee aue auyaeai neiaeiue, i?ioeai?a/eaue oa?aeoa?
auneacuaaiee io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee aae?anaoa. N iaeiie noi?iiu,
aiai?yuee /aoei e ynii au?aaeaao nai? iaaaoeaiia ioiioaiea e aae?anaoo a
niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiii eiiia?aoeee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aiai?yuee
iaycai ecaaaaoue iaaeaaii?eyoiuo aeey aae?anaoa noaeaeaiee a
niioaaonoaee n i?eioeeiii aaaeeeainoe. Ia naiaioe/aneoth no?oeoo?o e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea io?eoeaoaeueii-ioeaii/iuo auneacuaaiee ieacuaatho
aeeyiea ?acee/iua nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u: nioeeaeueiue e ?ieaaie noaoon
eiiioieeaioia, eo aic?ano, iie, noaiaiue ineoieiae/aneie aeecinoe.

A iniiaa eiiioieeaoeaiie oeiieiaee auneacuaaiee io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee
aae?anaoa eaaeao iai?aaeaiiinoue au?aaeaiey io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee,
niinia ?ai?acaioaoeee iaaaoeaiie ioeaiee, aniaeo ioeaiee,
eiiioieeaoeaiay iiaeeoeeaoeey aae?anaoa iaaaoeaii-ioeaii/iiai
auneacuaaiey.

A caaeneiinoe io iai?aaeaiiinoe au?aaeaiey iaaaoeaiie ioeaiee
auaeaeythony noauaeoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiua e iauaeoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiua
auneacuaaiey. Aace?oynue ia aniaeoa io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee, a ?aaioa
?anniao?eaathony iauaiioeaii/iua e /anoiiiioeaii/iua auneacuaaiey
io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee aae?anaoa. Aniaeo iaaaoeaiie ioeaiee
ii?aaeaeyaony ea/anoaaie e aeaenoaeyie ioeaieaaaiiai iauaeoa. Ia iniiaa
niiniaa ?ai?acaioaoeee io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee a ?aaioa
aeeooa?aioee?othony auneacuaaiey n i?yiui e einaaiiui niaea?aeaieai
iaaaoeaiie ioeaiee aae?anaoa.

A caaeneiinoe io eiiioieeaoeaiuo iiaeeoeeaoeee aae?anaoa auee auaeaeaiu
neaaeothuea oeiu io?eoeaoaeueii-ioeaii/iuo auneacuaaiee: auneacuaaiey
io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee i?yiiai aae?anaoa, auneacuaaiey io?eoeaoaeueiie
ioeaiee aae?anaioa e auneacuaaiey io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee o?aoueaai
eeoea, iiaouaai i?enoonoaiaaoue eee ionoonoaiaaoue i?e neooaoeee
iauaiey.

A i?aaiaoe/aneii ieaia aiaeece?oaiua auneacuaaiey ?anniao?eaathony eae
yeni?anneaiue i?aaiaoe/aneee oei, inouanoaeythuee ?aaoee?iaaiea
yiioeeiiaeueii-ioeaii/iie e nioeeaeueiie noa?u aeayoaeueiinoe
eiiioieeaioia, iaoiaeyueony a ioiioaieyo “aiai?yuee – aae?anao”. Auea
onoaiiaeaia iieeaaeaioiinoue auneacuaaiee io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee
aae?anaoa – niiniaiinoue iaeiia?aiaiii n yeni?anneaiie iai?aaeaiiinoueth
niaea?aeaoue eiia i?aaiaoe/aneia cia/aiea.

?aaeecaoeey iaaaoeaiie ioeaiee a enneaaeoaiuo auneacuaaieyo
inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth ?aciio?iaiaauo ycueiauo n?aaenoa. Auee
auyaeaiu ycueiaua n?aaenoaa, i?aaenoaaeaiiua eaene/aneeie aaeeieoeaie
?acee/iie /anoa?a/iie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe (nouanoaeoaeueiuie,
i?eeaaaoaeueiuie, aeaaieaie, ia?a/eyie) n naiie «io?eoeaoaeueiinoe» a
naiaioe/aneie no?oeoo?a eee i?eia?aoathueie iaaaoeaiia ioeaii/iia
cia/aiea a ii?aaeae?iiie neooaoeee iauaiey; naiaiaeiuie e
o?acaieiae/aneeie neiaini/aoaieyie, a oaeaea neioaene/aneeie
eiino?oeoeeyie. Anai oeiai auneacuaaiee i?enoua eniieueciaaiea
?aciiia?aciuo n?aaenoa eioaineoeeaoeee io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee.

Auneacuaaiey io?eoeaoaeueiie ioeaiee aae?anaoa oa?aeoa?ecothony
i?eaea/aieai iaaa?aaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia eiiioieeaoeee (i?iniaee/aneeo,
ieie/aneeo, eeiane/aneeo, i?ienaie/aneeo). Oiio?aaeaiea iaaa?aaeueiuo
n?aaenoa eiiioieeaoeee neoaeeo oeaeyi iaeiicia/iie eioa?i?aoaoeee e
eioaineoeeaoeee iaaaoeaiie ioeaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: io?eoeaoaeueiay ioeaiea, eiiioieeaoeaiay oeiieiaey,
i?aaiaoe/aneee iioaioeeae, ycueiaua n?aaenoaa, aae?anao,
eiiioieeaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/aneea iniaaiiinoe.

Krysanova T.A. Utterances of Negative Evaluation of the Addressee in
Modern English (Communicative and Pragmatic Aspect). – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree in philology by speciality 10.02.04 –
Germanic Languages. – Kyiv State Linguistic University, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is focused on semantic, communicative and pragmatic
peculiarities of English utterances, conveying the negative evaluation
of the addressee. The communicative typology of the negative evaluative
utterances is provided on the basis of functional-pragmatic criteria,
the complex analysis of the utterances is carried out. The verbal and
non-verbal means that carry the negative evaluation of the addressee are
determined and analysed. The pragmatic potential of the examined
utterances is specified and the impact of the extralinguistic factors on
the communicative organization of negative utterances is also
identified.

Key words: negative evaluation, communicative typology, pragmatic
potential, verbal means, addressee, communicative and pragmatic
peculiarities.

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