I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”

*aee?anueeee Inoai Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE: 678.7

OAOIIEIA?ss IAeA?AEAIIss IAOOIIIE?IA?IEO NIIE C E?IOeAAEIE
EA?AIENEEUeIEIE A?OIAIE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 05.17.04 – Oaoiieia?y i?iaeoeo?a i?aai?/iiai neioaco

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? ia?a?iaee iaooe oa aaco
Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A?aoe/ae Ieoaeei Ieeieaeiae/,

Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
o?i?/ii? oaoiieia?? ia?a?iaee iaooe oa aaco

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeoinueeee TH??e A?nna??iiiae/, AAO
“AIEEOEiaooaoeiiai?oaeiaaiea”, canooiiee aai. aee?aeoi?a, i.Aieaia?aae

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eaaoo Na?a?e Neaei?iae/, Aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ioi?iie
i?aoe?

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

?inoeooo a?ii?aai?/ii? o?i?? ? iaooio?i?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “17” aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.052.07 o Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” ca aae?anith: 290646, i. Euea?a-13, ie. na.
TH?a, 3/4, ei?i. 8, aoae. 339.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” ca aae?anith: Euea?a-13, aoe.
I?ioani?nueea, 1.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 14 ” na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

ciaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.052.07

aeieoi? o?i?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
AEeciaanueeee A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?icoe?aiiy iaeanoae canoinoaaiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a ia?aaeaa/a? iiooe iiaeo oei?a ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo ie?aiia??a
oa noai?aiiy aeieia?/ii /enoeo oaoiieia?e ?o iaea?aeaiiy ia iniia?
aeinooiii? ne?iaeiii? aace.

Ia aeaiee /an oe?iea canoinoaaiiy io?eiaee iaooiiie?ia?i? niiee (IIN).
Aaaaeaiiy ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi a no?oeoo?o IIN
coiiaeth? aeei?enoaiiy ?o a ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocyo i?iieneiaino?:
aoiiai-oaoi?/i?e, eaeioa?aia?e, oeaetheici-iaia?ia?e. Aiie ? cai?iieeaie
i?e?iaeiuei? ne?iaeie ? iaea?aeothoueny c ??aeeeo i?iaeoeo?a i??ie?co
(?II)-a?aeiaaee?a ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaio. Ie?ai? o?aeoe?? ?II
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieith iaiane/ai?noth, ui iaoiiaeaia i?enooi?noth a
?o neeaae? a?i?eiaeo oa ae??iiaeo iiiiia??a.

Caaaeueiith oaiaeaioe??th a aaeoc? eiiiiceoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a ?
aeei?enoaiiy ie?aiia??a c e?ioeaaeie ooieoe?iiaeueieie a?oiaie.
Ea?aieneeuei? a?oie ? iaeieie c iaea?eueo ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo, ai
noai?ththoue ia?aaeoiiae aeey iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue eiiaeainaoe?eieie
iaoiaeaie. I?iaeaia iaea?aeaiiy no?oeoo? c ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie ia
e?ioeyo eaioethaa iiaea aooe ae??oaia iaoiaeaie iie?ia?ecaoe??,
iie?eiiaeainaoe?? oa oeyoii iciiie?co aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe. Iaeiei
c iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieo ? iaoiae ?aaeeeaeueii? ie?aiia?ecaoe??
iaiane/aieo niieoe, ?i?oe?eiaaiee a?ooieoe?iiaeueieie ?i?oe?aoi?aie.
Iayai?noue a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa oaeeo ?i?oe?aoi??a noai?th?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey eaae?o?eiaaii? ia?a?iaee ?II. Oiio iaea?aeaiiy IIN c
e?ioeaaeie ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie (IINE) ? aaaeeeaei iaoeiaei ?
i?aeoe/iei caaaeaiiyi.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa ?
neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiaiai iai?yieo eaoaae?e o?i?/ii? oaoiieia??
ia?a?iaee iaooe oa aaco Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea” – “?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo iniia iaea?aeaiiy aenieiieoaiiaeo
eiiiiiaio?a iioi?ieo iaeea, iiaa?oiaai-aeoeaieo ?a/iaei, iiiiia??a ?
aeiiii?aeieo iaoa??ae?a c iaooiai? oa aaciai? ne?iaeie”. ?iaioa
aeeth/aia a Iaoe?iiaeueio iaoeiai-oaoi?/io i?ia?aio “Iaooiia?a?iaea oa
iaooio?i?y 1992-2010” (? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoe?? 0187U095012).

Iaoa ?iaioe. Noai?aiiy iniia oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo
niie c e?ioeaaeie ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie, ye? aacothoueny ia
aeine?aeaeaii? caeiiii??iinoae ie?aiia?ecaoe?? iaiane/aieo aoaeaaiaei?a
o?aeoe?? N9 ??aeeeo i?iaeoeo?a i??ie?co ?c canoinoaaiiyi
a?ooieoe?iiaeueieo ?i?oe?aoi??a.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeoe caeiiii??iino? iaea?aeaiiy IINE ia
aac? o?aeoe?? N9. Aea?aoe ?i?oe?aoi? oa ca aoaeoeai?noth eiai ?iceeaaeo
iioei?coaaoe i?ioean. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo noai?aiiy eiiiiceoe?eieo
iaoa??ae?a oa aecia/eoe oeyoe ?o canoinoaaiiy. ?ic?iaeoe iniiae
oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy IINE.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeine?aeaeaii i?ioeane
?iceeaaeo 4,4’-aci-a?n-(4-oe?aiiaioaiiai? eeneioe) (ACE) oa
ia?ien?aeeaeooa?iai? eeneioe (IAeAE) ye ?i?oe?aoi??a ?aaeeeaeueii?
ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? iaiane/aieo eiiiiiaio?a o?aeoe?? N9. Anoaiiaeaii
aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy ACE aeey iaea?aeaiiy IINE.

I?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano a oiiaao iino?eii? oaeaeeino? ?iceeaaeo ?i?oe?aoi?a
(2,0 ieiieue/(e(n), ui aeinyaa?oueny ieaiiaei i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e
oa a?aeai?ii ?ic/eiieea ia caaa?oaeueieo noaae?yo o eiiieaen? c
i?aeaioiaeith ne?iaeie, aeicaieeei io?eiaoe i?iaeoeo c iieaeoey?iith
ianith 2060, ui aaea?/? ia?aaeuo? aiaeia?/iee iieaciee aeey IIN
oa?i?/ii? ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe??. Aeinyaiooi aoaeoeai?noue ?iceeaaeo ACE 74
%, ui ia?aaeuo? 68 % — aeey noe?ieo a aoeaoii? a ?cioa?i?/ieo oiiaao.
Ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue iaea?aeaiiai i?iaeoeoo 1,94 ? aeuith ca 1,8, ui
aeinyaa?oueny i?e ie?aiia?ecaoe?? noe?ieo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe. Noai?aii iniiae oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy
IINE. Ciaeaeaii ?aoeaioo?e oa aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? oiiae caoaa?aeaeaiiy
iie?ia?ieo eiiiiceoe?e ?c canoinoaaiiyi IINE. Aeiaaaeaii aeioe?euei?noue
?o aeei?enoaiiy ye eeaeiaeo iaoa??ae?a, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeoaie
aei?iaoaaiue.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o naiino?eiiio aeeiiaii?
aenia?eiaioaeueii? /anoeie ?iaioe, aiae?c? oa iaoaiaoe/i?e ia?iaoe?
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, oi?ioethaaii? iniiaieo oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue
?iaioe. Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe, aeniiaee, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeeiiai? ?
?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii naiino?eii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Euea?anuee?
o?i?/i? /eoaiiy” (i. Euea?a, 1995 ?.), XII I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? aei 30-??//y eaoaae?e OOII “Ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo ieanoian a Oe?a?i?” (i. Euea?a, 1995 ?.), XXXV eiioa?aioe??
IUPAC (Oo?a//eia, Noaiaoe, 1995 ?.), VIII Oe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? c
aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe (i. Ee?a, 1996 ?.), I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??
“Aaca?aeoiaei? oaoiieia?? ? canoinoaaiiy iia?/ieo i?iaeoeo?a” (Iieueua,
i. Eoean?i, 1998 ?.), ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iinooi a
iaooiaaciia?a?iai?e ? iaooio?i?/i?e i?iieneiaino?” (i. Euea?a, 1998 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe aeeeaaeaiee o 4 noaooyo o oaoiaeo
aeo?iaeao oa 7 oacao iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e.

No?oeoo?a oa ia’?i ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
5 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a.
Iaoa??aee aeeeaaeai? ia 150 noi??ieao, i?noyoue 27 ?enoie?a ? 34
oaaeeoe?.

Aianie aaoi?a o ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, ui aeiinyoueny ia
caoeno, ? iniiaiei.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue oa aeooaeuei?noue aea/aiiy
i?iaeaie iaea?aeaiiy IINE, anoaiiaeaii iaoo ?iaioe, ?? iaoeiao iiaecio
oa i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue. Iaaaaeaii iniiaio ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ii?iaaoe?th
?iaioe oa ioae?eaoe??.

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie oa
ooieoe?iiaeueieo ie?aiia??a

Aeeeaaeaii e?eoe/iee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae i?i iaoiaee
iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo ie?aiia??a. Iaeyae
e?oa?aoo?e iieacaa, ui ?aeeiei ?ic?iaeaiei iaoiaeii aaaaeaiiy a IIN
ea?aieneeueieo a?oi ? iiaeeo?eaoey ?o iaiane/aieie eeneioaie oa
aia?ae?eaeaie. Iieacaii, ui iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy IINE ia iniia?
iiiiia??a iaoiiaeaia aeei?enoaiiyi ?yaeo niaoeeo?/ieo ?i?oe?thth/eo
nenoai. Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy caeiiii??iinoae
?aaeeeaeueii? ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? o?aeoe?? ?II a i?enooiino?
a?ooieoe?iiaeueieo ea?aieneeai?nieo ?i?oe?aoi??a. Ia iniia? oeueiai
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo ? iniiai? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe.

?icae?e 2. Iaoiaeeee aenia?eiaio?a oa ia’?eoe aeine?aeaeaiue

sse ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoaii o?aeoe?th N9 i??ie?co aaiceio (AO
“Iaooio?i?e”, i. Eene/ainuee Eoaainueei? iae.) oa aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa
(AAO “I??aia”, i. Eaeoo ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iae.), ui ? iia?/ieie
i?iaeoeoaie ae?iaieoeoaa aoeeaio.

Aeenoeeyoe?y o?aeoe?e N9 cae?enithaaeanue c iaoith ?? i/enoee a?ae
niieiiiae?aieo eiiiiiaio?a a?aeai?ii 90% ia. eiiiiiaio?a ne?iaeie.
?aeoeo?eaoe?eia ?icae?eaiiy eiiiiiaio?a o?aeoe?e i?iaiaeeeinue ia
aaeooii?e onoaiiaoe? /?oei? ?aeoeo?eaoe?? a na?aaeiaeu? a?aiio.

Aoaeaaiaeiaaee neeaae o?aeoe?e N9 i??ie?co aaiceio oa aeecaeueiiai
iaeeaa i?eaaaeaii a oaae. 1.

Aeey aea/aiiy e?iaoeee ?iceeaaeo ACE aeei?enoaii aiethiiiao?e/iee
iaoiae. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeenue a oa?iinoaoiaaiiio neeyiiio
?aaeoi?? ia’?iii 1,25(10-4 i3, iaeaaeiaiiio eiaeooii, oa?iiiao?ii,
iaai?oiith i?oaeeith ? cai?ioi?i oieiaeeeueieeii, c’?aeiaiei c nenoaiith
aeiaethaaiiy aac?a.

I?ioean iaea?aeaiiy niie c ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie i?iaiaeeee a neeyieo
aiioeao ia’?iii 5(10-5 i3. A iiia?aaeiuei i?iaeooo a?aiiii aiioeo
iii?uaee iaaaaeeo ne?iaeie ? aeiaeaaaee aoeaoiiiaee ?ic/ei ?i?oe?aoi?a,
caiathaaee ? caaaioaaeoaaee a oa?iinoaoiaaiee ia?ai?ooth/ee i?eno??e.
I?ney cae?i/aiiy aenia?eiaioo aiioee ioieiaeaeoaaee, a?aee?eaaee ?
i?ae’?aeioaaee aei aaeooiii? nenoaie i?e aa?aiooaaii? a?aiio. I?ney
a?aeai?o aoeaoiio ai?no aiioe o?eueo?o-

Oaaeeoey 1

Ai?no iniiaieo eiiiiiaio?a o?aeoe?e N9 i??ie?co aaiceio oa aeecaeueiiai
iaeeaa

Eiiiiiaio Ai?no eiiiiiaioa, % ian. o o?aeoe?? N9 i??ie?co

Aaiceio Aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa

aeo?aeia 90% a?aea?i ?aeoeo?eao aeo?aeia 90% a?aea?i ?aeoeo?eao

Eneeiee 25,82 24,60 59,19 19,84 19,71 42,21

Noe?ie 8,91 9,77 15,85 16,93 17,80 38,00

Aoeeoieoiee 6,15 6,70 1,92 4,02 4,34 0,44

Inaaaeieoiie 0,45 0,33 0,07 0,73 0,31 —

A?i?eoieoiee 7,24 4,95 0,10 9,13 9,46 —

AeOeIAe 20,58 16,18 0,35 17,78 17,27 0,14

?iaeai 3,46 3,25 — 3,51 3,27 —

aaee /a?ac o?eueo? Oioa ?2 ? ia?aiineee a iao?ieaeiee ao?? aeey
inaaeaeoaaiiy IINE. *a?ac 24 aiaeeie io?eiaiee aaeue aenoooaaee i?e 323E
? caeeoeiaiio oeneo 4 — 7 eIa.

I?ioean iaea?aeaiiy IINE c a?aeai?ii ?ic/eiieea ia caaa?oaeuei?e noaae??
i?iaiaeeee a oianoino?iiiio neeyiiio a?iiaaiiio ?aaeoi?? ia’?iii
2,5(10-4 i3, iaeaaeiaiiio eiaeooii, iaai?oiith i?oaeeith, oa?iiiao?ii ?
aaioeeai, iine?aeiaii c’?aeiaiei c eiiaeainaoi?ii-oieiaeeeueieeii.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeo aoaeaaiaeiaaeo noi?oae ? IINE aeei?enoaii
o?ceei-o?i?/i? iaoiaee aiae?co (aaci??aeeiia o?iiaoi??ao?y,
?*-niaeo?ineii?y, oeo?eiao?e/iee aiae?c, e??ineii?y). Iienaii iniiai?
iaoiaeeee i/enoee ?aaeoea?a, i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?c?a oa aeine?aeaeaiue, ui
aeei?enoaii o ianooiieo ?icae?eao ?iaioe.

?icae?e 3. ?ic?iaea iaoiaeo iaea?aeaiiy IIN c ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie

?i?oe?aoi?aie i?ioeano ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? iaiane/aieo niieoe, ui
i?noyoueny o o?aeoe?? N9 aeei?enoaii a?ooieoe?iiaeuei? aci- ?
ia?ieneniieoeo ianooiii? aoaeiae:

ACE oi?ioee:

IAeAE oi?ioee:

C?iaeaii aiae?c iaoai?ci?a ?iceeaaeo ?i?oe?aoi??a oa iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a
aeei?enoaiiy ia?aeiieo ?aaeeeae?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ACE ia ?ic/eiia o aeo?aei?e o?aeoe?? N9. Aeey ?ic/eiaiiy
?i?oe?aoi?a aea?aii aoeaoii, ui iaea?eueo iiaii caaeia?eueiya iinoaaeai?
aeiiae uiaei oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a oa ?ia?oiino? ii a?aeiioaiith aei
?aaaaio?a. Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue ?ic/eiii? caeaoiino? ACE a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o?aeoe?y N9 ia? inaaeaeoaaeueio ae?th ia
iane/aiee ?ic/ei ?i?oe?aoi?a. Aeine?aeaeaii noi?ni?noue nenoaie
?i?oe?aoi?-?ic/eiiee-o?aeoe?y N9 ca?aeii ?ic?iaeaii? iao?eoe?
ieaioaaiiy. ?ic?aoiaaii ?aa?an?eia ??aiyiiy, ui aaeaeaaoii iieno?
iio?aao a aoeaoii? nenoaie aeey caa?aaeaiiy ?? aiiiaaiiino?. Aiii ia?
ianooiiee aeaeyae:

Vaoeaoii min, ie = 82,12 — 0,2885O + 3,77I?i + 0,61VN9,

aea I?i – iana ?i?oe?aoi?a, VN9 – ia’?i o?aeoe?? N9, ie, O- oaiia?aoo?a,
E.

Cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaaeeeoie aoeaoiio, ui caaacia/o?
aiiiaaii?noue ?aaeoe?eii? iane i?e 300(5 E.

Aeine?aeaeaii aieea ai?noo ?i?oe?aoi?a ? o?eaaeino? ie?aiia?ecaoe?? ia
aeo?ae oa oa?aeoa?enoeee IIN a iaaeao 333-353 E. Iieacaii, ui o?aeoe??
N9 i?iaeoeo?a i??ie?co aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa oa aaiceio iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeey iaea?aeaiiy ooieoe?iiaeueieo iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c
e?ioeaaeie ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo ACE a ?aaeoe?ei?e ian? i?ecaiaeeoue
aei ca?eueoaiiy aeoiaeo IIN. A?aei?iiino? o aeoiae? oa iniiaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee IIN, neioaciaaieo ia iniia? o?aeoe?e N9 i??ie?co aaiceio
oa aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa i?e iaeiaeiaeo oiiaao coiiaeai? ?o ??ciei
aoaeaaiaeiaaei neeaaeii.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea e?eueeino? ?i?oe?aoi?a ia oa?aeoa?enoeee IIN

IIN ia iniia? o?aeoe?? N9 i??ie?co E?euee?noue ACE,

% ian. Aeo?ae niiee,

% ian. Iieaeoey?ia iana Eeneioia /enei,

ia EII/a

Aaiceio 2 8,3 990 26,1

5 12,8 970 67,8

7 16,6 960 101,4

10 18,4 940 108,3

Aeec.iaeeaa 2 12,1 990 18,8

5 15,9 890 56,4

7 22,7 880 75,4

10 25,4 860 81,8

Noi?ioeueiaaii i?eioeeie ?ic?aooieo ooieoe?iiaeueiino? ie?aiia??a (F).
Cai?iiiiiaaii ianooii? e?eoa??? iioeiaeueiino? i?ioeano: aoaeoeai?noue
?i?oe?thaaiiy (f) oa ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue ooai?thaaiiai ie?aiia?o.
Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue e?iaoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a
?i?oe?thaaiiy, ye aeo?aeieo aeey ?ic?aooieo eiiaa?n?? ?i?oe?aoi?a oa
aoaeoeaiino? ?i?oe?thaaiiy.

Aea/aiii ?iceeaae ACE a ae?aiacii? 333 – 348 E. ?ic?aoiaaii eiinoaioe
oaeaeeinoae, eio?? iaaaaeai? a oaae. 3.

Oaaeeoey 3

Eiinoaioe ?iceeaaeo ACE

Eiioeaio?aoe?y ACE, iieue/e Eiinoaioe ?iceeaaeo ACE, 105 n-1

333E 343E 348E 353E

0,02 1,62 6,52 9,33

0,04 1,54 6,19 9,40

0,08 1,62 6,17 9,31

Na?aaei? cia/aiiy 1,6 6,2 9,3 14,9*

* — cia/aiiy ?ic?aoiaaia ca ??aiyiiyi A??ai?ona.

Aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? ?iceeaaeo ACE Aaeo=109 eAeae/iieue, ia?aaeaeniiiaioa
E0=2,32(1012.

Aeine?aeaeaii ?iceeaae ia?ien?aeeaeooa?iai? eeneioe. E?iaoe/i? ia?aiao?e
?iceeaaeo ia?ien?aeeaeooa?iai? eeneioe iaaaaeaii a oaae. 4.

Oaaeeoey 4

Eiinoaioe ?iceeaaeo IAeAE

Oaiia?aoo?a, E 333 343 353

Eiinoaioa oaeaeeino?, 105 n-1 4,34 8,62 12,38

Aia?a?y aeoeaaoe?? ?iceeaaeo IAeAE Aaeo=51 eAeae/iieue.

Anoaiiaeaii iayai?noue i?iaeoeoo ia?aeiii? ?aeiia?iaoe?? ?i?oe?aoi??a a
neeaae? IIN. Iieacaii, ui i/enoeo IIN a?ae eiai i?enooiino? iiaeia
cae?enithaaoe ianooiieie iaoiaeaie: iecueeioaiia?aoo?iei aaeooiiei
a?aeai?ii aoeaoiio c ie?aiia?ecaoo c ianooiiith o?eueo?aoe??th ?ic/eio
aai ia?ainaaeaeaiiyi niiee c aaicieo.

Aiae?c iecueei? ooieoe?iiaeueiino? i?iaeoeo?a iieacaa, ui a ne?iaei?
i?enooi? niieiiiae?ai? eiiiiiaioe a e?eueeino? aei 7 % ian. ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeaie i?enooiino? niieiiiae?aieo i?iaeoeo?a, ui iia??oothoue
caaaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaea?aeaieo IIN ciaeoee a i?aeaioiaoe? ne?iaeie
oeyoii ia?aaiiee. Aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoaii 90 %
a?aeaiie o?aeoe?e N9 i??ieiiaeainaoo. Iieacaii, ui ?o oa?i?/ia ia?iaea
i?ioyaii 20 aiae. ia i?eaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy eiiaeainiaaieo
i?iaeoeo?a.

Aea/aii iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy IIN ia iniia? 90 % a?aeaiio o?aeoe?? N9
a ?ioa?aae? 333-353 E. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?i?oe?aoi?:N9 ci?ithaaee a iaaeao
0,5…2,0:24. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano ia ii/aoeiaeo noaae?yo oo?oaeiaia
/a?ac iacia/iee ai?no niiee a ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o?. Aeey caaeia?eueii?
oi/iino? aeine?aeaeaiue aea?aii i?i?iaeueio o?eaae?noue i?ioeano, ui
caaacia/oaaea ooai?aiiy i?iaeoeoo c aeoiaeii a iaaeao 1a. Aiaeia?/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeaii c aeei?enoaiiyi ACE ? IAeAE. Iieacaii, ui
aoaeoeai?noue ie?aiia?ecaoe?? IAeAE ia ia?aaeuo? 19% ? ci?ith?oueny a
caeaaeiino? a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ?aaeoe?? oa eiioeaio?aoe?? ?i?oe?aoi?a.
Iaa?oioiaaii iaaeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy IAeAE a i?ioeanao
ie?aiia?ecaoe?? iaiane/aieo eiiiiiaio?a o?aeoe?? N9 i??ieiiaeainaoo.

Anoaiiaeaii iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiiiiiaio?a ? oaiia?aoo?o
i?ioeano iaea?aeaiiy IINE ia iniia? ACE.

Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci ?ic?aooieo oa?aeoa?enoee ie?aiia??a, ui
ooai?thaaeenue ca i?ii?aeee /ano i?ae a?aeai?aie i?ia. Aeei?enoaii
i?eiouaiiy, ui ca iaai? i?ii?aeee eiiaa?n?? ?i?oe?aoi?a
iaa?iiaaeaeo?oueny i?iaeoeo c iaeiaeiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Oaea
e?iaa?ecaoe?y ia?aiao??a aeicaieeea ?ic?aooaaoe oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaa?iiaaeaeaieo i?iaeoeo?a, ye i?e?inoe ia eiaeiiio c i?ii?aee?a i?ae
noaoe?iia?ieie noaiaie – a?aeai?aie i?ia.

Ia ?en.1 iaaaaeaii caeaaeiino? iieaeoey?ii-ianiaiai ?iciiae?eo ?
ooieoe?iiaeueiino? IINE a caeaaeiino? a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? ACE oa /ano
ie?aiia?ecaoe?? i?e 333-353 E. Iienaii iaea?aeai? caeaaeiino?.

Aiae?c ae?aa?ai ci?ie ooieoe?iiaeueiino? i?iaeoeo?a aeia?a, ui
a?ooieoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeoeoe iiaeooue ooai?thaaoenue eeoa ia ii/aoeiaeo
noaae?yo i?ioeano, oiaoi eiee eiioeaio?aoe?y ?i?oe?aoi?a, a cia/eoue ?
ai?no ia?aeiieo ?aaeeeae?a ? cia/ieie. Aecia/aii i?ii?aeee eiia??iiai
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy a?ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeoeo?a.

Iieacaii, ui ?iceeaae ?i?oe?aoi?a ? iaaeeaeaii ?aaeoe??th ia?oiai
ii?yaeeo, oiaoi ?nio? iiaeeea?noue ?aaoethaaiiy oaeaeeino? eiai
?iceeaaeo oeyoii ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e. Cai?iiiiiaaii noaio i?aeaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e i?ioeano a /an?, ui aaco?oueny ia eiaa?eoi?/i?e caeaaeiino?
ci?ie eiioeaio?aoe?? ?aaaaioo a ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? aeey i?aeo?eioaaiiy
iino?eiith oaeaee?noue ?iceeaaeo ?i?oe?aoi?a.

Cae?eniaii aenia?eiaioe oa aeeo/aii i?iaeoeoe c nenoai ianooiiiai
ii/aoeiaiai neeaaeo: ACE:N9 = 0,75:24. Ii/aoeiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y
?i?oe?aoi?a neeaaeaea 0,065 iieue/e. Oa?aeoa?enoeee iaea?aeaieo
i?iaeoeo?a iaaaaeaii a oaae.5.

?en.1 Caeaaei?noue iieaeoey?ii? iane (II) oa ooieoe?iiaeueiino? IINE (F)
a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? ACE oa /ano ie?aiia?ecaoe??.

Oaaeeoey 5

Oa?aeoa?enoeea IIN, iaea?aeaii? i?e iino?ei?e oaeaeeino? ?iceeaaeo ACE

?

f , % MM E.*.,

ia EII/a F Aeo?ae IIN,

% ian

1 1,5 66,4 1180 86,5 1,82 9,6

2 2,0 63,5 1080 100,8 1,94 7,9

3 2,5 59,0 1050 107,4 2,01 6,9

4 4,0 54,2 1020 124,3 2,26 5,5

I?ei?oea. Aeo?aeia ne?iaeia – 90 % a?aea?i o?aeoe?? N9 i??ie?co
aeeciaeeaa.

V – oaeaee?noue ?iceeaaeo ?i?oe?aoi?a.

Aecia/aiiy neeaaeo ni?aie?aiia?o, ui ooai?th?oueny i?e oaeaeeino? 2,5
ieiieue/(e(n) i?iaaaeaii ca iaoiaeii ae?iaiiai ia?ainaaeaeaiiy c
aaicieo. Oa?aeoa?enoeee inaaeaeaieo i?iaeoeo?a iaaaaeaii a oaae. 6.

Oaaeeoey 6

Oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iaeoeo?a noaae?eiiai inaaeaeaiiy IIN

IIN 3 Iana IIN, a *anoea,

% ian. E.*.,

ia EII/a MM F

A 3,46 21 92,4 1420 2,34

A 10,23 62 107,3 1030 1,97

A 2,80 17 124,2 840 1,86

Anueiai: 16,49 100 107,0 1050 2,01

Iieacaii, ui aeo?ae i?iaeoeo?a iaaeinoaoi?e. I?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo IINE
iiaeeeaa oeyoii aaaaeaiiy o aeo?aeio ne?iaeio noe?ieo. Aeey aea/aiiy
aieeao iiaeeo?eoth/i? ae?? noe?ieo ia i?ioean ?i?oe?eiaaii?
ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? iaiane/aieo eiiiiiaio?a o?aeoe?? N9, iaea?aeaee IIN
ia iniia? noi?oae 90 % a?aeaiio c ??cieie e?eueeinoyie noe?ieo.
?acoeueoaoe aiae?c?a iaea?aeaieo IIN iaaaaeaii a oaae. 7.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo noe?ieo a ?aaeoe?ei?e ian? cia/ii
i?aeaeuo? aeo?ae IIN. Iaeiae, nooi?iue eiiaa?n?? iiiiia??a ciaioo?oueny.
Ii?yae c oei, cia/ii c?inoa? iieaeoey?ia iana iaea?aeoaaieo ie?aiia??a.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui a iaaeao aeine?aeaeoaaieo oaeaeeinoae ?iceeaaeo
?i?oe?aoi?a ooieoe?iiaeuei?noue IIN ia ia?aaeuo? 1,79.

Oaeei /eiii iieacaii, ui ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo noe?ieo o aeo?aei?e o?aeoe??
iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia i?ioean ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe??, nooo?ai i?aeaeuoth/e
aeo?ae IINE. Aea aeiaeaaaiiy noe?ieo aei aeei?enoiaoaaii? o?aeoe??
o i?iieneiaeo

Oaaeeoey 7

Aieea oiia i?iaaaeaiiy ie?aiia?ecaoe?? oa ai?noo noe?ieo a ne?iaei? ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee iaea?aeoaaieo ie?aiia??a

v,

Ai?no noe?ieo, % ian. f, % MM E*,

ia EII/a F Aeo?ae,

% ian.

2,0 10 65,4 1340 67,4 1,61 16,2

30 72,8 2540 39,6 1,79 30,7

50 76,0 2620 26,5 1,24 47,9

2,5 10 61,9 1230 71,8 1,57 14,4

30 66,4 2300 40,2 1,65 27,6

50 71,2 2410 27,1 1,16 43,9

3,0 10 57,7 1130 77,1 1,55 12,5

30 61,9 2000 41,0 1,46 25,2

50 68,2 2260 27,7 1,12 41,1

Ii/aoeiaa eiioeaio?aoe?y ACE – 0,087 iieue/(e(n).

ianooaaao ? aeiiii?/ii iaaei?aaaeaia. Oiio aeey ooeyoaoiaiiy ne?iaeie
aeei?enoaee i?ioean ?aeoeo?eaoe??. Iieacaii, ui a noe?ieuei?e o?aeoe??
i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?e aeeoeeeeiiaioaae??i. Aoaeaaiaeiaaee neeaae
i?iaeoeo?a ?aeoeo?eaoe?? iaaaaeaii a oaae.1. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ai?no
noe?ieo o o?aeoe?? ?aeoeo?eaoe?? aeo?aeii? o?aeoe?? N9 aeecaeueiiai
iaeeaa neeaa 38,0 %. Ia ?? iniia? iaea?aeaii ie?aiia?i? iaoa??aee,
oa?aeoa?enoeee yeeo iaaaaeaii a oaae. 8.

Oaaeeoey 8

Aieea oaeaeeino? ?iceeaaeo ?i?oe?aoi?a ia oa?aeoa?enoeee IINE

(ne?iaeia – ?aeoeo?eao o?. N9 aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa)

?

IIN v,

f, % MM E.*.,

ia EII/a F Aeo?ae IIN,

% ian.

?1 2,0 73,9 2050 52,5 1,92 23,5

?2 2,5 71,0 1840 55,7 1,83 21,3

?3 3,0 68,5 1660 59,0 1,75 19,4

Aeo?ae oa oa?aeoa?enoeee IINE i?aeoaa?aeeee aeioe?euei?noue i?aeaioiaee
ne?iaeie iaoiaeii ?aeoeo?eaoe??. Aeei?enoaiiy ?aeoeo?eaoo o?aeoe?? N9
i??ie?co aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa aeicaieeei io?eiaoe i?iaeoeo c na?aaeiueith
iieaeoey?iith ianith 2050. Aeaiee i?iaeoeo ia?aii iiaeaeueiei aeey
noai?aiiy oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy IINE. Cai?iiiiiaaii ia’?aeiaoe neioac
oa a?aea?? aoeaoiio a iaeio oaoiieia?/io noaae?th. ?ic?aoiaaii /an
ii/aoeo oa oaeaee?noue a?aeai?o aoeaoiio oae, uia caaacia/eoe iiaiee
a?aea?? ?ic/eiieea aei 95 % eiiaa?n?? ?i?oe?aoi?a. Iieacaii, ui oaea
aaaeaiiy i?ioeano aeicaieeei ia 20 % cieceoe oaiia?aoo?o caaa?oaeueii?
noaae?? iaea?aeaiiy IINE. Oa?aeoa?enoeee iaea?aeaieo i?iaeoeo?a
iaaaaeaii a oaae. 9.

Oaaeeoey 9

Aieea oaeaeeino? ?iceeaaeo ?i?oe?aoi?a ia oa?aeoa?enoeee IINE

(ne?iaeia – ?aeoeo?eao o?. N9 aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa)

?

IIN v,

f, % MM E.*.,

ia EII/a F Aeo?ae IIN,

% ian.

?4 2,0 74,3 2060 52,8 1,94 23,5

?5 2,5 71,8 1840 56,0 1,84 21,4

?6 3,0 69,1 1670 59,5 1,76 19,4

Iieacaii, ui i?iaeoeoe ?4 oa ?1 iaea?aeothoueny c iaeiaeiaeie aeoiaeaie.
Aeinyaiooi ooieoe?iiaeueiino? 1,94 i?e aoaeoeaiino? ?iceeaaeo
?i?oe?aoi?a 74,3%. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iiaeaeueoa ciaioaiiy oaeaeeino?
?iceeaaeo ?i?oe?aoi?a iaaoaeoeaia aiane?aeie iaieio/iai ca?eueoaiiy
iieaeoey?ii? iane iaea?aeoaaii? IINE.

?icae?e 4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiiiceoe?e ia iniia? IINE oa ?o i?aeoe/ia
canoinoaaiiy

Cai?iiiiiaaii noi?uaoe IINE c i?iieneiaeie aiieneaeieie niieaie.
Ia?aaeaa/aii ?aaeoe?th ea?aieneeueii? a?oie c aiieneaeiei e?eueoeai.
Eiiiiiaioe noi?uaee o a?aenooiino? ?ic/eiieea a aea?aaeaioiiio iieueiiio
ni?aa?aeiioaii?. Aeiaaaeaii, ui eiiiiceoe?? ia ooai?ththoue o?eaei??ieo
no?oeoo? aei 393E aeeth/ii.

Ia ?en.2 iaaaaeaii caeaaeiino? ai?noo aaeue-o?aeoe?e eiiiiceoe?e a?ae
/ano oa oaiia?aoo?e no?oeoo?oaaiiy. Aeiaaaeaii, ui 453E ? aeinoaoiueith
oaiia?aoo?ith aeey no?oeoo?oaaiiy i?ioyaii 2 aiae.

Ia ?en.3 iaaaaeaii caeaaeiino? oaa?aeino? eiiiiceoe?e IIN-3 c AAe-20
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? /ano no?oeoo?oaaiiy. Iieacaii, ui iaeneiaeueiith
oaa?ae?noth oa?aeoa?ecothoueny eiiiiceoe??, aeo?eiai? i?e 453E.

Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue i?ae ooieoe?iiaeuei?noth IINE ? aeoiaeii
aaeue-o?aeoe?? ?o eiiiiceoe?e c aiieneaeiith niieith AAe-20, yeo
cia?aaeaii ia ?en. 4.

Ca iaoiaeii iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a ?ic?aoiaaii ooieoe?th ca’yceo i?ae
ai?noii aaeue-o?aeoe?? (o, %) oa ooieoe?iiaeuei?noth IINE (o):

o = 104,0 ( o — 112,2.

?en.2 Caeaaei?noue ai?noo aaeue-o?aeoe?? a eiiiiceoe?yo IIN-3 c AAe-20
a?ae /ano no?oeoo?oaaiiy. 1- 413E, 2- 433E, 3- 453E ?en.3 Caeaaei?noue
oaa?aeino? eiiiiceoe?e IIN-3 c AAe-20 a?ae /ano no?oeoo?oaaiiy.
1- 413E, 2- 433E, 3- 453E

?ic?aooieiaee eiao?oe??io ?aa?an?? R=0.949, ui ? caaeia?eueiei aeey
iaaeeaeaieo ?ic?aooie?a.

Cai?iiiiiaaii aeei?enoiaoaaoe niieo AAe-27 a eiiiiceoe?yo c IINE aeey
ca?eueoaiiy ai?noo a ieo o?eaei??ieo no?oeoo?. Ia ?en.5. Iieacaii
caeaaeiino? ai?noo aaeue-o?aeoe?? eiiiiceoe?e a?ae /ano no?oeoo?oaaiiy.

?en.4 Caeaaei?noue ai?noo aaeue-o?aeoe?? eiiiiceoe?e a?ae
ooieoe?iiaeueiino? IINE

?en.5 Ai?no aaeue-o?aeoe?? i?e no?oeoo?oaaii? eiiiiceoe?e. 1- AAe-20 c
IIN ?6, 2- AAe-27 c IIN ?6, 3- AAe-20 c IIN ?4

Aeiaaaeaii, ui cai?ia AAe-20 ia AAe-27 i?eaiaeeoue aei iiai?oiai
no?oeoo?oaaiiy c?ace?a. ?acoeueoaoe aecia/aiiy ai?noo o?eaei??ieo
no?oeoo? aeine?aeaeaieo eiiiiceoe?e (aeea. ?en. 5) na?ae/aoue, ui iiaia
no?oeoo?oaaiiy IINE aeinyaa?oueny c aeei?enoaiiyi aiieneaeii? niiee
AAe-27. Oe? ?acoeueoaoe aeiaiaeyoue, ui a neeaae? iaooiiie?ia?ii? niiee
i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? ooieoe?iiaeueii-aeaoaeoeai? iieaeoee.

sse na?ae/aoue ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue, eiiiiceoe?? IINE c AAe-27
?aeiiaiaeiaaii ye eeaeia? aeey iaoaeaaeo iiaa?oiiue.

Iieacaii, ui IINE ?4 a noi?o? c AAe-27 iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoenue ye
ca’ycoth/a eiiiiceoe?y a neeaae? aa?aceaii? iane ? aeicaiey? io?eiaoe
aa?aceai? ae?iae c caaeia?eueieie o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.
Aeniea aiaeino?ee?noue iie?ia?ii? eiiiiceoe?? a caoaa?ae?eiio noai?
noai?th? ia?aaeoiiae aeey aeei?enoaiiy IINE o ae?iaieoeoa? ?ino?oiaio?a
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeaii aeoii aei?iaoaaiue.

?icae?e 5. Oaoiieia?/i? aniaeoe i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa IINE

C?iaeaii ii??aiyiiy iaoiae?a iaea?aeaiiy IINE c iaeyaeo ia aeo?ae ?
oa?aeoa?enoeee i?iaeoeo?a. sse ne?iaeio ia?aii ?aeoeo?eao o?aeoe?? N9
i??ie?co aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa, ?i?oe?aoi? – ACE, ?ic/eiiee — aoeaoii.
Aeiaaaeaii, ui i?iaaaeaiiy i?ioeano a oiiaao ieaiiaiai i?aeaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e c a?aeai?ii ?ic/eiieea ia caaa?oaeuei?e noaae?? aeicaiey?
aoaeoeaii aeei?enoaoe ?i?oe?aoi? oa io?eiaoe aenieiooieoe?iiaeueio IINE
c i?eeiyoiith iieaeoey?iith ianith.

Iaa?oioiaaii aea?? oaoiieia?/ii? noaie oa ?ic?aoiaaii iaoa??aeueiee
aaeain ae?iaieoeoaa IINE. I?eioeeiiaa oaoiieia?/ia noaia iaea?aeaiiy
IINE iaaaaeaia ia ?en.6.

Iienaii oiiae neioaco oa ?icae?eaiiy i?iaeoeo?a. ?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeie
noi?uaiiy aacia?a?aieo i?ioean?a i?aeaioiaee ne?iaeie oa ?aaaia?aoe??
?ic/eiiee?a c ia??iaee/ieie noaae?yie iaea?aeaiiy ie?aiia?o.
Cai?iiiiiaaii oaoiieia?/io ea?oo i?ioeano.

Oaoiieia?/ia noaia i?noeoue aocie i?aeaioiaee ne?iaeie, ?aaeoe?eiee oa
?aaaia?aoeaiee aocee. Aocie i?aeaioiaee ia?aaeaa/a? ?aeoeo?eaoe?th
aeo?aeii? o?aeoe?? N9 c iaoith eiioeaio?aoe?? noe?ieo o ne?iaei?.

Neioac IINE a?aeaoaa?oueny a i?ia?aiii-?aaoeueiaaiiio ?aaeoi?? (4), a
yeiio i?aeo?eio?oueny iino?eia oaeaee?noue ?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo ACE oeyoii
ieaiiaiai i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e. A?aeae?eaiiy i?iaeoeoo ia?aaeaa/aii a
inaaeaeoaa/? (6), a nooea a aaeooii?e nooa?oe? (7). Eieiie (2) ? (8)
i?ecia/ai? aeey ?aaaia?aoe?? ?ic/eiieea ? inaaeaeoaa/a a?aeiia?aeii.

Aeacaii oeyoe aeei?enoaiiy caeeoe?a o?aeoe?? oa ?aeiia?iaoo ?i?oe?aoi?a.

?en.6. I?eioeeiiaa oaoiieia?/ia noaia iaea?aeaiiy IINE

1-aaeooi-?aeoeo?eaoe?eia eieiia; 2,8-?aeoeo?eaoe?ei? eieiie; 3-ci?ooaa/;
4-?aaeoi?; 5-nooa?ea; 6-inaaeaeoaa/; 7-aaeooi-nooa?ea; 9-i?ii?aeia
?ii?noue; 10-eei’yoeeueiee; 11-eiiaeainaoi?.

AENIIAEE

?ic?iaeaii iniiae oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c
e?ioeaaeie ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie ?i?oe?eiaaiith ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe??th
iaiane/aieo eiiiiiaio?a o?aeoe?? N9 i??ie?co aoaeaaiaei?a.

Aeine?aeaeaii i?ioeane ?iceeaaeo 4,4’-aci-a?n-(4-oe?aiiaioaiiai?
eeneioe) oa ia?ien?aeeaeooa?iai? eeneioe, ye ?i?oe?aoi??a ?aaeeeaeueii?
ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?? iaiane/aieo eiiiiiaio?a o?aeoe?? N9. Iieacaii
aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy aci?i?oe?aoi?a aeey neioaco IINE.
Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue i?i?iaeueii? e?eueeino? aoeaoiio a?ae
oaiia?aoo?e ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?aaaaio?a aeey caaacia/aiiy aiiiaaiiino?
?aaeoe?eii? iane.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeenoeeyoe?y aeo?aeii? ne?iaeie c a?aeai?ii 90 %ia. aea?
iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeoaaoe a?ooieoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeoeoe i?e oaeaeeino?
?iceeaaeo ?i?oe?aoi?a 1,5-4,0 ieiieue/(e(n). Cai?iiiiiaaii i?aeo?eioaaoe
iino?eiith oaeaee?noue ?iceeaaeo ?i?oe?aoi?a ieaiiaei i?aeaeuaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e i?ioeano.

Aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? oiiae iaea?aeaiiy IINE ia iniia? 90% a?aeaiio
o?aeoe?? N9 i??ie?co aeecaeueiiai iaeeaa. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ii/aoeia?e
eiioeaio?aoe?? ?i?oe?aoi?a 0,065 iieue/e oa oaeaeeino? eiai ?iceeaaeo
2,5 ieiieue/(e(n) caaacia/o?oueny iaea?aeaiiy i?iaeoeoo c
ooieoe?iiaeuei?noth 2,01 ? iieaeoey?iith ianith 1050.

Iieacaii, ui aaaaeaiiy 30% noe?ieo o aeo?aeio ne?iaeio caaacia/o?
i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo IINE aei 30,7% oa iieaeoey?ii? iane aei 2540;

Aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? oiiae iaea?aeaiiy IINE ia iniia? noe?ieueii?
o?aeoe?? ?aeoeo?eaoe?? ne?iaeie. I?e ii/aoeia?e eiioeaio?aoe??
?i?oe?aoi?a 0,087 iieue/e oa oaeaeeino? eiai ?iceeaaeo 2,0 ieiieue/(e(n)
iiaeia io?eiaoe iaooiiie?ia?io niieo c aeoiaeii 23,5% oa iieaeoey?iith
ianith 2060.

Aea/ai? iniiai? caeiiii??iino? i?ioeano no?oeoo?oaaiiy iie?ia?ieo
eiiiiceoe?e ia iniia? i?iieneiaeo aiieneaeieo niie oa neioaciaaieo IINE.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui oae? eiiiiceoe?? caeaoi? ooai?thaaoe o?eaei??i?
no?oeoo?e ?c ai?noii aaeue-o?aeoe?? aei 98% i?e 453 E i?ioyaii 2 aiae.
aac aeiaeaoeiaiai aeei?enoaiiy coeaath/iai aaaioo.

Anoaiiaeaii aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy IINE a neeaae? iie?ia?ieo
eiiiiceoe?e aeey neeathaaiiy iaoaeaaeo iiaa?oiiue oa i?e ae?iaieoeoa?
aa?aceaieo ?ino?oiaio?a niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaiee o ?iaioao:

A?aoe/ae I.I., *aee?anueeee I.A., Aoiaiaoeueeee A.A. Neioac ia iniia?
o?aeoe?? N8-N9 iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie //
Aeiiia?ae? IAI Oe?a?ie. -E.: -1997.-?7.-N.144-146.

*aee?anueeee I.A., A?aoe/ae I.I. Neioac ea?aieneeai?nieo iaooiiie?ia?ieo
niie // A?niee AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”: O?i?y, oaoiieia?y ?a/iaei
oa ?o canoinoaaiiy. -Euea?a.-1997.-?333.-N.182-184.

*aee?anueeee I., A?aoe/ae I. Neioac ie?aiia??a c e?ioeaaeie
ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie ia iniia? ??aeeeo i?iaeoeo?a i??ie?co
aoaeaaiaei?a // A?niee AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”: O?i?y, oaoiieia?y
?a/iaei oa ?o canoinoaaiiy.-Euea?a.-1998.-?342.-N.280-284.

A?aoe/ae I.I., *aee?anueeee I.A., Oii?eueieoeueeee I.?. Aeei?enoaiiy
??aeeeo i?iaeoeo?a i??ie?co aoaeaaiaeiaai? ne?iaeie aeey iaea?aeaiiy
iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie // Iaooiaa ? aaciaa
i?iieneia?noue. -E.: -1998.-?5.-N.63-64.

*aee?anueeee I.A., A?aoe/ae I.I., I?ei/ae N.?. Neioac iaooiiie?ia?ieo
niie c ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie // Oace aeiiia?aeae iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “Euea?anuee? o?i?/i? /eoaiiy”.-Euea?a.-EAeO.-1995.-N.41.

Tchaykivsky I., Bratychak I., Gumenetsky V. Synthesis of the oligomers
terminated with carboxylic groups on the basis of the products of
carbohydrate pyrolysis // Proceeding of the 35th IUPAC Congress
Istanbul, Turkey, -1995. Abstracts – II. P.902.

A?eieoei I., *aee?anueeee I., A?aoe/ae I. Neioac ooieoe?iiaeueieo
iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie ia iniia? o?aeoe?? N8-N9 // Oace iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? aei 30-??//y eaoaae?e OOII. Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo
i?iieneiaino? ieanoian a Oe?a?i?. -Euea?a. -1995.-N.22.

A?aoe/ae I.I., A?eieoei I.A., *aee?anueeee I.A. Neioac iaooiiie?ia?ieo
niie c e?ioeaaeie ooieoe?iiaeueieie a?oiaie // Oace aeiiia?aeae VIII
Oe?a?inueei? eiioa?aioe?? c aenieiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe. -E.: -1996.-N.89.

Czajkiwski I., Bratyczak I. Synteza difunkcyjnych zywic petrochemicznych
modyfikowanych kwasami karboksylowymi // IV Konferencja Technologie
bezopadowe i zagospodarowanie odpadow w przemysle chemicznym i
rolnictwie.-Lukecin.-1988.-p.142.

Bratychak I., Grynyshyn I., Chajkiwskiy I., Almauri S. Obtaining of
petroleum resins with terminal functional groups // 7-th European
Polymer Federation Symposium on Polymeric Materials. -1998.
-Szczecin.-Poland.-p.76.

*aee?anueeee I., A?aoe/ae I. Aea/aiiy aieeao ci?ie oaiia?aoo?e ia
i?ioean neioaco ie?aiia??a c e?ioeaaeie ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie // Oace
ia?oi? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Iinooi a iaooiaaciia?a?iai?e ?
iaooio?i?/i?e i?iieneiaino?. -Euea?a. -1998.- N.103.

Aiioaoe?y

*aee?anueeee I.A. Oaoiieia?y iaea?aeaiiy iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c
e?ioeaaeie ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie.- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.17.04 – oaoiieia?y i?iaeoeo?a i?aai?/iiai
neioaco, — Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, Euea?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?? iaea?aeaiiy
iaooiiie?ia?ieo niie c e?ioeaaeie ea?aieneeueieie a?oiaie (IINE) ia
iniia? o?aeoe?? N9 i??ie?co aoaeaaiaei?a oa a?ooieoe?iiaeueieo
?i?oe?aoi??a. Aea/aii caeiiii??iino? ?iceeaaeo ia?ien?aeeaeooa?iai? ?
4,4’-aci-a?n-(4-oe?aiiaioaiiai? eeneioe) a na?aaeiaeu? o?aeoe?? N9
i??ieiiaeainaoo. Cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a iaea?aeaiiy IINE a oiiaao
iino?eii? oaeaeeino? ?iceeaaeo ?i?oe?aoi?a oeyoii ieaiiaiai i?aeaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e. Anoaiiaeaii aeioe?euei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ia?aaiiee oa
?aeoeo?eaoe?? a i?ioean? i?aeaioiaee ne?iaeie. Noi?uaii noaae?? a?aeai?o
?ic/eiieea ? neioaco IINE a iaeio, ui caaacia/o? iaea?aeaiiy i?iaeoeoo c
ooieoe?iiaeuei?noth 1,94 oa iieaeoey?iith ianith 2060. Aeo?ae ia iniia?
?aeoeo?eaoo neeaaea? 23,5%.

Aeine?aeaeaii eiiiiceoe?? ia iniia? IINE c aiieneaeieie niieaie, i?ioean
no?oeoo?oaaiiy yeeo i?io?ea? i?e 453E i?ioyaii 2 aiae. ? aecia/aii
iiaeeeaino? ?o i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?aeoe?y N9, i??ieiiaeainao, iaooiiie?ia?ia niiea,
?i?oe?aoi?, ?i?oe?eiaaia ni?aie?aiia?ecaoe?y.

Aiiioaoeey

*aeeeaneee I.A. Oaoiieiaey iieo/aiey iaooaiieeia?iuo niie n eiioeaauie
ea?aieneeueiuie a?oiiaie. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.17.04 — oaoiieiaey i?iaeoeoia i?aaie/aneiai
neioaca, — Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao “Eueaianeay iieeoaoieea”,
Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiaee iieo/aiey iaooaiieeia?iuo
niie n eiioeaauie ea?aieneeueiuie a?oiiaie (IINE) ia iniiaa o?aeoeee N9
ie?ieeca oaeaaiaei?iaeia e aeooieoeeiiaeueiuo eieoeeaoi?ia. Eco/aiu
caeiiiia?iinoe ?aniaaea ia?ieneaeeaeooa?iaie e
4,4′-aci-aen-(4-oeeaiiaioaiiaie eeneiou) a n?aaea o?aeoeee N9
ie?ieiiaeainaoa. Onoaiiaeaii caaeneiinoue ieieiaeueiiai eiee/anoaa
aoeaoiia aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey aiiiaaiiinoe ?aaeoeeiiiie n?aaeu io
oaiia?aoo?u e niioiioaiey ?aaaaioia. ?ann/eoaiu oa?aeoa?enoeee
ieeaiia?ia, iieo/aaiuo ca ii?aaeaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie iaaeaeo
oi/eaie ioai?a i?ia. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey
aeooieoeeiiaeueiuo i?iaeoeoia iaaethaeaaony i?e nei?inoe ?aniaaea
eieoeeaoi?a 1,5-4,0 ieiieue/(e(n). I?aaeeiaeai niinia iieo/aiey IINE a
oneiaeyo iinoiyiiie nei?inoe ?aniaaea eieoeeaoi?a iooai ieaiiaiai
iiauoaiey oaiia?aoo?u. Eco/aii aeeyiea iaianuuaiiinoe n?aaeu ia
oa?aeoa?enoeee iieo/aaiuo niie iooai aaaaeaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo
eiee/anoa noe?iea a ?aaeoeeiiioth nianue. Aeieacaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue
i?iaaaeaiey ia?aaiiee e ?aeoeoeeaoeee a i?ioeanna iiaeaioiaee nu?uey.
Niaiauaiu noaaeee ioai?a ?anoai?eoaey e neioaca IINE a iaeio, /oi
iaania/eaaao iieo/aiea i?iaeoeoa n ooieoeeiiaeueiinoueth 1,94 e
iieaeoey?iui aanii 2060. Auoiae ia iniiaa ?aeoeoeeaoa ninoaaeyao 23,5%.

Enneaaeiaaiu eiiiiceoeee ia iniiaa IINE n yiieneaeiuie niieaie, i?ioeann
no?oeoo?e?iaaiey eioi?uo iaeaieaa iieii i?ioaeaao i?e 453E ia
i?ioyaeaiee 2 /. Onoaiiaeaia caaeneiinoue niaea?aeaiey aaeue-o?aeoeee
eiiiiceoeee io ooieoeeiiaeueiinoe eniieuecoaiie IINE. Ii?aaeaeaiu
aiciiaeiinoe eo i?aeoe/aneiai i?eiaiaiey a ea/anoaa eeaaauo nenoai
oa?ie/aneiai ioaa?aeaiey.

?ac?aaioaia i?eioeeieaeueiay oaoiieiae/aneay noaia i?ioeanna iieo/aiey
IINE. Onoaiiaeaiu iooe aeaeueiaeoaai eniieueciaaiey iai?i?aaae?iaaaoeo
oaeaaiaei?iaeia o?aeoeee N9.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?aeoeey N9, ie?ieiiaeainao, iaooaiieeia?iay niiea,
eieoeeaoi?, eieoeee?iaaiiay niieeaiia?ecaoeey.

Summary

Chaykivskyy I.V. Technology of obtaining of petroleum resins with end
carboxyl groups. — Manuscript.

A thesis for Ph.D. award (technical sciences) on speciality 05.17.04 —
Technology of Organic Synthesis Products, — State University “Lviv
Polytechnic”, Lviv, 1999.

The thesis is dedicated to elaboration of petroleum resins with carboxyl
end groups (PRC) obtaining on the basis of fraction C9 of hydrocarbons
pyrolysis and also difunctional initiators. Main regularities of
peroxydiglutaric acid and 4,4’-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid) decomposition
have been studied in the medium of fraction C9 of pyrocondensate. The
method of PRC obtaining under condition of initiator constant rate
decomposition has been proposed using the planned increasing
temperature. Need of distillation and rectification processes carrying
out during raw material preparation has been determined. Sampling the
solvent and synthesis of PRC were jointed into one stage. It has
provided the product obtaining with functionality 1.94 and number
average molecular mass equal 2060. Yield on the basis of rectificate
consists 23.5%.

Compositions on a basis of PRC with epoxy resins have been studied.
Crosslinking of such compositions proceeds at 453E for 2 hours. The main
possibilities of their practical applications have determined.

Key words: fraction N9, pyrocondensate, petroleum resins, initiator,
initiated cooligomerization.

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