?INOEOOO OE?A?IICIAANOAA?INOEOOO OE?A?IICIAANOAA

?I. ?AAIA E?EI’ssEAAE*A IAI OE?A?IE?I. ?AAIA E?EI’ssEAAE*A IAI
OE?A?IE

Ia i?aaao ?oeiienoIa i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 9(477)3/.4+OAeE 9(477)3/.4+

355(09)(477)

355(09)(477)

AIEOAEIAIEOAEI

A?eoi? ?anoao?eiae/A?eoi? ?anoao?eiae/

A?enueeiaa aoae?aieoeoai a Oe?a?i? ia??iaeoA?enueeiaa aoae?aieoeoai
a Oe?a?i? ia??iaeo

Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaeeOeaio?aeueii? ?aaee

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ieNiaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 —
?noi??y Oe?a?ie

A a o i ? a o a ? a oA a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiyaeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy
iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoeaeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1998

Euea?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, iaoee ? oaoi?ee ?inoeoooo
aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

AA?NOTHE Aeaaeeneaa Oaaei?iae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917-1921 ??.

?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

IEENTHE Aaneeue Ieeeiiae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oe?a?iiciaanoaa Euea?anueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

O?IOEIIAE* Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/, aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo

iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? Euea?anueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?aaia O?aiea

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: I?eea?iaonueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Aaneey
Noaoaieea, eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 8 » 02 1999 ?. i 15_ aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.222.01 a ?inoeooo? oe?a?iiciaanoaa
?i. ?. E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:

290026, i. Euea?a, aoe. Eicaeueieoeueea, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?. E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 29″ 12 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Noaae?e O.?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A i?ioean? ?icaoaeiae iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie c?inoa?
?ioa?an aei ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue, cie?aia aei
niiaiaiiai ae?aiaoeciii ia??iaeo 1917 — ia?oi? /aa?o? 1918 ??., eiee
Oe?a?inuee?e Ia?iaei?e ?anioae?oe? aeiaaeiny ca?ieii caoeuaoe
iacaeaaei?noue. Aanue oyaa? oe??? ai?ioueae e?a ia iea/? iieiaei?
Oe?a?inueei? a?i??. ?? noai?aiiy i?ioiaeeei o iaaecae/aeii neeaaeieo
aioo??oiuei- ? ciai?oiuei-iie?oe/ieo oiiaao.

A?ae?iaeaeaiiy Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie noaei iaeiei ?c ae??oaeueieo
/eiiee?a ci?oeiaiiy aea?aeaaieoeueeiai iai?yieo a
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieuei?e. ai?iouea? oe?a?inoaa.

O ?iee Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ia?aaoaaea
aaaaoii?eueeiiia ?in?enueea ?iia?nueea a?i?y, yea noaea nai???aeiei
eaoae?caoi?ii caaaeueiiaeaiie?aoe/iiai ? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo. Ine?eueee cia/iee a?aenioie ?? iniaiaiai neeaaeo noaiiaea
oe?a?inueeee aeaiaio, oi a?i aeoeaii aeeth/eany o
caaaeueii?aaiethoe?eiee i?ioean,ui ioiiea oe?a?inueea noni?euenoai i?ney
iiaaeaiiy ?in?enueeiai naiiaea?aeaanoaa ? oaeaeei aeae?eeany a ie?aiee
eiai aeaiaio — iaoe?iiaeueiee a?enueeiaee ?oo. O ai?iouea? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo ca a?aeiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino? eiio iaeaaeeoue i?ia?aeia ?ieue,
ai a?i aeoioethaaa o nia? yne?aai ae?aaeaiee aea?aeaaieoeueeee oa?aeoa?,
ui iin?a /?eueia i?noea o anueiio i?ioean? aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
Oe?a?ie, noai?aii? iaoe?iiaeueieo Ca?ieieo Nee ? caoeno? caeiaooi?
oe?a?inueeei ia?iaeii iacaeaaeiino?.

Oey i?iaeaia a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? aea/aia iaaeinoaoiuei. Aeeaiea
oa anaa?/ia ?? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? aaaeeeaa iaoeiaa cia/aiiy: ni?ey?
a?oioiaiiio aea/aiith iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo ca iacaeaaei?noue, c’yniao? ?ieue a?i?? o ?? caoeno?, aea?
iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe i?ioean ?? oi?ioaaiiy, iie?oe/i? /eiieee, ui ca
iei noiyee, i?aeoaa?aeaeo? oyae?noue oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai? oa
aea?aeaaieoeueei? o?aaeeoe??, ni?inoiao? onoaeai? noa?aioeie, ui iathoue
i?noea a ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? a ioe?ieao aeaii? i?iaeaie.

Ioaea, aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? Ca?ieieo Nee, ye iaeiiai c iaeaaaeeea?oeo
eiiiiiaio?a oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, ia? aaaeeeaa iaoeiaa
cia/aiiy, a oiio caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiei.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy — aa?acaiue 1917 — ea?oaiue 1918 ??.
iaa?oioiaai? oei, ui naia a oeae i?ii?aeie /ano iaeneeuei?oa i?iyaeany
a?enueeiaee ?oo, ye iaeia c i?ia?aeieo nee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii?
ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ca aea?aeaaio iacaeaaei?noue: ioi?ieaiiy
eiai i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? a ?aaoey?io a?i?th — iaeaaaeeea?oee:
ao?eaoo noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae. Oea aoa ia?oee aoai oai?aiiy ?aaoey?ieo
Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie a i?ioean? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?? aea?aeaaiino?. *a?ac
oa a?i caneoaiao? iniaeeai? oaaae aeine?aeiee?a, ai a?ae?iaeaeaia
iaoe?iiaeueia a?i?y e iaaeae? a?ae?a?aaaea i?ia?aeio ?ieue o ai?iouea?
Oe?a?ie ca iacaeaaei?noue.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? oe?a?inueea a?enueeiaa aoae?aieoeoai
o a?ae?iaeaeai?e Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? 1917 — ii/aoeo 1918 ??.,
o?iioia? oa oeeia? /anoeie ?in?enueei? ?iia?nueei? a?i??, aeeneieiaai? a
Oe?a?i?, ?o oe?a?i?caoe?y, ?icai?oaiiy a?enueeiaiai ?ooo, ae?yeuei?noue
a?enueeiaeo oa aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a OI? uiaei oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
Ca?ieieo Nee.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe — anaa?/ii aea/eoe oe?a?inueeee a?enueeiaee
?oo ye eaoae?caoi? ?icai?oaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae ca
a?aeiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino?, aoae?aieoeoai Ca?ieieo Nee OI? oa ?o ?ieue o
noaiiaeaii? ? caoeno? noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?ie.

Aeena?oaio iinoaaea ia?aae niaith caaaeaiiy aeine?aeeoe:

— oe?a?inueeee aecaieueiee ?oo a ?in?enuee?e a?i?? i?ney iiaaeaiiy
oea?ecio, eiai ?ieue o caeeaaeaii? i?aeaaeei iaoe?iiaeueieo Ca?ieieo
Nee;

— ai?ioueao ia?o?e oa i?aai?caoe?e ca a?i?th ? oeio, ?o i?ia?aii?
canaaee uiaei i?noey ? ?ie? Ca?ieieo Nee o aea?aeaaiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii?
Oe?a?ie;

— oi?ioaaiiy ?aaoey?ieo Ca?ieieo Nee OI?, ?o o/anoue o a?aen?/? aa?an??
a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?in??;

— ?oo ca noai?aiiy A?eueiiai eicaoeoaa; eiai i?noea o a?enueeiaiio
aoae?aieoeoa? oa a?enueeia?e iie?oeoe? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee;

— aaiethoe?th a?enueeiai? iie?oeee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa o?yaeo OI?;

— aeina?ae oa o?iee oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa 1917 —
ia?oi? /aa?o? 1918 ??.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? i?eioeei ia’?eoeaiino?.
Aeena?oaio iineoaiaoaaany ii??aiyeueiei oa eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iei
iaoiaeaie, canoiniaoaaa o?iiieia?/ii-i?iaeaiiee aeeeaae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe — ni?iaa eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa ye eeth/iaiai oaeoi?o o
a?aeiiaeaii? oa a ooaa?aeaeaii? noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?ie; c’yniaaii
noaaeaiiy Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa o?yaeo OI? aei oe?a?inueeiai
a?enueeiaiai ?ooo ? aoae?aieoeoaa ca?ieieo nee, iniiai? eiai aoaie, a
oaeiae aieea a?enueeiaeo /eiiee?a ia eiioeaiooaeuei? iiaeyaee /?eueieo
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a uiaei noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aea/aiiy,
aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee iiaeooue aooe a?aoiaai? ? oai?/i aeei?enoai? aeey
?ica’ycaiiy aeooaeueieo ieoaiue ?icaoaeiae Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie ia
no/aniiio aoai?, cie?aia ?o i?noey o iie?oe/ieo oa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiiyo noni?euenoaa. A?o/eciyiee aeina?ae
ia?aeiieeai na?ae/eoue, ui iiceoe?y a?i?? a ia?aeiii? iiiaioe ai?ioueae
ia?iaeo ca iacaeaaei?noue iiaea noaoe ae??oaeueiei oaeoi?ii, ui
aecia/eoue ?? aeieth: cae??ieoue caeiaooo ia?aiiao, aai ae ni?e/eieoueny
aei ii?acee.

Aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ni?eyoeiooue iiaeaeueoiio
aea/aiith ae?yeueiino? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee uiaei noai?aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i??, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o
iaa/aeueii-iaaeaaia?/i?e ?iaio?, cie?aia a a?enueeiaeo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao, a oaeiae o iaoeiai-i?ina?oieoeuee?e ae?yeueiino?.

Aeena?oaoe?y ai?iaiaaia ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, iaoee ? oaoi?ee
“Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”, o iiiia?ao??,
?ioeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a, cie?aia i?ae?o/ieeo “Eo?n eaeoe?e c ?noi???
Oe?a?ie oa ?? aea?aeaaiino?”, ia i?aeia?iaeieo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “Ca?iei? Neee Oe?a?ie — aa?aio iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee”
(Euea?a, 1996), “75 ?ie?a aeiaiai?o I?enoaenueeee — Iaoeth?a”
(Aa?oaaa,1996), “Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue”
(Ee?a,1993), “Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee ? Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia” (Euea?a, 1995).

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio (noi?. 4 — 10), /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a
(noi?.11 — 339), aeniiae?a (noi?. 340 — 354), aeaa’yoe aeiaeaoe?a,
nieneo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e — 264 iacae (noi?. 355 — 375).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, ?? o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, iaoo,
iaoeiao iiaecio ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Ieoaiiy a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee:
?noi??ia?ao?y i?iaeaie oa aeaea?aea” ?ice?eaa? noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee
aeena?oaoe?eii? i?iaeaie oa aeaea?aeueio aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A?enueeia? aniaeoe ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue ia??iaeo
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee caaaeaee aoee i?aaeiaoii iniaeeaiai caoe?eaaeaiiy,
aeine?aeiee?a. Aei iaea?eueo aeeneooiaaieo iaeaaeaee ieoaiiy i?i o?iee
aea?aeaaioai?/i? ae?yeueiino? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, i?i aeei?enoaiiy iath
oaino a?aeiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino?. Na?aae eiea oeeo
ieoaiue ia /?eueia i?noea aenoaa?oueny ? i?iaeaia ?ie? Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee a i?aai?caoe?? a?enueeiaiai caoenoo a?ae?iaeaeaii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aea?aeaaiino?.

O ca’yceo c ii?aceith aecaieueieo ciaaaiue oa anoaiiaeaiiyi a Oe?a?i?
oioae?oa?iiai ?aaeeio, a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? a?enueeiaa
aoae?aieoeoai /an?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee aoei iinoaaeaia i?ae aei?noeee
?aeaieia?/iee eiio?ieue ? oaeoe/ii ia aeine?aeaeoaaeiny ye ie?aia
i?iaeaia. Aieiaia oaaaa ?noi?ee?a cina?aaeaeoaaeany ia aea/aii? ?ie?
a?enueeiaiai ?ooo ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie ?aaiethoe?eii? ai?ioueae i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o?? ca ia?aiiao nioe?ae?noe/ii?
?aaiethoe??. Na?aae eiea ieoaiue, eio?? ii?oooaaea ?aaeyinueea
?noi??ia?ao?y /?eueia i?noea iaeaaeaei aeine?aeaeaiith
?aaiethoe?ii?caoe?? oea?nueei? a?i?? oa caeo/aiiy ?? a?eueoiaeeaie ia
na?e a?e aeey caoiieaiiy aeaaee. Oiio ?aaiethoe?eiee i?ioean o a?enueeo
?icaeyaeaany c oi/ee ci?o eeoa iaei??? ia?o??, a ana, ui caeeoaeiny ca
eiai iaaeaie, aaaaeaeiny eiio??aaiethoe?eiei ? a?aeiineeiny aei nee
noni?eueii? ?aaeoe?? oa ?aa?ano. Oey ?ena aoea i?eoaiaiia ?aaeyinuee?e
?noi??ia?ao?? iaeaea ai?iaeiaae onueiai ?? ?nioaaiiy. ?acii c oei o
nai?io ?icaeoeo aiia i?ieoea iaai? aoaie, ui iaee nai? iniaeeaino?.

Ia?oee aoai ioiieth? 20-o? ?iee. I?ia?aeia i?noea na?aae ieoaiue,
ii-a’ycaieo c aeine?aeaeaiiyi ai?ioueae a?eueoiaee?a ca aeaaeo a Oe?a?i?
iaeaaeaei a?enueeiaei aniaeoai. Ia?aaeon?i oea — i?aai?caoe?y ai?ioueae
i?ioe iioe?aiiy aieeao Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ia oe?a?inueeee a?enueeiaee
?oo, oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?i?ciaaieo /anoei, i?aeaioiaea ? i?iaaaeaiiy
ca?ieii? aa?an?? i?ioe OI?. Aaoi?aie oeeo i?aoeue aoee iie?oe/i?
noia?ieee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee — ae?y/? a?eueoiaeoeueeiai oaai?o.
Iacaaaeath/e ia nai? a?aeaa?oi-iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee, ?? aea?aeaaiiai oa a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa, aiie ana ae
iiaeaaaee eiai oaeoia?ao?/io noi?iio1.

Aeey a?o/eciyii? ?noi??ia?ao?? 30-o — ii/aoeo 50-o ?ie?a noaa
oa?aeoa?iei a?aeo?ae a?ae a?enueeiai? i?iaeaiaoeee. Niinoa??aaeany
oaiaeaioe?y aei i?eiaioaiiy ?ie? a?enueeiaiai oaeoi?o o ?aaiethoe?eieo
iiae?yo 1917 — ii/aoeo 1918 ??. Ooaa?aeeeany aeoiea, ui a?enueea
a?ae?a?aaaee ae?oai?yaeio ?ieue o iiaaeaii? naiiaea?aeaanoaa oa a
caoiieaii? a?eueoiaeeaie aeaaee, cie?aia e ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie.
Ieoaiiy, ui noinoaaeeny oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo, iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee o aeaiee ia??iae iaeaea
ia noaaeeeny, a

1 Aioiiia-Ianaaiei A. Caienee i a?aaeaeaineie aieia. A 3-o o.-I.,
1924.-O.?; Aio A. Iaoeeiiaeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai e Niaaoneay aeanoue ia
Oe?aeia.-I., 1919; ?? ae: Aiae ai?ueau. Ai?ueaa ca aeanoue ia Oe?aeia n
ai?aey 1917 aei iaiaoeeie ieeoiaoeee.-E., 1990; Eaeo?ei I.
No?aoaae/aneee i/a?e a?aaeaeaineie aieiu.-I.,E.,1926; Iaei?ia E. Ec
enoi?ee ?aaiethoeeiiiie ai?ueau ia Oe?aeia (1914 — 1919).-E.,1922.1
Aioiiia-Ianaaiei A. Caienee i a?aaeaeaineie aieia. A 3-o o.-I.,
1924.-O.?; Aio A. Iaoeeiiaeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai e Niaaoneay aeanoue ia
Oe?aeia.-I., 1919; ?? ae: Aiae ai?ueau. Ai?ueaa ca aeanoue ia Oe?aeia n
ai?aey 1917 aei iaiaoeeie ieeoiaoeee.-E., 1990; Eaeo?ei I.
No?aoaae/an-eee i/a?e a?aaeaeaineie aieiu.-I.,E.,1926; Iaei?ia E. Ec
enoi?ee ?aaiethoeeiiiie ai?ueau ia Oe?aeia (1914 — 1919).-E.,1922.

eiee e ii?oooaaeeny, oi a aeoaea noa’?eoeaiiio aena?oeaii?1.

C ae?oai? iieiaeie 50-o ? aei na?aaeeie 80-o ?ie?a a ?aaeyinuee?e
?noi??ia?ao?? ciiao c?inea oaaaa aeine?aeiee?a aei aea/aiiy a?enueeiaiai
oaeoi?o a ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?yo 1917 — ii/aoeo 1918 ??. C’yaey?oueny
iecea iiiia?ao?e i?i ?ieue a?i?? ye iaei??? c iaeaieeaia?oeo nee, ui
aeiiiiiaea a?eueoiaeeai anoaiiaeoe aeaaeo. Na?aae ieo iiaeia aeae?eeoe
aeena?oaoe?eio ?iaioo oa noaoo? A.A. Oea/oea, a oaeiae iiiia?ao?? I.A.
Aieoaa, I.N. O?aie?ia, I.I. sseoiiaa oa ?io?2, a yeeo aeacoaaeiny, ui
oe?a?inueeee a?enueeiaee ?oo aoa iaeiei ?c oaeoi??a, ui aieeaaa ia
?aaiethoe?ei? i?ioeane a Oe?a?i?.

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith a?o/eciyii? ?noi??ia?ao?? ae?oai? iieiaeie 60-o
?ie?a noaa iinooiiaee a?aeo?ae a?ae iiiiia?o?eiiai aa/aiiy i?iaeaie
?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e 1917 — 1918 ??, iiey?ecaoe?y iaoiaeieia?/ieo
i?aeoiae?a o ?o aena?oeaii?. Ia?aaeon?i oea noinoaaeiny ioe?iee i?noey
a?i?? o ?icai?oaii? ?aaiethoe?eiiai ? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i?, oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo, oe?a?inueei-?in?enueei? a?eie,
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa, ae?yeueiino? i?ia?aeieo
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo oa a?enueeiaeo ae?y/?a. *anoeia ?noi?ee?a
i?iaeiaaeoaaea iaa?oioiaoaaoe i?aaii??i?noue onoaeaieo a ?aaeyinuee?e
?noi??ia?ao?? iiaeyae?a ia oe? ieoaiiy, ?ioa — iaaiaee ni?inoiaoaaoe3.

C a?aeiiaeaiiyi iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie ?icii/aany ye?nii iiaee aoai
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?noi??ia?ao??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue iin?ei o i?e iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?noeue. Oea noino?oueny ?
a?enueeiaeo aniaeo?a oe??? i?iaeaie. Aeine?aeaeoth/e a?enueeiaa
aoae?aieoeoai

1 Iaeaea N.O. ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea a oea?neii oeioa 1825 —
1917.-I., E.,1948; Eeoieao A.A. ?aca?ii iaoeiiiaeenoe/aneie
eiio??aaiethoeee ia Oe?aeia (?917 — 1922 aa.).-E., 1954.1 Iaeaea N.O.
?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea a oea?neii oeioa 1825 — 1917.-I., E.,1948;
Eeoieao A.A. ?aca?ii iaoeiiiaeenoe/aneie eiio??aaiethoeee ia Oe?aeia
(?917 — 1922 aa.).-E., 1954.

2 Oea/oe A.A. ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea a a?ieyo THai-Caiaaeiiai e
?oiui-neiai o?iioia iaeaioia e a ia?eiae Aaeeeiai Ieoya?y (1916 —
oaa?aeue 1918 a.). Aaoi?ao. aeen. ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie ae.e.i.-
E.,1968,; Eiai ae: E?ao ni?ia Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee aeei?enoaoe
oe?a?i?ciaai? a?enueeia? oi?ioaaiiy a 1917 ?. //Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee
aeo?iae.-1967.-?8; Aieoa I.A. Nieaeaoneea iannu THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa a
ai?ueaa ca aeanoue Niaaoia (ia?o 1917 a. — oaa?aeue 1918 a.).-E., 1958;
O?aieei I.N. ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea ia ?oiuineii o?iioa. 1917 a.-
ia?o 1918 a.-I., 1965; sseoiia I.I. Aieueoaaeee ai aeaaa ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
nieaeaoneeo iann. 1917 — yiaa?ue 1918.-E.,1967; Oe?a?inueea ?N? a
ia??iae a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie 1917-1920. -E.,1967; ?noi??y Oe?a?inueei?
?N? o 8-ie o. 10-oe ei.-E.,1977. — O.5.2 Oea/oe A.A. ?aaiethoeeiiiia
aeaeaeaiea a a?ieyo THai-Caiaaeiiai e ?oiui-neiai o?iioia iaeaioia e a
ia?eiae Aaeeeiai Ieoya?y (1916 — oaa?aeue 1918 a.). Aaoi?ao. aeen. ia
nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie ae.e.i.- E.,1968,; Eiai ae: E?ao ni?ia
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee aeei?enoaoe oe?a?i?ciaai? a?enueeia? oi?ioaaiiy a
1917 ?. //Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae.-1967.-?8; Aieoa I.A.
Nieaeaoneea iannu THai-Caiaaeiiai o?iioa a ai?ueaa ca aeanoue Niaaoia
(ia?o 1917 a. — oaa?aeue 1918 a.).-E., 1958; O?aieei I.N.
?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea ia ?oiuineii o?iioa. 1917 a.- ia?o 1918
a.-I., 1965; sseoiia I.I. Aieueoaaeee ai aeaaa ?aaiethoeeiiiuo
nieaeaoneeo iann. 1917 — yiaa?ue 1918.-E.,1967; Oe?a?inueea ?N? a
ia??iae a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie 1917-1920. -E.,1967; ?noi??y Oe?a?inueei?
?N? o 8-ie o. 10-oe ei.-E.,1977. — O.5.

3 Aeea. iai?eeeaae: Ee/ee E.A. Ai?ueaa ca aeanoue Niaaoia ia
I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeia.-Eueaia,1986; Aaeeeee AEiaoaiue ? a?iiaaeyinueea
a?eia ia Oe?a?i?. Aioeeeeiiaaee/iee aeia?aeiee. -Ee?a,1987; ?iiai/oe I.
Oeueoeiaooi. O?ii?ea iaeiiai eiioe?eoo i?ae ?aaeia?eiiii ??ON? ?
Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith.-E.,1990; Aei?ioeaae/ A.,Aieioei I.
Iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie: iiaa ni?iaa //E?oa?aoo?ia Oe?a?ia. -1991. -3
n?/iy.3 Aeea. iai?eeeaae: Ee/ee E.A. Ai?ueaa ca aeanoue Niaaoia ia
I?aaiaa?aaeiie Oe?aeia.-Eueaia,1986; Aaeeeee AEiaoaiue ? a?iiaaeyinueea
a?eia ia Oe?a?i?. Aioeeeeiiaaee/iee aeia?aeiee. -Ee?a,1987; ?iiai/oe I.
Oeueoeiaooi. O?ii?ea iaeiiai eiioe?eoo i?ae ?aaeia?eiiii ??ON? ?
Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith.-E.,1990; Aei?ioeaae/ A.,Aieioei I.
Iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie: iiaa ni?iaa //E?oa?aoo?ia Oe?a?ia. -1991. -3
n?/iy.

ia??iaeo Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, oe?a?inuee? ?noi?eee iaiaaathoueny aeaoe
ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo Ca?ieieo Nee oa ?o ?ie?
o noaiiaeaii? aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie. A iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeyo
?icaeyaeathoueny eiie?aoi? ieoaiiy a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee: iaoiaee oi?ioaaiiy a?i??, ?? aeoeieo, i?aai?caoe??,
i?aeaioiaee io?oea?nueeeo eaae??a1. Iaeiae iaea?eueoo oaaao
aeine?aeiee?a i?eaa?oa? aiae?c o?ie?a, a oaeiae c’ynoaaiiy i?e/ei
ii?acee OI? o a?ei? c ?in??th. *eiaei ?noi?ee?a aaaaea? iaeaaaeeea?oith
i?e/eiith ii?acee OI? iaaeinoaoith oaaao ?? ea??aieoeoaa aei iio?aa
aeanii? a?i??, a?oa? iiieeee o a?enueeiaiio oa aea?aeaaiiio
aoae?aieoeoa?. Oey oaca a?aoiaioiaaia o ooiaeaiaioaeueiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? A.Aa?eae, iiiia?ao?yo ss.Oei/aiea, A.Aa?nothea, noaoo?
A.Nieaea-oaiea oa ?ioeo ?iaioao2.

I?ea?iaeueia i??eoaaiiy c oeueiai i?eaiaeo aenoioea E.Aa?/aaa, yea
noaa?aeaeo?, ui iaeiei c ae??oaeueieo oaeoi??a, yeee ni?e/eieany aei
ii?acee OI? aoei iani?eyoeeaa aeey Oe?a?ie i?aeia?iaeia noaiiaeua. A
oiiaao ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie e?a?ia ia?aaoaaea o i?aeia?iaei?e
aeeieiiaoe/i?e ?cieyoe??, ui iaaecae/aeii oo?oaeithaaei ?? iiaeeeaino?
ae?aaoeny c-i?ae aeaaee ?in??3.

A?enueeiaa aoae?aieoeoai a Oe?a?i? ia??iaeo Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee aeoeaii
aeine?aeaeoaaeinue oe?a?inueeeie ai?a?aionueeeie ?noi?eeaie. Aaeeea
caneoaa o oeueiio iaeaaeeoue aeaii iaoeiaei ina?aaeeai, ui i?aoethaaee o
i?aeai?iia aeaaaeoeyoee?ooy — Oe?a?inueeiio ai?iii-?noi?e/iiio
oiaa?enoao, a oaeiae Oiaa?enoao aoaoeo aiye?a A?i?? OI?. I?aoe?
ai?a?aionueeeo ?noi?ee?a o ii??aiyii? c aeine?aeaeaiiyie ?aaeyinueei?
?noi??ia?ao?? a?aecia/aeeny a?eueoith ia’?eoeai?noth a ioe?ieao
ae?yeueiino? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, a aieiaia ie?aiith eaieith aeae?eyee
a?enueeia? aniaeoe

1 Ie?iiaiei I. Oai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i?? ca aeiae OI?
//Iaea aioeeeeiiaae?y aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa. -E.,1996. -N.380-363; Eiai
ae: Oe?a?i?caoe?y oeioo a OI? //Oai naii. -N.393-394; sseeiiae/ A.
Ca?iei? Neee Oe?a?ie. Ia?en ?noi???. -Euea?a,1996; Oei/aiei ss.
Oe?a?inueea io?oea?noai: oeyoe nei?aioe oa caaoooy. -E.,1995. -*.?;
Eieyi/oe 0., Eeoaei I., Iaoiaiei E. Aaia?ae?oao oe?a?inueeeo aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue.-Euea?a,1995.1 Ie?iiaiei I. Oai?aiiy oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i?? ca aeiae OI? //Iaea aioeeeeiiaae?y
aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa. -E.,1996. -N.380-363; Eiai ae: Oe?a?i?caoe?y
oeioo a OI? //Oai naii. -N.393-394; sseeiiae/ A. Ca?iei? Neee Oe?a?ie.
Ia?en ?noi???. -Euea?a,1996; Oei/aiei ss. Oe?a?inueea io?oea?noai: oeyoe
nei?aioe oa caaoooy. -E.,1995. -*.?; Eieyi/oe 0., Eeoaei I., Iaoiaiei E.
Aaia?ae?oao oe?a?inueeeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue.-Euea?a,1995.

2 Aa?eaa A. Aecaieuei? ciaaaiiy a Oe?a?i? 1914 — 1923.
-Euea?a,1998.-O.1; Oei/aiei ss. Ia?oa oe?a?inueei-a?eueoiaeoeueea a?eia.
-E., Euea?a,1996. Aa?nothe A.O. Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea.
Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee. -E.,1997. Nieaeaoaiei A. Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? ? i?iaeaia Ca?ieieo Nee (aa?acaiue 1917 — ea?oaiue 1918
?.) //Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. -1992.-?5-8; Aeaueinueeee E.?.,
Aieoaei A.?. C ?noi??? noai?aiiy Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
?anioae?ee //?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae. -1996. -?6.2 Aa?eaa A. Aecaieuei?
ciaaaiiy a Oe?a?i? 1914 — 1923. -Euea?a,1998.-O.1; Oei/aiei ss. Ia?oa
oe?a?inueei-a?eueoiaeoeueea a?eia. -E., Euea?a,1996. Aa?nothe A.O.
Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea. Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee. -E.,1997.
Nieaeaoaiei A. Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ? i?iaeaia
Ca?ieieo Nee (aa?acaiue 1917 — ea?oaiue 1918 ?.) //Oe?a?inueeee
?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. -1992.-?5-8; Aeaueinueeee E.?., Aieoaei A.?. C
?noi??? noai?aiiy Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee
//?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae. -1996. -?6.

3 Aa?/aaa E. Iie?oe/ia eiio?iioaoe?y ? a?eia ?in?? c Oe?a?iith (1917 —
ii/aoie 1918 ?.). //Oe?a?ia. -Eoeueoo?ia niaaeueia, iaoe?iiaeueia
na?aeii?noue, aea?aeaai?noue. -1997. -aei.C — 4.3 Aa?/aaa E. Iie?oe/ia
eiio?iioaoe?y ? a?eia ?in?? c Oe?a?iith (1917 — ii/aoie 1918 ?.).
//Oe?a?ia. -Eoeueoo?ia niaaeueia, iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue,
aea?aeaai?noue. -1997. -aei.C — 4.

?? ae?yeueiino?, oi?ioaaiiy Ca?ieieo Nee OI?, ?o ?ieue o noaiiaeaii? oa
caoeno? noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?ie, noaaeaiiy aei a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa
??ciiiai?oieo iie?oe/ieo nee; ae?yeuei?noue i?ia?aeieo a?enueeiaeo
ae?y/?a1. Ocaaaeueithth/ee ? iaeiiai?oee aeeeaae ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueieo
Ca?ieieo Nee ia??iaeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue iiaeaiee o i?aoeyo C.
Noaoai?aa, I.Oaeiae/aiea, E.Oaieianueeiai, a oaeiae o eieaeoeai?e ?iaio?
“?noi??y oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea”2.

Iniaeeao oaaao oe?a?inuee? ai?a?aionuee? ?noi?eee caa?oaee ia c’ynoaaiiy
i?e/ei a?enueeiai? ii?acee OI? o a?ei? c ?in??th 1917-ii/aoeo 1918 ??.
*anoeia aeine?aeiee?a, aeecueeeo aei ai?a?aionueeiai o?yaeo oI?,
iaiaaaeany aeiaanoe, ui aiia aoea iane?aeeii aioei?e?oa?enonueeeo
iano?i?a, ui iaioaaee o ea??aieoeoa? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, i?ia?aeieeii
yeeo aenooiaa A.Aeiie/aiei, oa oaoiaith iaeiiiaoaioi?noth ea??aiee?a
a?enueeiaeie ni?aaaie3. Aiaeii/an aiie noaa?aeaeoaaee, ui, anoia?a/
aeiiouaieo iiieeie, Oeaio?aeuei?e ?aae? aaeaeiny noai?eoe iaoe?iiaeuei?
Ca?iei? Neee, ye? a?ae?a?aaaee i?ia?aeio ?ieue o oiae? aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue.

?ioiai iiaeyaeo aeio?eioaaeeny aaoi?e, iiiceoe?eii iaeaooiaai? aei
o?yaeiaeo e?e OI?, aeecuee? aei naiino?eieoeueeeo oa?oioaaiue.
Aeo?aeiith oacith ?o ioae?eaoe?e ? oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui i???ioaoe?y
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ia aoiaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie aei neeaaeo oaaea?aoeaii?
?in?? aeeeth/aea iio?aao o oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaoey?ii? a?i??,
ine?eueee ooieoe?? iai?iie iaa

1 Iaoiaiei TH. Ia ia?aeii?./I?e/eiee aei ?noi??? oe?a?i?caoe?? /anoei
a.?in?enueei? a?i??. Eooeuee.??aia a 1917 ?. //Ca aea?aeaai?noue.-Eae?o,
1934.-3a.4; Eiai ae: Oe?a?inueeee ?oo o ?O-e ?in?enuee?e a?i?? //Ca
aea?aeaai?noue. — Eae?o,1938.- 3a.8; Ee?e/aiei TH. Aei ?noi???
oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa //Ca aea?aeaai?noue.-
Eae?o,1936.- Ca.6; Aeaoeaae/ ?. A?oeea??y N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a o
ai?iouea? ca Cieio? ee?anuee?
ai?ioa.-Iueth-Ei?e,1965;Ia?ouaiei-Aiaaeai?anueeee A. Iaoa??yee aei
?noi??? I-ai e?iiiai Eoaainueeiai ?iai? caii?iaenueeiai iieeiaieea
Iaeneia Cae?ciyea iieeo //Ca aea?aeaai?noue.-Eae?o, 1935.- Ca.5;
Niianueeee E. Aaeaeaiaoeueeee e?o Neia?aenueei? Oe?a?ie oa eiai
a?oeea??y a 1917-1918 ?ioe? //Ca aea?aeaai?noue.-Eae?o, 1935.-3a.5;
Eo/aanueeee A. Ee?anuee? N?/ia? No??eueoe? //Eaeaiaea? “I?ina?oe”.
-Euea?a, 1922; Iao??a A. A?i?y OI? 1917 — 1921. I?aai?caoe?y
//Oe?a?inueea caaaeueia aioeeeeiiaae?y. -Euea?a, Noai?neaa,
Eieiiey,1935. -O.3. -N.262-266; ?iiaithe A. Oe?a?inueea *i?iiii?nueea
Oeueioa a 1918 — 1919 ??. //E?oiien /a?aiii? Eaeeie. -1932. -*.2; ?aaien
A. Neiii Iaoeth?a — i?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie.-Ae?iaiae/, 1991.1 Iaoiaiei TH.
Ia ia?aeii?./I?e/eiee aei ?noi??? oe?a?i?caoe?? /anoei a.?in?enueei?
a?i??. Eooeuee.??aia a 1917 ?. //Ca aea?aeaai?noue.-Eae?o, 1934.-3a.4;
Eiai ae: Oe?a?inueeee ?oo o ?O-e ?in?enuee?e a?i?? //Ca aea?aeaai?noue.
— Eae?o,1938.- 3a.8; Ee?e/aiei TH. Aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai
a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa //Ca aea?aeaai?noue.- Eae?o,1936.- Ca.6;
Aeaoeaae/ ?. A?oeea??y N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a o ai?iouea? ca Cieio?
ee?anuee? ai?ioa.-Iueth-Ei?e,1965;Ia?ouaiei-Aiaaeai?anueeee A. Iaoa??yee
aei ?noi??? I-ai e?iiiai Eoaainueeiai ?iai? caii?iaenueeiai iieeiaieea
Iaeneia Cae?ciyea iieeo //Ca aea?aeaai?noue.-Eae?o, 1935.- Ca.5;
Niianueeee E. Aaeaeaiaoeueeee e?o Neia?aenueei? Oe?a?ie oa eiai
a?oeea??y a 1917-1918 ?ioe? //Ca aea?aeaai?noue.-Eae?o, 1935.-3a.5;
Eo/aanueeee A. Ee?anuee? N?/ia? No??eueoe? //Eaeaiaea? I?ina?oe.
-Euea?a, 1922; Iao??a A. A?i?y OI? 1917 — 1921. I?aai?caoe?y
//Oe?a?inueea caaaeueia aioeeeeiiaae?y. -Euea?a, Noai?neaa,
Eieiiey,1935. -O.3. -N.262-266; ?iiaithe A. Oe?a?inueea *i?iiii?nueea
Oeueioa a 1918 — 1919 ??. //E?oiien /a?aiii? Eaeeie. -1932. -*.2; ?aaien
A. Neiii Iaoeth?a — i?aceaeaio Oe?a?ie.-Ae?iaiae/, 1991.

2 Noaoai?a C. Oe?a?inuee? ca?iei? Neee a 1917 — 1921??.
Ai?iii-?noi?e/iee ia?en. -Eieiiey, 1935; E?ei’yeaae/ ?., Aiaoaae/ A.,
Noaoai?a C. ?noi??y oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea (a?ae eiyaeeo /an?a aei 20-o
?ie?a XX no.).-Euea?a, 1992; Oaeiae/aiei I. Oe?a?ia o a?ei? ca
aea?aeaai?noue. ?noi??y i?aai?caoe?? ? aieiaeo ae?e oe?a?inueeeo
Ca?ieieo Nee 1917 — 1921. -E.,1995; Oaieianueeee E. Oe?a?inueea A?i?y o
ai?iouea? ca aea?aeaai?noue. -Ithioai,1958;2 Noaoai?a C. Oe?a?inuee?
ca?iei? Neee a 1917 — 1921??. Ai?iii-?noi?e/iee ia?en. -Eieiiey, 1935;
E?ei’yeaae/ ?., Aiaoaae/ A., Noaoai?a C. ?noi??y oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea
(a?ae eiyaeeo /an?a aei 20-o ?ie?a XX no.).-Euea?a, 1992; Oaeiae/aiei I.
Oe?a?ia o a?ei? ca aea?aeaai?noue. ?noi??y i?aai?caoe?? ? aieiaeo ae?e
oe?a?inueeeo Ca?ieieo Nee 1917 — 1921. -E.,1995; Oaieianueeee E.
Oe?a?inueea A?i?y o ai?iouea? ca aea?aeaai?noue. -Ithioai,1958;

3 Aei?ioaiei Ae. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie 1917-1923. Aeiaa Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee.
-Oaeai?iae,1932. -O.?; Noao?a I. Oe?a?ia i?ioe Aieueoaaee?a. Ia?ene c
?noi??? Nia?onueei? ?in??.- Oa?iii?eue, 1992.-Ei.?.3 Aei?ioaiei Ae.
?noi??y Oe?a?ie 1917-1923. Aeiaa Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. -Oaeai?iae,1932.
-O.?; Noao?a I. Oe?a?ia i?ioe Aieueoaaee?a. Ia?ene c ?noi??? Nia?onueei?
?in??.- Oa?iii?eue, 1992.-Ei.?.

ia?aa?aoe ia naaa ia oe?a?inueeee, a caaaeueii?in?enueeee oaaea?aeueiee
o?yae. O i?aoeyo I. Iaaeaeee, A. ?aoeiiae/a, N.Caa?acueeiai ? iniaeeai o
iiiia?ao?yo I.I??/oea oa ?.Ieeiiaaoeueeiai1 aeaco?oueny, ui oaea
iie?oeea iaiaaeoaaea iiaeeeaino? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee aeei?enoaoe
aaee/aciee iioaioe?ae iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai,ia?aaeon?i a?enueeiaiai
?ooo aeey ooaa?aeaeaiiy noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?ie. Oaeei /eiii,
?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae aeaii? oaie na?ae/eoue, ui i?iaeaia a?enueeiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? ia??iaeo Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee iin?ea o
aeine?aeaeaiiyo oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a aaaeeeaa i?noea, /eiaei ??
aniaeo?a ia? noia?a/eeaee, aeeneon?eiee oa?aeoa?, aei oiai ae ua iaia?
niaoe?aeueieo i?aoeue, eio?? aeaaaee a ocaaaeueithth/ee aiae?c
a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? ia??iaeo 1917 — ia?oi? /aa?o? 1918
??., noai?aiiy ?aaoey?ieo Ca?ieieo Nee, ?o cia/aiiy o aea?aeaaiiio
aoae?aieoeoa?.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei aeaea?aeii aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? oaie ?
aeieoiaioe oe?a?inueeeo, ?in?enueeeo ? /anoeiai iieuenueeeo a?o?a?a. A
caeaaeiino? a?ae iioiaeaeaiiy iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae? ?o a?oie: iaoa??aee
aeueo aea?aeaaieo oa a?enueeiaeo i?aai?a aeaaee, a?i?enueeeo eiiaiaeieo
no?oeoo? — ooaa?a o?iio?a, a?i?e, ie?oa?a, ie?aieo a?enueeiaeo /anoei,
ai?ia/aeueiee?a ? a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a, a?iiaaenueeeo oa
iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e, ui aaee ?iaioo o a?enueeao.

O Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy
Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAIO) cina?aaeaeai? iaoa??aee i?i ae?yeuei?noue
i?i?noa?noaa a?enueeiaeo ni?aa OI?, Aaia?aeueiiai a?enueeiaiai
nae?aoa??aoo, Anaoe?a?inueei? ?aaee a?enueeiaeo aeaiooao?a,
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa Aaia?aeueiiai Nae?aoa??aoo OI?, ei?aniiiaeaioe?y
oeaio?aeueieo a?enueeiaeo i?aai?a c i?noeaaeie oe?a?inueeeie
a?enueeiaeie i?aai?caoe?yie, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy, iaeace, ye? ?ice?eaathoue
o?ae noai?aiiy Ca?ieieo Nee OI? ? ?o ai?ioueao i?ioe aa?an?? ?in??.
Nooo?aa ?o aaaea — a?ae noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo i?i e?euee?niee oa ye?niee
neeaae noi?iiaaieo oe?a?inueeeo /anoei.

Aeieoiaioe Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue
Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAIO) aei iaaii? i??e oaeiae a?aeia?aaeathoue a?enueeiaa
aoae?aieoeoai a OI? 1917 — ia?oi? /aa?o? 1918 ??.

1 Iaaeaeea I. Aenooi Iieoaioe?aoe?a 4-6 eeiiy 1917 ?ieo a i.Ee?a? ia
oii? iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? oiai /ano //Aei ca?i?. -Oa?i?a,1921. -Ca.1;
?aoeiiae/ A. Aeaiie?aoeci o a?enueeo //Iaoa ci?y. -1923. -*.31-33;
3aa?acueeee N. E?ooe. O 40-??//y Aaeeeiai *eio 29 n?/ia 1918 — 29 n?/iy
1959. -Ithioai, Iueth-Ei?e, 1958; I??/oe I. Ieeiea I?oiianueeee —
aiinoie oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. -O?eyaeaeueo?y, 1960; Ieeiiaaoeueeee
?.Ia?en c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917-1918. -Euea?a,
1994.1 Iaaeaeea I. Aenooi Iieoaioe?aoe?a 4-6 eeiiy 1917 ?ieo a i.Ee?a?
ia oii? iie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? oiai /ano //Aei ca?i?. -Oa?i?a,1921. -Ca.1;
?aoeiiae/ A. Aeaiie?aoeci o a?enueeo //Iaoa ci?y. -1923. -*.31-33;
3aa?acueeee N. E?ooe. O 40-??//y Aaeeeiai *eio 29 n?/ia 1918 — 29 n?/iy
1959. -Ithioai, Iueth-Ei?e, 1958; I??/oe I. Ieeiea I?oiianueeee —
aiinoie oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. -O?eyaeaeueo?y, 1960; Ieeiiaaoeueeee
?.Ia?en c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917-1918. -Euea?a,
1994.

Iniiaiee ?o ianea cina?aaeaeaiee o oiiae? Eii?n?? c ?noi???
a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie i?e OeE EI(a)O. Aeieoiaioe i?ae?a?ai? aeineoue
oaiaeaioe?eii, noinothoueny ae?yeueiino? ia?aaaaeii a?eueoiaeoeueei?
ia?o??, ia a?aeoai?ththoue ?iciao iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo.
Oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeo a?eio e?ioey 1917 — ii/aoeo 1918 ??.
i?aaenoaaeythoue ia ye aa?an?th ?in?? i?ioe Oe?a?ie, a ye
a?iiaaeyinueeo.

Iniaeeai oe?ii? iaoa??aee i?i ia?o? e?iee iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?enueeiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa ? o ?in?enueeiio aea?aeaaiiio a?enueeiai-?noi?e/iiio
a?o?a? (?AeA?A), Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a?
A?enueeiai-ii?nueeiai Oeioo ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? (OeAeA AIO).
Aeieoiaioe Noaaee Aa?oiaiiai aieiaiieiiaiaeoaa/a, ooaa?a
aieiaiieiiaiaeoaa/?a o?iioaie, a?i?yie e ie?oaaie, aeeneieiaaieie ia
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, *i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo aeathoue ciiao i?inoaaeeoe
ianooaae oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo, iie?oe/i? iano?i? eiai
o/aniee?a, noaaeaiiy oa ieaie ?in?enueeiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy aei
oe?a?i?caoe?? a?i?? ? noai?aiiy oe?a?inueeeo Ca?ieieo Nee oa
A?enueeiai-Ii?nueeiai Oeioo.

Iaoa??aee iieuenueeeo a?o?a?a — Oeaio?aeueiiai a?enueeiaiai oa
Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee o Aa?oaa? a?aeia?aaeathoue ae?yeuei?noue
oe?a?inueeeo a?enueeiaeo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ii i?aeaioiaoe?
io?oea?nueeeo eaae??a aeey A?i?? OI?, ?? ai?ioueao c ?in?enueeeie
a?enueeaie.

Aeieoiaioe iaeanieo a?o?a?a /anoeiai aeiiiaiththoue ea?oeiio
aoae?aieoeoaa A?i?? OI? ia i?noeyo.

Caaaeii o aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii oiiaee 13 a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo
a?o?a?a, iaoa??aee yeeo aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aeinoaoiuei iiaii ?ice?eoe
oaio aeine?aeaeaiiy.

*anoeia a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a aoea iioae?eiaaia. Ca??iee “?aceiaeaiea
a?iee a 1917 a.”1 i?noeoue aeieoiaioe i?i i?aai?caoe?th oe?a?i?ciaaieo
/anoei. A ianooiieo ca??ieeao aeieoiaioe oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai?
i?iaeaiaoeee iaeaea oe?eeii aoee aeeo/ai?, a ?io? aeiae?aeeny
oaiaeaioe?eii e a?aeia?aaeaee ae?yeuei?noue eeoa a?eueoiaeoeueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e na?aae a?enuee, aeeneieiaaieo a Oe?a?i?, /eneaii?
?aciethoe?? nieaeaonueeeo i?oeia?a ia ?o i?aeo?eieo. O oie aea /an ia
iiaeaaaeiny aeiaeii? caaaeee i?i nieaeaonuee? i?ioanoe i?ioe i?aoaic?e
a?eueoiaee?a ia oco?iaoe?th aeaaee a Oe?a?i?, ?o aioeoe?a?inueeo
ae?yeuei?noue1.

1 ?aceiaeaiea a?iee a 1917 a. Oeaio?a?oea 1917 a.a aeieoiaioao e
iaoa?eaeao. -I.,E.,1925; ?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea a ?onneie a?iee a
1917 a. /Na. aeieoiaioia. -I.,1968; Ieoya?ueneay ?aaiethoeey e a?iey.
Na. aeieoiaioia. -I., 1973; Aaeeeay Ieoya?ueneay nioeeaeenoe/aneay
?aaiethoeey e iiaaaea Niaaoneie aeanoe ia Oe?aeia. Oaa?aeue 1917 —
oaa?aeue 1918 a. -1977. -*.1; 1982. -*.2.1 ?aceiaeaiea a?iee a 1917 a.
Oeaio?a?oea 1917 a.a aeieoiaioao e iaoa?eaeao. -I.,E.,1925;
?aaiethoeeiiiia aeaeaeaiea a ?onneie a?iee a 1917 a. /Na. aeieoiaioia.
-I.,1968; Ieoya?ueneay ?aaiethoeey e a?iey. Na. aeieoiaioia. -I., 1973;
Aaeeeay Ieoya?ueneay nioeeaeenoe/aneay ?aaiethoeey e iiaaaea Niaaoneie
aeanoe ia Oe?aeia. Oaa?aeue 1917 — oaa?aeue 1918 a. -1977. -*.1; 1982.
-*.2.

Aia?oa aeieoiaioe i?i oe?a?inueea a?enueeiaa aoae?aieoeoai ia??iaeo
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee aoee iioae?eiaai? o ca??ieeo “Cai?oee ? iaoa??yee
aei ?noi??? Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917 — 1920 ??.” I. O?enothea1. Ooo
i?noeeeny ooaaee anaoe?a?inueeeo a?enueeiaeo c’?cae?a, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy
aeueo aea?aeaaieo ?inoeoooe?e OI?, ui noinoaaeeny a?enueeiaeo ni?aa.
Iniaeea?noue oeueiai ca??ieea oa, ui aeieoiaioe, ye? o iueiio
iioae?eiaai? iathoue iaoe?iee eiiaioa? oeeaaea/a — /?eueiiai ae?y/a
ia?o?? nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a. O ca’yceo c oeei ?o i?aea?? ?
o?aeooaaiiy iineoue a?aeaeoie ana??anueeiai iiaeyaeo ia a?enueeiaa
aoae?aieoeoaa. Ianaiia?aae oea ciaeoei i?iya o iaaaoeai?e ioe?ioe?
A?eueiiai eicaoeoaa.

Iaeiiai?oith ioae?eaoe??th aeieoiaio?a, ui a?aeoai?th? aea?aeaaioai?/o
ae?yeuei?noue oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ? ca??iee “Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia
?aaea. Aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee”2. Ooo iioae?eiaai? i?ioieiee
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, Aaia?aeueiiai Nae?aoa??aoo, a?aeicae aei a?enueea ?
ianaeaiiy, iaeaaaeeea?o? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee uiaei
noai?aiiy Ca?ieieo Nee OI?. Caaaeyee iei iiaeia i?inoaaeeoe aaiethoe?th
iiaeyae?a ea??aieoeoaa e?a?ie o i?iaaaeaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? a?enueeiai?
iie?oeee, ?ieue a?enueeiaiai oaeoi?o o a?aeiineiao Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ?
Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo, iniaeeai o noaiiaeaii? noaa?aiii? Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae. Cia/ia /anoeia iaoa??ae?a i?enay/aia ca?iei?e ai?iouea? OI?
i?ioe ?in?enueei? aa?an?? aceieo 1917 — 1918 ??. I?ioa iioae?eiaaieo
iaoa??ae?a ca??ieea ana ae iaaeinoaoiuei aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa 1917 — ia?oi? /aa?o? 1918 ??.

Oaaaeia aea/aiiy iaioa?ii? e?oa?aoo?e aea? ciiao aeyaeoe /eiaei oe?eaaeo
oaeo?a, a aieiaia a?ae/ooe nooi ineoieia?/i? iioeae, yeeie ea?oaaeeny
no/anieee, ?ica’ycoth/e eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy, ui ?o aenoaaea oiai/ania
neooaoe?y. Cie?aia oea noino?oueny aeeneon?e o na?aaeiaeu? Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee uiaei aecia/aiiy ia?niaeoea iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?enueeiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa, iiaeae? Ca?ieieo Nee, noaaeaiiy aei oe?a?inueeiai
a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa iie?oe/ieo noia?iee?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee,
iaoiae?a, ye? aiie canoiniaoaaee aeey iiai?thaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
a?enueeiaiai ?ooo3.

1 O?enothe I. Cai?oee ? iaoa??yee aei ?noi??? Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??
1917 — 1920. -A?aeaiue,1921.-O.1.1 O?enothe I. Cai?oee ? iaoa??yee aei
?noi??? Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? 1917 — 1920. -A?aeaiue,1921.-O.1.

2 Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea. Aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee: O aeaio oiiao.
/Oii?.A.O.Aa?nothe /ea?.,I.Ae.Aieei,TH.I.Aai?aoeueeee oa
?i.-E.,1996-1997.- O.1;2.2 Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea. Aeieoiaioe ?
iaoa??aee: O aeaio oiiao. /Oii?.A.O.Aa?nothe
/ea?.,I.Ae.Aieei,TH.I.Aai?aoeueeee oa ?i.-E.,1996-1997.- O.1;2.

3 Nei?iiaaenueeee I.Niiaaaee.E?iaoeue 1917 — a?oaeaiue 1918./Aieiaiee
?aae. ss.Iaeainueeee/.-E.,O?eaaeaeueo?y,1995; Eiiiaaeaoeue ?. I?e/eiee
aei ?noi??? Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? (1917-1921).-I?aaa, 1928; Iao??a A.
Niiieie. C /an?a Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? /1917-1921/.-Euea?a,1927.
A?ooaanueeee I. Niiieie //Ee?a.-1989.-?8, ?11; Aeaieeei A.E. I/a?ee
?onneie nioou.-I.,1991; 3aoiinueeee A.I.O?eaee c niiaaae?a i?i
oe?a?inueeo ?aaiethoe?th //E?oiien ?aaiethoe??.-1929.-?4; ?5; Ieoya?ue
ia o?iioa.Ainiiieiaiey.-I.,1967.3 Nei?iiaaenueeee I.Niiaaaee.E?iaoeue
1917 — a?oaeaiue 1918./Aieiaiee ?aae.
ss.Iaeainueeee/.-E.,O?eaaeaeueo?y,1995; Eiiiaaeaoeue ?. I?e/eiee aei
?noi??? Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? (1917-1921).-I?aaa, 1928; Iao??a A.
Niiieie. C /an?a Oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? /1917-1921/.-Euea?a,1927.
A?ooaanueeee I. Niiieie //Ee?a.-1989.-?8, ?11; Aeaieeei A.E.I/a?ee
?onneie nioou.-I.,1991; 3aoiinueeee A.I.O?eaee c niiaaae?a i?i
oe?a?inueeo ?aaiethoe?th //E?oiien ?aaiethoe??.-1929.-?4; ?5; Ieoya?ue
ia o?iioa.Ainiiieiaiey.-I.,1967.

Iniaeeaee ?ioa?an aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa aeaiiai ia??iaeo i?aaenoaaeythoue ioae?eaoe?? N. Iaoeth?e1
oa A. Aeiie/aiea2, ui a?aeoai?ththoue aino?o iieai?eo i?ae aeaiia
i?ia?aeieie iinoaoyie a Aaia?aeueiiio Nae?aoa??ao? OI?. Aiia noino?oueny
iiooeo i?e/ei oa aeioaaooe?a ii?acee OI? o a?ei? c ?in??th.

Ia??iaeeea 1917 — 1918 ??.: io?oe?ei? aeaeaiiy aeueo a?enueeiaeo i?aai?a
OI?, aea?aeaaieo ?inoeoooe?y, ae?oeiaai? i?aaie iaeaieeaia?oeo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e a?aeaeca?eaeth? ?aaeoe?th a?i?? ia iiae?? a e?a?i?,
o?ae oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa, aieia? ae?? A?i?? OI?
i?ioe aa?an?? a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?in??, noaaeaiiy a?enueeiaeo e?e aei
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aae?, aaiethoe?th iiaeyae?a oe?a?inueeiai ea??aieoeoaa ia
a?enueeiaa aoae?aieoeoai oa ae?yeuei?noue o?yaeo OI? uiaei noai?aiiy
Ca?ieieo Nee, oe?a?i?ciaaieo /anoei.

Aeey aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeaee ?ioa?an noaiiaeoue
ia??iaeeea iaeaieeaia?oeo oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e, yea a?aeia?aaea? iaeei ?c
iaecaoai?oeo oaeoi??a, ui aieeaaa ia oe?a?inueea a?enueeiaa
aoae?aieoeoai — eiai iie?oecaoe?th.

Iaeyae ?noi??ia?ao?? oa aeaea?a i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aenoaae
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a?enueeiaee eiiiiiaio aoa iaeiei c aecia/aeueieo a
aea?aeaaiiio aoae?aieoeoa? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. Ine?eueee oeae aniaeo ??
ae?yeueiino? ia aeaiiio aoai? ia ciaeoia iaeaaeiiai aena?oeaiiy a
?noi??ia?ao??, oi nie?ath/enue ia aeinyaiaiiy iiia?aaeiee?a, iayaio
aeaea?aeueio aaco, o oe?e ?iaio? c?iaeaii ni?iao ae??oeoe oea caaaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ia?aaeoiiae oa ii/aoee a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Ca?ieieo Nee
Oe?a?ie” aena?oeaii ii/aoeiaee aoai oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo a
/anoeiao ?iia?nueei? a?i??, aeeneieiaaii? a Oe?a?i? aaniith 1917 ?. oa
caeeaaeaiiy i?aeaaeei iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

Ethoiaaa aeaiie?aoe/ia ?aaiethoe?y noai?eea ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
?icai?oaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae ia?iae?a ?in?enueei?
?iia??? ca a?ae?iaeaeaiiy nai?? aea?aeaaiino?. A Oe?a?i? ?? i/ieeea
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea. Nai? aieiaia caaaeaiiy aiia aaa/aea o ai?iouea? ca
oe?ieo iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueio aaoiiii?th Oe?a?ie. Aieiaa

1 Iaoeth?a N. Eeno aei aaia?aea-oi?oiaeiai Ieeiee Oaeiae/aiea; No/ania
oe?a?inueea ai?a?aoe?y oa ?? caaaeaiiy;”Oaai?”.*a?aia? i?iaeaie
a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa a oe?a?inuee?e a?enueeia?e e?oa?aoo??
//Iaoeth?a N. Noaoo?. -E.,1993.1 Iaoeth?a N. Eeno aei
aaia?aea-oi?oiaeiai Ieeiee Oaeiae/aiea; No/ania oe?a?inueea ai?a?aoe?y
oa ?? caaaeaiiy;Oaai?.*a?aia? i?iaeaie a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa a
oe?a?inuee?e a?enueeia?e e?oa?aoo?? //Iaoeth?a N. Noaoo?. -E.,1993.

2 Aeiie/aiei A. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe??. -Ee?a,A?aeaiue,1920. -*.1,2.
Aeiie/aiei i?ioe Iaoeth?e. Ca??iee Noaoo?a. -A.i.,1920; Caiia?o ai?oeyi
ca aecaieaiiy. -E., 1991.2 Aeiie/aiei A. A?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaoe??.
-Ee?a,A?aeaiue,1920. -*.1,2. Aeiie/aiei i?ioe Iaoeth?e. Ca??iee Noaoo?a.
-A.i.,1920; Caiia?o ai?oeyi ca aecaieaiiy. -E., 1991.

Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee I. A?ooaanueeee aaaaeaa, ui oaea aaoiiii?y “ia?
aa?oeoe o naaa aaeiia anye? nai? ni?aae — aeiiii?/i?, eoeueoo?i?,
iie?oe/i?, niaea?aeoaaoe nai? a?enueei, ?icii?yaeaeaoeny nai?ie
aei?iaaie, caieyie ? anyeeie iaoo?aeueieie aaaaoeoaaie, iaoe nai?
caeiiiaeaanoai, aaei?i?no?aoe?th ? noae”. Aei caaaeueiioaaea?aeueieo
ooieoe?e I. A?ooaanueeee na?aae ?ioeo a?aeiinea “ni?aae a?eie ? ie?o,
i?aeia?iaei? o?aeoaoe, caa?aeoaaiiy ai?iieie neeaie ?anioae?ee”.

Iiaeaeue oe?iei? iaoe?iiaeueii — eoeueoo?ii? aaoiiii?? Oe?a?ie a ?aieao
aeaiie?aoe/ii? oaaea?aoeaii? ?in?? noaea iaeaieeaia?oei aaneii, i?ae
yeei ?icai?oaany oe?a?inueeee aecaieueiee ?oo. Iaei??th c iaeaeoeai?oeo
? iae?aaeeeaeuei?oeo eiai neeaaeiaeo aoee nieaeaoe-oe?a?ioe? ?iia?nueei?
a?i??.

Iaae?iiy oea?nueeiai ?aaeeio oa aeeaie? aeaiie?aoe/i? ia?aoai?aiiy a
?in?? aieeioee e ia a?enueei. C?ooiaoioaoenue c iiaeie iie?oe/ieie
?aae?yie, a?i?th ioiiea oain. Iinooiiai i?ioean ?? ?iciaaeo iaa?aa
iacai?ioiueiai noeo?eiiai oa?aeoa?o.

Iineaaeaiiy caaaeueiia?i?enueeeo aeaaeieo no?oeoo? ia’?eoeaii ni?eyei
?icai?oaiith oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a a?i??. Aeey
oeueiai aoee an? oiiae: iniaiaee neeaae o?iio?a, ui i?ioiaeeee ii
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie iaa cia/io ieoiio aaao oe?a?inueeiai aeaiaioo:
I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiee 1/3, ?oioinueeee — 1/4, a *i?iiii?nueeee oeio ia 65%
neeaaeaany c oe?a?ioe?a. Anueiai ae o ?in?enuee?e a?i?? ia ii/aoeo 1917
?. ?c 6 798 oen. /ieia?e ae?th/i? a?i?? ? 2 260 oen., ui ia?aaoaaee o
caianieo /anoeiao, oe?a?ioe? noaiiaeee 3,5 iei.

Ianoithth/e iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueiee i?eioeei aea?aeaaiino?
Oe?a?ie, Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea oa iaeaieeaia?o? ia?o??, ui aei ia? aoiaeeee
— Oe?a?inueea nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ia ?ia?oie/a ia?o?y (ONAe?I),
Oe?a?inueea ia?o?y nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a (OIN?), Oe?a?inueea
ia?o?y nioe?ae?no?a-oaaea?ae?no?a (OINO) oi/a e ia aenooiaee ca
noai?aiiy ?aaoey?ieo ca?ieieo nee, ana ae aaaaeaee, ui oe?a?ioe? iathoue
neoaeeoe ia nai?e oa?eoi???. O ia?niaeoea? oea icia/aei, ui
caaaeueiioaaea?aeueia a?i?y a Oe?a?i?, ii noo?, ca ei?ioeee /an
ia?aoai?eoueny o iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueio, a ioaea, i?e aaaeaii?
oe?a?inueeiai ea??aieoeoaa iiaea noaoe ?aaoey?iith. Aanei
iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? ciaeoei aeaaaee a?aeaoe a
na?aaeiaeu? nieaeao?a-oe?a?ioe?a, ui aoei, ca aeciaiiyi I.
A?ooaanueeiai, iiaiith ianiiae?aaieith aeey Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. Aaea a
aa?aci? a na?aaeiaeu? nieaeao?a-oe?a?ioe?a iaaoaa? iioe?aiiy ?aeay
noai?aiiy ie?aieo oe?a?i?ciaaieo /anoei ? iinooiiaa ia?aaaaeaiiy ?o ia
oa?eoi??th Oe?a?ie. Iioeaaie, ye? ?o aei oeueiai niiioeaee, aoee:
aaaeaiiy iiaa?iooeny a ??aeia eoeueoo?ii-iiaia na?aaeiaeua, oieeiooe
aiaeae ia yeeenue /an o?iioiaeo ceeaiaei?a, niiae?aaiiy, ui c
a?aeiiaeaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaiino? a Oe?a?i? aoaea ae??oaii
aa?a?ia ieoaiiy, ui iniaeeai oaeethaaei oe?a?inueeeo nieaeao?a — naeyi o
nai?e aaniethoi?e a?eueoino?. Oe?a?i?caoe?y a?i?? noaea i?iyaii
oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo a oea?nuee?e a?i?? — ia?aaeoiiaith
caeeaaeaiiy ooiaeaiaioo iaoe?iiaeueieo Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie.

Oe?a?i?caoe?y ?icii/eiaeany aac eii?aeeioth/iai oeaio?o, ??
?i?oe?aoi?aie aenooieee “caieyoeoaa”, ui ia’?aeioaaee
nieaeao?a-oe?a?ioe?a c ie?aieo oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?e. Iaeia?oa
oe?a?i?caoe?y ioiieea oeeia? a?enueea, aea aaea iai?ee?ioe? aa?aciy
iioe?eeany ? ia ae?th/o a?i?th. Ia ??cieo ??aiyo aeieeathoue oe?a?inuee?
aeai?i? i?aai?caoe?? — a?enueeia? ?aaee.

?icai?oaiiy oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo aeeeeeaei caoe?eaaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo ia?o?e oa i?aai?caoe?e. Ia?oeie aeoeaio ?iaioo na?aae
a?enuee ?icai?ioee naiino?eieee, ye? a?oioaaeeny iaaeiei
caeiini??iaaiiai “A?aonoaa naiino?eiee?a”. Na?aae eiai i?ia?aeieo
ae?y/?a aoee I. I?oiianueeee, A.Noaiaiaiei, A.Ioaiaiianueeee. Ca ?o
?i?oe?aoeaith 9 aa?aciy* o Ee?a? aoei noai?aii “I?aai?caoe?eiee eii?oao
ii oi?ioaaiith Oe?a?inueeiai a?enueea”, a 12 aa?aciy — “Oe?a?inueeee
a?enueeiaee eeoa ?i. aaoueiaia I. Iieoaioea”. Iiyao oeeo i?aai?caoe?e oa
iioe?aiiy ieie nai?? ae?yeueiino? o a?enueeao iiaeia a?aeianoe aei
ia?aae?noi??? caeeaaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo iniia Oe?a?inueei? a?i??, ?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo caaaeii.

O/anoue oe?a?inueeeo nieaeao?a ? iao?in?a a iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieuei?e
ai?iouea? cioneea oe?a?inuee? i?ia?aei? ia?o?? ? Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo
ae?iaeoe iaaio iie?oe/io e?i?th uiaei i?noey ca?ieieo nee o nenoai?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Ianoithth/e eiioeaioe?th
oaaea?ae?cio, ui ia?aaeaa/aea ca Oe?a?iith i?aai oo?eioaaoe ia nai?e
oa?eoi??? a?enueei, aea ia aoaeoaaoe ? ?icii?yaeaeaoeny iei naiino?eii,
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea a i?eioeei? iaaaoeaii a?aeianeany aei noai?aiiy
oe?a?inueei? ?aaoey?ii? a?i??. Iaeiae aeiiae oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?enueea ana /ano?oa i?aei?iaeeny nieaeaoaie-oe?a?ioeyie ? ciaoiaeeee
ni?a/oooy a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?. Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ia iiaea
oe?eeii ?o caia?a/oaaoe. Ca?aene e iiyaeeany eiioeaioe?y cai?ie
?aaoey?ii? a?i?? ia?iaeiith i?e?oe??th. Ia ia?aeiiaiiy e?aea??a
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee iino?eia a?i?y aoea iciaeith noa?iai ?iia?nueeiai
?aaeeio, a anaia?iaeia

* An? aeaoe aei 16 ethoiai 1918 ?. iiaeai? ca noa?ei noeeai

i?e?oe?y iaea noaoe aa?aioii aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?euenoaa, ui
anoaiiaeeiny i?ney iiaaeaiiy oea?ecio.

* An? aeaoe aei 16 ethoiai 1918 ?. iiaeai? ca noa?ei noeeai.I?ioeeaaeiee
iiaeyae ia ia?niaeoeae oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa
ianoithaaa naiino?eieoeueeee oaa??. A?i aenooiaa ca oa, uia oe?a?inueeee
a?enueeiaee ?oo aeei?enoaoe aeey noai?aiiy ?aaoey?ieo Ca?ieieo Nee, ye?
a noaee aieiaiith i?aeaaeeiith a?ae?iaeaeaiiy noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?ie.
Naiino?eieee aaaaeaee, ui ca?aaee oe??? iaoe iiaeia i?oe iaa?oue ia
anoaiiaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? a?enueeiaiai aeeeoaoi?nueeiai ?aaeeio o oi?i?
aaoueiaiaoo. Iii?e nai? ia/eneaiia i?aaenoaaieoeoai o Oeaio?aeuei?e
?aae?, naiino?eieoeueeee oaa?? ii/aa ia?aoiiethaaoe o ia? ?i?oe?aoeao o
aieea? iaae oe?a?inueeei a?enueeiaei ?ooii. Noa?aiiyie eeoao
?i.aaoueiaia I.Iieoaioea o ea?oi? 1917 ?. ooai?aii ia?oo oe?a?inueeo
a?enueeiao oi?iaoe?th — iiee ?i. A. Oiaeueieoeueeiai o neeaae? 3574
/ieia?e. Eiai iiyaa iaea iaia?an?/ia cia/aiiy aeey aeoea?caoe??
oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo, ai noai?thaaea i?aoeaaeaio aeey
i?aai?caoe?? ?ioeo /anoei.

Noeo?eia oai?aiiy oe?a?i?ciaaieo /anoei noaaeei ia ii?yaeie aeaiiee
canioaaiiy caaaeueiiaeciaiiai a?enueeiaiai i?aaio, yeee ae acya ia naaa
ooieoe?? ea??aiiai oeaio?o oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo a?i?enueeeo
a?aeae?e?a, iiee-ui a ?aieao ?in?enueei? a?i??. Oea ieoaiiy
?icaeyaeaeiny ia ia?oiio oa ae?oaiio anaoe?a?inueeeo a?enueeiaeo
c’?caeao. Ia ia?oiio a?enueeiaiio c’?cae? (5 — 8 o?aaiy) aoei noai?aii
Oe?a?inueeee Aaia?aeueiee A?enueeiaee Eii?oao (OAAE), a ia ae?oaiio (5 —
10 /a?aiy) — Anaoe?a?inueeo ?aaeo a?enueeiaeo aeaiooao?a, ui noaee
aeueie iaoe?iiaeueieie a?enueeiaeie onoaiiaaie.

I?ae /an ?iaioe c’?cae?a i?ae iii??eiaaiith a?eueo?noth Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee ? naiino?eieoeueeei oaai?ii ?icai?ioeany aino?a aeeneon?y uiaei
ia?niaeoea oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oa a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Ia
ae?oaiio a?enueeiaiio c’?cae?, ui c?a?aany anoia?a/ caai?ii?
a?enueeiaiai i?i?no?a I. Ea?ainueeiai, naiino?eieee caaeaaeaee a?ae
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee iaaaeii ?ic??aaoe a?aeiineie c Oei/aniaei o?yaeii oa
i?iaieineoe naiino?ei?noue Oe?a?ie, ii/aoe oi?ioaaoe ?aaoey?ia a?enueei
oa oeeanoe naia?aoiee ie?. Iieieaoenue o iaioino?, aiie ia io?eiaee
i?aeo?eiee aeaeaaao?a c’?caeo. Aeaye? aeine?aeieee ii?aceo naiino?eiee?a
?icoe?iththoue ye na?eiciee oaea? ii oe?a?inueeiio a?enueeiaiio ?on? ?
ia?aiiao aaoiiii?no?a oa iia’ycaieo c ieie aioei?e?oa?enonueeeo
i?ia?aiieo onoaiiaie Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, ui aeoaea oo?oaeithaaei
oi?ioaaiiy Oe?a?inueei? ?aaoey?ii? a?i?? ? caeeaaeaei o ia?niaeoea? ??
ii?aceo. Canoaeaeoth/e aenooie naiino?eiee?a, canooiiee aieiae

Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee A. Aeiie/aiei, cayaea: “Ia nai?? a?i?? iai …
o?aaa, a cieuaiiy anyeeo iino?eieo a?i?e”. Nioe?ae?noe/ia ca neeaaeii
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea /anoi aaci?aenoaaii aaaaeaea aeueo io?oea??a
iioaioe?eieie eiio??aaiethoe?iia?aie, iaiaaaeany ia aeiionoeoe ?o ia
eeth/ia? iinaaee iaoe?iiaeueieo ea??aieo a?i?enueeeo no?oeoo?, aai
i?eiaeii? onoiooe a?ae ?aaeueiiai aieeao ia ?ic?iaeo a?enueeiai?
iie?oeee. Oiio a OAAE ia?aaaaeii can?aeaee ia i?ioan?iiaee, a a?enueeia?
caiano ieae/eo ?aia?a. Aieiaith A?enueeiaiai Eii?oaoo aoa ia?aiee
N.Iaoeth?a, oaeiae oeea?eueia ca oaoii ethaeeia. Iaeiae a?i aoa iaeiei c
iaaaaaoueio i?ia?aeieo ae?y/?a ONAe?I ? aieeaiaeo iie?oee?a
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, ui aeineoue oaeaeei a?ae?eoia a?ae
aioei?e?oa?enonueeeo iiaeyae?a nai?o eieaa ? ?icai?ioa aeoeaio
ae?yeuei?noue uiaei noai?aiiy Oe?a?inueeeo Ca?ieieo Nee.

Ia?aiiaa aioei?e?oa?enonueeeo e?e ia ia?oiio oa ae?oaiio a?enueeiaeo
c’?caeao aeaea i?aenoaao aeey ?aaeeeaeueii iaeaooiaaieo
naiino?eieoeueeeo oa?oioaaiue caeioaaoeoe e?aea??a Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee o
c?aae? oe?a?inueeeo ?ioa?an?a, eai?ooeyionuee?e iie?oeoe? uiaei
Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo.

I/aaeaeii oaeee i?aeo?ae aei ioe?iee ?o ae?yeueiino? iaaeoi ni?iuaiee.
Oe?eeii c?icoi?ei, ui Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea aaniith — ia ii/aoeo e?oa 1917
?. aoea iaeaea aaccaoeniith ia?aae Iao?ia?aaeii. Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui
aanue ?in?enueeee aeaiie?aoe/iee oaa??, ia eaaeo/e i?i /i?iinioaioe?a,
o?yaeia? oa a?enueeia? /eiieee, iaaaoeaii iinoaaeoueny aei ia? ?
iniaeeai aei oe?a?i?caoe?? a?i?? e aei oiai ae aieiae?a ?aaeueiith
a?enueeiaith neeith, ?aaeeeaeueiee oeyo, yeei caeeeeaee eoe Oeaio?aeueio
?aaeo naiino?eieee ia aeaiiio aoai?, cae?i/eany a ?? ?ica?iiii, ao?aoith
oeo caeiaooe?a, yeeo aeinyaea aaea Oe?a?ia. Oiio iiaeia eiinoaooaaoe, ui
oe?a?inuee? e?aea?e ia oie /an ia?aee ?aae?noe/io oaeoeeo. Eeoi aoei a
oiio, ui oeth oaeoe/io e?i?th aiie ia?aoai?eee caiaeii o no?aoaa?th,
eiee aeio?eiaiiy “?aeeiiai ?aaiethoe?eiiai o?iioo” c ?in?enueeith
aeaiie?ao??th noaei aaeueiii a ooaa?aeaeaii? noaa?ai?oaoo Oe?a?ie.

Ooaaee ae?oaiai a?enueeiaiai c’?caeo, a oaeiae i?eeiyooy i?ae eiai
oeneii Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith 10 /a?aiy ia?oiai Oi?aa?naeo ? noi?ioaaiiy
15 /a?aiy o?yaeo aaoiiiiii? Oe?a?ie — Aaia?aeueiiai Nae?aoa??aoo caeeaee
i?aeaaeeie oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? e a?aee?eaaee ia?niaeoeao aeey
noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i??.

Io?eiaaoe i?aai?caoe?eia ioi?ieaiiy caa?oo, oe?a?i?caoe?y a?i?? iaa?aea
ie?aneai?oeo eiioo??a. Oeaio?aeuei?e ?aae? aaeaeiny ni?yioaaoe ??
noeo?eiee ?icaeoie o i?aai?ciaaia ?onei, ui aaei aei cina?aaeaeaiiy
oe?a?i?ciaaieo /anoei a Oe?a?i? ? noai?thaaei ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey
iiaeaeueoiai ?icai?oaiiy a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa.

Oaea iaaani? — ii/aoeo e?oa 1917 ?. oe?a?inueeee a?enueeiaee ?oo aeaeaei
aeeoia ca ?aiee noa?i? a?i?? ? noaa iioe?thaaoeny na?aae oeea?eueiiai
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy, iniaeeai naeyinoaa, ui aeeeeiny o noai?aiiy
oi?ioaaiue A?eueiiai eicaoeoaa. Aiie noaee oiniaeaiiyi eiai ia?ic?eaiiai
ca’yceo ?c caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiith aecaieueiith ai?ioueaith
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ca a?aeiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino?.

?acii c oei oe?a?i?caoe?y ioiieea ia eeoa /anoeie ?iia?nueei? a?i??,
aeeneieiaai? a Oe?a?i?, a e o?, ui ia?aaoaaee aeaeaei ca ?? iaaeaie — a
?in??, I?eaaeoeoe?, I?ai?/iiio Eaaeac?. I?ia?aeio ?ieue o i?e
a?ae?a?aaaee i?noeaa? oe?a?inuee? a?enueeia? ?aaee.

Oe?a?i?caoe?y ioiieea e *i?iiii?nueeee oeio. Ia eiaeiiio ei?aae? ae?yea
ei?aaaeueia ?aaea. Ia ii/aoeo e?oa aoea noi?iiaaia ia?oa oe?a?inueea
/anoeia ia oeio? — Naaanoiiieuenueeee oeionueeee i?aae?iaae ia /ie? c
i?aeiieeiaieeii A. Naa/aieii-A?euenueeei, a eii?aeeiaoi?ii onueiai
oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo ia oeio? aenooiaa *i?iiii?nueeee oe?a?inueeee
a?enueeiaee eii?oao.

Oe?a?inueeee a?enueeiaee ?oo a ia??iae /a?aiy 1917 ?. oi/a e
i?iaeiaaeoaaa ?icaeaaoeny ii aeno?aei?e e?i?? i?ae aaciina?aaei?i
aieeaii iiainoi?iiaaieo iaoe?iiaeueieo a?enueeiaeo no?oeoo? — OAAE oa
Anaoe?a?inueei? ?aaee a?enueeiaeo aeaiooao?a, iaooiaooaaany ia na?eici?
i?aai?caoe?ei? ia?aoeiaee ia i?noeyo /a?ac a?ae iaiao?aeiiai
a?enueeiai-aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aia?aoo, yeee ae ia?aeiya ia naaa nooi
oaoi?/i? ooieoe?? i?aai?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo /anoei. Iai?ee?ioe? /a?aiy
caaaeueia e?euee?noue oe?a?i?ciaaieo /anoei, ui ia?aaoaaea o Ee?anueeiio
a?enueeiaiio ie?oc? noaiiaeea 50 oen. nieaeao?a. Oe?a?i?caoe?y ioiieea
6-e, 17-e, 41-e a?i?enuee? ei?ione I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai o?iioo. Iiyaa
oe?a?i?ciaaieo /anoei aieeioea ia iie?oeeo Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo uiaei
Oe?a?ie, i?eioneea eiai oaaaei?oa i?eneooaoeny aei oe?a?inueeeo aeiia.
I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oiio noaee ia?aaiai?e 28 — C0 /a?aiy o Ee?a? i?ae
i?aaenoaaieeaie Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo ? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, aiane?aeie
/iai noaei ooaaeaiiy 3 eeiiy ae?oaiai Oi?aa?naeo oa th?eaee/ia aeciaiiy
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee io?oe?eiei Iao?ia?aaeii. Ae?oaee Oi?aa?nae a?aee?eoi
ii?ooea ia iaeaeuiio ??ai? ieoaiiy oe?a?i?caoe?? a?enueeiaeo /anoei.
?in?enueeee o?yae iiaiaeaeoaaany ia eiiieaeooaaiiy oe?a?i?ciaaieo
/anoei. Oea cana?ae/eei i?i ?icoe?aiiy eiiiaoaioe?? Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee
ye aeuiai i?aaio aeaaee a Oe?a?i? ia a?enueeiao noa?o, ui aei oiai /ano
aaaaeaeany iiiiiie??th ?in?enueeiai o?yaeo. Iaeiae Oi?aa?nae ia i?a
?ica’ycaoe iaaie?eeo ieoaiue oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo, yeee ia
oie /an aaea aeaeaei aeeoia ca ?aiee aeinyaiooi? oaiaee. Iaaaeyea
iao?aiiy a na?aaeiaeu? eiai o/aniee?a aeeeeeaea caiaea Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee ia oa, uia oe?a?inuee? a?enueeia? i?aai?caoe?? naith ae?yeuei?noue
iiaiaeaeoaaee ca caaaeueii-?in?enueeeie a?enueeiai-a?iiaaenueeeie
i?aai?caoe?yie. sseui acyoe aei oaaae, ui o? iaaaoeaii noaaeeeny aei
anueiai oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo, oi noa? c?icoi?eei, o ye?
aaaee? oiiae aiia eiai noaaeea.

Aeoioeyoi?ii iiiceoe?eieo iano?i?a noi?ioe oaiaeianueei? iie?oeee
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee noaa eeoa ?i. aaoueiaia Iieoaioea, yeee,
nie?ath/enue ia i?aai?ciaaiee iei iaeiieiaiiee iiee, ae??oea caoiieoe
aeaaeo a Ee?a?, uia iio?i ia?aaeaoe ?? Oeaio?aeuei?e ?aae? ? caaeaaeaoe
a?ae ia? i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. Iianoaiiy iieeo ?i.
aaoueiaia I. Iieoaioea 4 — 7 eeiiy aoei i?eaeooaia ni?eueieie coneeeyie
a?enuee Ooaao Ee?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai ie?oao oa a?aeae?eaie
Aiaaeai?anueeiai iieeo. Eiai i?eaeooaiiy noaei na?eiciith ii?aceith
naiino?eieoeueeiai oaai?o ? iaaaoeaii iicia/eeiny ia anueiio i?ioean?
aea?aeaaiiai noaiiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. I?ae oei ?icnoaiiaea iie?oe/ieo nee a
e?a?i? ia ii/aoeo eeiiy 1917 ?. aea? i?aenoaae i?eioneaoe, ui ca aeaieo
oiia, i?e iayaiino? aaoi?eoaoiiai ea??aiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?aaio, yeei
aoea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea, iianoaiiy Iieoaioe?anueeiai iieeo iiaei
oa?i/aoeny oni?oii, i?ecaanoe aei i?iaieioaiiy ?? iacaeaaeiino? ?
aeoiaeo ?c na?oiai? a?eie. ?in?enueea a?i?y aoea aeaci?aai?ciaaia
i?iaaeii ianooio ia I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiio o?iio?, a oiio Oei/aniaee o?yae
aoa iani?iiiaeiei i?eaeooeoe iianoaiiy a Oe?a?i?, yea, aei ?a/?, aioiaa
aoei i?aeo?eiaoe A?eueia eicaoeoai oa ?io? oe?a?i?ciaai? /anoeie.

7 eeiiy aano?i-i?iaoeuee? a?enueea i?i?aaee o?iio. ?in?enueea a?i?y
ao?aoeea 150 oen. /ieia?e. Ine?eueee ae?oeo 1917 ?. oe?a?inueeee
eiioeiaaio iin?aeaa ooo iaeaea iieiaeio iniaiaiai neeaaeo, oi e ao?aoe
oe?a?ioe?a ia/enethaaeeny aeanyoeaie oeny/. Ioaea, i?aeo?eiea
Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith a?enueeiaeo ieai?a Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo caaaeaaaea
na?eicii? oeiaee Oe?a?i? ? ia aei?aaaeiaoaaea oeo i?i?iaeueieo iinooiie,
ye? aiia iaea?aeaea a?ae iueiai ca i?aai eiiieaeooaaoe caiani?
oe?a?i?ciaai? iieee.

Oei/aniaee o?yae ? Noaaea noaee aaeeaaoe caoiae?a aeey noaa?e?caoe??
neooaoe??. 19 eeiiy ia iinaaeo Aa?oiaiiai aieiaiieiiaiaeoaa/a aoa
i?ecia/aiee aaia?ae Ei?i?eia — ia?oee ai?ia/aeueiee aenieiai ?aiao,
eio?ee caaeey noaa?e?caoe?? o?iioo ? a?aeiiaeaiiy ai?caeaoiino?
?in?enueei? a?i?? iaaaaeeany cai?iaaaeeoe o ?? neeaae? oe?a?i?ciaai?
/anoeie. A?i aeaeaa iaeac i?i oe?a?i?caoe?th aeanyoe aeea?c?e, a oaeiae
aeaio a?i?enueeeo ei?ion?a. 23 eeiiy ?icii/aeany oe?a?i?caoe?y 34-ai
a?i?enueeiai ei?iono i?ae eiiaiaeoaaiiyi aaia?aea I. Nei?iiaaenueeiai. C
eeiiy 1917 ?. oe?a?i?caoe?y a?i?? anooieea o iiao oaco. Aiia iaaoea
eaa?oeiiiai oa?aeoa?o, i?aai?ciaai?oeo oi?i ? oe?oiai ianooaao.

Eeiaiue — na?iaiue 1917 ?. noaa ia??iaeii caaino?aiiy iie?oe/ii? e?ece a
?in??. Ii?acea ia o?iio? oa oain a e?a?i? ? a?i?? iineeeee ai?ioueao
i?ae iii??eiaaieie aeaiie?aoe/ieie oa aeeeoaoi?nueeeie oaiaeaioe?yie o
Oei/aniaiio o?yae? ? a?i?enuee?e aa?o?aoe?. ?ethno?aoe??th oeueiai noaea
ni?iaa anoaiiaeaiiy iai?ee?ioe? na?iiy a?enueeiai? aeeeoaoo?e aaia?aea
E. Ei?i?eiaa. Oe?a?i?ciaai? /anoeie aaccanoa?aaeii i?aeo?eiaee caeeee
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ia aeiionoeoe ia?aiiao ei?i?eianueeiai aenooio,
aaeaea ia i?aeeyaaei noii?ao, ui a ?ac? eiai oni?oo iaae ieie iaaenia
caa?ica e?ea?aeaoe??. I?iaae caeieioo, oaeey aia?o?/ieo aenooi?a a a?i??
noaee a?aeaeca?eaeaiiyi iacaaeiaieaiiy oe?ieeo aa?noa iie?oeeith
Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo. Aeaiia?e?caoe?y noa?i? a?i??, ia?ae?/ aea?aeaaieo ?
a?enueeiaeo i?aai?a iinoaaeee ia?aae Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith ieoaiiy i?i
ia?niaeoeae aea?aeaaioai?/i? ae?yeueiino?.

Ca i?a??/iee ia??iae Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea noaea aeciaiei e?aea?ii
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, iaeaeoeai?oeie o/anieeaie
yeiai aenooiaee nieaeaoe-oe?a?ioe?. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a iniia?
a?enueeiai? iie?oeee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee eaaeaee oeai? oyaeaiiy uiaei
aeioe?eueiino? ?nioaaiiy ?aaoey?iiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?enueea,
ia’?eoeaii aanue ?icaeoie iiae?e aeooiaoaa ?? ca oaaea?ae?nonuee? ?aiee
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy. Ca i?a??//y nai?? ae?yeueiino? Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea
aeinyaea aaaiieo caeiaooe?a, a oiio /ene? ? noai?aii? ooiaeaiaioo
iaoe?iiaeueieo Ca?ieieo Nee. Oe?a?i?caoe?y ?iia?nueei? a?i??
ni?e/eieeany aei oiai, ui a?enueea, aeeneieiaai? a Oe?a?i?, noaee
ia?aoai?thaaoeny ia iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeuei?.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “Iaoe?iiaeueia a?enueeiaa aoae?aieoeoai a ia??iae
ooaa?aeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino? Oe?a?ie” i?enay/aiee aiae?cia? aaiethoe??
a?enueeiai? iie?oeee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee a ia??iae eenoiiaaea 1917 —
n?/iy 1918 ??. I?ney i?eaeooaiiy ei?i?eianueeiai aenooio o ?in??
iineeth?oueny iie?oe/ia e?eca. O aa?ani? — aeiaoi? 1917 ?. noaei
i/aaeaeiei, ui Oei/aniaee o?yae iani?iiiaeiee eiio?iethaaoe neooaoe?th.
Aaee/acio oa?eoi??th ?in?enueei? ?anioae?ee ioiieee aeac?ioaa?aoe?ei?
i?ioeane. Oa ae

naia noinoaaeiny e noa?i? ?iia?nueei? a?i??. Eaoano?io?/ia iaae?iiy ??
ai?caeaoiino? cioneei o?yae oa a?enueeiaa ia/aeuenoai iiaiaeeoeny ia
?icoe?aiiy ianooaa?a oe?a?i?caoe?? a?enueeiaeo /anoei, ye?, ia oe?
?icaaeo a?i??, a?aecia/aeeny a?aeiiniith aeenoeeie?iiaai?noth, ui
ii?iaeaeoaaei o i?aaey/eo eieao ?ethc?th iiaeeeaino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy
aeey ii?yooieo neooaoe?? ia o?iio?. 12 aa?aniy 1917 ?. a ?acoeueoao?
ia?aaiai??a i?ae aeaeaaaoe??th OAAE ? i?ai’??ii I. Ea?ainueeei aoei
aeinyaiooi aeiiiaeaiino? i?i oe?a?i?caoe?th i?oioieo aeea?c?e ?acii ?c
caianieie iieeaie, a oaeiae aeciaii oe?a?inuee? a?enueeia? i?aai?caoe??
a a?i?? ia ??ai? caaaeueii?in?enueeeo.

Ia ii/aoie aeiaoiy ?aaeueia aeaaea Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo a Oe?a?i?
i?aeoe/ii noaea iii?iaeueiith ? o?eiaeany eeoa ia aeia??e aie?
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee. Oe?a?ia, anoia?a/ ieai?a Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee,
aeoiaeeea ca ?aiee aaoiiii?? ? iaae?aea ?en noaa?aiii? e?a?ie. Aaaeeeaa
i?noea o oeueiio i?ioean? iin?aeaea a?i?y. Oaia? oe?a?i?ciaai? /anoeie
i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeeny eeoa Oeaio?aeuei?e ?aae? oa OAAE ? ia?aeiyee ia
naaa caoeno Oe?a?ie a?ae caeaii?ae?ciaaieo o?iioiaeo /anoei, ui
iio?aieee i?ae aieea a?eueoiaee?a e noaee iaea?iaaieie. Anth
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iiae?e a Oe?a?i? iaea acyoe
ia naaa Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea oa Aaia?aeueiee Nae?aoa??ao. 12 aeiaoiy
cai?noue OAAE aoei noai?aii Nae?aoa??ao a?enueeiaeo ni?aa c
eiiiaoaioe??th oi?ioaaoe oe?a?inuee? /anoeie ? i?aaenoaaeyoe aa?oiai?e
a?enueeia?e aeaae? ia caoaa?aeaeaiiy eaiaeeaeaoo?e ia iinaaee
a?enueeiaeo /ei?a ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. 19 aeiaoiy a oe?a?i?ciaaieo
/anoeiao cai?iaaaeaeoaaany ?inoeooo oe?a?inueeeo eii?na??a. Ana oea aaei
aei noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?enueeiaiai aia?aoo ia i?noeyo ?
oiacaeaaeithaaei aeaaeo Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee oa Aaia?aeueiiai
Nae?aoa??aoo iaae a?i??th a?ae Iao?ia?aaeo.

AEiaoiaaee ia?aai?io 1917 ?., iaae?iiy Oei/aniaiai o?yaeo, caa?ica
ioiieaiiy oainii Oe?a?ie, cioneei Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo acyoe ia naaa
a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca aeieth Oe?a?ie. 7 eenoiiaaea o?ao?e Oi?aa?nae
i?iaieinea ooai?aiiy OI?. ?icaoaeiaa ?? aea?aeaaii-aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
aia?aoo ioiieea e a?enueeiao ni?aao. Eia?ea iiae?e i?aeaaea Oeaio?aeueio
?aaeo aei ona?aeiieaiiy iio?aae aoae?aieoeoaa ?aaoey?ieo Ca?ieieo Nee,
ye iaeiiai c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ao?eaoo?a noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae.

6 eenoiiaaea i?aaenoaaieeaie Aaia?aeueiiai Nae?aoa??aoo ? Noaaeith
aaia?aea I. Aeooii?ia aoea i?aeienaia oaiaea i?i oa?eoi??aeueiee
i?eioeei eiiieaeooaaiiy a?i??, yea a?aee?eaaea ye?nii iiaee aoai o
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo. Aiia cae??ieea ca Oe?a?iith
i?aaa niaaeei?ioey ia oo /anoeio eieeoiuei? oea?nueei? a?i??, ui
aeeneieoaaeany ia ?? oa?eoi???, aeciaaaea ca iath i?aai ia aeania
a?enueei.

23 eenoiiaaea Aaia?aeueiee Nae?aoa??ao OI? iaieinea i?i ceeooy
I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiai ? ?oioinueeiai o?iio?a a iaeei Oe?a?inueeee i?ae
nai?th caa?oi?noth. Ooaae on?o /ioe?ueio a?i?e (ca aeiyoeii V??),
aeeneieiaaieo a Oe?a?i?, aeneiaeee aioiai?noue i?aeii?yaeeoaaoeny OI?. O
eenoiiaae? ii/aa ooieoe?iioaaoe Oe?a?inueeee aaia?aeueiee ooaa, ?iaeeeny
ni?iae cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?enueeiaeo noaooo?a a oe?a?i?ciaaieo /anoeiao.
Aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii o a?enueeiaiio aoae?aieoeoa? noaea iiyaa o
eenoiiaae?-a?oaei? ?aaoey?ieo a?enueeiaeo /anoei: na?aethoeueeeo,
aaeaeaiaoeueeeo oa N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a. Ia oie /an i?eiaaea? aiiaae
oe?a?i?caoe?? /anoei noa?i? a?i??. Caaaeueia e?euee?noue iniaiaiai
neeaaeo /anoei, ye? oe?a?i?coaaeeny, aeinyaea i?eaeecii 637 oen. in?a.
Iniaiaee neeaae /anoei, o yeeo aoei cae?i/aii oe?a?i?caoe?th,
ia?aoiaoaaa 440 oen., c ieo aeecueei 240 oen., o oiio /ene? e 60 oen.
A?eueiiai eicaoeoaa ia?aaoaaei ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie. Ana ae aiie ia
iiaee noaoe ai?caeaoiith iniiaith Ca?ieieo Nee OI?. Ni?e/eieeenue
oeueiio, cie?aia, caaaeueia aoiia nieaeao?a-oe?a?ioe?a a?eiith,
a?aenooi?noue aeaniiai aeina?aeo a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa, a oaeiae
ianiaaia a?eueoiaeoeueea aeaiaaia?/ia i?iiaaaiaea, iioe?aiiy yei? ia
oe?a?i?ciaai? /anoeie ia iiuanoeei iaeo?ae?coaaoe aea?aeaaiei oa
a?enueeiaei /eiieeai OI?.

O aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ui a?eia, yeo i?iaieineea 4 a?oaeiy 1917 ?.
a?eueoiaeoeueea ?in?y OI? aoea i?iaeiaaeaiiyi ?? ?iia?nueei? iie?oeee
uiaei Oe?a?ie. Oioae?oa?iee a?eueoiaeoeueeee ?aaeei ia i?a cie?eoeny c
?nioaaiiyi a Oe?a?i? aeaiie?aoe/iiai ono?ith, ui iicaaaeya iiaeeeaino?
neaae? i?noeaa? a?eueoiaeoeuee? aeaiaioe ia?eaiaionueeei oeyoii i?eeoe
aei aeaaee a e?a?i?. Neeith oaeo?a Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ciooaia aoea
ia?aaeyiooe eiioeaioe?th oaaea?ae?nonueeiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, ai
aieiaiee ia’?eo oaaea?oaaiiy — aeaiie?aoe/ia ?in?y ia?anoaa ?nioaaoe.
Oe?a?ia nooieea ia oeyo noaa?aiiiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy i?ioe /iai ?
aenooiea a?eueoiaeoeueeee ?aaeia?eii.

A?oaeaiue 1917 ?. noaa ia??iaeii aino?i? ?aeaeii? ai?ioueae i?ae
Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith ? ?aaeia?eiiii ca aieea iaae nieaeaoaie, a oaeiae
ii/aoeii ?icai?oaiiy aieiaeo ae?e i?ae oe?a?inueeeie oa ?in?enueeeie
a?enueeaie.

Iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae? no?aoaa?/i? ?aeiie Oe?a?ie, ia oa?eoi??? yeeo
oi/eeeny

iaecaiaee?o? ai?. Oiiaii ?o iiaeia iacaaoe o?iioaie, ine?eueee
iiceoe?eieo aieiaeo ae?e ooo ia aaeiny, a caeaa?eueoiai iaiaa?ai?
iia?aoe??. Ia?oee — ia caoiae? OI? — i?ioe a?eueoiaeciaaieo o?iioiaeo
/anoei noa?i? a?i??; ae?oaee — No?aeiee o?iio, ui i?inoyaaany c ?aeiio
Oa?eiaa ii Aeiiaoeueei-E?eai??cueeee aanaei; o?ao?e — I?ai?/iee, ui
i?ioiaeea ii i?ai?/ii-no?aeieo ei?aeiiao Oe?a?ie a ?aeii? *a?i?a?aueie.
Ia?aoo?, c i?aaeiy — c ocaa?aaeaey *i?iiai ii?y i?ioe a?enuee OI?
?icai?ioee eieaeuei? aieia? ae?? ie?ai? aeanaioi? caaiie /i?iiii?nueeeo
iao?in?a, ye? eoee ca a?eueoiaeeaie oa i?noeaa? /a?aiiiaaa?ae?eoe?.
Ioaea, ?c no?aoaa?/ii? oi/ee ci?o noaiiaeua OI? aoei aaaeeei: e?a?ia
iieieeany o ai?iaeiio e?eueoe?.

I?ioyaii a?oaeiy iaeaeoeai?o? aieia? ae?? i?ae oe?a?inueeeie ?
?in?enueeeie a?enueeaie aaeeny ia I?aaiaa?aaeae?. ?i?oe?aoeaa o ?o
aaaeaii? aei na?aaeeie i?nyoey iaeaaeaea oe?a?inuee?e noi?ii?. O?yae OI?
ooo iaa o nai?io ?icii?yaeaeaii? aeinoaoi? neee, cie?aia 40-oeny/iee I-e
Oe?a?inueeee ei?ion aaia?aea I. Nei?iiaaenueeiai. Oea aeicaieeei eiio
caoiieoe o?iioia? a?i?enuee? ooaae, i?e yeeo ae?yee a?eueoiaeoeuee?
?aaeiie, ? iinoaaeoe i?ae eiio?ieue a?enueeiai-oaoi?/iee aia?ao. Aoei
i?eaeooaii iaaaeaeo ni?iao a?eueoiaeoeueeiai caeieioo a Iaean?. Caaaeyee
aia?a?eiei ae?yi oe?a?inueeiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy a?eueoiaeeai ia aaeaeiny
?aae?coaaoe ieai — neeaie o?iioiaeo /anoei iaieiae?oe o a?oaei?
I?aaiaa?aaeaeyi ? Ee?aii.

Aa?an?y ?in?? i?ioe Oe?a?ie iai/ii cana?ae/eea caoai?noue iiaeaeueoiai
aeio?eiaiiy Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith iie?oeee a?aeiiae a?ae ?aaoey?ii?
a?i??. ?? ci?ia i?ioiaeeea aie?nii. Aeaaaeeny aciaee oei??iai?
aioei?e?oa?enonuee? iano?i? a na?aaeiaeu? aieeaiaeo oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e.
17 a?oaeiy aaia?aeueiee nae?aoa? a?enueeiaeo ni?aa N. Iaoeth?a,
iaieiath/e Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo oa o?yae, caoaa?aeea “Noaooo Oe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? A?i??”, yeee noaa ia??aeiei eaiaiai o aoae?aieoeoa? ?aaoey?ii?
A?i?? OI?. Iiyaa “Noaoooo” ni?e/eieeany aei caaino?aiiy ? aac oiai
iai?oaeaieo a?aeiinei i?ae A. Aeiie/aieii oa N. Iaoeth?ith. Iane?aeeii
oeueiai noaei onoiaiiy inoaiiueiai 18 a?oaeiy a?ae ea??aieoeoaa
a?enueeiaeie ni?aaaie. Iiaei aaia?aeueiei nae?aoa?ai a?enueeiaeo ni?aa
noaa I. Ii?o, i?ioeaiee noai?aiiy ?aaoey?ii? a?i??. Iaeiae ?icoe?aiiy ia
ii/aoeo 1918 ?. ?in?enueei? aa?an?? i?ioe OI? cioneei ?? o?yae aia?a?eii
acyoeny aei i?aai?caoe?? iai?iie e?a?ie. Caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee, a oaeiae o?yaeia? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy a aaeoc? a?enueeiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa, aeaeai? o ia?o?e iieiaei? n?/iy 1918 ?. cana?ae/eee i?i
ci?io a?enueeiai? iie?oeee ia ei?enoue noai?aiiy ?aaoey?ii? a?i?? ca
oa?eoi??aeueiei i?eioeeiii eiiieaeooaaiiy. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai
noaa “Caeii i?i ooai?aiiy Oe?a?inueeiai Ia?iaeiiai A?enueea” a?ae 3
n?/iy 1918 ?., a oaeiae ia?aaea/a caaii?a A?eueiiai eicaoeoaa ?c
a?aeaiiy nae?aoa??aoo aioo??oi?o ni?aa o ?icii?yaeaeaiiy a?enueeiaiai
nae?aoa??aoo ? noai?aiiy ia eiai iniia? “?a?no?iaiai A?eueiiai
eicaoeoaa”, ui ia?aaoaaei ia aea?aeaaiiio oo?eiaii?. 14 n?/iy
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ooaaeeea “Oei/aniaee caeii i?i oeio”, yeei
i?iaieiooaaea ia?ao?ae onueiai *i?iiii?nueeiai oeioo i?ae th?enaeeeoe?th
OI?. Ii?yae c oeei 18 n?/iy I. Ii?o aeaeaa ?icii?yaeaeaiiy i?i
aeaiia?e?caoe?th oe?a?i?ciaaieo /anoei, a oaeiae neanoaaiiy iaia’yceiai?
neoaeae ia oeio?, /ei caaaeaa iaiii?aaii? oeiaee iae/enaeuei?oei
?aaoey?iei /anoeiai A?i?? OI?, yeeie aoee oe?a?i?ciaai? oi?ioaaiiy. Naia
oiae? e ia?anoaa ?nioaaoe ei?ion I. Nei?iiaaenueeiai. Oea aoei c?iaeaii
naia o oie /an, eiee a?eueoiaeoeueea ea??aieoeoai iaieineei i?i
noai?aiiy *a?aiii? a?i??, a oe?a?inueei-?in?enueea a?eia aoea a ?iciae?.

O n?/i? 1918 ?. aieiaiei oaao?ii ai?iieo ae?e i?ae oe?a?inueeeie oa
?in?enueeeie a?enueeaie noaei E?aiaa?aaeaey. Aeo?aeiei ieaoeaea?iii
cina?aaeaeaiiy ai?iaeeo a?enuee aoa o?eeooiee Aiiaeue — Aaoia/ —
A?yinuee. Aieiaiei ia’?eoii ianooio — Ee?a. ?in?enuee? a?enueea
cina?aaeaeoaaeeny ia E?aiaa?aaeae? o /ioe?ueio oa?oioaaiiyo o neeaae? C0
oen. in?a. I?ioe ieo Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ia iiaea aenoaaeoe aeia?a
aeoeieaieo e /enaeueieo ?aaoey?ieo a?enuee. Iaeaea an? aiie
aeeneieoaaeeny ia I?aaiaa?aaeae?, ?icii/aee ianiao aeaiia?e?caoe?th, a
o?, ui ciaoiaeeeeny ia E?aiaa?aaeae? aoee ?icii?ioai?, iia?ocee o
nooe/eao c /a?aiiiaaa?ae?enueeeie caaiiaie, a oiio ia iiaee ?icai?iooeny
o o?iio i?ioe ianooiath/eo a?eueoiaeoeueeeo a?enuee.

E?noye oe?a?inueeeo a?enuee ia E?aiaa?aaeae? noaiiaeee ?aaoey?i?
/anoeie: Aaeaeaiaoeueeee e?o Neia?aenueei? Oe?a?ie N. Iaoeth?e (300
/ieia?e), Eo??iue N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a ?. Eiiiaaeueoey (600 /ieia?e),
Caii??cueeee eo??iue ?i. eioiaiai Ii?icaiea (450 /ieia?e). O noaae??
i?aai?caoe?? ia?aaoaaee iieee — 1-e ?anioae?eainueeee, 1-e Cae?cie/iee,
aieiaee eo??iue OIN? oa ?io?.

?icai?oaiiy aa?an?? a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?in?? i?ioe OI? ooiaoioei
Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo ia i?eeiyooy 9 n?/iy 1918 ?. /aoaa?oiai Oi?aa?naeo,
ui oi?iaeueii ?ic?eaaa aea?aeaaiee ca’ycie ?c ?in??th ? i?iaieiooaaa
iiaiee noaa?ai?oao Oe?a?ie. Oeei aeoii oe?a?inueeee o?yae i?aaioa
i?aee?aneeoe i?aeaea?aeaaiee oa?aeoa? oe?a?inueei-?in?enueei? a?eie, a
ia aioo??oi?e, ye eiai o?aeooaaee a?eueoiaeee, niiae?aaany i?aeiyoe
ai?caeaoi?noue oe?a?inueeeo /anoei, eio?? oaia? iaee ai?iieoe aeanio
aea?aeaao. I?ioa oe? niiae?aaiiy ia aei?aaaeaeeny. A n?/i? 1918 ?.
?i?oe?aoeaa o aieiaeo ae?yo oe?eeii ia?aoiaeeoue aei ?in?enueei?
noi?iie. A?eueo?noue aaaeeeaeo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo oeaio??a E?aiaa?aaeaey
iieieeany i?ae eiio?ieai a?eueoiaee?a. A na?aaeei? n?/iy ?icii/aeeny ai?
ca ee?anueeee no?aoaa?/iee ieaoeaea?i. O ai?iouea? ca Ee?a
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aieiaeo nee aoei ia ia ei?enoue oe?a?ioe?a. C? noiaeo
noieeoeth aeieoaaei 16-oeny/ia ?in?enueea oa?oioaaiiy, a naiiio i?no? o
?icii?yaeaeaii? a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ?aaeiio, ui i?aeiya caeieio i?ioe
o?yaeo OI?, ia?aaoaaei 2 oen. /a?aiiiaaa?ae?eoe?a, aei yeeo i?e?aeiaeany
/anoeia aa?i?ciio. E??i oiai, o noieeoe? ia?aaoaaei 15 oen. eieeoi?o
oea?nueeeo io?oea??a ai?iaea iaeaooiaaieo aei oe?a?inueei? aeaaee.
*anoeie A?i?? OI? o Ee?a?, ui a?aee aeoeaio o/anoue a iai?ii?,
ia?aoiaoaaee anueiai 5 oen. in?a. Ai? ca noieeoeth o?eaaee a?eueoa
oeaeiy ? cae?i/eeeny ii?aceith oe?a?inueei? noi?iie. 26 n?/iy 1918 ?.
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea oa o?yae OI? caeeoeee Ee?a. ?acii c ieie noieeoeth
iieeioee ?aaoey?i? /anoeie, ui ia?aoiaoaaee 3 oen. /ieia?e. Aiie aoee
?ai?aai?ciaai? a Ie?aiee Caii??cueeee caa?i i?ae eiiaiaeoaaiiyi aaia?aea
E.I??nianueeiai.

Iane?aeeii ceiiai? eaiiai?? 1917 — 1918 ??.noaea ieoiaoe?y a?eueoiaeeaie
ia?aaaaeii? /anoeie oa?eoi??? OI?. A?eueieie caeeoaeany
i?ai?/ii-cao?aeia Aieeiue ? /anoeia Iiae?eey, a oaeiae n?euenuee?
i?ia?ioe?? I?aaiaa?aaeaey oa E?aiaa?aaeaey, ui eiio?iethaaeeny A?eueiei
eicaoeoaii.

Ia ii/aoeo ethoiai 1918 ?. ?aaoey?i? /anoeie A?i?? OI? cina?aaeeeeny ia
Aieei?. Ia Iiae?ee? ia?aaoaaee ???aaoey?i? a?aeae?ee, a oaeiae ?aooee
a?ae aeaiia?e?ciaaieo oe?a?i?ciaaieo /anoei.

Ii?acea OI? o a?ei? c a?eueoiaeoeueeith ?in??th iiynith?oueny i?e/eiaie:

-/enaeueiith ia?aaaaith a?eueoiaeoeueeeo ?aaoey?ieo a?enuee iaae
oe?a?inueeeie;

— ae/a?iaiiyi iia?e?caoe?eiith ?aca?ao e?a?ie. Oe?a?inueeee o?yae ia i?a
i?iaanoe iia?e?caoe??, ai ?? iniiaiee ?aca?a — naeyinoai oaea aoa
aeei?enoaiee o oiae? /ioe?e??/ii? a?eie ye o?ce/ii, oae ? ii?aeueii. A
oie aea /an a?i ia ci?a caeo/eoe aei neoaeae c?in?euaieo i?iieneiaeo
?ia?oiee?a, ye? caaaeii ai?iaea noaaeeeny aei oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai
? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo;

— aeiiouaieie Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith iiieeeaie a aaeoc? a?enueeiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa: o?eaaeei iaaaoeaiei noaaeaiiyi aei ?aea? oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaoey?ii? a?i??, iaaeia??ith aei aeueo io?oea??a,
ia?aae/aniei iaieioaiiyi aeaiia?e?caoe?? oe?a?i?ciaaieo /anoei;

— ia?aaaaith a?eueoiaeoeueei? iiioe?nonueei? i?iiaaaiaee iaae ?aeaeieie
aieeaaie Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ia nieaeao?a ? iao?in?a;

— iaaeinoaoi?i aeina?aeii o?yaeo OI? a aaeoc? a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa
? iia?oaaii? iayaieie o iueiai a?enueeaie;

— a?aeii aeina?ae/aieo iao??ioe/ii-iaeaooiaaieo a?enueeiaeo oao?aoe?a.

Aieiaiei i?aenoieii oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo a ia??iae
a?oaeiy-n?/iy 1917-1918 ??. noaei eiai aeae?eaiiy ?c eiioaenoo
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueii? aecaieueii? ai?ioueae a ie?aiee aeaiaio
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa, a naia a?enueeiaiai. Cia/iith i??ith aei
oeueiai ni?e/eieeeny e i?aeia?iaei? ?aae??, o yeeo iieieeany Oe?a?ia.
Iinoaaeaiee ia?aae oaeoii aa?an?? a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?in??, o?yae OI?
ciooaiee aoa ia?aaeyiooe nai? onoaiiaee uiaei a?enueeiai? iie?oeee ?
ia?aaanoe ?o o i?aeoe/io ieiueio. Iane?aeeii oeueiai noaei ooai?aiiy
iai?ee?ioe? 1917 ?. ?aaoey?ii? A?i?? OI?. Aeania oey iaaaeeea ca
e?eueeino? a?i?y i?iaeiaaeoaaea ianoe ia nia? oyaa? iai?iie aea?aeaae ?
iii?e ana a?yooaaea ?? a?ae e?ea?aeaoe?? ?in?enueeeie a?eueoiaeeaie a
n?/i? 1918 ?.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaoe?iiaeueia a?enueeiaa aoae?aieoeoai i?ney
A?anonueeiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?o c e?a?iaie *aoaa?iiai Nithco”
?icaeyaea?oueny ai?ioueaa A?i?? OI? oa ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo a?enueeiaeo
oi?ioaaiue ca ca?eueiaiiy Oe?a?ie c-i?ae a?eueoiaeoeueei? ieoiaoe??
aaniith 1918 ?., a oaeiae ia?ao?ae aei ?icaoaeiae ?aaoey?ieo Ca?ieieo
Nee.

O ?acoeueoao? i?aeienaiiai 27 n?/iy (9 ethoiai) 1918 ?. ie?iiai
aeiaiai?o OI? c e?a?iaie *aoaa?iiai nithco — I?ia//eiith,
Aano?i-Oai?ueiith, Aieaa???th ? Oo?a//eiith Oe?a?ia aeeoea ?c na?oiai?
a?eie. Iaeiei ?c ae??oaeueieo /eiiee?a, ui niiioeaa Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo
iiaiaeeoeny ia i?aeienaiiy naia?aoiiai ie?o aoee oe?ie? aa?noae
nieaeao?a-oe?a?ioe?a. Cia/iith i??ith i?ae ?o oeneii aiia a/eieea oa,
/iai aeia-aaee naiino?eieoeuee? eiea ua aaniith — e?oii 1917 ?. —
i?iaieineoe iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie ? oeeanoe naia?aoiee ie?. Iaeiae oea
aoei c?iaeaii eeoa oiae?, eiee OI? iieieeany ia?aae caa?icith aooe
e?ea?aeiaaiith a?eueoiaeeaie. I?ioa oeeaaeaiee ie?iee aeiaia?? aiia ia
iiaea aeei?enoaoe aeey ci?oeiaiiy naiai noaiiaeua. Iaei/enaeueia A?i?y
OI? ia iiaea aeaoe aoaeoeaii? a?aen?/? ?in?enueeei a?enueeai ?
ca?eueieoe a?ae ieo oa?eoi??th e?a?ie. Oiio ?? o?yaeo aeiaaeiny
caa?iooeny ca aeiiiiiaith aei I?ia//eie oa Aano?i-Oai?ueie.

Oaea a oiae? ceiiai? eaiiai?? 1917 — 1918 ??. noaei i/aaeaeiei, ui
iaeai?caeaoi?oeie /anoeiaie A?i?? OI? ? ?aaoey?i? a?aeae?ee, ye? aeianee
ia nia? aanue oyaa? ai?ioueae c ?in?enueeeie a?enueeaie.
?ai?aai?coaaaoenue o Ie?aiee Caii??cueeee caa?i, aiie no?eiaee ia
ii/aoeo ethoiai 1918 ?. i?inoaaiiy ?in?enueeeo a?enuee ia cao?ae ?
ia?aeoee o eiio?ianooi. Eeoa 19 ethoiai ?icii/aany ianooi nithcieo
i?iaoeueeeo, a 27 ethoiai aano?i-oai?nueeeo a?enuee. Ioaea, iacaaaeath/e
ia ii?aceo, A?i?y OI? ia aoea aeaii?ae?ciaaia, ni?iiiaeia aei
i?iaeiaaeaiiy ai?ioueae e ia?oith iiaaea ianooi ia Ee?a.

Oe?a?inuee? a?enueea ianooiaee o?ueiia oaea?ieie a?oiaie. Caii??cueeee
caa?i aaia?aea E. I??nianueeiai ?c Ei?inoaiy ae?ooea ia AEeoiie?,
aoaeoaaa eiai ? 24 ethoiai caeiaoa. Caiaee? ai? a?aeae?ee caaiio aaee ca
Aa?aee/?a, yeee iai?iiyee a?eueoiaeciaai? /anoeie eieeoiuei? V?? a?i??.
26 ethoiai i?noii iaieiae?ee oe?a?ioe?. Aeae? ianooi a?oie E.
I??nianueeiai ?icai?ioany o iai?yieo cae?cieoe? Aa?aee/?a — Eicyoei —
Oano?a — Ee?a.

Ae?oaa a?oia oe?a?inueeeo a?enuee, iniiao yei? neeaaeaee Aaeaeaiaoeueeee
e?o Neia?aenueei? Oe?a?ie ? eo??iue N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a, iiaaea ianooi o
iai?yieo Na?ie — Ei?inoaiue — Ee?a.

O?aoy a?oia i?inoaaeany ii oina AEeoiie? — Ee?a. A inoaii?o /eneao
ethoiai oe?a?inueei-i?iaoeueei-aano??enuee? nithci? a?enueea i?ae?eoee
ia i?aenooie aei Ee?aa. A ?o aaaiaa?ae? ?ooaeeny oe?a?inuee? /anoeie.
Iniaeeai aia?o? ai? c a?eueoiaeeaie oi/eeeny ia ?. ??i?iue, inoaiiueiio
iai?iiiiio ?oaaae? a?eueoiaeoeueeeo a?enuee ia?aae Ee?aii. I?ney eiai
caeiaoooy, 29 ethoiai a?eueoiaeee iini?oii caeeoeee Ee?a. 1 aa?aciy aei
noieeoe? anooieee oe?a?inuee? a?enueea, a ianooiiiai aeiy nthaee i?eaoee
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea oa o?yae OI?. Iaeii/anii aei aei Ee?aa i?eaoee e
i?iaoeuee? a?enueea. Aeae? a?enueeia? iia?aoe?? ?icai?oaeeny ia i?aaei?
? E?aiaa?aaeae?.O neeaae? aano?i-oai?nueeeo a?enuee, ui ianooiaee a
iai?yieo /i?iiii?nueeiai ocaa?aaeaey ia?aaoaaee ONN.

Aei e?ioey ea?oiy 1916 ?. anth oa?eoi??th OI? aoei ca?eueiaii a?ae
a?eueoiaee?a.

Ia?aeaeueii c ?icai?oaiiyi ianooio i?ioe a?eueoiaeoeueeeo a?enuee, o?yae
OI? a na?aaeei? ethoiai ?icii/aa aaeeaaoe aeoeaieo caoiae?a ni?yiiaaieo
ia ?icaoaeiao a?i??, iaaeaiiy ?? nooi ?aaoey?iiai oa?aeoa?o. Aiie
noinoaaeeny ia?aaeon?i aeaio aniaeo?a: caaa?oaiiy aeaiia?e?caoe?? noa?i?
a?i??, ?aooee yei? ua ia?aaoaaee ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, oa eiioeaio?aoe??
?ic??ciaieo oe?a?inueeeo /anoei o ai?caeaoi? ?aaoey?i? a?aeae?ee, c
aeiiiiiaith yeeo iiaeia aoei a i?iaeiaaeoaaoe ai?ioueao.
Iaeai?caeaoi?oith oe?a?inueeith /anoeiith aoa Caii??cueeee caa?i i?ae
eiiaiaeoaaiiyi aaia?aea E. I??nianueeiai. I?ney ca?eueiaiiy Ee?aa a?ae
a?eueoiaee?a oeth /anoeio aoei ?icai?iooi o Ia?oo Caii??cueeo aeea?c?th,
yeo i/ieea aaia?ae I. Iao??a. O oiae? ai?a c a?eueoiaeoeueeeie
a?enueeaie aeea?c?y iino?eii iiiiaithaaeany iiainoi?iiaaieie /anoeiaie,
? aeeoea ca ?aiee ooaoiiai ?icieno. Oiio o ia?o?e iieiaei? ea?oiy o
Oa?eia? aiia aoea ?ai?aai?ciaaia a ei?ion, ui iae?/oaaa aeecueei 9 oen.
in?a. Eiai iiaeia aaaaeaoe ?aaoey?iith a?i?enueeith iaeeieoeath.

I?ioyaii aa?aciy-ea?oiy a?enueeiaa i?i?noa?noai OI? i?iaiaeeei
?ai?aai?caoe?th ?nioth/eo ? noai?aiiy iiaeo /anoei. Na?aae ieo
aeae?eyany nai?th ai?caeaoi?noth eo??iue N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a i?ae
eiiaiaeoaaiiyi ?. Eiiiaaeueoey, ui oaeiae o aa?aci? ?icai?ioany o iiee
o?ueiooeny/iiai iniaiaiai neeaaeo. Caii??cueeee ei?ion ? iiee ONN neeaee
iniiao ?aaoey?ii? A?i?? OI?. I?ae e?iaoeue aa?aciy aiia ia?aoiaoaaea 15
oen. a?enueeiaee?a.

Cia/io aeiiiiiao a ?icaoaeia? ?aaoey?ii? Oe?a?inueei? a?i?? iaaeaa Nithc
Aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie (NAO). Aaea ia ii/aoeo 1918 ?. a?i aeii?any a?ae
i?iaoeueeeo oa aano??enueeeo aeanoae aeicaieo ia oi?ioaaiiy ?c
a?enueeiaiiieiiaieo oe?a?ioe?a eieeoiuei? ?in?enueei? a?i?? ie?aieo
/anoei. O ae?oa?e iieiaei? ethoiai c’yaeeiny ua aea? ?aaoey?i? oi?iaoe??
A?i?? OI? — aeea?c?? “Neiueiaeoiaiiee?a” o neeaae? 5-6 oen. in?a ?
“N??iaeoiaiiee?a” — 4 oen. aiye?a.

Iaoe?iiaeueia a?enueeiaa aoae?aieoeoai i?aeiyeiny ia ye?nii iiaee
??aaiue: o?yae OI? aaccanoa?aaeii noaa ia oeyo ?icaoaeiae ?aaoey?ii?
a?i??. Oeueiio ni?eyea e iiceoe?y aieiae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee I.
A?ooaanueeiai, yeee iaaieiooaaa, ui “o?aaa… iinoaaeoenue aei a?i?? ia
ye aei yei?nue naaeee, eoaee neeaeathoue iaeiaio oe?ii?, ia i?ui e?aua
ia i?eaeaoi? aeaiaioe, a ye aei ie?ane aea?aeaae ? iaoe??, ?? ii/anii?
aa?oe”.

15 aa?aciy ia can?aeaii? o?yaeo a?enueeiaee i?i?no? iieeiaiee I.
AEoeianueeee aeeeaa iniiai? iai?yie ae?yeueiino? i?aeeaaeiio eiio
i?i?noa?noaa. ?o nooue iieyaaea o i?aeaioiaoe? i?eciao aei neoaeae a
a?i??, i?aai?caoe?? ?ino?oeoi?nueei? oeiee aeey i?aeaioiaee io?oea??a,
a?aee?eooy Aeaaeai?? Aaia?aeueiiai ooaao. I?i?noa?noai ia?aaeaa/aei, ui
o o?aai? 1918 ?. a?i?y iaea io?eiaoe 250-oeny/ia iiiiaiaiiy. O aa?aci?
aoei i?iaaaeaii ?ai?aai?caoe?th Aaia?aeueiiai ooaao A?i?? OI?. Aei eiai
neeaaeo oa?eoee aecia/i? a?enueeia? oao?aoe? — aaia?aee A. N?ieea?, I.
Aaeeei, N. Aeaeuea?a. Ca iaeacii a?enueeiaiai i?i?noa?noaa a?ae 19
aa?aciy ? 3 ea?oiy ?icoi?ioaaiith i?aeeyaaee an? ???aaoey?i? /anoeie, o
oiio /ene? e A?eueia eicaoeoai. Inoaii? ??oaiiy i/aaeaeii aoei
ia?aae/aniei, aaeaea caaiie A?eueiiai eicaoeoaa iiaeia aoei aeei?enoaoe
i?e eiiieaeooaaii? ?aaoey?ieo /anoei. A a?i?? cai?iaaaeaeoaaeiny
?aeeiiia/aeey, aeai?i? i?aaie neaniaoaaeeny, ae?yeuei?noue iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e caai?iiyeany.

1 ea?oiy iaeacii ii a?enueeiaiio i?i?noa?noao a A?i?? OI?
cai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny neaniaai? o n?/i? Oeaio?aeueiith ?aaeith a?enueeia?
caaiiy ? a?aeiia?aei? a?aeciaee ia oi?oi?i?. O ea?oi? a?enueeiaa
i?i?noa?no-ai iaiaaaeiny ?icii/aoe noai?aiiy oe?a?inueeiai
A?enueeiai-Ii?nueeiai Oeioo. Iaeiae o?yae OI?, cayaeaoe ia A?anonueeeo
ia?aaiai?ao i?i iai?eiaeaaei?noue E?eio aei Oe?a?ie iicaaaea naaa
iiaeeeaino? iinoaaeoe *i?iiii?nueeee oeio i?ae na?e eiio?ieue. Eiai
ni?iaa o ea?oi? 1918 ?. i?aai?caoe??th a?enueeiai? aeniaaeeoe?? ia /ie?
c iieeiaieeii I. Aieai/aiii i?e?aeiaoe E?ei aei OI? aeeeeeaea ??ceee
ni?ioea o i?iaoeueeiai eiiaiaeoaaiiy e cae?i/eeany aac?acoeueoaoii.
I?ia//eia naia noaea cac?oaoe ia oeio, oiio oi/a a?i ? i?aeiya 29 ea?oiy
oe?a?inuee? i?aii?e ia ciae aeciaiiy aeaaee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, aoa
caoiieaiee i?ioeyie. Ioaea, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy a?enueeiaiai i?i?noa?noaa
OI? uiaei noai?aiiy oe?a?inueeeo A?enueeiai-Ii?nueeeo Nee ia *i?iiio
ii?? ia aoee ?aae?ciaaieie.

Ea?oaiue-aa?acaiue 1918 ?. noaa ia??iaeii ?icaoaeiae ?aaoey?ii?
Oe?a?inueei? a?i??. A?enueeiaa i?i?noa?noai i?enooieei aei oi?ioaaiiy
eaae?o ainueie oa?eoi??aeueieo i?oioieo ei?ion?a ? ie?aii? aeea?c?? aeey
Oaa???. Ii?yae c oeei ia?aaeaa/aeiny oi?ioaaiiy /ioe?e c iieiaeiith
aeea?c?? e?iiioe. O iia?oao ?icii/aeany i?aai?caoe?y ia?oiai i?eciao aei
“Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? A?i??”, ye io?oe?eii noaee iaceaaoeny Ca?iei?
Neee OI?. Caaaeueia /enaeuei?noue Oe?a?inueei? a?i?? ia ea?oaiue 1918 ?.
aac aa?i?cii?a noaiiaeea aeecueei 40 oen. nieaeao?a oa io?oea??a. O
aa?i?ciiao iae?/oaaeiny 20 oen. in?a.

Oaeei /eiii, ia ii/aoeo 1918 ?. a?aeaoeany aeiei??iia ia?ai???ioaoe?y
a?enueeiai? iie?oeee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ia ei?enoue ?icaoaeiae
ai?caeaoii? ?aaoey?ii? a?i??. I?ioa oea noaeiny cai?cii. Ca?eueieaoe aei
e?ioey ea?oiy 1918 ?. ca aeiiiiiaith i?iaoeueei-aano??enueeeo a?enuee
oa?eoi??th OI?, Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ? o?yae ?anioae?ee iieieeeny i?ae
oeneii 450-oeny/ii? “nithcieoeueei?” a?i??. ?iicaiia a?enueeiaa
i?enooi?noue iaaaoeaii aieeioea ia o?ae iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?enueeiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa ? aioo??iie?oe/io neooaoe?th caaaeii, ui e i?eaaei aei
aea?aeaaiiai ia?aai?ioo 29 ea?oiy 1918 ?.? cai?ie ?anioae?eainueeiai
?aaeeio aaoueiaiaoii.

Aeniiaee. O aea?aeaaiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? Oe?a?ie 1917-ia?oi? /aa?o? 1918
??. /?eueia i?noea iin?aeaa oe?a?inueeee a?enueeiaee ?oo, yeee nai?th
iania?noth, ?aaeeeae?ciii oa i?aai?ciaai?noth ae??oaeueiei /eiii aieeaaa
ia iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaioai?/? i?ioeane, noaa eaoae?caoi?ii
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueii? ai?ioueae ca a?aeiiaeaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie.

Iacaaaeath/e ia noia?a/eeaee, ia iicaaaeaiee iiieeie i?ioean
a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa 1917-ia?oi? /aa?o? 1918 ??., iiaeia
eiinoaooaaoe, ui Oeaio?aeuei?e ?aae? aaeaeiny noai?eoe ?aaoey?io
iaoe?iiaeueio a?i?th, yea a?ae?a?aea i?ia?aeio ?ieue o noaiiaeaii?
noaa?aiii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ? acyea ia naaa ooieoe?? ?? iai?iie.
Caoenoeaoe ?? a?ae cieuaiiy a?eueoiaeoeueeith ?in??th, aiia a?yooaaea
oe?a?inueeee aecaieueiee ?oo oa aea?aeaaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a?ae ii?acee
ia ia?oiio iaea?aeiia?aeaeuei?oiio aoai? eiai noaiiaeaiiy. A?enueeiaa
aoae?aieoeoai a Oe?a?i? c aa?aciy 1917 ii ea?oaiue 1918 ?. i?ieoei ?yae
aoai?a.

Ia?oee — aa?acaiue-ea?oaiue 1917 ?.- noeo?eia ia?inoaiiy oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae o /anoeiao ?in?enueei? ?iia?nueei?
a?i?? ? a?aenooi?noue niaoe?aeueieo eii?aeeioth/eo no?oeoo?. oi?ioaaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo Ca?ieieo Nee. Oe?a?inueeee a?enueeiaee ?oo iaa yne?aaa
aea?aeaaieoeueea ni?yioaaiiy. Eiai iane?aeeii noaea iiyaa oe?a?i?ciaaieo
a?enueeiaeo oi?ioaaiue a ?aieao noa?i? ?iia?nueei? a?i?? oa oeeiaeo
/anoei ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie ? ia?aoai?aiiy ?o a
iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeuei?, oiaoi a iniiae iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i??.

Ae?oaee — o?aaaiue-/a?aaiue 1917 ?., eiee noai?ththoueny ia?o? ea??ai?
iaoe?iiaeuei? a?i?enuee? no?oeoo?e — Oe?a?inueeee Aaia?aeueiee
A?enueeiaee Eii?oao oa Anaoe?a?inueea ?aaea a?enueeiaeo aeaiooao?a.
Oe?a?inueeee a?enueeiaee ?oo oa a?enueeiaa aoae?aieoeoai iieieeeny a
ai?oeaio?? ?aeaeii? ai?ioueae aeaio oaiaeaioe?e a iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iie?oe/iiio i?iaiae? Oe?a?ie — aaoiiii?nonueei? oa naiino?eieoeueei?.
Eia?ea oe?a?inueeiai a?enueeiaiai ?ooo ia’?eoeaii aeooiaooaaea Oe?a?io
ca ?aiee aaoiiiiiiai noaoono, yeiai aeio?eioaaeany Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea,
ai aeani? Ca?iei? Neee noaaeee ia ii?yaeie aeaiiee ieoaiiy ??
noaa?ai?oaoo. Aaoiiii?ci Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee noaa i?aea?oioyi ??
aioei?e?oa?ecio, ui oaoaeueii aieeioa ia iiaeaeueoo aeieth aea?aeaaiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa caaaeii.

O o?aoueiio aoai? — eeiaiue-aeiaoaiue 1917 ?. eaea noaiiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo a?enueeiaeo no?oeoo?. Aeeaiea e?eca caaaeueii?in?enueeeo
aea?aeaaieo oa a?enueeiaeo i?aai?a aeaaee cioneea ?o naieoe?iioaaoe
oe?a?i?caoe?th a?i??. Oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo /anoei iaa?aei eaa?oeiiiai
oa?aeoa?o, ui ni?eyei aea?aeaaiiio aoae?aieoeoao, yea i?iaiaeeea
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea. Aei ?? eiiiaoaioe?? iinooiiai ia?aoiaeeea a?enueeiaa
ni?aaa — iaeaaaeeea?oee eiiiiiaio aea?aeaaioai?aiiy.

*aoaa?oee aoai — eenoiiaae 1917-ethoee 1918 ??. oa?aeoa?ecoaaany
no??ieith aaiethoe??th a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa a?ae noeo?eieo
iaoiae?a oai?aiiy a?i?? aei iiyae aeania iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaaii?
a?enueeiai? iie?oeee. Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea a?aeoiaeeoue a?ae eiioeaioe??
cai?ie iino?eii? a?i?? ia?iaeiith i?e?oe??th ? noaaeoue a?enueeiaa
aoae?aieoeoai ia a?oio noai?aiiy ?aaoey?ii? Oe?a?inueei? a?i??. Naia a
aeaiee ia??iae c’yaeythoueny aea?aeaai? a?enueeia? onoaiiae, ui
ia?aae?athoue ia naaa ooieoe?? i?aai?caoe?? e aoae?aieoeoaa Ca?ieieo
Nee. Ia ceai? 1917 -1918 ??. c’yaey?oueny ?aaoey?ia A?i?y OI?. Iaeiae ??
neee oa ai?caeaoi?noue aeyaeeeny iaaeinoaoi?ie, uia a?aeaeoe aa?an?th
a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?in??. Oea noaei iane?aeeii iaa?aeiia?aeiino?
oaaea?ae?nonueei? eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, yei? o?eaaeee /an
aeio?eioaaeany Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea ? ?aaeueieie iio?aaaie Oe?a?ie, ui
neeith ianoaaei noaea noaa?aiiith aea?aeaaith e naiino?eii iaea aeaaoe
i?i naith iai?iio. Ia inoaiith ?ieue o iineaaeaii? Oe?a?inueei? a?i??
a?ae?a?aee a?oa? iiieeee a aaeoc? a?enueeiai? iie?oeee: a?aenooi?noue
/?oei? eiioeaioe?? a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa, iaaeia??a c aieo
aea?aeaaiiai ea??aieoeoaa aei a?enueeiaeo oao?aoe?a, iie?oecaoe?y naiiai
a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Iaaaoeaii aieeaaea ia a?i?th
iaiine?aeiai?noue Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee o ?ica’ycaii? iaaie?eeo
nioe?aeueieo ieoaiue, iniaeeai aa?a?iiai, ui iaea?eueoa oaeethaaei
naeyinueeo ca neeaaeii Oe?a?inueeo a?i?th.

I?ae aieeaii ii?acee o a?ei? c a?eueoiaeoeueeith ?in??th ea??aieoeoai
e?a?ie inoaoi/ii a?ae?eoei a?ae aioei?e?oa?enonueeiai eo?no.

I’yoee aoai i?eiaaea? ia ia??iae a?aeiiaeaiiy aeaaee Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee
a Oe?a?i? — aa?acaiue-ea?oaiue 1918 ?. Eiai oa?aeoa?ia ?ena — /?oei
ie?aneaia oaiaeaioe?y ia iiaoaeiao ai?caeaoii?, aeinoaoiuei /enaeueii?
?aaoey?ii? a?i??. Noeo?ei?noue, i?eoaiaiia aeey iiia?aaei?o aoai?a
a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa, aoea iiaeieaia. A OI? iiaiei oiaeii eoea
?icaoaeiaa a?i??, aea aaea a oiiaao i?iaoeueei-aano??enueei? a?enueeiai?
i?enooiino?. Oea iaaaoeaii aieeaaei ia aanue i?ioean a?enueeiaiai ?
aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa, ui e a?aoo? i?eaaei aei ianeeueiiai
iiaaeaiiy 29 ea?oiy 1918 ?. ?anioae?eainueeiai ?aaeeio a Oe?a?i?.

Noai?ai? a ia??iae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee iaoe?iiaeuei? Ca?iei? Neee e
iaaeae? i?iaeiaaeoaaee caeiaoe /?eueia i?noea o ai?iouea? Oe?a?ie ca
iacaeaaei?noue.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. A?i?y Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee 1917-1918. Ooai?aiiy oa
ai?ioueaa ca aea?aeaao.- Euea?a; Eaeueaa??y,1997.- 15,12 ae?.a.

2. Iaoe?iiaeueia ?aaiethoe?y 1917 — 1921 ??. A?aeiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino?
Oe?a?ie //Eo?n eaeoe?e c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa ?? aea?aeaaiino?.- Euea?a:
Aeae-ai AeOEI,1997.- C ae?.a.

3. Neiii Iaoeth?a ? oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai? aeieo?eie //
A?niee Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. Aea?aeaaa oa
a?i?y.- 1998.-? 344.- Aei.?.- N. 23 — 28.

4. Inoaii?e oain. Ae?oaee ceiiaee iio?ae A?i?? OI? //Aa?oaanuee?
oe?a?iiciaa/? caienee.- Aa?oaaa: Eaoaae?a oe?a?i?noeee Aa?oaanueeiai
oi-oo, 1996.- *.3.- N. 161 — 169.

5. Oe?a?ia iaia?aaeiaei? Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie //?noi??y Oe?a?ie oa ??
aea?aeaaiino?.- Euea?a: AeOEI, 1995.- *.2.- N. 68 — 87.

6. Aei ?noi??? noai?aiiy iieeo ?i. A. Oiaeueieoeueeiai o 1917 ?ioe? //
A?niee aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. Aea?aeaaa oa
a?i?y.- 1998.- ?344.- N. 29 — 34.

7. Oe?a?ia a ?iee Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie //?noi??y Oe?a?ie oa ??
aea?aeaaiino?.- Euea?a: AeOEI. — *.2.- N. 88-105.

8. Cia?iiaaia neea. Eicaoeoai — oi ia o?eueee Caii?icueea N?/ //Iaoea ?
noni?euenoai.- ? 10-12.- N. 24-26.

9. Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aaiethoe?y oa ?? naii?aae?caoe?y a
aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioeanao Oe?a?ie 1917 — 1920 ??. //Oe?a?inueea
aea?aeaai?noue: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue. Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??.
N?/aiue 1993.-E.,1993.- N.236 — 238.

10. Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee i?i i?noea ca?ieieo nee a aea?aeaaiiio
aoae?aieoeoa? Oe?a?ie 1917 — 1918 ??. //Aei 130-??//y c aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy I.N. A?ooaanueeiai. Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? 29
/a?aiy 1996 ?.-Euea?a; AeOEI, 1996.- N. 11 — 12.

11. Iaeaaea aei?iaa aei ii?icoi?iiy. Aei ieoaiiy aaiace
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiai a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa 1917 —
1921 ??.-Euea?a: Oe?a?inuee? oaoiieia??,1997.- C ae?. a. (ni?aaao.:
Aoaeue A.A.)

12. 3 ?noi??? ai?ioueae Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee ca a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? //A?niee Euea?anueeiai iie?oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo. -Euea?a,
1992.-?268.- N.3 — 17 (ni?aaao.: Aeaueinueeee E.?.).

1C. ?ieue A?anonueeiai ie?o a noaiiaeaii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? //
A?niee Euea?anueeiai iie?oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo.-1992.-268.- N.18 — 23
(ni?aaao.: Aa?aiianueea I.I.).

14. ?icaoaeiaoth/e Oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao, ioneii canai?oe o?iee
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee //?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae.- 1993.- ?7.-N. 21 — 29
(ni?aaao.: Aeaueinueeee E.?.).

15. I. A?ooaanueeee ? ?ic?iaea ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? eiioeaioe?? Oe?a?ie
1917 — 1918 ??.: oai??y ? i?aeoeea //Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee ? Cao?aeia
Oe?a?ia. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.- Euea?a; Na?o,1995.- N.301 -303
(ni?aaao.: 3?ieaae/ E.).

16. C ?noi??? noai?aiiy Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee
//?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae.- 1996.-?6.- N.50 — 55 (ni?aaao.: Aeaueinueeee
E.).

17. I?i noaaeaiiy Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee aei oeueoeiaooio ?aaeia?eiio o
a?oaei? 1917 ?. //A?niee Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea”.- 1995.-?296.- N.55 — 62 (ni?aaao.: Oeoaia E.).

18. Caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiee aecaieueiee ?oo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ca
a?aeiiaeaiiy nai?? aea?aeaaiino? (ethoee 1917-aa?acaiue 1921 ??.).
/A?ae?ia?ao?/iee iieaae/ee/.- Euea?a: AeOEI,1992. -25 n.

Aieoaei A.?. A?enueeiaa aoae?aieoeoai a Oe?a?i? ia??iaeo Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee. -?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. -?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa
?i. ?aaia E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie. -Euea?a, 1998.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny a?enueeiaee oe?a?inueeee
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo oa aoae?aieoeoai Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie
i?ney iiaaeaiiy naiiaea?aeaanoaa a ?in?? aei ia?oi? /aa?o? 1918 ?.
Aiae?co?oueny iie?oeea Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, o?yaeo OI?, oe?a?inueeeo
ia?o?e oa ?o /?eueieo ae?y/?a uiaei ?ie? iaoe?iiaeueieo Ca?ieieo Nee o
aea?aeaaiiio aoae?aieoeoa? Oe?a?ie, o caoeno? ?? noaa?ai?oaoo, aoaie
a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa oa noai?aiiy ?aaoey?ieo Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea, A?i?y Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
?anioae?ee, oe?a?inueeee a?enueeiaee ?oo, iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueia
ai?ioueaa.

Aieoaei A.A. Aiaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai a Oe?aeia ia?eiaea Oeaio?aeueiie
?aaeu. -?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 — enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. Einoeooo oe?aeiiaaaeaiey ei.
Eaaia E?eiyeaae/a IAI Oe?aeiu.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeoaony aiaiiia oe?aeineia
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea, a oaeaea no?ieoaeuenoai
Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee Oe?aeiu iinea naa?aeaiey naiiaea?aeaaey a ?innee aei
ia?aie /aoaa?oe 1918 a. Aiaeece?oaony iieeoeea Oeaio?aeueiie ?aaeu,
i?aaeoaeuenoaa OI?, oe?aeineeo ia?oee e eo eeaea?ia, eanathuayny ?iee
iaoeeiiaeueiuo Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee a ainoaea?noaaiiii no?ieoaeuenoaa
Oe?aeiu, a caueoa aa noaa?aieoaoa, yoaiu aiaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa e
nicaeaiey ?aaoey?iuo Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Oeaio?aeueiay ?aaea, A?iey Oe?aeineie Ia?iaeiie
?anioaeeee, oe?aeineia aiaiiia aeaeaeaiea,
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiay ai?ueaa.

Holubko V. The military building in Ukraine during the Central Rada
period.

A dissertation for the doctor of history degree in speciality 07.00.01 —
history of Ukraine. Ivan Krypyakevych Institute of Ukrainian Studies of
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. -Lviv, 1998.

The dissertation is a study on the Ukrainian military
national-liberation movement and building the armed forces of Ukraine
after the fall of the tzar in Russia — the first quarter of 1918.

The policies of the Central Rada, goverment of the UPR, Ukrainian
parties and their leaders are analised concerning the role of national
armed forces in state-building of Ukraine, in defending of its
sovereignty, the stages of military building and creating regular armed
forces of Ukraine.

Key words: Central Rada, Army of Ukrainian Peoples Republic, Ukrainian
military movement, national-liberation struggle.

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