16

AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO “EUeA?ANUeEA IIE?OAOI?EA“

OAeE 947.084.3(477.8)

OOOOEOE*OE Aaneeue Ieeieaeiae/

A?ENUeEIAI-IAO??IOE*IA AEOIAAIIss O AAEEOeUeE?E A?I??

20.02.22 – a?enueeiaa ?noi??y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Euea?a–1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie iaoee ? oaoi?ee ?inoeoooo
aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea“.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Eeoaei Ieeiea ?iiaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo iaoeiaeo oa ?ioi?iaoeaieo aeaeaiue
?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa

?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAIOe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

A?ean ?aai A?eai?iae/, Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie;

Eaey?a Aiaoie?e Ieaenaiae?iae/,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, canooiiee

ia/aeueieea oaeoeueoaoo A?enueeiaiai ?inoeoooo i?e
Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea“.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Ee?anueeee a?enueeiaee aoiai?oa?iee ?inoeooo,
eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa ?? Ca?ieieo Nee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “10“ a?oaeiy 1999 ?., i 15 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E. 35.052.15 o Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea“ I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
290646, i.Euea?a-12, aoe. N.Aaiaea?e, 12, ei?i. 4, aoae. 204.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea“ ca aae?anith 290646, i.Euea?a-12,
aoe. I?ioani?nueea, 1

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “30“ aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

E 35.052.15 Aon?a A.?.

I. Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie
noaei iaei??th c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iiae?e ia aaiiie?oe/i?e ea?o? ?a?iie XX
no. A?ae 1991 ?. ?icai?iooue ?? oe?ieiianooaaia aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, o
yeiio aecia/ia i?noea caeia? aoae?aieoeoai aeanieo Ca?ieieo Nee. Aia?oa
ca aaaaoi e?o iniaiaee neeaae oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea noaa ia noi?iae?
aaciaee noaa?aiii? Aaouee?aueie, ui ni?ey? i?aeianaiith iao??ioecio,
ona?aeiieaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? a?aeiino? e iniaenoi? a?aeiia?aeiino? ca
aeeiiaiiy a?enueeiaiai iaia’yceo. Aea ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae na?ae/eoue, ui
aenieiai ii?aeueii-aieiaiai noaio a?i?? iaiiaeeeai aeinyaiooe aac
oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aeoeieo oa oe?iei? ?aeaeii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe.

Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?icaoaeiae aeanieo Ca?ieieo Nee aeiaaathoue
noai?aiiy i?eioeeiiai iiai? nenoaie a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy
iniaiaiai neeaaeo. Aiia iiaeiia ianaiia?aae o?aooaaoe iia? iie?oe/i?
?aae?? ? iie?aoeny ia iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaai? o?aaeeoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? i?aeoeeith oa ?noi?e/iei aeina?aeii
i?eioeeie ? iaoiaee. Na?aae iiia?aaei?o ca?ieieo oi?iaoe?e oe?a?inueeiai
a?enueea iniaeeai iia/aeueiei ? aeina?ae ?icaoaeiae, i?aai?caoe??
nenoaie aeoeieo, aieiai? ae?yeueiino?, oi?i ? iaoiae?a aeoiaii? oa
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? aeiae aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue 1918-1920 ??.

Ia?iaeaeaia o aiai? iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?aaiethoe?? o Aaee/ei?
o eenoiiaae? 1918 ?., aiia ca ei?ioeee oa?i?i ae?inea aei 100-oeny/ii?
no/anii? ?aaoey?ii? a?i?? cao?aeiiai c?acea c ia?aaeiaith i?aai?caoe??th
? niiniaaie aaaeaiiy aieiaeo ae?e. Ia iniia? iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo oa aieiaiai aeina?aeo n?/iaiai no??eaoeoaa a a?i??
ai?iaaaeaeaii aoaeoeaio aeoe?eueio nenoaio, i?aai?ciaaii aeoiaio
?aeaieia?/io ? eoeueoo?ii-ina?oith ?iaioo, noai?aii ieceo a?aeiia?aeieo
no?oeoo?.

A?enueeiaa i?i?noa?noai COI? ? eiiaiaeoaaiiy Aaeeoeueei? a?i??
niaoe?aeueieie iaeacaie ? ?icii?yaeaeaiiyie aecia/eee eiioeaiooaeuei?
caaaeaiiy ? oeyoe ci?oeiaiiy ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai noaio iniaiaiai
neeaaeo oa i?aeaeuaiiy ai?caeaoiino? Ca?ieieo Nee ?anioae?ee. A iniiao
oi?ioaaiiy ii?aeueii-aieiaeo yeinoae no??eaoeoaa iieeaaeaii aecia/aeuei?
i?eioeeie: iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue, iao??ioeci, a??i?noue a?enueeia?e
i?enyc?, ?aei?noue aeoeieo e aeoiaaiiy oiui.

Aenie? ii?aeueii-aoe/i? yeino? oa caaaeueiiethaenuee? oe?iiino? aiye?a
Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? yne?aai i?iyaeeeny o oiae? aeaa’yoei?ny/ii?
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie i?ioe Ca?ieieo Nee Iieueu?, i?aeo?eioaaieo
Aioaioith ? NOA, a oaeiae o aeoaao ia I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? i?ioe
a?eueoiaeoeueeeo ? aeai?e?inueeeo a?enuee. Aa?oi caoaaaeeoe, ui
aioo??oi? ? ciai?oi? oiiae neeaeeny aeey ia? iaaecae/aeii iani?eyoeeai:
a?aeoaaei aeina?ae/aieo eiiaiaee??a, aieiai? oaoi?ee, ica?i?iiy.
Ii?aeueii-aieueiaee oaeoi? o oe?e neooaoe?? iaaoaaa iaia?an?/iiai
cia/aiiy. A?aeoae a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iee i?ia?ae Aaeeoeueei? a?i??
cae?enithaaa iiooe iaeaoaeoeai?oeo oeyo?a i?aeianaiiy ai?caeaoiino?
a?enueea a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao. Iai?aoeueiaaiee aeina?ae aeinyaiaiiy
iiceoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeoeieo e aeoiaaiiy oe?eeii caeiiii??ii
i?eaa?oa? oaaao no/anieo aeine?aeiee?a.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ? a?enueeiaiai aeoeieo a Aaeeoeuee?e a?i?? iaoiiaeaia
ianaiia?aae a?aenooi?noth niaoe?aeueieo iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, ye? a
?icaeyaeaee a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/ia aeoiaaiiy no??eaoeoaa o eiiieaen? c
?noi?e/ieie, ?aeaieia?/ieie oa a?enueeiaeie aniaeoaie. Ii-ae?oaa, a
oiiaao a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie oa ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?? a?enueea
c?inoa? iaiao?aei?noue ia’?eoeaiiai aena?oeaiiy icia/aieo i?ioean?a,
ine?eueee e?oiien Aaeeoeueei? a?i??, ?? aieiaa ? aeoiaia ae?yeuei?noue
aoee aeiei??iii niioai?ai? ?aaeyinueeith ?noi??ia?ao??th. Eeoa a inoaii?
?iee c’yaeeeny ia?o? aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?noi??? Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee oa ?? Ca?ieieo Nee. Iaeiae aiie ia ae/a?iothoue
icia/aii? oaie. Aeooaeuei?noue aeena?oaoe?? coiiaeaia oaeiae
?aoi?ioaaiiyi Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie, yea iio?aao? ooaa?aeaeiaiiy iiaeo
oi?i ? iaoiae?a aeoeieo e aeoiaaiiy caoeniee?a Aaouee?aueie. O aenooi?
ia ia?aae? ea??aieoeoaa aeoiaieo i?aai?a o a?oaei? 1998 ?. I?i?no?
Iai?iie Oe?a?ie aaia?ae a?i?? I.Eocueioe iaaieiooaaa, ui icia/aio ?iaioo
ne?ae cae?enithaaoe “c o?aooaaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/ieo aniaeo?a ?
o?aaeeoe?e iaoiai ia?iaeo“, aeei?enoiaoaaoe iia/aeueiee aeina?ae
iiia?aaei?o oi?iaoe?e iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?enueea, ia?aoai?eoe Ca?iei? Neee
o aaeeeo oeieo a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy ? nioe?aeueiiai
noaiiaeaiiy iieiaeiai ai?ia (Ia?iaeia A?i?y. – 1998. – 24 a?oae.).
Ioaea, a?aoiaoth/e aeuaiaaaaeai? oaeoi?e, iinoa? iaaaeueia
iaiao?aei?noue ocaaaeueiaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo a?enueeiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei ieaio oa i?ia?ai iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe c
?noi??? Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie, ui cae?enith?oueny eaoaae?ith ?noi???
Oe?a?ie, iaoee ? oaoi?ee ?inoeoooo aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe Aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea“ oa a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoeiaeo
caoiae?a ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie i?e Aeiiaoeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Ia’?eoii aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? Ca?iei? Neee Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee – Aaeeoeueea a?i?y ia??iaeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue
1918-1920 ??.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy: a) iaoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe??
a?enueeiaiai aeoeieo e iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy, oniaaeeiaai?
Aaeeoeueeith a?i??th a?ae iiia?aaei?o oe?a?inueeeo ca?ieieo oi?ioaaiue,
cie?aia Eaa?iio Oe?a?inueeeo N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a ia??iaeo Ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie 1914-1918 ??.; a) nenoaia aeoeieo e aeoiaaiiy
aaeeoeueeiai no??eaoeoaa; a) iniiai? oaiaeaioe??, iaoiaee ? caniae
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeueei? ?aeaieia??, ii?aeueii-aieiaeo
yeinoae iniaiaiai neeaaeo Aaeeoeueei? a?i??, aeina?ae oiai/anieo
aeoe?eueii-aeoiaieo no?oeoo? aeey no/anieo Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ianaiia?aae ia??iae
?nioaaiiy Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? a?ae eenoiiaaea 1918 ?. aei ea?oiy 1920 ?.
Aiaeii/an aaoi? aaaaeaa aeioe?eueiei aeaui ?icoe?eoe ?o o a?e aaiace
nie?euenueei-no??eaoeueeiai ?ooo e?ioey XIX – ii/. XX no. ? a i?ci?o?
/ane – ia?aaoaaiiy /anoei a?i?? a oaai?ao ?ioa?iiaaieo ia oa?eoi???
*aoineiaa//eie 1920-1923 ??. Aena?oeaii oaeiae iniaeeaino? ae??oaiiy
icia/aii? i?iaeaie i?ae /an ia?aaoaaiiy OAA a neeaae? ia’?aeiaieo
a?enuee Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee ia I?aaiaa?aaei?e Oe?a?i? o
eeii?-eenoiiaae? 1919 ?.

Aaia?ao?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?? ia?eiathoue oe?a?inuee? aoi?/i? oa?aie, a
oaeiae /anoeiai oa?eoi??th *ao?? oa Neiaa//eie, aea a 20-o? ?iee
ia?aaoaaea ?ioa?iiaaia Oe?a?inueea Aaeeoeueea A?i?y.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?: ia iniia? aeaea?aeiciaa/iai aiae?co a?o?aieo
aeieoiaio?a, iaoeiai-?noi?e/ieo i?aoeue ? iaioa??a
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a COI? oa eieeoi?o aiye?a Aaeeoeueei?
a?i??, iaoa??ae?a a?i?enueei? i?ane ocaaaeueieoe a?enueeiaee aeoe?e ?
iao??ioe/ia aeoiaaiiy iniaiaiai neeaaeo oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea o
ai?iouea? ca aea?aeaaio iacaeaaei?noue ? niai?i?noue Oe?a?ie. Caaaeuei?e
iao? i?aeii?yaeeiaai? iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

1. Ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iaoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe?? a?enueeiaiai
aeoeieo e aeoiaaiiy a?ae a?iiaaenueeiai oiaa?enoaa “N?/“ aei ?aaoey?ii?
Aaeeoeueei? a?i??.

2. ?ice?eoe eiioeaiooaeuei? ?aea? oa i?aai?caoe?th nenoaie
a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy, ae?yeuei?noue Aea?aeaaiiai
nae?aoa??aoo ? a?aeiia?aeieo no?oeoo? Ca?ieieo Nee COI?.

3. I?iaiae?coaaoe oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?aeaeii-iie?oe/ii? oa
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe o a?enueeo, ?o aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy aenieeo
ii?aeueii-aieiaeo yeinoae no??eaoeoaa.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeena?oaoe?? – caaaeueiii?eeiyo? o no/ani?e
?noi??ia?ao?? i?eioeeie ia’?eoeaiino? ?noi?ecio, na?oiaeyaeiiai
ieth?ae?cio, oaoiai? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?. C iaoith ia’?eoeaiiai
inieneaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo yaeu ? i?ioean?a, aae oieeiooe
oaiaeaioe?eiino? oa aiieiaaoeee, canoiniaoaaeeny i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee
i?aeo?ae, iaoiaee aiae?co ? neioaco, aiaeia?e, nenoaiaoecaoe?e oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui oea ia?oa
a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai
a?enueeiaiai aeoeieo e iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy o Aaeeoeuee?e a?i??
1918–1920 ??. O aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeaii e oe?ieee niaeo? aeoe?eueiiai oa
aeoiaiiai i?ioean?a, ?o i?aai?caoe?y, no?oeoo?a ? ae?yeuei?noue a oiiaao
aeniaaeeeai? oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie 1918–1919 ??.

Oi?ioaaiiy na?aeiiiai, iao??ioe/ii iano?i?iiai, ioaeiueiai oe?a?inueeiai
aiyea – neeaaeiee ? aeiaaio?eaaeee i?ioean. O Aaeeoeuee?e a?i?? a?i
iie?aany ia?o ca ana ia oe?a?inueeo iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeath. Iaoe?iiaeueia
na?aeii?noue caoenieea Oe?a?ie aaaaeaeany iaeiei c iaeaeueo aeooiaieo oa
aoe/ieo iaia’yce?a. Ia a?aei?io a?ae eiioi?noe/ii? eiioeaioe??
?aeaeii-iie?oe/iiai aeoiaaiiy a?enueeiaee?a ia iniia? eeaniaiai
i?eioeeio, i?ioenoaaeaiiy a?oi noni?euenoaa (ui i?ecaaei aei
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie 1918–1921 ??. a ?in??, aenii?oiaaii? e aei
Oe?a?ie), Aaeeoeueea a?i?y aacoaaeany ia i?eioeeiao niai?ii-aea?aeaaii?
?aeiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo e o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae?.

O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa ?icaeyaea?oueny i?aai?caoe?y, no?oeoo?a ?
ae?yeuei?noue oi?eaeueii? aeey oe?a?inueeeo oi?iaoe?e ia??iaeo
aecaieueieo ciaaaiue ie?aii? no?oeoo?e – I?aiiaeiaieoeoaa a?enueeiaiai
i?i?noa?noaa ? Ia/aeueii? Eiiaiaee, aia?ao yeeo iae?/oaaa aeecueei noa
iieueiaeo aeooiaiee?a, ui ae?yee o ei?ionao, a?eaaaeao, a?enueeiaeo
eiiaiaeao, oieoaeyo. Caaaeath/e ia o?aaeeoe?eio ?ae?a?ei?noue aaee/ai ?
aoeiaeioe?a, oey eaiea noaea /e ia ina?aeyi nenoaie
a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy.

Ia iniia? oe?ieiai eiea caeo/aieo aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a, aeeaieiai
aiae?co noaio aeoe?eueii? ? aeoiaii? ?iaioe o Aaeeoeuee?e a?i??
noi?ioeueiaaii ?yae i?eioeeiiaeo aeniiae?a uiaei i?noey ? ?ie? oiae?oi?o
no?oeoo? o caaaeueiiio aeoiaiiio i?ioean?, aieeao ?aeaieia?/ii?,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe ia i?aeianaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? aeey noai?aiiy o ?aoi?iiaaieo Ca?ieieo Neeao
i?eioeeiiai iiai? nenoaie a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy c
o?aooaaiiyi iiaeo iie?oe/ieo ?aae?e ia aac? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aea?, a oaeiae iaienaiiy ocaaaeueithth/eo ?ia?o c iia?oiuei? ?noi???
Oe?a?ie oa ?? Ca?ieieo nee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ai?iaiaai? o 9
ioae?eaoe?yo, ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, iaoee ? oaoi?ee
?inoeoooo aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea“, a oaeiae ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e
80-??//th COI? (Euea?a, 1998), anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “Canaaee
o?enoeyinueei? aoeee oa oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeieo iniia i?aoe?aiee?a
i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa“(Euea?a, 1999), iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Oe?a?inueea eicaoeoai a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i?“ (Aeiiaoeuee, 1999).

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. ?iaioa aeeiiaia o i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iiio ieai? ?
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?Iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, ia’?eo ?
i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoo ? caaaeaiiy, aecia/aii nooi?iue
?ic?iaee i?iaeaie oa ?? aeaea?aeueio aaco, ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca“ ?icaeyiooi
noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie. A?aecia/aii, ui i?iaeaia
a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy o Aaeeoeuee?e a?i?? ia aoea
aaciina?aaei?i ia’?eoii eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaaiith i??ith aiia
aena?oethaaeany o iaoeiai-?noi?e/ieo oa iaioa?ieo i?aoeyo, ye? oi?eaeeny
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ieo aniaeo?a iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue
1914-1921 ??. A?eueo?noue c ieo c’yaeeeny o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae o
Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?, NOA ? Eaiaae?. Cia/io aa?o?noue iathoue i?aoe?
aea?aeaaieo ae?y/?a COI? E.Eaaeoeueeiai, I.Eiceinueeiai,
E.Oeaaaeuenueeiai, E.O?eeueianueeiai oa ?i.

*eiaeo ?ioi?iaoe?th i?noyoue a?enueeiai-?noi?e/i? ia?ene e
iaioa?ii-aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy o/aniee?a aecaieueieo ciaaaiue,
ai?ia/aeueiee?a OAA, aeueo noa?oei I.Iiaeyiiae/a-Iaaeaiea, A.E?aana,
I.Aeoi?ia, A.Aiaoaae/a, I.Eocueie, ?.Ea?ieioey, C.Noaoai?aa,
?.Ai?iae??ae/a, I.Noaiai?aie, I.Caeeeinueeiai, A.Eo/aanueeiai,
I.Eaaeoeueeiai, I.Oa?eia-Aaca??oiiai, I.A??iyea, I.O?aiea, ?.Aeaoeaae/a
oa ?i. ?o oa?aeoa?ecothoue oaeiae ia’?eoeai?noue ? aeaoae?caoe?y ie?aieo
aniaeo?a, i?ioa ?i a?aeo? a?o?aii? aace, /ei aea?aeii a?ae??ciythoueny
i?aoe? iieuenueeeo aeine?aeiee?a, cie?aia, o/aniee?a ca?ieiiai eiioe?eoo
E.Aa?aaoeueeiai, TH.Aaeea?a, A.Aoia?oa, A.?iia?a, A.?iy,
TH.Niiioieoeueeiai.

?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo ?aii?oaaea aai ae?ae
niioai?thaaea iiae?? oe?a?inueeeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue. Aeiyoie yeithnue
i??ith noaiiaeyoue iaoeia? i?aoe? eieeoiueiai ia/aeueieea ooaao ei?iono
OAA I.Eaeo??ia oa A.Aioiiiaa-Ian??iea.

I?ney Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie oe?a?inueea ai?a?aoe?y noai?eea ieceo
a?enueeiai-?noi?e/ieo ina?aaee?a o NOA, Eaiaae?, I?ia//ei?, ye? nooo?ai
aeiiiaieee e?oiien Aaeeoeueei? a?i??. Iniaeeai oe?iieie aeey
aeine?aeieea noaee i?aoe? N.??iaoeueeiai, A.Aaeaia, E.Oaieianueeiai,
I.Noai?i??a, I.I??/oea, iooey ?.Eaaaaeiae/a, I.A??iyea, I.Ino?iaa?oe,
N.ss?ineaaeia oa i’yoeoiiia aeaeaiiy Ae.Ieeeothea iaoa??ae?a c ?noi???
OAA ? ooiaeaiaioaeueia “Aioeeeeiiaae?y Oe?a?iiciaanoaa“ A.Eoa?eiae/a.

Aeieath/e ?aeaieia?/iee oene, oeaico?i? iaiaaeaiiy 50–80-o ??.
euea?anuee? ?noi?eee I.Ea?iaiei, TH.Neeaea, N.Iaea?/oe ia’?eoeaii
?ice?eaaee aa?an?th ia’?aeiaieo nee iiaiooai?aieo aea?aeaa, ianaiia?aae
Iieueu?, cae?eniaii? ia cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie? ca
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ii? i?aeo?eiee e?a?i Aioaioe ? aaiiie?oe/ii? aeniain??
?aaeyinueei? ?in??.

No/ania ?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie caii/aoeiaaia ooaa?aeaeaiiyi
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. Ia?o? ocaaaeueithth/? i?aoe? c ?noi??? Eaa?iio
ONN, Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? c’yaeeeny o Eueaia?, aea cina?aaeaeaia iiooaeia
aeaea?aeueia aaca. O 1990-o ?ieao iiaa/eee na?o aeine?aeaeaiiy
A.Ai?ae??iea, A.Aa?eae, A.Aoaey, N.Iaea?/oea, ss.Aeaoeaae/a,
E.Aeaueinueeiai, A.Aieoaea, I.Eeoaeia, E.Iaoiaiea, A.sseeiiae/a,
ss.A?eoeaea, A.Ai??aaeiaa, I.Eieyi/oea, ss.Oei/aiea, I.Eoaooyea,
A.N?aeaea, A.Oaiea, A.Oeueea, I.?oaeueiaa ? TH.*a?/aiea, O.Noaae?y,
A.O?ioei’yea, A.Oaiueiaa, c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue
ia?oi? /aa?o? XX no. Oa?aeoa?iei aeey i?aoeue iieuenueeeo a?enueeiaeo
?noi?ee?a I.Ee?iaoeueeiai, C.Ea?iony, I.Eiceianueeiai, A.Eoeiinueeiai,
*.Ia?oa/a, A.Iieaea noaei oe?iea caeo/aiiy a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a ?
iaoa??ae?a, ?ai?oa iaaeinooiii? iaoeiai-?noi?e/ii? e?oa?aoo?e a Oe?a?i?
oa ca ?? iaaeaie. Aea e aiie ia ae/a?iothoue cacia/aii? oaie
aeena?oaoe??, ui e niiioeaei aaoi?a i?enayoeoe ?e ie?aia aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeyoue a?o?ai? iaoa??aee,
iioae?eiaai? aeieoiaioe, iia’ycai? c ae?yeuei?noth a?enueeiaiai
i?i?noa?noaa, Ia/aeueii? Eiiaiaee Aaeeoeueei? a?i??, a?aeiia?aeieo
no?oeoo?, nea?iaaieo ia a?enueeiaee aeoe?e ? iao??ioe/ia aeoiaaiiy
iniaiaiai neeaaeo. A?eueo?noue c ieo oia?oa caeo/aii aei iaoeiaiai
ia?ao.

Aiae?coth/e a?oaia?ao?/io aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui
aaaeeea? a?o?ai? ? acaaae? aeaea?aeuei? iaoa??aee cacia/aii?
i?iaeaiaoeee aiane?aeie ieaiiaeo aeoe?e eiioi?noe/iiai ?aaeeio aoee
cieuai?, aai in?ee o iaaeinooiieo noiaeuao eieeoiueiai IEAN. Iaaia
/anoeia iaoa??ae?a ciaoiaeeoueny ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, o ?in??,
Iieueu?, NOA, Aaoeeai? e caeeoa?oueny aaaeeiaeinooiiith aeey
oe?a?inueeeo aeine?aeiee?a. Oea cioneei a?eueo aeoeaii aeei?enoaoe
a?o/eciyi? a?o?ae, ianaiia?aae Oeaio?aeueiee aea?aeaaiee ?noi?e/iee
a?o?a Oe?a?ie o Eueaia?. Iaeci?noiai?oeie ? aeieoiaioe oiiae?a Eaa?iio
Oe?a?inueeeo N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a (? 353), aea cina?aaeaeai? 279 ni?aa
(iaeace, nienee, iaai?iaei? eenoe, uiaeaiieee, aeaeaiiy I?aniai?
Eaa?oe?e oa ?i.), Ca??ii? Noaieoe? ONN (252), Iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ?i.
O.Oaa/aiea (309). Iniaeeai aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii ? oiiae 581 – Eieaeoe?y
aeieoiaio?a i?i ae?yeuei?noue o?yae?a oa a?i?e COI?o oa OI?. Na?aae ieo
iaeace, caa?iaiiy Ia/aeueii? Eiiaiaee, o?yaeia? iinoaiiae, iaeace
Ie?oaeieo a?enueeiaeo eiiaiae, cie?aia, Eieiie?, Naiai?a, a?i?enuee?
aeaeaiiy, aeieoiaioe Aoaio a?i??. Aa?oi a?aecia/eoe iniaeno? oiiaee
eiiaiaeoaa/a Eaa?iio ONN, Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? iieeiaieea A.Einnaea (o.
360), ia/aeueieea ooaao a?i?? ioaiaia N.Ai?oea (o. 385), eiiaiaeoaa/a
aaeeoeueeith aa?aoe??th nioieea I.O?aiea (o. 640). Aeei?enoaii oaeiae
eieaeoe?th aeieoiaio?a c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie o
Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? Euea?anueei? iaeano?. *eiaeo oe?ii?noue noaiiaeyoue
aeieoiaioe Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa
oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie, cie?aia, oiiaee Aee?aeoi??? OI? (o. 118),
A?enueeiaiai i?i?noa?noaa OI? (o. 1075), Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy Aaiooaao
OI? (o. 1078), eieaeoe?? aeieoiaio?a o?yaeo oa a?i?? COI?, a oaeiae
o?ioaei? oiiaee Aaiooaao A?enueea Iieuenueeiai 1918-1920 ??. c
iineianueeiai Oeaio?o caa?aaeaiiy ?noi?eei-aeieoiaioaeueieo eieaeoe?e.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie
a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy o Aaeeoeuee?e a?i?? noaee ia??iaee/i?
aeaeaiiy I?aniai? Eaa?oe?e Eaa?iio ONN ? IEAA, aacaoe ei?ion?a, a?eaaae,
A?enueeiaeo ie?oaeieo eiiaiae, /aniiene o?yaeo, iia?oiaeo i?no COI?,
i?ana oe?a?inueei? ai?a?aoe??. Iaea?eueo iiaio ? ??ciiiai?oio
?ioi?iaoe?th i?noyoue a?i?enuee? /aniiene “No??eaoeue“, “Eicaoeueeee
aiein“, o?yaeiaa “?aioaeeea“, a oaeiae aaeeoeuee? noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?
aacaoe “Ae?ei“, “Aia?aae“, “Oe?a?inueea neiai“, “Oe?a?inueeee i?aii?“.
Iniaeeai ne?ae a?aecia/eoe a?enueeiai-?noi?e/i? i?ny/ieee –
“Oeyoe“(1915-1918), “Oe?a?inueeee Neeoaeaoeue“ (1920-1923), “E?oiien
*a?aiii? Eaeeie“ (1929-1939), ??/iee “?noi?e/iee eaeaiaea?-aeueiaiao
“*a?aiii? Eaeeie“ (1924-1939).

E?eoe/ii inieneai? ? aeei?enoai? oaeiae /eneaii? iaioa?e eieeoi?o aiye?a
Aaeeoeueei? a?i??, ia?o ca ana eiiaiaeoaaiiy ? noa?oei aeoiaieo
no?oeoo?, ye? i?ieeaathoue na?oei ia aniaeoe, ui ia ciaeoee c’ynoaaiiy a
io?oe?eieo aeieoiaioao, aeiiiiaaathoue aeeaoa aeine?aeeoe i?aeoe/i?
i?iaeaie aeoeieo e aeoiaaiiy. Ii?aeiaiiy a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a,
a?eueo?noue yeeo ia caeo/aeany aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao, c iioae?eiaaieie
aeieoiaioaie, aeaeaiiyie i?ane, iaioa?ieie i?aoeyie nooo?ai ?icoe?eei
aeaea?aeueio aaco aeena?oaoe??, aeicaieeei ?ice?eoe nooue, oi?ie ?
iaoiaee a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy iniaiaiai neeaaeo a?i??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – “Iaoe?iiaeueii-?noi?e/i? o?aaeeoe?? a?enueeiaiai
aeoeieo e aeoiaaiiy: a?ae “N?/?“ aei ?aaoey?ii? Aaeeoeueei? a?i??“ –
?icaeyiooi a?ae?iaeaeaiiy n?/iaeo o?aaeeoe?e o Aaee/ei? iai?ee?ioe? XIX
– ii/aoeo XX no. Caoaaaeaii, ui aenieee ii?aeueii-aieiaee aeoo iniaiaiai
neeaaeo Aaeeoeueei? a?i??, aeyaeaiee a aeaa’yoei?ny/i?e a?ei? c
Iieueuath, iio?i ia a?eueoiaeoeueeiio ? aeai?e?inueeiio o?iioao
a?oiooaaany ia ii/oooyo iao??ioecio e a?aoiaoaaa caeiaooee
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia ceai? XIX-XX noie?oue, eiee Aaee/eia
noaea oeaio?ii oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai aeeooy, “oe?a?inueeei
I’?iiioii“. Ooo ae?yee iania? oe?a?inuee? ia?o??, iaoe?iiaeuei?
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi? ? eiiia?aoeai? oiaa?enoaa. Iiooaeiei /eiieeii
aeoiaaiiy iao??ioecio aoea A?aei-eaoieeoeueea oea?eaa ia /ie? c
ieo?iiieeoii Aiae?a?i Oaioeoeueeei. I?aeianaiith iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino? aaeeoeueei? iieiae? ni?e/eieea oe?ieiianooaaia ae?yeuei?noue
ia?ai?e?oa?ieo oiaa?enoa “Nie?e“, “N?/“, “Ieano“, “N?/ia? No??eueoe?“.

C ii/aoeii Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie, eiee ?in?enuee? a?enueea anooieee a
Aaee/eio, ia caeeee Aieiaii? Oe?a?inueei? ?aaee oai?eoe iaoe?iiaeueia
a?enueei a?aeaoeioeiny 28 oen. aeia?iaieueoe?a. Aoei noi?iiaaii Eaa?ii
Oe?a?inueeeo N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a, yeee aeany ia ?in?enueeiio o?iio? i?ae
aaneii a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? niai?ii? Oe?a?ie ia ?o?iao oea?nueei?
?in??. Aeoiaey/e c i?iaieioaieo aecaieueieo eiioeaioe?e,
a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iee i?ia?ae oe?a?inueei? ca?ieii? oi?iaoe?? noai?ea
/?oeo nenoaio a?enueeiaiai aeoeieo ? aeoiaii? ?iaioe, yea aeeth/aea
aeoe?euei? i?ae?icae?ee, ea??aiee oeaio? ?aeaieia?/ii? oa
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe – I?aniao Eaa?oe?o, aeania aeaeaaieoeoai,
i?ano, a?enueeiaa aeooiaainoai. N?/iaa no??eaoeoai, yea oa?a?aei a naaa
iaena?aeii?oo e ina?/aio /anoeio aaeeoeueeiai noni?euenoaa, c?iaeei
aaaiiee aianie o oai??th ? i?aeoeeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy. Aiii noai?eei caaa?oiaaiee o
aecaieueieo ciaaaiiyo iiaee oei oe?a?ioey, na?aeiiiai ai?oey ca
naiino?eio Oe?a?io.

Iaea?eueoith caneoaith n?/iaiai no??eaoeoaa ia?aae oe?a?inueeei ia?iaeii
noaei ia?aiiaeia ca?ieia iianoaiiy 1 eenoiiaaea 1918 ?., a?aeoae
noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? COI? oa ?? Ca?ieieo Nee – Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? –
?noi?e/iiai oaiiiaia iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1918-1920 ??. C
ia?oeo aei?a ?nioaaiiy ?anioae?ee, o ca’yceo c a??an??th Iieueu?, yea ca
aeiiiiiaith Aioaioe iaiaaaeany caoiieoe Aaee/eio, ?icai?ioeiny oe?iea
a?enueeiaa aoae?aieoeoai – noai?aii a?enueeiaa i?i?noa?noai, Ia/aeueio
Eiiaiaeo Aaeeoeueei? a?i??, aieia? a?oie, ye? anooieee o aieia? ae?? ca
aecaieaiiy caoiieaiiai iieyeaie Eueaiaa, a iai?ii? cao?aeieo ei?aeii?a
COI?. O oiae? ia?aaoaeiae a?i?? a n?/i?-ethoiio 1919 ?. aoei noi?iiaaii
o?e no??eaoeuee? ei?ione (ii 4 a?eaaaee o eiaei?i), 12 aa?iaoieo iiee?a,
ie?ai? /anoeie aa?aoe??, e?iiioe, naia??a oa ?i. Aeaaiaaeoeyoue
a?enueeiaeo ie?oaeieo eiiaiae cae?enithaaee i?ecia aei a?enueea,
aiooaaee iiiiaiaiiy noa?oei ? no??eueoe?a. Aaeeoeueea a?i?y iaea 60 oen.
a?eoe?a, aeia?a cai?eey, ia?aaeia? eiioeaioe?? i?aai?caoe?? ? aaaeaiiy
aieiaeo ae?e.

O ca’yceo c ia?aoiaeii nenoaie eiiieaeooaaiiy a?ae i?eioeeio
aeia?ia?eueiino? aei iia?e?caoe??, a?aeoae ia?aoai?aiiyi Aaeeoeueei?
a?i?? o ianiao ?aaoey?io no/aniiai oeio, o i?e aoei noai?aii
ae??caeaoiee aeoe?eueii-aeoiaiee aia?ao c ?icaaeoaeaieie no?oeoo?aie,
yeee caaacia/oaaa aenieo ai?caeaoi?noue, aeenoeeie?io ? ii?yaeie,
oe?eani?yiiaaio ?aeaeii-iie?oe/io oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oith ?iaioo ? a
e?ioeaaiio ?acoeueoao? – aenieee ii?aeueii-aieiaee aeoo iniaiaiai
neeaaeo a?i??. Oea yne?aai i?iyaeeiny o aeoaao ca iacaeaaei?noue COI?,
aecaieaii? ni?eueii c A?i??th OI? I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie ? Ee?aa a?ae
a?eueoiaee?a, a i?ioeai?noa? c Aeia?a?i??th aaia?aea Aeai?e?ia. C
aieiaith neeith Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? ?aooaaeeny iaa?oue noi?ioeaieee:
aaaaeaee aaea/ath caeeth/eoe ia?aie?’y e oei/aniaee nithc c iath ainaie
1919 ?. Aeai?e?i, a o ethoiio 1920 ?. – eiiaiaeoaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? OII
a?i??.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – “Nenoaia aeoeieo e aeoiaaiiy no??eaoeoaa“ –
aiae?cothoueny no?oeoo?a e iniiai? aeoe?eueii-aeoiai? /eiieee a?i??,
cie?aia, ae?yeuei?noue eiiaiaeoaaiiy, I?aniai? Eaa?oe?e Ia/aeueii?
Eiiaiaee, a?enueeiaiai I?aiiaeiaieoeoaa, a?i?enueei? i?ane,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a.

?noi??y a?ei na?ae/eoue, ui oni?o aieiai? ae?yeueiino? a?enueea
caeaaeeoue ianaiia?aae a?ae eiiaiaeiiai neeaaeo a?i??. Ona?aeiiethth/e
aaaeeeao ?ieue eiiaiaee??a a nenoai? aeoeieo e aeoiaaiiy ai?i?a, o?yae
COI?, aeua a?enueeiaa ea??aieoeoai iaiaaaeeny caaacia/eoe a?i?th
iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieie e i?aeaioiaeaieie eaae?aie. O ca’yceo c a?aeii
eiiaiaee??a, oa?i?iiai caniiaaii i?oioi? e a?oeea??enuee? noa?oeinuee?
oeiee, ia neoaeao cai?ioai? a?enueeia? niaoe?ae?noe c
Iaaeaei?i?yinueei?, ?in?enueei?, aano??enueei? a?i?e (a?eueoa noa
io?oea??a ? aaia?ae?a). Ia a?aei?io a?ae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ?
Aee?aeoi??? OI?, ye? neaniaoaaee noa?oeinuee? caaiiy, o Aaeeoeuee?e
a?i?? aiie aoee caa?aaeai? ? neoaeeee iaaiei noeioeii o neoaea?. O
ia??iae oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie iaeacaie a?enueeiaiai i?i?noa?noaa
aoei cae?eniaii aeecueei 3500 i?aeaeuaiue o caaiiyo (iaaani? 1919 ?.
a?i?y iae?/oaaea 1400 noa?oei). Oa oieeiooe iaaeie?e?a o eaae?ia?e
iie?oeoe? ia aaeaeiny. 1 /a?aiy 1919 ?. o 100-oeny/i?e OAA ia aoei
aeiaeiiai oe?a?inueeiai aaia?aea (i?e caaaeueiii?eeiyo?e ii?i? iaeei ia
3 oen. a?enueea), ei?ionaie eiiaiaeoaaee iieeiaieee, a a?eaaaeaie –
ioaiaie (iaei?e). sseui o iieuenuee?e, ?in?enuee?e, i?iaoeuee?e a?i?yo
ia iaeiiai io?oea?a i?eiaaeaei 20-30 nieaeao, oi o Aaeeoeuee?e – 80-90.

Aeena?oaio caia?a/o? oaa?aeaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? i?i
na?oiaeyaei? oa nioe?aeuei? aioaaii?cie i?ae no??eueoeyie ? noa?oeiaie
Aaeeoeueei? a?i??. Caaaeueiiethaenueea i???ioaoe?y, iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay
ai?ioueae ca iacaeaaei?noue COI? o?nii ?aeiaee aanue iniaiaee neeaae.
Iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieie i?aaiaiiyie oe?a?ioe?a ia?aeiyeeny e io?oea?e
– ?iicaioe? – ?in?yie, i?ioe?, aano??eoe?, /aoe, oai?oe?, anoiioe?,
iaa?oue iieyee.

Aaaeeeao ?ieue o a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiio oa ii?aeueii-i?aaiaiio
aeoiaaii? iniaiaiai neeaaeo a?i?? a?ae?a?aaaa ?? i?aai?caoe?eii-ea??aiee
oeaio? – I?aniaa Eaa?oe?a. Ia?aeiyaoe oe?iiee aeina?ae aiaeia?/ii?
no?oeoo?e Eaa?iio ONN (? iaeiaioaaiiy, yea ia a?aeaeaa? oe?ieiianooaaii?
ae?yeueiino?), aiia ?icai?ioea ae??ao i?aai?caoe?eio, ?aeaieia?/io,
aeaeaaie/o, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oith ?iaioo.

I?aniaa Eaa?oe?a IEAA inoaoi/ii noi?ioaaeany o ethoiio 1919 ?. ? iaea
n?i a?aeae?e?a: i?aai?caoe?eiee, aeaeaaie/ee, a?/aaee, ?noi?e/iee,
?ioi?iaoe?eiee, a?ae?ioa/iee ? oaao?aeueiee. Eiaeai c ieo iaa
a?aeiia?aeio no?oeoo?o ? ae?eyieo ?iaioe. Cie?aia, i?aai?caoe?eiee –
cae?enithaaa i?aai?caoe?th ? ea??aieoeoai ?aeaieia?/iith oa
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueith ?iaioith o an?o /anoeiao a?i??. Eiio aoee
i?aeii?yaeeiaai? A?aeae?e ina?oe Aoaio a?i??, ath?i i?iiaaaiaee
ei?ion?a, noa?oeie ina?oe ei?ion?a ? a?eaaae, ye? i?aai?ciaoaaee
aa?oaoe?th ? i?iiaaaiaeo, eaeoi??? c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, ina?oi? eo?ne,
iania? aeoe??. Aeaeaaie/ee a?aeae?e ii?eoaaany /aniienaie Aaeeoeueei?
a?i??. ?noi?e/iee – i?ae ea??aieoeoaii iaaea?iaaieo ?noi?ee?a
I.Oaaethoee-?aoaia oa ?.E?aaaoeueeiai cae?aa aeieoiaioe c ?noi???
Aaeeoeueei? a?i??, i?aai?ciaoaaa iaienaiiy ?noi??e a?eaaae, ei?ion?a,
a?i??, i?iiaaoaaa aa?i?/i? o?aaeeoe?? ia?iaeo ? eiai a?enueea.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae oioaeueii? a?eueoiaeoeueei? a??oaoe?? ? i?iia?aiaee
iie?oeii?na??a *a?aiii? a?i??, I?aniaa Eaa?oe?a cina?aaeaeoaaeany ia
oe?ieiianooaai?e eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e ?iaio?, aoaeoeaii canoiniaoth/e
iaaeaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e ? ienoaoeoaa. Iacaaaeath/e ia
neeaaei? o?iioia? oiiae, iacaaeia?eueia iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia
caaacia/aiiy a?enueeiaeo cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, aiia c?iaeea
aaaiiee aianie o oi?ioaaiiy na?oiaeyaeo caoeniee?a A?o/ecie, ci?oeiaiiy
ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo OAA.

Aaaeeeaith iniaeea?noth Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? aoea iayai?noue ei?iono
iieueiaeo aeooiaiee?a (eaiaeai?a), a?aeoae ea?oth/iai i?aaio –
I?aiiaeiaieoeoaa i?e Aea?aeaaiiio Nae?aoa??ao? A?enueeiaeo Ni?aa ?
Ia/aeuei?e Eiiaiae?. A?aei-eaoieeoeueea aeooiaainoai acyei o/anoue o
Ia?oieenoiiaaeiaiio 1918 ?. c?ea? a Aaee/ei?, aea?aeaaiiio oa
a?enueeiaiio aoae?aieoeoa? iieiaei? ?anioae?ee. O ia?o? oeaei? a?eie aei
aieiaeo eo?ai?a, a?oi, Ie?oaeieo a?enueeiaeo eiiaiae aeia?ia?eueii
i?eeoee aeanyoee nayuaiee?a, ye? noaee ia?oeie iieueiaeie aeooiaieeaie.
O i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy a?i?? oai?eoueny neoaeaa a?enueeiaiai
aeooiaainoaa – ca?yae/a I?aiiaeiaieoeoai i?e AeNAN, Iieueiaa
I?aiiaeiaieoeoai i?e IEAA, ?aoa?aioo?e aeoo?aieoeoaa o ei?ionao oa
a?aeae?ee aeooiaiee?a a?eaaae, ye? ianeoaiaoaaee no??eaoeuee? eo?ai? e
nioi?.

Iieueia? aeooiaieee nooo?ai a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae eaiaeai?a aano??enueei?
a?i?? (oaeueeo?ao?a), ye? iaiaaeoaaee naith ae?yeuei?noue aeeeth/ii
?ae?a?eieie a?aei?aaaie. Aiie ao?o/aeeny o an? ae?eyiee a?enueeiai?
neoaeae ? iiaooo no??eueoe?a. Ona?aeiiethth/e aeoiaia cia/aiiy ?eooae?a
iioiaaiiy, aoae?aieoeoaa iai’yoiee?a ia /anoue aa?i?a, iieaaeeo o aiyo
ca Aaouee?aueio, eiiaiaeoaaiiy iieeaei ia iieueiaeo aeooiaiee?a aaaeaiiy
iae?eo iieaaeeo aiye?a, i?aai?caoe?th ?o iioiaaiue, aeaoooaaiiy
no??eaoeueeeo oeaeioa??a.

I?ney ia?aoiaeo o eeii? 1919 ?. ca Ca?o/ ? ia’?aeiaiiy c Ae??aith
a?i??th OI? no?oeoo?a a?enueeiaiai aeoo?aieoeoaa a OAA caa??aaeany aei
aanie 1920 ?. O ia??iae oei/aniaiai ia?aaoaaiiy o neeaae? *a?aiii?
a?i??, ?aaeyinueea eiiaiaeoaaiiy iaaaaeeeiny eeoa ia e?ea?aeaoe?th
I?aiiaeiaieoeoaa. Inoaoi/ii neoaeaa a?enueeiaiai aeooiaainoaa
Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? aoea ?ica’ycaia 20 ea?oiy 1920 ?. ca e?eueea aei?a aei
caaeaae? OAA.

Aoaeoeaiei /eiieeii a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy aoea i?ana.
Iaia?aaeiaei? na?oiai? a?eie c’yaeeeny ia?o? /aniiene c a?enueeiai?
oaiaoeee, cie?aia “N?/ia? a?no?“, “Caii??cuee? a?no?“, ioae?eaoe?? yeeo
ni?eyee i?aeianaiith iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? e aoaeeee iieiaeue aei
aeoeaieo ae?e. I?ney noi?ioaaiiy Eaa?iio ONN aoee caniiaai? no??eaoeuee?
aeaeaiiiy: aeo?iaee “Oe?a?inueeee naiiioioiee“, “Aiiaa“, “Naiiiae“,
i?ny/ieee “Oeyoe“, “*a?aiia Eaeeia“, “A?noiee I?aniai? Eaa?oe?e“. Oe?iei
?iciianthaeaeoaaany na?aae n?/iaee?a ?ae?a?eiee /aniien “I?n?iia?“,
caniiaaiee ieo?iiieeoii A.Oaioeoeueeei.

?icaeaath/e e?au? o?aaeeoe?? o?iioiaeo aeaeaiue Eaa?iio ONN, i?ania?
?aaeaeoe?? Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? aeoeaii aeeth/eeeny o aeoe?eueii-aeoiaiee
i?ioean. A?enueeia? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy aeae?eaii o o?e a?oie:
oeaio?aeuei? i?aaie i?i?noa?noaa ? IEAA “A?noiee AeNAN“, “No??eaoeue“,
“A?noea“; ei?ioni? aacaoe “Eicaoeueeee aiein“, “Iieaaa aacaoa“,
“No??eaoeueeee oeyo“; /aniiene a?eaaae ? aieiaeo a?oi “ONN“ oa ?io?. O
ia??iae ia?aaoaaiiy o neeaae? *a?aiii? a?i?? aeaeaaaeeny “*a?aiiee
no??eaoeue“, *a?aiiee ONN“, “Ia?aeii“, “No??eaoeueea a?noea“. Na?aae
?aaeaeoi??a aacao aoee oaeaiiaeo? aeo?iae?noe A.Aaa’the (I.??/ai),
A.Aaaec?inueeee, A.Ia/ianueeee, ?.E?aaaoeueeee, O.O?aiei (nei Eaiaiy?a),
TH.Oe?oiaeye. Eiiaiaeoaaiiy aeaaei i?i oa, uia /aniiene aeioiaeeee aei
eiaeiiai ai?ia. Eiiaiaea?i aaia?ae I.Iiaeyiiae/-Iaaeaiei o ea?oi? 1919
?. aeaeaa niaoe?aeueiee iaeac, yeei cie?aia, ciaia’ycoaaa ia?aaeaaaoe
eo?aiyi ia iaio ye 100, a eiaei?e nioi? – 50 i?ei??iee?a “No??eueoey“.

E??i a?i?enueei? i?ane, oe?iei ?iciianthaeaeoaaeenue o?yaeia? i?aaie
“?aioaeeea“, “Oe?a?inueeee aiein“, “Oe?a?inueeee i?aii?“,
a?iiaaenueei-iao??ioe/i? /aniiene “Ae?ei“, “Aia?aae“, a oaeiae iia?oia?
aacaoe, ye?, ii-noo?, noaee i?aaiaie ie?oaeieo a?enueeiaeo eiiaiae,
cie?aia, “Ciei/?anueea neiai“, “No?eenueeee a?noiee“ “Ae?iaiaeoeueeee
eenoie“, “Aiein Eaeooa“, “Oe?a?ia“ (AEiaeaa), “Iieoonueeee a?noiee“
(Eieiiey). Aeina?ae i?ane OAA aoa ia?aeiyoee o 1940-1950-o ?ieao
Oe?a?inueeith Iianoainueeith A?i??th.

Aaeeoeueea a?i?y aoea /e ia ?aeeiith ?c oiai/anieo a?enueeiaeo
oi?iaoe?e, yea iaea o nai?io neeaae? eoeueoo?ii-ienoaoeuee? caeeaaee,
ianaiia?aae o?iioiaee oaao? IEAA – aaaeeeaee /eiiee aeoiaaiiy
no??eaoeoaa oa ianaeaiiy i?eo?iioiaeo oa?ai?a. Eiai ca?iaeeii noaa
euea?anueeee oaao? “Oe?a?inueea aan?aea“ E.?oa/aeiai?, yeee o ia??iae
Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie noaa, ii noo?, caeeaaeii Eaa?iio ONN. Na?e
iaia?an?/iee oaeaio a?aeaeaaaee oaao?o I.Aaioeaeue, A.Ao/ia, I.A??iye,
I.E?ooaeueieoeueeee, E.Eo?aan, ?.?oa/ae, A.TH?a. Aenoaae O.Oaa/aiea,
?.O?aiea, ?.Ea?iaiea-Ea?iai, I.E?iieaieoeueeiai, iia?e
N.Aoeaea-A?oaiianueeiai oa I.Eenaiea ei?enooaaeeny oni?oii o a?eoe?a ?
ianee /eiaeee aeoiaiee ca?yae.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – “Oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeueei?
?aeaieia??, aenieeo ii?aeueii-aieiaeo yeinoae“ – aiae?cothoueny aieiai?
iai?yiee, oi?ie ? iaoiaee aeoe?eueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe o Aaeeoeuee?e
a?i??.

Aeua a?enueeiaa ea??aieoeoai oe?iei canoiniaoaaei i?aeoeeo caa?iaiue
aaciina?aaeiuei aei iniaiaiai neeaaeo c iaaiaee aeooaeueieo i?iaeai
a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa, aaaeeeaeo iiae?e. Cacae/ae aiioe?ei? e
iaienai? aeinooiiith iiaith, aiie, ye ? iai?oanoe, ooaaee, iaeace,
ca/eooaaeeny ia?aae no?i?i a?enueea, ae?oeoaaeeny a a?i?enuee?e i?an?.
*anoi i?aeoeeoaaee iao??ioe/i? caa?iaiiy eiiaiaeoaa/? a?i?? aaia?aee
I.Iiaeyiiae/-Iaaeaiei, I.A?aeia, I.Oa?iaanueeee, eiiaiaee?e ei?ion?a ?
a?eaaae.

I?aei?iaei aieiaee aeoo no??eaoeoaa nenoaiaoe/ia iaieioaiiy
eiiaiaeoaaiiyi iiaeye aaeeoeueeei /anoeiai ca oni?oi? iia?aoe?? ? aieia?
ae??. Oi?ioaaiith iao??ioe/ieo ii/ooo?a ni?eyee o?i/eno? caoiaee o?yaeo
e eiiaiaeoaaiiy c iaaiaee aea?aeaaieo nayo aai ia /anoue aecia/ieo
iiae?e. Iania? caoiaee, o?i/eno? oeeoaaiiy /anoei, a?enueeia? ia?aaee o
i?enooiino? i?aaenoaaiee?a aeaaee, ianaeaiiy, aeeeeeaee o ai?i?a
iniaeea? iiceoeai? aiioe??. O?i/enoi a?aecia/aeeny 22 n?/iy – nayoi
ceoee OI? ? COI?, 1 eenoiiaaea, ye aea?aeaaia nayoi COI?, Oaa/aie?anuee?
aei?.

Aoaeoeaiei caniaii ?aeaeii-iie?oe/iiai aa?oo iniaiaiai neeaaeo noaee
aea?aeaaia ? a?enueeiaa neiaie?ee, iaai?iaeia nenoaia. Aaaeeeaei
ao?eaooii a?i?? aoa iaoe?iiaeueiee neiuei-aeiaoee i?aii?, aea ia
a?aei?io a?ae ?in?enueei?, i?iaoeueei?, a?eoainueei? a?i?e aeanieo
a?enueeiaeo i?aii??a iiee?a, a?eaaae, ei?ion?a ia aoei cai?iaaaeaeaii,
c?aooith, ye o A?i?? OI?. O eenoiiaae? 1918 ?. caniiaaii i?aeai
“Iai?iioe? Eueaiaa“, caiaeii O?ecoa /ioe?ueio eean?a, Iaaeaeue O?ecoaa,
i?aeai O?anoa – aeey aeooiaiee?a, Aieiaa a?aeciaea. Iaeiae ai?ii?
ianoaaeie ia?aoeiaeeee ao?eeoe ?o o aeeooy.

O?yae ? eiiaiaeoaaiiy a?i?? ii?eoaaeiny aiyeaie, ye? iio?aieyee o
iieuenueeee iieii. Caaaeath/e ia i?aeia?iaei? eiiaaioe??, aiie oeeaee
oaiaeo, ca yeith iieiiaiei aeicaieyeiny eenooaaiiy, caaacia/oaaany ?o
iiaoo.

A?enueeiai-iao??ioe/ia aeoiaaiiy o Aaeeoeuee?e a?i?? ia?aaeaa/aei
oi?ioaaiiy aeenoeeie?iiaaieo ? a??ieo i?enyc? ai?i?a. O aeine?aeaeaii?
aeeeaaeaii oi?ie ? iaoiaee aeoiaii? ?iaioe eiiaiaee??a, a?aeiia?aeieo
no?oeoo?, a?enueeiaiai aeooiaainoaa, i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a. Oaeno
a?enueeiai? i?enyae aoa caoaa?aeaeaiee Iaoe?iiaeueiith ?aaeith
?anioae?ee aaea 13 eenoiiaaea 1918 ?. Oiae? ae aoee cai?enyaeai? on?
/anoeie ? i?ae?icae?ee aieiaeo a?oi a?i??, cae/aeii, eieaeoeaii o
no?ith, a i?enooiino? i?aaenoaaiee?a aeaaee, ianaeaiiy ca o/anoth
aeooiaainoaa. Iaeiith c aieiaieo aeiia i?enyae ? noaooo?a (ia ia?oiio
aoai? – aano??enueeeo) aoei aeio?eiaiiy ai?iaie aeniei? a?enueeiai?
aeenoeeie?ie. Caaaeaiiyi ? iniiaith aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ooaa?aeaeoaaany
?? na?aeiiee oa?aeoa?. Ia oea aoea nea?iaaia ?aeaieia?/ia ?iaioa,
ae?yeuei?noue eiiaiaee??a, aeoiaieo no?oeoo?, ye? aiae?cothoueny o
aeena?oaoe??. Aiaeii/an neooaoe?y cioooaaea aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?eionia?
caoiaee, iniaeeai iaaani? 1919 ?. aiane?aeie iaaaea/ ia o?iio?.
?icaeyiooi ae?yeueiinoue Iieueiai? aeaiaea?ia??? ? a?enueeiaiai
noae?aieoeoaa Aaeeoeueei? a?i??, Cae?ciiaei?iaeii? a?enueeiai? oi?aae.
Caa?iooi oaaao ia aeioe?eueia ? ai?ea aeei?enoaiiy aeina?aeo e
ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a aano??enueei? a?i??, ?? noaooo?a, aia?a?eio
ia?aaoaeiao neeiaeo no?oeoo? caeaaeii a?ae ci?ie neooaoe??. Ni?inoiaaii
oaa?aeaeaiiy ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? i?i i?aeoi aei?noiea i?eaeooaiiy
Ae?iaiaeoeueeiai aioeaea?aeaaiiai iianoaiiy o ea?oi? 1919 ?.

Aeoiaaiiy iniaiaiai neeaaeo Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? ia o?aaeeoe?yo
iaaeaei?i?yinueeiai eicaoeoaa, aaeeoeueeiai no??eaoeoaa, aa?i?/iiio
ieioeiio oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo aoei iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo /eiiee?a o
oi?ioaaii? ii?aeueii-aieiaeo yeinoae caoeniee?a Aaouee?aueie. Caaaeath/e
ia aaeeeo neeo ?noi?e/ieo o?aaeeoe?e aeey i?aeianaiiy iao??ioecio ?
aoaeoeai?noue aeoiaaiiy iieiaeeo aiye?a ia ac??oeyo ieioeiai,
eiiaiaeoaaiiy ? a?aeiia?aei? no?oeoo?e aeei?enoiaoaaee ?
oaeineiiaethaaee ianaiia?aae aeina?ae Eaa?iio ONN, iai?aoeueiaoaaee iia?
oi?ie ? iaoiaee oe??? aaaeeeai? ae?eyiee ?aeaieia?/ii? ?iaioe, ye?
aiae?cothoueny o aeena?oaoe??.

O caa?iaiiyo aei a?enueea ? iaeacao ii a?i?? aeua a?enueeiaa
ea??aieoeoai /anoi iaaieiooaaei ia i?eeeaae? aaeeeeo i?aaee?a
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo: eiyc?a Aieiaeeie?a Aaeeeiai ? Aeaieea
Aaeeoeueeiai, aaoueiai?a Oe?a?ie Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai, ?aaia Iacaie
oa ?i. O?i/enoi a?aecia/aeeny iai’yoi? aeaoe c a?enueeiai? ?noi???,
cie?aia 1 o?aaiy, – ia?aiiaeii? aeoae n?/iaee?a ia Iae?aoe? 1915 ?.
Iaeiei c aaeaeeo i?eeii?a aeoiaaiiy a?enueea ia aieiaeo o?aaeeoe?yo, ui
caeaaia i?aeoeeo?oueny a aeayeeo a?i?yo, aoei i?enai?iiy /anoeiai
(iieeai ? a?eaaaeai) ii/anieo iaeiaioaaiue. sse ? a A?i?? OI?, a
Aaeeoeuee?e a?i?? aoee iieee ?iai? Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai, ?aaia
Iacaie, Iao?a Aei?ioaiea, Neiiia Iaoeth?e. A?eaaaee caeaa?eueoiai iineee
iaeiaioaaiiy ca i?noeai ?o oi?ioaaiiy (Euea?anueea, Ciei/?anueea,
Nieaeuenueea, Aa?aaeainueea oa ?i.)

Eiee aiane?aeie ao?oeeaiai ?inoo a?i?? aiaa ??aaiue ina?oe no??eueoe?a,
o o?iioiaeo /anoeiao ? i?ae?icae?eao caniiaaii eo?ne iaei- aai
iaienueiaiieo. A?eueoa oiai, aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ina?oe eaiaeeaeao?a aei
noa?oeinueeeo oe?e ai?iaaaeaeaii cai?e aeey caea/? ?nieo?a ca a?iiac?th.
O eo?aiyo, nioiyo, aaoa?ayo, aneaae?iiao, oieoaeyo caniiaaii ina?oi?
ao?oee, a?ae?ioaee, no??eaoeuee? oi?e.

Aeoeaio eoeueoo?ii-ina?oith ?iaioo i?iaiaeeea Aaeeoeueea a?i?y na?aae
ianaeaiiy Aaee/eie oa I?aaiaa?aaeii? Oe?a?ie: i?aai?ciaoaaeeny
oaao?aeuei? aenoaae, eiioea?oe no??eaoeueeeo oi??a ? i?eano??a,
caniiaoaaeeny oiaa?enoaa “I?ina?oe“, iaeaaiaeaeoaaeany ae?yeuei?noue
oe?a?inueeeo oe?e. Oe? caoiaee ia I?aaiaa?aaeae? aoee ia iaio aaaeeea?
i?ae aecaieuei? aieia? ae?? a oiiaao, eiee oe?oeo ? ainaie 1919 ?.
Iaaeaei?i?yiueia noaea a?aiith i?ioenoiyiiy e iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue
noaaaea iiooaeiith ca?i?th o ai?iouea? i?ioe ieoiaio?a.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, aieiai?
caeiaooee a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy o Aaeeoeuee?e a?i??,
aecia/aii oeyoe ? oaiaeaioe?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy iei?oi?o Ca?ieieo Nee
Oe?a?ie.

Ca?ieiee aenooi n?/iaiai no??eaoeoaa i?ae i?iaiaeii Oe?a?inueei?
Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee o eenoiiaae? 1918 ?. ? ooai?aiiy ai?caeaoii?
100-oeny/ii? Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? noaee eia?/iei ?acoeueoaoii
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo, ie?aeii?
ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo ia’?aeiaiue,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o caeeaae?a, ia?ai?e?oa?ieo iieiae?aeieo oiaa?enoa ?
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae o noa?? a?enueeiaiai aeoeieo ? iao??ioe/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ia?iaeieo ian.

Aaaiiee aianie o oai??th ? i?aeoeeo aeoeieo oa a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai
aeoiaaiiy ai?i?a Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? aianei Oe?a?inueea n?/iaa
no??eaoeoai. O Eaa?ii? ONN aoea noai?aia ? aei?iaoaaia ia o?iioao
na?oiai? a?eie aa?iii?eia nenoaia aeoiaaiiy no??eueoe?a ? noa?oei,
caeeaaeai? iniiae aeey ?aeaieia?/ii? e eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe,
iai?aoeueiaai? oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?o ?aae?caoe?? a oiae?
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie 1918–1919 ??.

A?aoiaoth/e aeina?ae iiia?aaei?o oe?a?inueeeo a?enueeiaeo oi?iaoe?e oa
a?i?e e?a?i ?a?iie, Aea?aenae?aoa??ao a?enueeiaeo ni?aa COI? ? Ia/aeueia
Eiiaiaea Aaeeoeueei? a?i?? noai?eee aeanio nenoaio i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy
oa aeoiaaiiy iniaiaiai neeaaeo, noi?ioaaee a?aeiia?aei? no?oeoo?e,
aecia/eee iniiai? iai?yie ae?yeueiino? eiiaiaeiiai neeaaeo, a?i?enueeiai
i?ane, a?enueeiaeo aeooiaiee?a, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o onoaiia.

Ae?yeuei?noue eiiaiaeoaaiiy, aeoiaieo no?oeoo?, ianaiia?aae I?aniai?
Eaa?oe?e, a?i?enueei? i?ane, Ath?i ina?oe, o?iioiaeo eaiaeai?a,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?o naeoe?e o ei?ionao ? a?eaaaeao, o?iioiaiai oaao?o
Ia/aeueii? Eiiaiaee aoea nea?iaaia ia?o ca ana ia oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeueei? ?aeaieia??, aeoiaaiiy iao??ioe/iiai
iaia’yceo, a??iino? i?enyc? o caoeniee?a A?o/ecie. Oe?iei
canoiniaoaaeiny aeoiaaiiy ia aa?i?/iiio ieioeiio oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ?
aieiaeo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea. Oi?ie ? iaoiaee oe??? ?iaioe
ia ao?aoeee aeooaeuei?noue e iei?.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeeeaaeai? a ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. Aeina?ae noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo neeiaeo no?oeoo? (1918-1919) //
No?ae. – 1999. – ? 1. – N. 52-55.

2. O?aaeeoe?? a?enueeiai-iao??ioe/iiai aeoiaaiiy Oe?a?inueei?
Aaeeoeueei? A?i?? COI? (1918-1920 ??.) // No?ae. – 1999. – ? 4. – N.
52-55.

3. Neoaeaa i?aiiaeiaieoeoaa OAA // Oe?a?inuee? aa??aioe. –  1999. –
? 1-2. – N. 70-76.

4. O?eeueianueeee Ee?eei // Na?oiaa oa a?o/eciyia aoiiaea?aeaaieoeueea
aeoiea /Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai, Aeiiaoeueeee ?inoeooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN
Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a; Aeiiaoeuee, 1997. – N. 250. (O ni?aaaoi?noa?).

5. Oaaeae Noaiai // Na?oiaa oa a?o/eciyia aoiiaea?aeaaieoeueea aeoiea
/Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa
?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai, Aeiiaoeueeee ?inoeooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa
IAN Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a; Aeiiaoeuee, 1997. – N. 255. (O ni?aaaoi?noa?).

6. Oethoeth?a Oaiaei?-Aiaaeai // Na?oiaa oa a?o/eciyia
aoiiaea?aeaaieoeueea aeoiea /Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie,
?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai, Aeiiaoeueeee ?inoeooo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie. – Ee?a; Aeiiaoeuee, 1997. – N. 269. (O
ni?aaaoi?noa?).

7. Oooaae/ Noaiai // Na?oiaa oa a?o/eciyia aoiiaea?aeaaieoeueea aeoiea
/Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo aea?aeaae ? i?aaa ?i.
A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai, Aeiiaoeueeee ?inoeooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie. –
Ee?a; Aeiiaoeuee, 1997. – N. 291. (O ni?aaaoi?noa?).

8. Eiyaeaea??. ?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/ee ia?en. – Iae??aea: “A?ao?o?“, 1998.
– 278 n. (O ni?aaaoi?noa?).

9. Oi?ioaaiiy oe?iiinoieo i???ioaoe?e iieiae? caniaaie oe?a?iiciaanoaa
//I?iaeaie i?aaiciaanoaa oa i?aaioi?iiii? ae?yeueiino? / Aeiiaoeueeee
?inoeooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie. – 1997. – ? 2. – N. 19-22.

AIIOAOe?ss

Ooooeoe/oe A.I. A?enueeiai-iao??oe/ia aeoiaaiiy o Aaeeoeuee?e a?i??. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 20.02.22 – a?enueeiaa ?noi??y. Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea“, Euea?a, 1999.

Ia iniia? aeaea?aeiciaa/iai aiae?co a?o?aieo aeieoiaio?a,
iaoeiai-?noi?e/ieo i?aoeue, iaioa??a a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo oa
a?enueeiaeo ae?y/?a COI?, iaoa??ae?a a?i?enueei? i?ane i?iaiae?ciaaii
a?enueeiaee aeoe?e ? iao??ioe/ia aeoiaaiiy iniaiaiai neeaaeo Aaeeoeueei?
a?i?? o 1918-1920 ??. Ocaaaeueiaii oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?aeaieia?/ii?,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiuei? ?iaioe o a?enueeo, ?o aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy aenieeo
ii?aeueii-aieiaeo yeinoae no??eaoeoaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Aaeeoeueea a?i?y, aeoiaaiiy, iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue,
iao??ioeci, iacaeaaei?noue, Oe?a?ia.

ANNOTATION

Futuluichuk V.M. Military-Patriotic Upbringing in the Galician Army. –
Manuscript.

A dissertation for obtaining the academic degree for candidate of
historical sciences, specialty 20.02.22 – military history. – The State
University “Lvivska Politekhnika“, Lviv, 1999.

A dissertation researches the national-historical traditions of military
teaching and upbringing from the Sokil-Sich organizations to the regular
Galician Army. An extensive analysis is made of the system of
military-patriotic upbringing in the Ukrainian armed forces during the
period of the national liberation struggle for independence of
1914–1920, the main tendencies, forms and methods and ideological and
cultural enlightenment activity of the command staff, the military
press, the military priesthood, and other structures. On the basis of
extensive research, conclusions and practical recommendations which
would help in forming high moral-military qualities of soldiers of
contemporary Ukrainian armed forces are made.

Key words: Galician Army, education, national consciousness, patriotism,
independence, Ukraine.

AIIIOAOeEss

Ooooeoe/oe A.I. – Aiaiii-iao?eioe/aneia ainieoaiea a Aaeeoeeie a?iee. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 20.02.22 – aiaiiay enoi?ey. – Ainoaea?noaaiiue
oieaa?neoao “Eueaianeay iieeoaoieea“, Eueaia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony iaoeeiiaeueii-enoi?e/aneea o?aaeeoeee
aiaiiiai iao/aiey e ainieoaiey caiaaeiuo oe?aeioeaa io
nieeeuenei-ne/aauo iauanoa aei ?aaoey?iie Aaeeoeeie a?iee (1918–1920).
I?iaiaeece?iaaia nenoaia aiaiii-iao?eioe/aneiai ainieoaiey oe?aeineeo
aii?oaeaiiuo oi?ie?iaaiee ia?eiaea ai?ueau ca iacaaeneiinoue e
niai?iinoue Oe?aeiu 1914-1920 aa., iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee, oi?iu e iaoiaeu
eaeaeii-iieeoe/aneie e eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
Ainoaea?noaaiiai nae?aoa?eaoa ? Iaoeeiiaeueiie ?aaeu Caiaaeii-Oe?aeineie
Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeee, Ia/aeueiie Eiiaiaeu, ?aaeaeoeee a?iaeneie i?annu,
a?aei-eaoiee/aneeo eaiaeaiia, o?iioiaiai oaao?a, ae?oaeo ainieoaoaeueiuo
no?oeoo? Aaeeoeeie a?iee.

Naeaeaiu iaiauaiey, auaiaeu e i?aeoe/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee,
niinianoaothuea oi?ie?iaaieth iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiie eaeaieiaee,
aunieeo ii?aeueii-aiaauo ea/anoa aieiia nia?aiaiiuo Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee
Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Aaeeoeeay a?iey, ainieoaiea, iaoeeiiaeueiia niciaiea,
iao?eioeci, iacaaeneiinoue, Oe?aeia.

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