2

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee

Io??iaiei ?aai Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 371.04(477)

AEOIAAIIss O*I?A NOA?OEO EEAN?A IA IAOe?IIAEUeII-EOEUeOO?IEO
O?AAeEOe?ssO OE?A?INUeEIAI IA?IAeO

13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iieoaanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio ?inoeooo?
?i. A.A.Ei?ieaiea,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio AII Oe?a?ie

Aieei Aeea Ieeeo?aia,

Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo ?i.A.A.Ei?ieaiea,
i?i?aeoi? c iaoeiai? ?iaioe

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e
AII Oe?a?ie

ss?ia/aiei Ieeiea Aeieo?iae/,

?aaeiee i?aceaeaioa AII Oe?a?ie

— eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Aaaeaoeueeee Ieeiea Aaneeueiae/,

aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe Oa?e?anueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — E??iaia?aaenueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Aieiaeeie?a Aeiie/aiea, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. E??iaia?aae

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 23 ” /a?aiy 1999?., i “ 13 “ aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.053.04 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee ca
aae?anith: 310168, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2, aoae.221

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee (310168, i.
Oa?e?a, aoe. Aethoa?a, 2)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “__21_” o?aaiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Cieiooo?ia N.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue ? nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? i?iaeaie. Ca iei?oi?o oiia
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa iiao ia?aaeeaio aeoiaaiiy ia?aaeon?i
aecia/a-thoue iaoe?iiaeuei? e caaaeueiiethaenuee? aa?oino?,
ae?aeia?/i?noue eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae. O ca’yceo c oeei o iaaeaaia?/i?e
oai??? ? i?aeoeoe? yne?aai aeae?eythoueny aea? oaiaeaioe??: ?icaeoie
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? iniaenoino? e oi?ioaaiiy ?? ieaiaoa?iiai
na?oiaeyaeo. Eiinie?aeoth/ei oaeoi?ii oeeo oaiaeaioe?e aenooiathoue
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe??, aenieiii?aeueiee ci?no yeeo ia
aeiionea? anei?eyoe?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai /e eiai a?aeai?iaeaeaiiy. Oiio
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe?? ? ?aaeueieie aeaoa?i?iaioaie
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee. Canai?iiy
o?aaeeoe?e ye iianye/anio o?aineyoe?th nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai aeina?aeo
caaacia/o? aeoiaaiiy a oeie? e ?iaeei?, ui iio?aao? niaoe?aeueii
i?aai?ciaaiiai, oe?ea-ni?yiiaaiiai i?ioeano. Aac oeueiai iaiiaeeeai
noi?ioaaoe iieiaea iieie?iiy, yea iieeeeaia ia eeoa i?aaeeueii ni?eeiaoe
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy a e?a?i?, a e noaoe ?o nioe?aeueii
aeoeaiith neeith.

O ii?o oe?eueii? thiino? a o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a oi?iothoueny iioeae
a?iiaaeyinueeiai iaia’yceo, i?eiaeaaeiino? aei iaaii? iaoe?iiaeueiino?.
Aiie a?ae/oaathoue iaaaeueio iio?aao a ia?aeiieeaeo ii?aeueieo ?
o?oaeiaeo i???ioe?ao, o ieo aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue o i?eeeaae? noa?oeo.
Caaeiaieaiith oeeo iio?aa iaea?eueoith i??ith ni?ey? aeoiaaiiy oa
naiiaeoiaaiiy ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo ??aeiiai ia?iaeo,
ui caaacia/o? canai?iiy aenieeo iaoe?iiaeueieo oa caaaeueiiethaenueeeo
oe?iiinoae, aiiaeeeaeth? ?aaeueiee iniaenoee aea??, i?eeo/aiiy aei
aeoeaiiai noni?eueiiai aeeooy, a?ae/oooy i?e/aoiino? aei iaaiiai
ia?iaeo. Ioaea, iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i? o?aaeeoe?? ? nai???aeiei
?aeaeii-iaaeaaia?/iei eeth/ai aeoiaaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao.

I?e/eie, ui aaeueiothoue i?ioean aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, iathoue
nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/iee ? i?aai?caoe?eii-iaoiaee/iee oa?aeoa?. I?i oea
na?ae/eoue aiae?c iiiaae 200 ??/ieo ieai?a caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e oa 21
ieaio ?iaioe ?aeii-ieo ? i?nueeeo iaoiaee/ieo eaa?iao?a. Iaaeaaia?/ia
nooi?noue o?aaeeoe?e caeeoa?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei ona?aeiieaiith. Eeoa
52,7% neeaaeo iaaeeieaeoea?a aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a aeyaeee ia?ciai?noue o iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, noa?oieeanieee caaeia?eueii iciaeiieai? o?eueee c
aeayeeie o?oaeiaeie, ii?aeueii-iiaooiaeie oa ooaeiaeiuei-anoaoe/ieie
o?aaeeoe?yie ?aa?iio.

Iaiao?aei?noue iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo iniia iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii-ai
i?ioeano ia?aeiieeai aeiaaaeaia a i?aoeyo a?aeiieo iaaeaaia?a ? ae?y/?a
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, ia?aaeon?i, I.Aa?aey?aa, A.Aauaiea,
A.Aeiie/aiea, I.A?ooaanueeiai, A.A??i/aiea, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,
I.Aeooiiae/a, A.Ei?ieaiea, ?.Eioey?aanueeiai, N.?oniai?, A.Neiai?iaee,
A.Nooiieeinueeiai, E.Ooeinueeiai, ?.O?aiea, O.Oaa/aiea.

Aea/aiith i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e i?enay/aii /eiaei
aeine?aeaeaiue o?einio?a, ?noi?ee?a ? o?eieia?a (E.Aoeaoaa,
ss.Aieiaeeie?nueeee, I.AEoeeinueeee, I.Caaoaeei, A.?aaieoei, N.Iaaethe,
I.Iiiiae/, A.Naa?nothe, I.Noaoaeueiee, A.Oeiea?oe, Ae.ssai?ieoeueeee,
A.ss?ai/oe oa ?i.), aea aiie, ye i?aaeei, iinyoue uiaei iaaeaaia?ee
iiina?aaeeiaaiee oa?aeoa?.

O iaaeaaia?/i?e iaooe?, ia aeeaey/enue ia cia/io e?euee?noue eiioeaioe?e
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeoiaaiiy, iiiia?ao?/ieo aeaeaiue, ui aena?oeththoue
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeoiaaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao (A.Aieei,
I.Aeoaanaithe, A.Eocue, ?.Ia?oeithe, TH.?oaeaiei, A.Neo?ao?anueeee,
I.Noaeueiaoiae/, A.Nooia?ee, I.Nooiieeinueea, O.Nouaiei, A.Nyaaaei,
A.O?e?i/oe, I.ss?ia/aiei oa ?i.), ?ic?iaeai? ie?ai? aniaeoe i?iaeaie
aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo ? ?ice?eoa aeoiaia cia/aiiy eeoa aeayeeo c ieo.
Aeaui e?aua aena?oeai? a iaaeaaia?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ieoaiiy iao??ioe/iiai,
aeieia?/iiai, anoaoe/iiai aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a, oi?ioaaiiy ?o aoiaiiino? e
aeooiaiino? ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo, ia?yaeiaino?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, caniaaie aoiiiaaeaaia?ee (I.Aeoiaanueeee,
I.Aeaaeaieia, I.?aiaoaiei, I.Ei?o, O.Eoaaiaoeue, I.Iaeaiaoeueea,
A.Iiieoaeiee, C.Na?a?e/oe, ss.*ai?aa, A.Oaa/aiei oa ?i.).

Aeeeeeathoue ?ioa?an iauiaeaaii aeeiiai? eaiaeeaeaonuee? aeena?oaoe??,
ui iaaiei /eiii noinothoueny aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo Noaoaithe N.E.
Aeoiaaiiy aoiaiiino? i?aee?oe?a caniaaie oe?a?inueei? ia?yaeiaino?:
Aaoi?ao. aeen. eaiae. iaae. iaoe /Oa?e?a, 1998. — 16n.; *a?iooa I.I.
Aeooiaiee ?icaeoie iieiaeoeo oeiey??a caniaaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ienoaoeoaa: Aaoi?ao. aeen. eaiae. iaae. iaoe /Eoaainuee, 1997. — 24n.;
O?aeiai A.I. Oi?ioaaiiy oyaeaiue i?i caaaeueiiethaenuee? oe?iiino? o
i?aee?oe?a caniaaie ienoaoeoaa: Aaoi?ao. aeen. eaiae. iaae. iaoe
/Eoaainuee, 1997. — 23n. oa ?i.

, a oaeiae o? ui aena?oeththoue iniaeeaino? aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo
iaaiiai ?aa?iio Eocai I.?. Aeoiaaiiy i?aee?oe?a ia o?aaeeoe?yo
ia?iaeiiai aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie:
Aaoi?ao. aeen. eaiae. iaae. iaoe /Eoaainuee, 1998. — 18n. oa ?i.

, ?ice?eaathoue aieea ia aeoiaaiiy ioce/iiai oieueeei?o Aeca?iea ?.?.
Anoaoe/ia aeoiaaiiy nooaeaio?a iaaeaoco caniaaie oe?a?inueeiai ioce/iiai
oieueeei?o: Aaoi?ao. aeen. eaiae. iaae. iaoe /Ee?a, 1995. — 24n. oa ?i.
oa ?i. Aiae?c na?ae/eoue, ui a?eueo?noue aeine?aeaeaiue i?enay/ai?
aeoiaaiith aeioe?eueiee?a, iieiaeoeo oeiey??a oa i?aee?oe?a (I.Aa?aaao,
E.Eaeonueea, O.Iaoiaiei, N.Noaoaithe, E.Ua?aeia oa ?i.). Ne?ae aeacaoe,
ui c oe??? i?iaeaie iaeiie/aiee cia/iee aii??e/iee iaoa??ae c aeina?aeo
iaaeaaia?/ieo eieaeoea?a oa ie?aieo o/eoae?a, yeee iio?aao? oai?aoe/iiai
ocaaaeueiaiiy.

Ioaea, iaaeaaia?/ia cia/aiiy o?aaeeoe?e ? oe?e?niee i?ioean aeoiaaiiy
noa?oieeaniee?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo c a?aooaaiiyi
?o ?aa?iiaeueieo aniaeo?a caeeoathoueny iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaieie,
ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iayai?noth ?yaeo noia?a/iinoae: i?ae ia’?eoeaieie
nioe?aeueieie iio?aaaie aeoiaaiiy oe?eueii? iieiae? ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo ia?iaeo, oi?ioaaiiy
a?iiaaeyi-iao??io?a ? oaeoe/iith a?aenooi?noth a?oioiaieo
oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c oe??? i?iaeaie; i?ae aeinyaiaiei
caaaeueiei ?icoi?iiyi cia/aiiy o?aaeeoe?e ? iaaeinoaoiueith, c iaeiiai
aieo, aioiai?noth iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a aei aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo naiai ia?iaeo, a c ?ioiai —
iai?aeaioiaeai?noth noa?oieeaniee?a aei ni?eeiyooy aeoiaieo aieea?a
oeueiai ci?noo; i?ae caoi?iae?ciaaiei i?ioeanii aeoiaaiiy ? iaaeinoaoi?i
a?aooaaiiyi “aeeaeo” iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e ?aa?iio, iaai?iiyi
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o aaaaoee aeoiaiee iioaioe?ae.

Oaeei /eiii, caaaeath/e ia aaeeea cia/aiiy a ?icaoaeia? iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaae ? noaiiaeaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie ina?oe a Oe?a?i?
o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, a oaeiae aino?o nioe?aeueio iio?aao
i?aeoeee aeoiaaiiy, ? a oie aea /an iaaeinoaoith ?ic?iaeai?noue oe???
i?iaeaie a oai??? iaaeaaia?ee, ie ia?aee oaiith aeine?aeaeaiiy
“Aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo”.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aieao Anaoe?a?inueei? i?ia?aie “Ae?oe Oe?a?ie”,
caoaa?aeaeaii? Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 16.01.1996 ?ieo oa
iaeanii? Eiiieaenii? i?ia?aie “Iaoe?iiaeueia aeoiaaiiy: ?aa?iiaeueiee
aniaeo” ia ia??iae aei 2000 ?ieo, i?eeiyoi? iaaeaaia?/iith
a?iiaaenuee?noth ? caoaa?aeaeaii? aeeiieiiii Iieoaanueei? iaeanii? ?aaee
ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a a?ae 24.06.1994 ?ieo.

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a na?aaeiuei?
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee a no/anieo oiiaao.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?ioean aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe e aenia?eiaioaeueii
ia?aa??eoe i?ioean aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, aecia/eoe
iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae eiai oni?oiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ioean aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo iiaea aooe caaacia/aiee ca oaeeo
aieiaieo oiia: ona?aeiieaiiy a/eoaeyie, aaoueeaie oa oeiey?aie
iaaeaaia?/ii? nooiino? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; noai?aiiy ia iniia? ni?eueii? o?i/ii?,
iicaeeanii? e iicaoe?eueii? ae?yeueiino? oeiee ? ?iaeeie oe?e?niiai
i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo
o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo c o?aooaaiiyi ?o ?aa?iiaeueieo
iniaeeainoae; i?aai?caoe?? a nenoai? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
oe?eani?yiiaaii? i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a aei aeoiaaiiy
o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo naiai
ia?iaeo.

A?aeiia?aeii aei ia’?eoa, i?aaeiaoa, iaoe e a?iioace aecia/athoueny oae?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1) aeyaeoe iaaeaaia?/io nooi?noue iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;

2) iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe oe?e?niee i?ioean aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a
ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;

3) aecia/eoe ? ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe aoaie, iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae, ?iiiaaoe?ei?
oaoiieia?? oa ?io? caniae oni?oiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo i?ioeano
aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;

4) aenia?eiaioaeueii ia?aa??eoe i?ioean aeoiaaiiy oeiey??a ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, aecia/eaoe
eiai ia’?eoeai? ye?ni? iieacieee;

5) ocaaaeueieoe ia?aaeiaee aeina?ae ? iaa?oiooaaoe nenoaio iaoiaee/ii?
?iaioe a ?aeii? ? oeie? c i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a aei
aeoiaaiiy thiae?a ? ae?a/ao ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;

6) ?ic?iaeoe iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iaa?oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo.

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue: aeieoiaioe i?i
oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao, ina?oo ? aeoiaaiiy (Aeo i?iaieioaiiy
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, Aeaeea?aoe?y i?i aea?aeaaiee noaa?ai?oao Oe?a?ie,
Eiinoeoooe?y Oe?a?ie, i?eeiyoa ia i’yo?e nan?? Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie
28 /a?aiy 1996 ?ieo, Caeii Oe?a?ie i?i ina?oo, Aea?aeaaia iaoe?iiaeueia
i?ia?aia “Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy”); o?einionuee? iieiaeaiiy i?i
nooi?noue i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy ye niaoeeo?/ii? oi?ie noni?eueii?
ae?yeueiino?; eiioeaiooaeuei? aeniiaee uiaei ?ie? iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaeoi?a o aeoiaaii?, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a?ieia?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai,
ae?yeueiino? ? a?aeiinei, ae?aeaeoe/ii? ?aeiino? ethaeeie ? na?aaeiaeua,
oai??? ? i?aeoeee o oi?ioaaii? iniaenoino?; caaaeueiiiaoeia? i?eioeeie:
oe?eaiieeaaeaiiy, nenoaiiino?, naiii?aai?caoe??, eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iino?,
i?e?iaeia?aeiia?aeiino?, eoeueoo?ia?aeiia?aeiino? oa nii??aeiaii?
i?aoe?.

Oai?aoe/ia iniiaa ?iaioe a?oioo?oueny ia no/anieo
o?einionueei-iaaeaaia?/ieo eiioeaioe?yo aeoiaaiiy (?.Aao, ?.Cycthi,
I.Nooiieeinueea); ?acoeueoaoao ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui ii?aeiothoue iaaeaaia?/i?, ineoieia?/i?, nioe?aeuei?
e iaoiaee/i? aei?iaee; ia i?ia?aeieo ?aeayo iiai? ia?aaeeaie aeoiaaiiy
(A.Aieei, I.Ee?e/oe, ss.Noaeueiaoiae/; ia aeaieo oai?aoe/ieo
ocaaaeueiaiue i?i ?aei?noue iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa caaaeueiiethaenueeiai;
i?i oe?e?niee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy ci?noo oa oaoiieia?e aeoiaaiiy; ia
iaoeiaeo aeniiaeao oe?a?iiciaanoaa, aoiiiaaeaaia?ee, ia?iaeiiai
?iaeeiiciaanoaa.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aeei?enoaii eiiieaen oai?aoe/ieo oa aii??e/ieo iaoiae?a
aeaio iniiaieo a?oi. Aei ia?oi? a?oie iaeaaeaoue iaoiaee
eia?ei-oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co oa neioaco, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy, ni?anoaaeaiiy oa i?iaiicoaaiiy. Aei ae?oai? a?oie oa?eoia
iaoiae oe?eani?yiiaaiiai eiino?othaaiiy ia?aaeiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
aeina?aeo, a oaeiae iaoiaee niinoa?aaeaiiy (i?yia, iai?yia,
naiiniinoa?aaeaiiy), iieooaaiiy (onia, ienueiiaa), aenia?oii? ioe?iee,
iacaeaaeieo oa?aeoa?enoee, aiae?co oe?eueii? aeieoiaioaoe?? e oai?/eo
?ia?o noa?oieeaniee?a, iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio, ae?aaiinoeee
?acoeueoao?a aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo oa iaoiaee iaoaiaoe/ii?
noaoenoeee.

Aenia?eiaioaeueia aaca. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny a 23 ?aeiiieo
a?aeae?eao ina?oe, 21 iaoiaee/iiio eaa?iao?, 82 na?aaei?o
caaaeueiiina?oi?o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeao, iaeaniiio ?inoeooo?
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a. Aeey o/ano? a
aenia?eiaio? caeo/aii 3004 noa?oieeanieee, 82 ea??aieee oe?e, 1294
o/eoae?a caaaeueiiina?oi?o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a, 77 iaoiaeeno?a
?ae(i?nuee)iaoiaeeaa?iao?a oa ?inoeoooo i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe, 92
?iaeeie o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a. Aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa c aeoiaaiiy ia
?aa?iiaeueieo iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oa c ia?aa??ee
i?ioeano ? oiia eiai oni?oiiai cae?eniaiiy i?iaiaeeeany ia aac?
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a C?iuee?anueeiai oa ?aoaoee?anueeiai
?aeii?a, iaea?aeii?oeo a Oe?a?i? Oeaio??a iaoe?iiaeueiiai
aeaei?aoeaii-oaeeoeiaiai ienoaoeoaa, cie?aia, aii/a?noaa, ooaeiaeiuei?
ea?ai?ee, aeoeaee oa eeeeia?noaa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iieyaa? a oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? e
aenia?eiaioaeuei?e ia?aa??oe? oe?e?niiai i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy o/i?a
noa?oeo eean?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo a o?i/i?e, iica-eeani?e oa iicaoe?euei?e ni?euei?e ae?yeueiino?
oeiee, iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a ? ?iaeeie, a ?aeiino? oaeeo eiai iniiaieo
o?ueio aoai?a: iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? i?ina?oe
(aeoeaii-canaithaaeueiee), ae?yeuei?nii-iiaaae?ieiaiai
(i?aeoe/ii-oai?/ee) oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-naiiaeoiaiiai
(aeeoo?ai-i???ioiaiee); o aeyaeaii? iniiaieo oiia oni?oiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy thiae?a ? ae?a/ao ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo (i?ciaaaeueieo, i?ioeanoaeueieo,
i?aai?caoe?eieo).

Oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue iieyaa? o aeyaeaii? iaaeaaia?/ii? nooiino?
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, a ?ice?eoo?
oeyo?a ?o aeooae?caoe?? a no/anieo oiiaao, o aecia/aii? e
oa?aeoa?enoeoe? iine?aeiaieo aoai?a, iniiaieo iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia,
iaoiae?a ? aeoiaieo oaoiieia?e oni?oiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo
i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo
o?aaeeoe?yo; o iaa?oiooaaii? nenoaie, aeyaeaii? ci?noo oa niaoeeo?ee
iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe a ?aeii? e iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeao c aeoiaaiiy
iieiae? ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui a ?acoeueoao? iaoeiaiai
aiae?co aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a oa aea/aiiy ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo
?iaioe cia/ii? e?eueeino? caaaeueiiina?oi?o iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo
caeeaae?a ? iaoiaee/ieo neoaea ?aa?iio iaea?aeai? aeai? i?i noai
aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
eiai a?aeiia?aei?noue no/aniei nioe?aeueiei iio?aaai, aeiiaai
ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a. Ia oe?e iniia? ?ic?iaeaii i?ioean ? aeyaeaii
eieaeuei? iniaeeaino? aeoiaaiiy oe?eueii? iieiae? ia ?aa?iiaeueieo
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; aecia/aii
aeiiae aei iicao?i/ii? aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino? ia o?aaeeoe?yo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy noaiiaeyoue aeyaeai? a i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy oiiae,
aeiiae, iaoiaee, ?iiiaaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? oa ?io? caniae aeoiaaiiy o/i?a
noa?oeo eean?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, ?ic?iaeai? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, a oaeiae
ioa?aeoa?eciaai? iai?yie, iaoiaee, oi?ie ? aeaee ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? oa
eieaeoeaii? iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe o/eoae?a a ?aeii? e caaaeueiiina?oi?e
oeie? c aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? a ae?yeueiino? caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e, iicaoe?eueieo
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a, i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy,
?ae(i?nuee)iaoiaeeaa?iao?a, ?inoeooo?a i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, a oaeiae o iaaeaocao i?e aea/aii?
i?aaeiao?a iaaeaaia?/iiai oeeeeo, ?ic?iaoe? i?ae?o/iee?a iiaiai
iieie?iiy, iaienaii? aeeieiiieo ? iaa?noa?nueeeo ?ia?o.

Iaae?ei?noue ? a??ia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy oa c?iaeaieo
ia ?o iniia? aeniiae?a caaacia/aia /?oeeie iaoiaeieia?/ieie iiceoe?yie ?
oai?aoe/ieie i?aeoiaeaie aaoi?a aei aiae?co i?iaeaie; aea/aiiyi,
ocaaaeueiaiiyi ? eiino?othaaiiyi ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo aeoiaaiiy ia
o?aaeeoe?yo; aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno aca?iiia?aa??yth/eo iaoiae?a,
aaeaeaaoieo i?aaeiaoo, iao? e caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy; iiceoeaieie
?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi ?o o i?aeoeeo
aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo
yaey? niaith niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaiee, oe?e?niee, ea?iaaiee i?ioean o
?aeiino? oaeeo iniiaieo aoai?a: iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? i?ina?oe,
ae?yeuei?nii-iiaaae?ieiaiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueii-naiiaeoiaiiai, ui
cae?enith?oueny ni?eueieie coneeeyie oeiee, ?iaeeie oa iicaoe?eueieo
caeeaae?a, ni?ey? oi?ioaaiith aenieiii?aeueii? iniaenoino?, ??
naiioai?aiith ia iniia? naiio/?iiy ? naiiae?yeueiino?;

— aoaeoeai?noue i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo caeaaeeoue
a?ae caaacia/aiiy oaeeo aieiaieo i?ciaaaeueieo, i?ioeanoaeueieo,
i?aai?caoe?eieo oiia: ona?aeiieaiiy a/eoaeyie, aaoueeaie ?
noa?oieeanieeaie iaaeaaia?/ii? nooiino? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo
o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; noai?aiiy ia iniia? ni?eueii?
ae?yeueiino? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiiai i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a
ia o?aaeeoe?yo; i?aai?caoe?? a nenoai? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
oe?eani?yiiaaii? i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a aei aeoiaaiiy
oe?eueii? iieiae? ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo.

Ai?iaaoe?y iniiaieo ?aeae, iieiaeaiue ? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
cae?enithaaeany aaciina?aaeiuei a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiio i?ioean?
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e oa iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a ?aa?iio, a iaoiaee/i?e
?iaio? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a, ?ae(i?nuee)iaoiaeeaa?iao?a oa
?inoeoooo i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, a oaeiae
oeyoii ioae?eaoe?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeue aeena?oaioa, aenooi?a ?c
eaeoe?yie, aeiiia?aeyie, iaoeiaeie iia?aeiieaiiyie ia i?aeia?iaeieo,
anaoe?a?inueeeo, ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo,
nai?ia?ao oa ia?aaeao (i.Iieoaaa -1996, 1997, 1998; i.Noie — 1998;
i.E??iaia?aae- 1998; i.Ee?a — 1997, 1998 oa ?i.).

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny
iaaeeieaeoeaaie caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e Oe?a?ie, oi?aae?iiyie ?
a?ae-ae?eaie ina?oe, ?inoeoooaie i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe,
?ae(i?nuee)iaoiaeeaa?iaoaie, aeueie caeeaaeaie iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe
Iieoaanueei?, Oa?e?anueei?, Noinueei?, *a?i?a?anueei?, Caea?iaonueei?,
?aaii-O?aie?anueei? oa ?i. iaeanoae.

Iniiaiee ci?no ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aena?oeai? a 12 ioae?eaoe?yo
aaoi?a (2 iiiia?ao?yo, 6 noaooyo o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao, 4 iaoa??aeao
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e), c ieo 4 — o oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo,
aecia/aieo AAE Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a oa iniiaiee ci?no aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa, ci?no, eia?ea
aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeee no?oeoo?o ?iaioe, yea neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio,
aeaio ?icae?e?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (230 aeaea?ae). Ci?no
?iaioe aeeeaaeaii ia 179 noi??ieao, aeena?oaoe?y i?noeoue 5 oaaeeoeue,
10 noai, 2 ?enoiee.

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii i?iaeaio aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, a?iioaco, caaaeaiiy, iaoiaeieia?/i? e
oai?aoe/i? canaaee, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoa iaoeiaa iiaecia,
oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a,
noi?ioeueiaai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Iaaeaaia?/ia nooi?noue iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo
o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo” aeyaeai? aaaaonoai ? ??ciiaeaei?noue
o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, iaa?oioiaaia ?o iaaeaaia?/ia nooi?noue
oa aeoiaia ?ieue, ?ice?eo? ?noi?e/i? ei?ai?, ioa?aeoa?eciaai? o?oaeia?,
ii?aeueii-iiaooia? oa ooaeiaeiuei-anoaoe/i? o?aaeeoe?? Iieoaanueeiai
?aa?iio, ?o cia/aiiy a oi?ioaaii? a?iiaaeyieia Oe?a?ie. sse i?ia?aeiee
iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy ia??oioiaaii oe?eani?yiiaaia eiino?othaaiiy
ia?aaeiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo aeoiaaiiy oe?eueii? iieiae? ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui o?aaeeoe?? — oea, ia?aaeon?i, o?einionueea,
iaaeaaia?/ia ? nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia yaeua. O?aaeeoe?? onoaeaii
a?aeia?aaeathoue ianooii?noue nioe?aeueiiai aeina?aeo oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo /a?ac ina?oo, aeoiaaiiy, naiii?ciaiiy ? naiioai?aiiy
?iaeea?aeooio ye iniaenoino?, caaacia/othoue canai?iiy iaeaeueo
iaoe?iiaeueieo eoeueoo?ieo ? iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae, ii?i, i?aaee,
?aeaae?a. Aiie ni?yiiaai? ia ?icoe?aiiy ciaiue i?i na?e ia?iae,
iniaenoee aea?? o aeeoo?, i?aoe?, ii?ae?, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaioae?oaoo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Aei iaea?eueo iioe?aieo ? eiie?aoieo oi?i i?iyao
o?aaeeoe?e iaeaaeaoue: cae/a?, ia?yaee, ?eooaee, ii?ie, niaee, ?aeaaee,
nayoa. Ca ?ic?iaeaiith a ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy eeaneo?eaoe??th aei
o?aaeeoe?e ca iaoith aeioe?eueii a?aeianoe eoeueoo?ioai?/?, ?ae?a?ei?,
aea?aeaaioai?/?, iie?oe/i?, iiaooia?, ooaeiaei?; ca ni?yiiaai?noth —
?aeaieia?/i?, o?oaeia?, ii?aeuei?, o?ce/i?, anoaoe/i?, aeieia?/i?; ca ?o
i?eiaeaaei?noth — iaoe?iiaeuei?, caaaeueiiethaenuee?, ?iaeeii?; ca
cia/aiiyi — i?ia?aneai?, ?aaeoe?ei?, oe?aeeea?, ei?eni?; ca i?noeai
aeieeiaiiy — caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei?, ?aa?iiaeuei?, i?noeaa?, n?iaei?,
oe?euei?, n?euenuee? oa i?nuee?; ca /anii iiyae — a?eia?/i?,
iiaaoi?nuee?, a?ae?iaeaeoaaeuei?, ?icaeaaeuei?.

Ine?eueee aeoiaaiiy iieiae? a?aeaoaa?oueny a iaaiiio
ina?oiuei-eoeueoo?iiio i?inoi??, oi a?eueo iiaiiio i?ciaiith
iaoe?iiaeueieo aeoiaieo oe?iiinoae ni?eythoue ?aa?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe??.
*a?ac ?aa?iiaeueia i?ieyaa? oeyo aei anaoe?a?inueeiai, oiio o?aaeeoe??
Iieoaaueie aeine?aeaeo?ii a eiioaeno? an?o iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo
o?aaeeoe?e, ye? ? iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith eaieith ?aeeiiai “cieioiai
eaioethaa” caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?iiinoae.

Iaaeaaia?/ia nooi?noue iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e, ye
na?ae/eoue i?iaaaeaia aeine?aeieoeueea ?iaioa, iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie,
ii-ia?oa, neeaaeathoue iniiaiee ci?no aeoiaaiiy, neoaeaoue oi?iith
eoeueoo?iiai naiicaoenoo iaoe??; ii-ae?oaa, aenooiathoue caniaii ?
?acoeueoaoii aeoiaieo coneeue ia?iaeo i?ioyaii aaaaoueio noie?oue;
ii-o?ao?, ia’?aeiothoue ia aenieeo ii?aeueieo canaaeao on? aoiine, ui
i?iaeeaathoue a Oe?a?i?, ianoiththoue naiaiaeo ? ??aiii?aai?noue
iieiaeoiai ? noa?oiai iieie?iue; ii-/aoaa?oa, iaae?eii caoeuathoue
iaoe?iiaeueio naiiaooi?noue ia?iaeo, i???ioothoue ia i?ioan?eia
naiiaecia/aiiy, iia’ycaia c o?aaeeoe?eieie ?aa?iiaeueieie i?iieneaie,
aeaei?aoeaii-oaeeoeiaei ienoaoeoaii; ii-i’yoa, ao?eththoue o nia?
ieioea, no/ania ? iaeaooi? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ia??oioiaothoue eiai
i?aai ia aeanio aeeoo?ae?yeuei?noue ? oai?/?noue, ia?aaeathoue aaee/
ii?aeueieo canaae iaoe??; ii-oinoa, caa??aathoue ? ia?aaeathoue aeina?ae
ia?iaeo aeey ci?oeiaiiy ii?yaeeo ? ii?i aeeooy ethaeae o iaaieo
nioe?aeueieo oiiaao ? aoiia?ao?/ieo ianoaaeiao; ii-nueiia, iaaeathoue
aeoiaaiith iaaiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ni?yioaaiiy, caaacia/othoue
ii?aeiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo ? caaaeueiiethaenueeeo oe?ii?nieo i??i?eoao?a
?iaeea?aeooio. Oaeei /eiii, a iaa?oiooaaii? oa canai?ii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
nooiino? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e iieyaa? ia?oa,
i?ciaaaeueia ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii, oiiaa oni?oiiai aeoiaaiiy o/i?a
noa?oeo eean?a ia o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

I?ae aeoiaaiiyi iieiae? ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ?icoi??ii niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaiee,
oe?eani?yiiaaiee i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy a?iiaaeyieia Oe?a?ie, a?aeoai?aiiy
oeo o?oaeiaeo, ii?aeueii-iiaooiaeo, ooaeiaeiuei-anoaoe/ieo ciaiue,
oi?iue ? iaae/ie, ye? aoee canai?i? e oi?iaaaeaeai? oe?a?inueeei
ia?iaeii a aeeooy ai?iaeiaae onueiai ia??iaeo ?nioaaiiy, ni?yioaaiiy
thiae?a ? ae?a/ao ia iniaeno?nii e noni?eueii ei?eniee oeyo
naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy, naiiina?oe ? naiioai?aiiy. Ioaea, aeoiaaiiy ia
o?aaeeoe?yo ?aae?co?, ii-ia?oa, aeeaiea ? anaa?/ia i?ciaiiy ??aeiiai
ia?iaeo, oae ye o?aaeeoe?? aenooiathoue nai???aeiei aaiaoe/iei eiaeii
iaoe??; ii-ae?oaa, ona?aeiieaiiy eiaeiei oeiey?ai naiiai naaa ye
iaa?ae’?iii? /anoeie naiai ia?iaeo, iaoe??; ii-o?ao?, oi?ioaaiiy
naiiaooiuei? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, iaiao?aeiino? aeey oeueiai naiio/?iiy
? naiiaeoiaaiiy.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeei aeyaeoe i?e/eie, ui aaeueiothoue
aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo. Oea, ii-ia?oa, ia/?oe?noue o aecia/aii?
i??i?eoaoieo oe?iiinoae, ?aeaae?a, i?eeeaae?a ? c?ace?a o aeoiai?e
?iaio?; iaaeinoaoiy aoi?caoe?y ? iayai?noue oi?iae?cio a ci?no?,
iaoiaeao, oi?iao ? aeaeao aeoiaii? ae?yeueiino?, iniaeeai iicao?i/ii?;
ii-ae?oaa, iaaeineiiae?noue iaa/aeueieo ieai?a ? i?ia?ai, a?aenooi?noue
i?ae?o/iee?a iiaiai iieie?iiy, iaa?aooaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? niaoeeo?ee
o?aaeeoe?e, ia?iaeieo i?iiene?a, iniaeeainoae aeaei?aoeaii-oaeeoeiaiai
ienoaoeoaa; ii-o?ao?, iaaeinoaoiy iaa/aeueii-iaoa??aeueia aaca oe?e, o
o./. — ina?oiuei-aeoiaieo caeeaae?a iiaiai oeio; ii-/aoaa?oa,
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iaa/aeueieo ieai?a ? i?ia?ai iaaeaoc?a caieoai ??cieo
oei?a no/anii? caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee, ui aeyaey?oueny a
iaaeinoaoiueiio i?ioan?iiae?ci? iaaeaaia?/ieo eaae??a. C iaeyaeo ia oea,
oe?eani?yiiaaia ?iaioa c aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia o?aaeeoe?yo
aaaeaoueny eeoa a ie?aieo oeieao.

Aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo, ye cana?ae/ea ia?aaeiaee aeina?ae, oni?oii
cae?enith?oueny a ni?euei?e ae?yeueiino? oeiee, iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a
? ?iaeeie, a o?i/i?e, iicaoe?euei?e oa iicaeeani?e ?iaio? c aeoeaioii ia
iicao?i/i?e, ui coiiaeaii, ye iieacaea aenia?eiaioaeueia ?iaioa, oaeeie
?? caaaeueieie iniaeeainoyie: 1) aiia ? a?eueo oai?/ee ? a?aee?eoee
i?ioean; 2) o i?e yne?aa?oa aeyaey?oueny aeoeai?noue oa ?i?oe?aoeai?noue
iaaeaaia?a, aaouee?a ? noa?oieeaniee?a, ?o naiiaeoiaaiiy ? naiioai?aiiy
ia iniia? oe?eani?yiiaaiiai “naii?ooo”; 3) aiia aenooia? aaaeeeaei
iaoai?ciii ia’?aeiaiiy coneeue oeiee, iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a ? ?iaeeie
o aeoiaaii? oe?eueii? iieiae? ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo
ia?iaeo.

I?ia?aeiei iaoiaeii aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo noaei
oe?eani?yiiaaia eiino?othaaiiy ia?aaeiaiai iaaeaaia?/iiai aeina?aeo.
Oeae iaoiae ia? eiiieaeniee ? oi?aa?naeueiee oa?aeoa?. Ia?aaeiaee
iaaeaaia?/iee aeina?ae, ui oe?eani?yiiaaii eiino?oth?oueny ia iniia?
aii??e/iiai ? iaoeiaiai ??aiy ciaiue, ni?ey? aeinyaiaiith ye?nii iiaiai
a iaaeaaia?oe? /e nooo?ai oaeineiiaeth? oa, ui aaea noai?aia. Iaie aoei
neiino?oeiaaii ia?aaeiaee iaaeaaia?/iee aeina?ae ?aoaoee?anueeiai
na?aaeiueiai iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai eiiieaeno ia?iaeiiai
aeaei?aoeaii-oaeeoeiaiai ienoaoeoaa oa Ii?oiyinueeiai eieaa?oio
ienoaoeoa, ui oa?eoia oaeiae aei eiiieaeno, iaaeaaia?/iei oeaio?ii yeiai
noaa Aea?aeaaiee iocae-caiia?aeiee oe?a?inueeiai aii/a?noaa, aea aoei
noi?iiaaii Oeaio? caa?aaeaiiy ienoaoeueeeo o?aaeeoe?e, i?aai?ciaaia
oeiea ia?iaeieo ienoaoeoa, oeiea ia?iaeii? i?ni? oa oi?aia?ao??. A
iniiao i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo aoea iieeaaeaia ?iiiaaoe?eia
oaoiieia?y “oeiea — iicaoe?euei? caeeaaee — ?iaeeia — na?o”. Ei?aeooth/e
ianiaee aeina?ae, ia?aaeiaee caeaoai ia?aaeaa/eoe oaiaeaioe??
iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ia eeoa i?aeoeee, a e oai???. Ioaea, aei
ia?aaeiaiai a?aeiineii o?eueee oie aeina?ae, yeee caaacia/o? aenieee
iaaeaaia?/iee ?acoeueoao, ia? a nai?e iniia? aeaiaioe iaoeiai? iiaecie
/e iiai?noth iiao iaoeiao ?aeath. Aeina?ae, yeee aoa neiino?oeiaaiee o
Ii?oiyinuee?e ? ?aoaoee?anuee?e oeieao iiaiai oeio, ia? iiaaoi?nueeee,
iiooeiaee oa?aeoa?, aoiai?noe/io ni?yiiaai?noue.

Ca ?ioaa?aeueio aecia/aeueio ye?noue iniaenoino? noa?oieeaniee?a
i?eeiaeany ii?aeuei?noue, ui ia?aaeon?i caaacia/o?oueny a i?ioean?
aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo. Nooi?noue ? ci?no iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo
o?aaeeoe?e ??aeiiai ia?iaeo ni?eeia?oueny noa?oieeanieeaie aeoeaii,
a?eueii, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a thiaoeueeiio a?oe? aeeaieith
ona?aeiieai?noth, ioiieth? an? iaeaaaeeea?o? aniaeoe ?o
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?: iaa/aiiy, a?aeiineie, ni?eeoaaiiy, naiiaeoiaaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iniiai? caniae caaacia/aiiy i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy
o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo” ia??oioiaaiee i?ioean aeoiaaiiy ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo, cae?eniaia ia?aa??ea, aecia/ai?
oa ioa?aeoa?eciaai? aoaie, oiiae, iaoiaee e ?iiiaaoe?ei? oaoiieia??
aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia o?aaeeoe?yo o oeie? e ?iaeei?, aeyaeai?
i?ia?aei? iai?yie ? caniae ?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy, ocaaaeueiaiee
ia?aaeiaee aeina?ae, ia??oioiaaia nenoaia ? ci?no iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe c
i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a aei aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo
eean?a ia o?aaeeoe?yo ??aeiiai ia?iaeo.

Oe?e?ni?noue oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? aeicaieeea iai eeoa oiiaii aeae?eeoe
noa?oee oe?eueiee a?e, a i?e aecia/aii? aoai?a i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy
thiae?a ? ae?a/ao ia o?aaeeoe?yo aeiaanoe iayai?noue iniiaiiai
(aeeoeinoai) ? aeiiiaithaaeueiiai (i?aee?oeiaiai) ia??iae?a, a aaea
iio?i aeine?aeaeoaaoe ia?aiee iaie aecia/aeueiee ia??iae (noa?oee
oe?eueiee a?e) o ?aeiino? oaeeo eiai aoai?a: 1)
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? i?ina?oe (aeoeaii-canaithaaeueiee); 2)
ae?yeuei?nii-iiaaae?ieiaee (aeoeaii-i?aeoe/ii-oai?/ee); 3)
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-naiiaeoiaiee (aeeoo?ai-i???ioiaiee).

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeieoeueea ?iaioa iieacaea, ui, ye i?aaeei, ye?ni?
iiaiooai?aiiy a no?oeoo?? iniaenoino? ia eiaeiiio ianooiiiio aoai?
caeeaeeny a iaae?ao iiia?aaeiueiai. Oiio eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueea
ae?yeuei?noue ia?oiai aoaio aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia o?aaeeoe?yo
aacoaaeany ia iniia?, ii-ia?oa, oi?ioaaiiy aiioe?eii-oe?ii?niiai ?
i?aaiaoe/iiai noaaeaiiy thiae?a ? ae?a/ao aei ci?noo o?aaeeoe?e ?
aeoai??a ia?iaeiiai ienoaoeoaa; ii-ae?oaa, ?aeiino? ciaiue ia?iaeieo
o?aaeeoe?e oa a?aeiia?aeieo ii?aeueieo ii?i iiaaae?iee; ii-o?ao?,
ia?aeaeueiiai c oai?aoe/iei i?aeoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaaooeo ciaiue o aeanio o?oaeiao ae?yeuei?noue.

Ioaea, ia ia?oiio aoai? i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia
o?aaeeoe?yo a?aeeny aei oaaae eiai?oeaiee, aen?ieia?/iee ?
i?aenaieia?/iee eiiiiiaioe o ?o ianooiiino? e iaaeeaeaii? aei ?aeiino?.
Aoa i?aai?ciaaiee ?oo noa?oieeaniee?a ca aea/aiiy, caa?aaeaiiy ?
i?eiiiaeaiiy ia?iaeieo o?aaeeoe?e, cae/a?a, ia?yae?a, ?eooae?a,
ia’?aeiaiee i?ae aeaa?cii “Iiy caiey — caiey ii?o aaouee?a”. Ia oeueiio
aoai? ianaiia?aae aea/aeeny o?oaeia?, ii?aeuei?, ooaeiaeiuei-anoaoe/i?
?aa?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe??, i?iaiaeeeeny eiieo?ne, oaiaoe/i? aa/i?e,
aeeniooe. A?aeaoaaeiny aea/aiiy o?aaeeoe?e ia?iaeiiai eaeaiaea?y,
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, naiai i?noa /e naea, ?iaeiaiaeo, i?e?iaee ??aeiiai
e?ath, iiooe na?aee?a iaeia?aeiieo iiae?e. I?iaiaeeeeny aoiia?ao?/i?
aeniaaeeoe??, caienoaaeeny i?ni?, eaaaiaee, ia?yaee, ?eooaee, cae?aeeny
i?aaeiaoe ia?iaeiiai iiaooo, c?acee aeaei?aoeaii-oaeeoeiaiai ienoaoeoaa,
aoea i?aai?ciaaia ae?yeuei?noue iiooeiaeo eeoa?a ? caaii?a (“*oiaoeueeee
oeyo”, “Oaeaee iai’yo?”, “Iaeueiaie/a Oe?a?ia”); i?e?iaeiciaa/eo a?oi
(“Iao ae?i — i?e?iaea”, “Eiiaae?y”, ”I?ie?nie”); ia’?aeiaiue
ii?aeueii-iiaooiaiai ni?yioaaiiy (“Iaa?aae ia?iaei?: eaeeia, niiyoieee,
aa?aa”, “E?ana ? a?eue Oe?a?ie”, “Aeaea?aei”); ni?eueiio o?oaeiaiai ?
anoaoe/iiai cia/aiiy (“Iieoaanueeee ?ooiee aeoeaaiee”, “Iieoaanueea
o?aaeeoe?eia ??cueaa ii aea?aao”, “Ii? Ii?oi? — noieeoey oe?a?inueeiai
aii/a?noaa”); aeniaaeeoe?e aeieia?/iiai ci?noo (“Eaeaea”, “Eaeeia”,
“Aeieia”) oa ?i. Ioaea, aecia/ai? aoaie ieaaii ia?aoiaeeee iaeei a
?ioee. Niinoa??aaeiny ii?aeiaiiy i?ina?oieoeueei? ? i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? noa?oieeaniee?a, ia an?o aoaiao aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
ia?aaaaeii aeoeai? iaoiaee aeoiaaiiy. Aacith oe??? ?iaioe noaee iiiaae
1000 noai?aieo a ?aa?ii? ioca?a ? e?iiao ia?iaeiciaanoaa, 255 ioca?a
aieiai? ? o?oaeiai? neaae, ia?iaeieo ienoaoeoa ? i?iiene?a.

Iiaaae?ieiai-ae?yeuei?niee aoai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia?aaeon?i
aeio?eiaiiyi noa?oieeanieeaie canai?ieo ii?aeueieo ii?i ? i?aaee, ye?
caeeaaeai? a o?aaeeoe?yo, a oaeiae i?aeoe/iei i?eeo/aiiyi thiae?a ?
ae?a/ao aei o?aaeeoe?e-ieo ia?iaeieo i?iiene?a: aeoeaaiiy, aii/a?noaa,
??cueae ii aea?aao, ieao?iiy c eice, aei ia?iaeii? i?ni?, oi?aia?ao??,
i?aaiaoe/iiai i?ciaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ienoaoeoaa, iniaeeai
aeaei?aoeaii-oaeeoeiaiai — ?ooieea?noaa, eeeeia?noaa, ea?ai?ee oiui.
Oeae aoai ia?aaeaa/a? aaciina?aaei? aeeth/aiiy noa?oieeaniee?a o
iaaeaaia?/ii aeioe?eueio ae?yeuei?noue. THiaee ? ae?a/aoa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?e a?aee o/anoue o 221 ao?oeo i?eeeaaeiiai
oa?aeoa?o, iaaoaaee i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue ? iaae/ie c ia?iaeieo ?aianae
?aa?iio, i?eeo/eeeny aei ienoaoeueei?, ?ae?a?eii? ? ?ai?nie/i?
eoeueoo?e ia?iaeo oeyoii iaieiae?iiy o?aaeeoe?eieie ai?iiyie, /a?ac ca??
? iien aeniiiao?a ia?iaeiciaanoaa, aeaoooaaiiy aenoaaie. I?iaiaeeeeny
o?aaeeoe?ei? oieueeei?i? nayoa “Aa?ae Iieoaaueie”, oaao?ae?ciaai?
oe?a?inuee? aa/i?ieoe? oa “eicaoeuee? caaaae”, e?oa?aoo?ii-ienoaoeuee?
iaeyaee “Oaeaioe oai?, Iieoaaueii”. O/i? ia?aeiiaeeny o aenie?e
anoaoecaoe?? ??aeiiai ia?iaeo, ui ni?eyei oi?ioaaiith ni?aaaei?o
anoaoe/ieo niae?a. Canaithth/e ci?no oa i?aeoe/i? ai?iiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e ye eiiiiiaio?a ii?aeueiino?, eiaeai
noa?oieeaniee nai “ii?aeueii” i?aoethaaa, ae?iaeya aeania noaaeaiiy aei
ieo, ?aae?coaaa ?o o nai?e ae?yeueiino? e iiaaae?ioe?.

Aoaie eoeueoo?ii? i?ina?oe ? ae?yeuei?nii-iiaaae?ieiaee noeioethaaee ?
ni?eyee o?ainoi?iaoe?? coneeue iaaeaaia?a ? aaouee?a a aeoeaiee i?ioean
naii-aeoiaaiiy ? naiio/?iiy noa?oieeaniee?a.
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-naiiaeoiaiee aoai ia’?aeioaaa naiiaiae?c, naiiaieea,
naiiioe?ieo, naiiciaia’ycaiiy, naiiiaeac, naiieiio?ieue, ye
iaeaaaeeea?o? eiai no?oeoo?i? eiiiiiaioe, ui caaacia/o? naiioai?aiiy
iniaenoino?. ?iaeea?aeoaeueio ?iaioo c o/iyie cae?enithaaee ia?iaei?
oi?eueoe?, iaeno?e ? iaeno?ei?, i?ae ?o ea??aieoeoaii a?aeaoaaeiny: a)
oai?/a ?ice?eooy iniaenoino? noa?oieeanieea, a) i?aai?caoe?y
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ?icaeoeo; a) naiinoaa?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae i?ioan?eia
naiiaecia/aiiy oeiey??a. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy na?ae/eei, ui ia an?o
aeae?eaieo aoaiao i?ioeano aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo iaiao?aeii aeinyaaoe
?aeiino? oe?eueii? e iicao?i/ii? ae?yeueiino?, aeoiaaiiy ?
naiiaeoiaaiiy, oai??? ? i?aeoeee, oe?eueii? oa ?iaeeiii? aca?iiae??. O
?acoeueoao? oeueiai oeiea iinooiiai ia?aoai?th?oueny o a?aee?eoo,
iiaa?iooo aei aaouee?a ? oeiey??a nenoaio, aea aeeoeio ia eeoa
iaa/athoue, aea ethaeyoue ? iaa??aathoue, oo?aothoueny i?i ia?, ye o
aeia??e n?i’?. Ni?eueieie coneeeyie aoea noai?aia oeiea-?iaeeia c
a?aeiia?aeiith oaoiieia??th aeoiaaiiy. Iaa?oiooaaiiy i?ioeano,
oa?aeoa?enoeea eiai aoai?a ? oaeiae aaaeeeaith oiiaith aeoiaaiiy ia
o?aaeeoe?yo.

Aiae?c ci?noo e i?aai?caoe?? iacaaieo aoai?a aeicaieea, ii-ia?oa,,
aeyaeoe aeiiae aei iicao?i/ii? ?iaioe c aeoiaaiiy o/i?anueei? iieiae? ia
o?aaeeoe?yo: 1) aeia?ia?euei?noue ? oai?/?noue; 2) aeia??’y ? iiaaaa aei
eiaeii? iniaenoino?; 3) nioe?aeueii ? iniaeno?nii cia/ouee oa?aeoa?
ae?yeueiino?; 4) a?aooaaiiy ? oi?ioaaiiy iioea?a, ?ioa?an?a ? iio?aa
o/i?a, 5) ??ciiiai?oi?noue oi?i ? ae-ae?a ae?yeueiino?; 6) iino?eia
caa?iaiiy iaaeeieaeoeao aei iiaeo aeinyaiaiue oe?a?iiciaanoaa, oai??? ?
i?aeoeee aeoiaaiiy; 7) iii?a ia naiino?ei?noue oa ?i?oe?aoeai?noue
eiaeiiai oeiey?a; 8) aeei?enoaiiy iia?oi?o oaoiieia?e, ui ia’?aeiothoue
coneeey iaaeaaia?a, aaouee?a ? noa?oieeaniee?a; ii-ae?oaa, iaa?oiooaaoe
? ia?aa??eoe ia i?aeoeoe? ?iiiaaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? aeoiaaiiy ia
o?aaeeoe?yo: “a?iiac?y — iicaoe?euei? caeeaaee — ?iaeeia”, “oeiea —
nooae??”, “iaaeaaia?/iee eiiieaen”, a oaeiae — i?ia?aei? iaoiaee
noa’?eo-noa’?eoii? aca?iiae?? iaaeaaia?a ? noa?oieeaniee?a:
ia?aeiiaiiy, iiceoeaiiai i?eeeaaeo, aeyao iiaaae aei iniaenoino?,
aeciaiiy ?? a?aeiino?, iaoiaee oai?/iai ciaaaiiy, ii?aaee, caoiieaiino?
ia?niaeoeaith, ii?aeueiiai aeai?o, ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? aoe/ii? aan?aee, ,
noeioethaaiiy oa ?i.

Iniaeea?noue aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia ?aa?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?yo
iieyaa? a oiio, ye na?ae/eoue ia?aaeiaee aeina?ae iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
?aoaoee?anueeiai ? C?iuee?anueeiai ?aeii?a, ui oeae i?ioean, ii-ia?oa,
a?aeaoaa?oueny aoaeoeaii eeoa a ?aeiino? c ?iaeeiieie aieeaaie;
ii-ae?oaa, aeoeaii-canaithaaeueiee oa i?aeoe/ii-oai?/ee eiai aoaie
nei?i/othoueny ? ia’?aeiothoueny, oae ye noa?oieeanieee, iane?aeoth/e
aaouee?a, iaieiae?aathoue o?aaeeoe?yie ia aa?aaeueiiio ? i?aeoe/iiio
??aiyo iaeii/anii; ii-o?ao?, caaacia/o? a?eueo aeoeaia ? ?acoeueoaoeaia
i?ioan?eia naiiaecia/aiiy noa?oieeaniee?a. Ii?aeuei?noue,
i?aoeueiaeo?noue, anoaoecaoe?th nai?o aaouee?a, ye? caeeaaeai? a
o?aaeeoe?yo, o/i? canaiththoue c aeeoeinoaa, ui oi?io? ?o iioeae,
aeeoo?a? iio?aae oa ?ioa?ane.

Aeyaeai? oae? caniae ?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo: ciaiiy ?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaeiaiaeo, ??aeia iiaa, ?noi??y ia?iaeo, e?a?ciaanoai,
iaoe?iiaeueia aeaei?aoeaii-oaeeoeiaa ienoaoeoai, iaoe?iiaeueia i?oieia?y
? oieueeei?, ia?iaeiee eaeaiaea?, ia?iaei? i?eeiaoe ? a??oaaiiy,
?ae?a?ei? cae/a?, iaoe?iiaeueia oai?/?noue, ui aeioe?euei? ia an?o
aoaiao aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo
o?aaeeoe?yo.

I?i aoaeoeai?noue iaa?oioiaaiiai i?ioeano na?ae/aoue aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeai?, iaea?aeai? ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaieo e?eoa???a oa ?o iieaciee?a (“E”
— aeai? eiio?ieueieo oe?e, “A” — aeai? aenia?eiaioaeueieo oe?e). 1.
Ciaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e (iaeiona?aeiieai?: “E” —
31,1%, “A” — 0%, o?aaiaioa?ii ona?aeiieai?: “E” — 31,5%, “A” — 11,5%,
aeniei? ona?aeiieaiino?: “E” — 37,4%, “A” — 88,5%); 2. Iniaeno?nia
ii?aeueia ia?aeiiai?noue (iayai?noue ii?aeueiiai iioeao: “E” — 76,7%,
“A” — 55,9%, ii?aeueia naiie?eoe/i?noue: “E” — 7,9%, “A” — 20,4%,
i?aaiaiiy aei naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy: “E” — 7,9%, “A” — 23,3%); 3.
Iia?aoe?eii-iiaaae?ieiaa i?aeaioiaeai?noue noa?oieeaniee?a (aioiai?noue
aei i?aeoe/ii? ae??: “E” — 12,3%, “A” — 17,7%, eiio?ieue ca
iiaaae?ieith: “E” — 50%, “A” — 2%; naiieiio?ieue: “E” — 10%, “A” —
17,7%; aeia?eueia iiaaae?iea ca?aeii c ia?iaeieie cae/ayie ?
o?aaeeoe?yie: “E” — 27,7%, “A” — 53,8%).

Aaaeeeaith i?aai?caoe?eiith ? ci?noiaith oiiaith aeoiaaiiy ia
o?aaeeoe?yo ? niaoe?aeueii ia??oioiaaia nenoaia iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe a
oeie? e ?aeii?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaei, ui ci?no iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe
aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaiee ?c i?ioeanii aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo, a
ioaea — c ?icaeoeii oe?eueii? i?aeoeee, yea ciaoiaeeoueny o i?yi?e
caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy cae/a?a, ia?yae?a,
nayo, ii?aeiaiiy a ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey o?aaeeoe?e oa ?iiiaaoe?e ia
iniia? ae?aaiinoeee aaea aeinyaiooiai a ?iaio?. Oe?eani?yiiaaia
eiino?othaaiiy ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo aeiaaei, ui nenoaia iaoiaee/ii?
?iaioe a ?aa?ii? aeeth/a? o?e iniiai? neeaaeia? (oe?eueio, ?aeiiio /e
i?nueeo e iaeanio /e ?aa?iiaeueio), eiaeia c yeeo ia? 7 iniiaieo eaiie
(ae?aaiinoe/io, i?aai?caoe?eii-a?ae?iaeaeoaaeueio, naiiina?oith,
ai?iaaaeaeoaaeueio, ?iiiaaoe?eii-ia?iaeiciaa/o, ei?aeoe?eio,
aiae?oeei-eiio?iethth/o).

AENIIAEE. Aeeiiaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeei:

1. Aeyaeoe iaaeaaia?/io nooi?noue o?aaeeoe?e, yea iieyaa? a oiio, ui
aiie /a?ac ina?oo, aeoiaaiiy, naiioai?aiiy ?iaeea?aeooio caaacia/othoue
ianooii?noue nioe?ieoeueoo?iiai aeina?aeo, aeoioeththoue aaiaoe/iee eiae
iaoe??, neoaeaoue ?? eoeueoo?iiio naiicaoenoo, ? ?acoeueoaoii
aoiiiaaeaaia?/ieo coneeue ia?iaeo i?ioyaii aaaaoueio noie?oue, oiio
neeaaeathoue iniiaiee ci?no aeoiaaiiy a no/anieo oiiaao; ye nai???aeiee
?aeaeii-iaaeaaia?/iee eeth/ i?aai?caoe?? aeoiaiiai i?ioeano ia?aaeathoue
aaee/ ii?aeueieo canaae iaoe??, ianoiththoue naiaiaeo ? ??aiii?aai?noue
noa?oiai ? iieiaeoiai iieie?iue, ia’?aeiothoue on? aoiine, ui
i?iaeeaathoue ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie, caoeuathoue iaoe?iiaeueio
naiiaooi?noue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, caa??aathoue ? ia?aaeathoue
aeina?ae ii?yaeeo ? ii?i aeeooy a iaaieo nioe?aeueieo oiiaao ?
aoiia?ao?/ieo ianoaaeiao; ye eiiieaeniee can?a aeoiaaiiy ni?yiiaai? ia
aeeaiea ? anaa?/ia i?ciaiiy ??aeiiai ia?iaeo, eiai ieioeiai, no/aniiai e
iaeaooiueiai, ni?eythoue oi?ioaaiith aenieiii?aeueieo i??i?eoao?a
noa?oieeaniee?a, ?o i?ioan?eiiio naiiaecia/aiith, aenieiio
ona?aeiieaiith eiaeiei naiiai naaa ye iaa?ae’?iii? /anoeie naiai
ia?iaeo, iaoe??, naiiaooii? iniaenoino?, iaiao?aeiino? aeey oeueiai
naiio/?iiy oa naiiaeoiaaiiy.

2. Cae?enieoe eeaneo?eaoe?th iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?e
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ca o?noueia iniiaieie iciaeaie: ca iaoith, ca
ni?yiiaai?noth, ca ?o i?eiaeaaei?noth, ca cia/aiiyi, ca i?noeai
aeieeiaiiy, ca /anii iiyae.

3. Iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe i?ioean aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo ye aaaaoioaeoi?iee, nooiaiaaee,
eiioeaio?e/iee, ??ciia?/iee ? oe?e?niee, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?aei?noth
oaeeo aieiaieo aoai?a: ? iniiaiee (aeeoeinoai); ?? aeiiiaithaaeueiee
(i?aee?oeiaee); ??? aecia/aeueiee (noa?oee oe?eueiee a?e): 1)
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? i?ina?oe (aeoeaii-canaithaaeueiee); 2)
ae?yeuei?nii-iiaaae?ieiaee (i?aeoe/ii-oai?/ee); 3)
?iaeea?aeoaeueii-naiiaeoiaiee (aeeoo?ai-i???ioiaiee).

4. Ia iniia? oe?eani?yiiaaiiai eiino?othaaiiy ia?aaeiaiai aeina?aeo e
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ?iaioe aeiaanoe, ui i?ioean aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo
oni?oii cae?enith?oueny a ni?euei?e ae?yeueiino? oeiee, iicaoe?eueieo
caeeaae?a ? ?iaeeie, ia iniia? ?aeiino? o?i/ii?, iicaeeanii? e
iicaoe?eueii? iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii? ?iaioe, naiiaeoiaaiiy, naiio/?iiy ?
naiioai?aiiy iniaenoino? noa?oieeanieea; aecia/eoe iniiai? i?ciaaaeuei?,
i?ioeanoaeuei? oa i?aai?caoe?ei? oiiae, o o./. ia?ciai?noue iaaeaaia?a,
aaouee?a ? noa?oieeaniee?a c iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieie o?aaeeoe?yie,
ona?aeiieaiiy ?o aeoiaiiai cia/aiiy; noi?iiaai?noue a?aeiia?aeieo
iioea?a, ?ioa?an?a ? iio?aa noa?oieeaniee?a; aea/aiiy a/eoaeyie a?eiaeo
? ineoieia?/ieo ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo iniaeeainoae oeiey??a; aeio?eiaiiy
i?aei?aaeiaoii? oa aioo??i?aaeiaoii? neii?aeeiiaaiino?; aeoeaioaoe?y ia
iicaeeani?e ? iicaoe?euei?e ae?yeueiino?; caaacia/ai?noue a i?aai?caoe??
e ci?no? i?ioeano ?aeiino? oai??? ? i?aeoeee, aoi?/ii? oe?e?niino?.

5. ?ic?iaeoe, iiaea?i?coaaoe ? ia?aa??eoe iia?oi? oaoiieia?? aeoiaaiiy
ia o?aaeeoe?yo (“oeiea-iicao?i/ia ae?yeuei?noue-?iaeeia”;
“oeiea-nooae??”; “oeiea-iaaeeiiieaen”); aecia/eoe iniiai? caniae
?iaeeiiiai aeoiaaiiy, aeiiae aei i?aai?caoe?? iicao?i/ii? ae?yeueiino? c
aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia o?aaeeoe?yo; aeyaeoe i?ia?aei? iaoiaee
aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo aeey caaacia/aiiy iniaeno?nii i???ioiaaii?,
noa’?eo-noa’?eoii? aca?iiae?? iaaeaaia?a ? noa?oieeaniee?a.

6. C’ynoaaoe niaoeeo?eo ? aeiaanoe iaiao?aei?noue aeoiaaiiy ia
?aa?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ui caaacia/o?
nei?i/aiiy ? aeeiai?ci i?ioeano, aca?iicaaaa/aiiy e i?aai?/io ?aei?noue
aa?aaeueieo ? i?aeoe/ieo aieea?a, ni?a?ia?oieoeoai iaaeaaia?/iiai
eieaeoeao ? aaouee?a, c?inoaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?ioan?eiiai
naiiaecia/aiiy noa?oieeaniee?a.

7. Ocaaaeueieoe ia?aaeiaee aeina?ae ? iaa?oiooaaoe nenoaio iaoiaee/ii?
?iaioe a ?aeii? ? oeie? c i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a aei
aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Io??iaiei ?.A. Iaoe?iiaeueia nenoaia aeoiaaiiy: ?aa?iiaeueiee
aniaeo. Aeina?ae, i?iaeaie, ia?niaeoeae. — Iieoaaa: II?IIII, 1996. —
112n.

2. Io??iaiei ?.A., Iaoei I.N., Oaiao I.A. Ina?oa ? aeoiaaiiy ia
Iieoaauei? a ieioeiio e nueiaiaei?. ?noi?e/iee ia?en. — Iieoaaa:
II?IIII, 1998. — 164n.

3. Io??iaiei ?.A., Ooeueaa A.?. O?aaeeoe?? o?oaeiaiai aeoiaaiiy
A.N.Iaea?aiea ia Iieoaauei? //Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y. — 1998. — ? 1. —
N.153-155.

4. Io??iaiei ?.A. Aeoiaaiiy noa?oieeaniee?a ia
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo //Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Iieoaanueeiai iaae?inoeoooo ?i.A.A.Ei?ieaiea. — Na??y
“Iaaeaaia?/i? e ineoieia?/i? iaoee”. — Iieoaaa, 1998. — Aeione ??. —
N.128-132.

5. Aieei A.I., Io??iaiei ?.A. “…Neoaeaa Aiaia? ? Aaouee?auei?”: aei
120 ??/ieoe? a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy A.A.Aauaiea // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo
?i.A.A.Ei?ieaiea. — Na??y “Iaaeaaia?/i? e ineoieia?/i? iaoee”. —
Iieoaaa, 1998. — Aeione ??. — N.17-33.

6. Io??iaiei ?.A. Iaaeaaia?/ia nooi?noue iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo
o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo //Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
Iieoaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i.A.A.Ei?ieaiea. —
Na??y “Iaaeaaia?/i? iaoee” — Iieoaaa, 1999. — Aeione 1(5) — N. 45-51.

7. Io??iaiei ?.A. Eiaeiiio thiiaoo — “Ia?inoie” //Ia?inoie. — 1996. —
?6. — N.20-21.

8. Io??iaiei ?.A. ?aea? A.N.Iaea?aiea ye neioac ia?iaeii? oa iaoeiai?
iaaeaaia?ee ? no/ania i?aeoeea aeoiaaiiy //Oai?/a niaaeueia
A.N.Iaea?aiea o eiioaeno? no/anii? iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee ? i?aeoeee. —
Noie-Oa?e?a-Iieoaaa, 1998. — N.16-19.

9. Io??iaiei ?.A., Ne?ioaiei A.I. N?euenueea oeiea ye oeaio? aeooiaiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy: Iaeania eiiieaenia i?ia?aia ia ia??iae aei 2000 ?ieo. —
Iieoaaa, 1995. — N.69-71.

10. Io??iaiei ?.A. Iniaeeaino? ci?noo oa i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo caeeaaeao iiaiai
oeio: aeinyaiaiiy, i?iaeaie, ia?niaeoeae. — Iieoaaa: II?IIII, 1996. —
N.13-18.

11. Io??iaiei ?.A. Iaoe?iiaeueiee aniaeo aeieia?/iiai aeoiaaiiy
iieiaeoeo oeiey??a //?icaeoie ieneaiiy iieiaeoeo oeiey??a. — Iieoaaa:
II?IIII, 1996. — N.12-14

12. Io??iaiei ?.A. ?aae?caoe?y iaeanii? i?ia?aie “Iaoe?iiaeueia
aeoiaaiiy: ?aa?iiaeueiee aniaeo” a /anoei? oi?ioaaiiy aa?iii?eii
?icaeiooi? iniaenoino?. — Iieoaaa: II?IIII, 1997. — N.85-91.

AIIOAOe?ss

Io??iaiei ?.A. Aeoiaaiiy o/i?a noa?oeo eean?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-
eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 13.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee:
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiee oe?e?niee i?ioean aeoiaaiiy
noa?oieeaniee?a ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, aecia/ai? e ioa?aeoa?eciaai? aoaie, aeyaeai? iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae
oa ?iiiaaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? caaacia/aiiy eiai oni?oiiai ?icaeoeo.
Ocaaaeueiaiee ia?aaeiaee aeina?ae ? iaa?oioiaaia nenoaia iaoiaee/ii?
?iaioe a oeie? e ?aeii? c i?aeaioiaee iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a aei
aeoiaaiiy thiae?a ? ae?a/ao ia iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo o?aaeeoe?yo
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeoiaaiiy ia o?aaeeoe?yo oni?oii
cae?enith?oueny o ni?euei?e ae?yeueiino? oeiee, iicaoe?eueieo caeeaae?a
? ?iaeeie ia iniia? ?aeiino? oai?aoe/ii? ? i?aeoe/ii? i?aeaioiaee
noa?oieeaniee?a, ?o naiiaeoiaaiiy ? naiiina?oe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?ioean, o?aaeeoe??, iaoe?iiaeueia eoeueoo?a, oeiea,
?iaeeia, iicaoe?euei? caeeaaee, iaoiaee/ia ?iaioa.

AIIIOAOeEss

Io?eiaiei E.A. Ainieoaiea o/aueony noa?oeo eeannia ia
iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeeyo oe?aeineiai ia?iaea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.01 — oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee:
Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao ei. A.N.
Neiai?iaeu, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee oai?aoe/anee iainiiaai oeaeinoiue i?ioeann ainieoaiey
noa?oaeeannieeia ia iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeeyo oe?aeineiai
ia?iaea, ii?aaeaeaiu e ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu yoaiu, auyaeaiu iaaeaaiae/aneea
oneiaey, eiiiaaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee iaania/aiey aai oniaoiiai ?acaeoey.
Iaiau?i ia?aaeiaie iiuo e iainiiaaia nenoaia iaoiaee/aneie ?aaiou a
oeiea e ?aeiia ii iiaeaioiaea iaaeaaiaia e ainieoaieth thiioae e
aeaaooae ia iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo o?aaeeoeeyo oe?aeineiai ia?iaea.
Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ainieoaiea ia o?aaeeoeeyo oniaoii inouanoaeyaony a
niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe naiuee, oeieu e aiaoeieueiuo o/?aaeaeaiee, ia
iniiaa aaeeinoaa oai?aoe/aneie e i?aeoe/aneie iiaeaioiaee
noa?oaeeannieeia, eo naiiainieoaiey e naiiia?aciaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?ioeann, o?aaeeoeee, iaoeeiiaeueiay eoeueoo?a, oeiea,
aiaoeieueiua o/?aaeaeaiey, naiuey, iaoiaee/aneay ?aaioa.

ANNOTATION

Okhrimenko I.V. “Edukation of senior forms pupils on the basis of
national and cultural traditions of Ukrainian people”. Manuscript.

Dissertation for the bachelor of pedagogical science degree on the
speciality “Theory and History of pedagogical science”. The Kharkiv
State pedagogical University named after G.S.Scovoroda, Kharkiv, 1999.

The dissertation describes the process of education of senior forms
students on the theoratical foundation and characterizes the steps of
its successful development and innovative thechnologies and pedagogical
conditions of its development. It also gives the general experience and
the basic system of methodical work in school and region about the
preparation of teachers for education of young men and women based on
national and cultural traditions of Ukrainian people.

It is proved that the education on the traditions may be successful in
connection with school activity and out-of-school institutions and
parents help, on the basis of the connection of theoretical and
practical preparation of senior formers, their self-education.

Key words: process, traditions, school, out-of-school institutions,
Motherland, methodical work.

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