EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?iai? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

OAeE 82.035(802.):883)

EOOEIA Iaae?y ?aai?aia

A?AeOAI?AIIss AOIIIIAIIAI EIIIIIAIOA

OE?A?INUeEEO IA?IAeIEO EACIE

A AIAEIIIAIEO IA?AEEAAeAO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.16 — oai??y ? i?aeoeea ia?aeeaaeo

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oai??? ? i?aeoeee ia?aeeaaeo Ee?anueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe i?ioani?

?.A.Ei?oiaoeue,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oai??? ? i?aeoeee

ia?aeeaaeo Ee?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ci??a/ae
?ienieyia Iaae?aia, Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i.?.O?aiea,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ia?aeeaaeiciaanoaa ? eiio?anoeaii? e?iaa?noeee;

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe Aaeithe Aiaaeai Ieeieaeiae/, ?inoeooo
oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie, n.i.n.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 16 ” aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo i 10-00 aiae. ia

can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.11 aeey caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe i?e Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252000 Ee?a,
aoeueaa? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, 14).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252017 Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 64).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 16 aa?aniy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee aeioe. A.Ae.A?eiaa

Iaiao?aei?noue inieneaiiy ie?aieo i?iaeai aoiie?iaa?noeee coiiaeaii
iiaeaaaeaiiyi ?ioa?ano aei aena?oeaiiy ?ie? ethaenueeiai /eiieea a iia?,
u?eueii iia’ycaii? c aioo??oi?i ? ciai?oi?i na?oii ethaeeie, c aoiinii,
eiai eoeueoo?ith, iaioae?oaoii, na?oiaa/aiiyi. O ieiuei? aoiieoeueoo?ieo
nenoai caaaeaee aoea ? caeeoa?oueny aeooaeueiith i?iaeaia i?aeiiaieo
ca’yce?a, oei a?eueoa, eiee eaeaoueny i?i a?aeoai?aiiy
eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino? oai??a oaeiai oieueeei?iiai
aeai?o, ye eacea c ?? iniaeeaei iaoe?iiaeueiei eiei?eoii oa ia?aciith
nenoaiith.

Eaceiaa ia?iaeia iiaeaiiy ia?aaea? ianooiiei iieie?iiyi oaeoe aa?i?/ii?
?noi???, ea?oeie nioe?aeueiiai iiaooo e iae??ciiiai?oi?o? aaie
ethaenueeeo ii/ooo?a, ioe?iie, oo?eaieo o a?aeoe?oiaaieo
neiaanii-ae?aaeaeueieo oi?iao, ui noaiiaeyoue aoiiiiaiee eiiiiiaio
eacee. Oe? onoaeai? aeneiae aa?a?aee a naaa aaaaoia?eiaee aeina?ae
oe?eiai ia?iaeo, aea ua e aein? iaei aea/ai?, oi/a aiie iaaecae/aeii
aaaeeea? aeey aoiinaian?ieia??, aoiie?iaa?noeee, aoiia?ao??,
aoiiineoieia??, aoiiaeeaeaeoeee, i?aaiaoeee e ia?aeeaaeiciaanoaa.
Iniaeeai a?ae/oaathoue oea ia?aeeaaea/?, ia?aae yeeie aino?i iinoathoue
ia eeoa i?iaeaie a?aeoai?aiiy aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa oe?a?inueei?
ia?iaeii? eacee, a e ni?eeiaiiy oaenoo ia?aeeaaeo ?ioiiiaiei /eoa/ai —
iin??i ?ioi? eoeueoo?e, ?ioeo cae/a?a ? o?aaeeoe?e. Aaeaea c iaeyaeo ia
c?inoath/ee o na?o? aaoi?eoao Oe?a?ie, ?? e?oa?aoo?e e ia?iaeii?
oai?/ino? iaiao?aei?noue yeiiiaa aaeaeaaoi?oiai ooaeiaeiuei
ia?aeiieeaiai a?aeoai?aiiy aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa oieueeei?iiai oai?o ia
?ioiiiaiiio (?oio? iaaoaa? iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy. A oea aenoaa? ia ia?oee
ieai iio?aao aeine?aeaeaiue iiae ye iin?y ??ciia?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
ae?yeuei?noue ethaeeie, ?? iaoe?iiaeueio naiiaooi?noue.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie coiiaeaii caaaeueiith oaiaeaioe??th no/anieo
e?iaa?noe/ieo iiooe?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?ice?eooy eiai?oeaii? naiaioeee
ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo, cie?aia ia aeyaeaiiy aoiiiiaii? niaoeeo?ee
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/ieo oa ooieoe?iiaeueii-i?aaiaoe/ieo iniaeeainoae
eaceiaiai aeai?o oa iio?aaith c?noaaeaiue oe?a?inueei-aiae?enueeeo
aoiiiiaieo eiiiiiaio?a. Oaia aeeiio?oueny o ?one? eiiieaenii? iaoeiai?
oaie «Oai?aoe/i? iniiae aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeoeee ia?aeeaaeo ? aeaiiiaii?
eaeneeia?ao??».

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei ia?aii oe?a?inuee? ia?iaei? eacee oa ?o
aiaeiiiai? ia?aeeaaee, a i?aaeiaoii aiae?co noaei ?o iiaeaiiy.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy noaaeoue ca iaoo: aeyaeoe e iienaoe
no?oeoo?ii-naiaioe/i? e eiiiiceoe?eii-ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
oe?a?inueeiai eaceiaiai aeai?o, aecia/eoe ?oith
eiioi?eaoeaii-i?aaiaoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue, anoaiiaeoe oiiae
aaeaeaaoiiai/iaaaeaeaaoiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ia-oe?iiaeueiiai eiei?eoo
oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie oa niiniae ?o i?aaiaoe/ii? aaeaioaoe?? a
aiaeiiiaieo ia?aeeaaeao.

Iniiai?e iao? i?aeii?yaeeiaai? oae? eiie?aoi? caaaeaiiy:

— ?ic?iaeoe eiioeaioe?th aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ia?iaeii? eacee ye
aoiie?iaaaeueii? e ia?aeeaaeiciaa/i? eaoaai??? ? aecia/eoe eiai i?noea a
no?oeoo?? oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie oa ?oi?o aiaeiiiaieo ia?aeeaae?a;

— aecia/eoe neeaaeia? aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ia?iaeii? eacee, ?ice?eoe
?oith nai???aei?noue ca aeiiiiiaith eiiiiiaioiiai aiae?co naiaioe/ii?
no?oeoo?e aoiiiiaieo i?e?iiaeeieoeue;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo e?iaaie?a?iiciaa/iai i?i/eoaiiy ia?aeeaae?a
oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie c iiceoe?? oe?eueiai? iiae, cie?aia
aiae?enueei?, c iaoith ia(?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino? i?aaiaoe/ii?
aaeaioaoe?? ?oiueiai aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa;

— ae?eoe iaaieo aeniiae?a uiaei niinia?a a?aeoai?aiiy aoiiiiaii?
naiaioeee eaene/ieo oa o?acaieia?/ieo iaeeieoeue, iaca eaceiaeo
ia?niiaae?a, aoiiiiaii? niaoeeo?ee neiaanieo ia?ac?a, a oaeiae cania?a
a?aeoai?aiiy aiae?enueeith iiaith no?oeoo?ii-eiiioaoeaiiai,
aiioe?eii-aeni?aneaiiai e ?eoiioai?/iai aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa
oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie oa ?oi?o iaeaaaeeea?oeo iniaeeainoae o
ca/eiao, e?ioe?aeao, iiaoi?ao, ni?aiiiaeao oiui.

Iaoa??aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee iiiaae 3700 aoiiiiaieo iaeeieoeue
eaceiaiai iiaeaiiy, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue iaoe?iiaeueio niaoeeo?eo
oe?a?inue-eiai ia?iaeo, eiai eoeueoo?o e ?noi??th. ?o c?a?aii iaoiaeii
nooe?eueii? aea??ee c 315 oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie oa ?o
aiae?enueeeo ia?aeeaae?a (c oaenoo a 8980 noi??iie).

Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoue caaaeueiiiaoeiaee
i?eioeei nenoaiiino? oa ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c
yaeu, ye? aea/athoueny, o aca?iica’yceo oa ?icaeoeo, ui a?aeiia?aea?
i?ioeanoaeueiei aniaeoai iiaeaii?ai? ae?yeueiino?.

E?iaaio?einionueeith aacith aeey ?ic?iaee eiioeaioe?? aoiaie aaoi?o
neoao? iiaia ea?oeia na?oo.

Eiioeaioe?y aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ia?iaeii? eacee ye aoiie?iaaaeueii?
? ia?aeeaaeiciaa/i? eaoaai??? (?oioo?oueny ia iaiao?aeiino? canoinoaaiiy
aoiie?iaa?noe/iiai e aeania ia?aeeaaeiciaa/iai aia?aoo.

O aecia/aii? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c
e?iaaie?a?ii-ciaa/i? oai??? neiaa A.Aa?auaa?ia e A.Einoiia?iaa,
eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee eaeneee ? o?acaieia??
?.Ci??a/ae, I.*a?aaeie/aiea, ?.Ei?oioey, A.Aaeithea, eiioaenooaeueii?
eoeueoo?ii-aoi?/ii? naiaioeee, ?ic?iaeaii? a i?aoeyo AE.Ioiaia,
TH.Iaeaee, I.Iia?eiai? e ?ioeo, aeno?aiiethth/e iiiyooy oiiiai?
naiaioeee ia nooe?eueiee oaeno ye iae?iiaeeieoeth aeine?aeaeaiiy oa eiai
?ioiiaoe?eii-neioaene/i?, ?eoiioai?/?, ia?aci? e aiioe?eii-aeni?aneai?,
no?oeoo?ii-eiiioaoeai? oa eiiiiceoe?eii-aeai?ia? aoiiiiai?
i?e?ieiiiiiaioe.

O aeine?aeaeaii? ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy oae? iaoiaee: ia?aeeaaeiciaa/ee,
eiio?anoeaiee, eiiiiiaioiee, eiioaenooaeueiee, eoeueoi?ieia?/iee c
o?aooaaiiyi i?e?i- ? iae?ioiio oa aeaiaioe noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia ?
ia?oith ni?iaith eiiieaeniiai, nenoaiiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy niinia?a
a?aeoai?aiiy aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? eacee
aiae?enueeith iiaith. O i?e aia?oa c’yniao?oueny iiaia i?e?iaea e
iaoai?ci oai?aiiy aoiai oa eiioeaioe?y aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ia?iaeii?
eacee ye aoiie?iaaaeueii? ? ia?aeeaaeiciaa/i? eaoaai???, aecia/a?oueny
aoeiieiai-naiaioe/ia e no?oeoo?ia eeaneo?eaoe?y iaca eaceiaeo
ia?niiaae?a, ?ic?iaeythoueny iiaeae? oeeee?/iiai ?icaeoeo nthaeaoo
oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? eacee oa i?iiiio?oueny iaoiaeeea aoiiiiaiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei ia?aeeaaeo ia?iaeii? eacee ye iae?iiaeeieoe?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeoeaioii ia ?? e?iaainoee?noe/ieo,
no?oeoo?ii-eiiioaoeaieo, eiiiiceoe?eii-aeai?iaeo,
?ioiiaoe?eii-neioaene/ieo iniaeeainoyo.

Oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe. Ine?eueee aoiiiiaiee
eiiiiiaio oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? eacee, iniaeeai c iiaeyaeo
ia?aeeaaeiciaanoaa, ua ia aoa i?aaeiaoii ie?aiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
niiae?aathny, ui aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aoaeooue iaaiei aianeii o oai??th
ia?aeeaaeo. Niinoa?aaeaiiy oa iane?aeee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaaeooue
iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe ?yae i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e noiniaii iaoiaeeee
ooaeiaeiueiai ia?aeeaaeo eacie. ?o iiaeia aoaea aeei?enoiaoaaoe a
eaeoe?eieo eo?nao c oai??? ? i?aeoeee ia?aeeaaeo, i?e /eoaii?
niaoeeo?n?a c noee?noe/iiai aiae?co e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ooaeiaeiueiai
oaenoo, a i?aeoeoe? iaa/aiiy aiae?enueei? iiae, i?e iaienaii? eo?niaeo ?
aeeieiiieo ?ia?o; iaoa??ae aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeoeia ?ioa?an aeey
i?aeoee?a-ia?aeeaaea/?a oa aeey eaeneeia?ao?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue e
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia ui??/ieo ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
Ae?iaiaeoeueeiai iaae?inoeoooo (1988-1998 ??.), ia i?aeia?iaeieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo

(Ee?a, 1993-1996 ??.; Euea?a, 1995-1996 ??.; Ae?iaiae/ 1997 ?.), ia
can?aeaii? eaoaae?e oai??? ? i?aeoeee ia?aeeaaeo Ee?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Ee?a, 1997 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeaii a oanoe noaooyo ?
i’yoe oacao. O aeaio noaooyo ? aeaio oacao, iioae?eiaaieo o
ni?aaaoi?noa?, I.Iaaea?aeue iaeaaeoue ?aeay i?i aoiiiiaio niaoeeo?eo
i?inoi??//y oa eiai aiae?c. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a — aeaoaeueiee aiae?c
a?aeoai?aiiy an?o ?ioeo neeaaeiaeo aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ia?iaeii?
eacee, ui noaiiaeoue i?eaeecii 95% ?ic?iaeaiiai a ioae?eaoe?yo
iaoa??aeo.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny oae? iieiaeaiiy:

1. Aoiiiiaiee eiiiiiaio ooaeiaeiueiai oaenoo — oea noeoii?noue
aoiiiiaieo iaeeieoeue /e i?e?ieiiiiiaio?a ??cieo eiai ??ai?a, ui
iaaeathoue eiio yne?aai ae?aaeaiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o.

2. Nooi?iue a?aeoai?aiiy aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii?
eacee a ia?aeeaae? anoaiiaeth?oueny ia iaeaeuiio ??ai? ooaeiaeiueiai
oaenoo ye iae?iiaeeieoe? aeine?aeaeaiiy canoinoaaiiyi
aoiie?iaa?noe/iiai, eiioaenooaeueiiai e aeania ia?aeeaaeiciaa/iai
aiae?co.

3. Aoiiiiaiee iae?ieiiiiiaio ia?iaeii? eacee, ye aaaeeeaee /eiiee ??
i?aaiaoeee, o?aaa e iiaeia caa?aaoe a ia?aeeaae? aaeaeaaoiei
a?aeoai?aiiyi noeoiiino? ?? aoiiiiaieo i?e?ieiiiiiaio?a.

4. Niiniae a?aeoai?aiiy oa oi?ie eiiiainaoe?? i?aaiaoe/ii? aaeaioaoe??
aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ia?iaeii? eacee a ia?aeeaae? caeaaeaoue a?ae
aaaaoueio /eiiee?a, cie?aia a?ae e?oa?aoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??, ?aeaaaioiino?
e aeinooiiino? eiai anoaoe/iiio ni?eeiyooth ?aoeei??ioa, a oaeiae a?ae
iiaiiai ??aiy aoiii?e?iiaeeieoe? e nooiaiy ?? naiaioe/ii? oa no?oeoo?ii?
neeaaeiino?.

5. Aenie?eaoe??th aoiiiiaii? naiaioeee iiaeia iaeo?ae?coaaoe
e?iaaiaoi?/i? aa?’??e e e?ea?aeoaaoe ?icoiaeaeaiiy aoiiiiaii?
eiiiaoaioe?? ??ciiiiaieo eiioi?eaio?a, a ioaea, e aoiiiiaieo eiioaeno?a
? eiiiiiaio?a ia?oioai?o e ia?aeeaaeo oa aeinyaoe i?aaiaoe/ii?
aaeaeaaoiino? a?aeoai?aiiy.

6. Iaea?eueoi? i?aaiaoe/ii? aaeaioaoe?? a ia?aeeaae? cacia? aoiiiiaiee
eiiiiiaio ca/ei?a, iaioi? — e?ioe?aie ? iaeiaioi? — na?aaeeiieo eaceiaeo
oi?ioe, ca aeiyoeii oeeee?/ieo iiaoi??a, ni?aiiiaie, a?aeoai?aiiy
?eoi?/ii? i?aai?caoe?? yeeo ni?ey? caa?aaeaiith caaaeueii?
a?o?oaeoii?ee eacee, ?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiei?eoo.

No?oeoo?a e ianya aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?iaioa
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e, oo-aeiaei?o ? eaeneeia?ao?/ieo aeaea?ae
(anueiai 366 iaeiaioaaiue) oa aeaio aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? — 220 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, a aac e?oa?aoo?e ?
aeiaeaoe?a — 177 noi??iie. O aeena?oaoe?? iiaeaii 5 ?enoie?a iiaeaeae
iiaoaeiae nthaeaoo oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? eacee.

O Anooi? ia(?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie, aecia/a?oueny ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
iiaecia, i?aaeiao ? iaoa, caaaeaiiy e iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy eiai, a oaeiae oi?ioeththoueny iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? c’yniao?oueny eiioeaioe?y aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ye
aoiie?iaaaeueii? oa ia?aeeaaeiciaa/i? eaoaai???, iiaea?oueny caaaeueia
oa?aeoa?enoeea ia?iaeieo eacie oa aeiiiaith?oueny ?noi??y aiaeiiiaieo
ia?aeeaae?a oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie, aeine?aeaeoaaia ?.Ci??a/ae.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny niiniae a?aeoai?aiiy aiae?enueeith
iiaith aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie ia
eaeneei-o?acaieia?/iiio ??ai?, aena?oeth?oueny i?e?iaea neiaanieo
ia?ac?a (ii??aiyiue, iaoaoi?, a?ia?aie, ai?oao?a, cie?aia eieuei?iaeo)
oa iaca eaceiaeo ia?niiaae?a ? iiaeeeainoae ?o a?aeoai?aiiy
aiae?enueeith iiaith.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny niiniae a?aeoai?aiiy
?ioei?coth/eo eaceiaeo caa?oaiue, a oaeiae eiiiiceoe?eii-aeai?iaeo oa
?ioiiaoe?eii-neioaene/ieo iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? eacee e
aiae?co?oueny aeioe?euei?noue/iaaeioe?euei?noue i?aaiaoe/ii? aaeaioaoe??
a aiaeiiiaieo ia?aeeaaeao aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ca/ei?a, e?ioe?aie,
ni?aiiiaie, iiaoi??a. cie?aia oeeee?/ieo oa ?eiiaaieo.

O caaaeueieo aeniiaeao ?iaeoueny i?aenoiie i?iaaaeaiiio
aeine?aeaeaiith, ia(?oioiaothoueny iaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy ia?aeeaae?a eacie oa aaeaeaaoiino? a?aeoai?aiiy a ieo
aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa; iae?aneththoueny ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue, ?icaeyiaieo o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?.

Nienie iniiaii? aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e aeeth/a? iaoeiai-e?eoe/i?
i?aoe?, ooaeiaei? aeaea?aea oa aeia?aeeia? iaoa??aee.

O aeiaeaoeao A, A iiaea?oueny ia?ae?e aiaeiiiaieo ia?aeeaae?a, ai?uaieo
o aeo?iaeao The Ukrainian Canadian (1968-1997), Ukraine oa
oe?a?inueei-aiae?enueeee aeina??e iaca eaceiaeo ia?niiaae?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

Noi?ioeueiaaia e?iaa?noe/iith o?einio??th e ia(?oioiaaia
aoiiineoieiaaie oa aoiie?iaa?noaie oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i ?nioaaiiy iniaeeaiai
iiaiiai na?oiaeyaeo aenoaa? ia ia?oee ieai iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy
niaoeeo?/ii? ?ie? iiae a noai?aii? iiaii? ea?oeie na?oo, o oi?ioaaii?
aoiiiiaii? naiaioeee. Oeueiio ni?ey? e aio?iiioeaio?eci iiai?
eiai?oeaii? ia?aaeeaie aeine?aeaeaiue iiae e?ioey OO noie?ooy c
ia?ai???ioaoe??th iaoeiaeo caoe?eaaeaiue c ia’?eoa i?ciaiiy ia noa’?eo,
c i?e?iiaeeieoeue, ye? /anii ?icaeyaeaeeny ?cieueiaaii, ia
iae?iiaeeieoe?, yeei i?eoaiaiiee aenieee ??aaiue neeaaeiino?. A oea, o
naith /a?ao, aeicaiey? aei?aoethaaoe iaoiaeeeo aoiiiiaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
ia?aeeaaeo ia?iaeii? eacee c aeoeaioii ia ?? e?iaainoee?noe/ieo,
ia?acieo, aiioe?eii-aeni?aneaieo, no?oeoo?ii-eiiioaoeaieo,
?ioiiaoe?eii-neioaene/-ieo, ?eoiiiaeiae?eieo, eiiiiceoe?eii-aeai?iaeo
iniaeeainoyo.

Coiiaeaia niaoeeo?eith aoiiiiaiiai na?oiaa/aiiy iiaeaethaaiiy ??cieie
iiaaie na?oo ii-nai?io ae?acii c?eia? o oieueeei?i?e ea?oei? na?oo,
cie?aia a i?aeiiaiiio ni?eeoaaii?, noai?thth/e iaaaeye? o?oaeiiu?
ia?aeeaaea/ai. O?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee oieueeei?ieo ea?oei na?oo
aeiiiiaaa? aeyaeoe aoiiiiaio caeaaei?noue aeaaiuei? ethaeeie a?ae
niiniao aeeooy, iniaeeainoae iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ee?iaoo,
aaia?ao??, ?noi??? e eoeueoo?e aoi?/ii? ni?eueiioe. Iaoe?iiaeueia
niaoeeo?ea ciaeoea yne?aaa ae?aaeaiiy a aoiiiiaiiio eiiiiiaio?
oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? eacee. Eiai anoaiiaeaii ca aeiiiiiaith
aoiie?iaa?noe/iiai e eiioaenooaeueiiai aiae?co ia iaeaeuiio ??ai?
nooe?eueiiai oaenoo ye iae?iiaeeieoe? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeae?eaii oe?eo
nenoaio aoiai ia ??cieo iiaieo ??aiyo.

Aoiaia, ye nai?ioe/ia iaeeieoey, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny o?ueiia oeiaie
a?aeiioaiue, a ye? aoiaeeoue iiaiee ciae, a oiio aeae?eythoueny o?e oeie
cia/aiue aoiiiiaieo iaeeieoeue: 1) eiai?oeai? (aeaiioaoeai? e
eiiioaoeai?) cia/aiiy aoiieaeneee e aoiio?acaieia??; 2)
aioo??oiueie?iaaaeuei? cia/aiiy no?oeoo?ii-eiiioaoeaieo aoiai, ui
aeyaeythoue niaoeeo?eo i?aeciaeiaeo a?aeiioaiue; 3) aoiii?aaiaie.

Aoiiiiaia naiaioeea caaa?aeth? aeaiioaoeai?, eiiioaoeai? e
eiioaenooaeuei? iciaee neiaa. Aiia a?aeia?aaea?oueny a eiai
ii?oieia?/i?e no?oeoo?? e neioaene/i?e niieo/oaaiino?, ?aae?co?oueny a
??ciiaeaeao neiaiaaeeaaiiy oa noee?noe/ieo «iaa?oiiao» ? aieeaa? ia
aanue iae?ieiioaeno eacee, iaaeath/e ooaeiaeiueiio oaenoia? yne?aai
ae?aaeaiiai iaoe?iiaeueii-eaceiaiai eiei?eoo.

Iiiyooy aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ia?iaeii? eacee ioiieth? caaaeueio
eiiiiceoe?eio no?oeoo?o eacee, ?? ?eoiiiaeiaeeeo ? niaoeeo?/i?
o?aaeeoe?ei? ?i?oe?aeuei?, iaae?aeuei? oa o?iaeuei? oi?ioee, nai???aei?
iiaoi?e, cie?aia i?naii?. Oea ?aae?? ? iaoe?iiaeueii caaa?aeaia
i?inoi??/ia e ae?aeaeoia eaeneea oa o?acaieia?y, iacae eaceiaeo
ia?niiaae?a oa aoiii?ie, ? i?eeacee oa i?ene?a’y, ? nai???aei?
ii??aiyiiy oa ai?oaoe, ? a?ia?aie?/i?noue, iaoaoi?e/i?noue oa
neiaie?/i?noue, ? oaioanoeea eaceiaeo nthaeao?a, iioea?a oa ooaeiaei?o
ia?ac?a, ? ?? aeeaeaeoeea oa i?aaiaoeea. Aoiieaeneea e aoiio?acaieia?y
ia?aaea? ??ci? iiiyooy iaoa??aeueiiai e aeooiaiiai aeeooy
aoiino, a?aeia?aaeath/e niaoeeo?eo eiai aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, eiai aaiaco,
?noi??th, i?aai, aaei?i?no?aoeai? e a?iiaaenuee? oi?ie oi?aae?iiy,
eaiaeoaoo, iiaoo, cae/a?, eoeueoo?o, i?oieia?th, a??oaaiiy,
iaioae?oao, iiaaae?ieo, aeoiaaiiy oa ?io? iaoe?iiaeueii nai???aei?
yaeua. Aoiiiiaiee eiiiiiaio aeeth/a? ? no?oeoo?ii-eiiioaoeai? aoiaie ?c
niaoeeo?/iei aioo??oiueie?iaaaeueiei cia/aiiyi oa aoiii?aaiaie.

I?iaeaia a?aeoai?aiiy aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ia?oioai?o iinoa? iniaeeai
aino?i i?e ia?aeeaae? oai??a oieueeei?o, a yeeo iaia? ae??aieoeue /e
/iainue ianooo?aiai, aeiaaeeiaiai, a eeoa oa, ui a?aeiia?aea?
nioe?aeuei?e ineoieia?? ia?iaeo. sse /anoeia eoeueoo?e ia?iaeo, aiie
ae?aaeathoue eiai na?oiaeyae, iaioae?oao, eiai o?einionuee?, nioe?aeuei?
e ii?aeuei? eiioeaioe??, ooaeiaei? niaee. Oiio aoiiiiaiee eiiiiiaio o
oeeo oai?ao iana iniaeeaa iaaaioaaeaiiy, ? ia?aeeaaea/ ia ia? i?aaa
iaoooaaoe iei. Oea oei a?eueoa noino?oueny ia?iaeii? eacee, aea
niinoa??aa?oueny c?oeiaiiy eoeueoo?, ??cieo na?o?a, ?aaeueiiai e
oaioanoe/iiai, ??cieo /aniaeo ? i?inoi?iaeo aei???a, ??cieo iiaieo
ea?oei na?oo, iaaecae/aeii nai???aeieo ye i?e ia?aeiiiio, oae ?
aoi?eiiiio eiai iiaeaethaaii? i?e a?aeia?aaeaii? noni?eueiiai aeeooy
aoiino a ooaeiaei?o ia?acao. Ooo a?i noa? iaa?ae’?iiith /anoeiith ??
ci?noo, iano/e a nia? aeiaeaoeia? oiiia? naie «oieueeei?ia»,
«/a??aii-oaioanoe/ia», «eaceiaa», ? aa?a aeoeaio o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? ??
aiioe?eii-aeni?aneaiiai i?aieo, ?? i?aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo, aieeaiai?
neee ia /eoa/a.

Ine?eueee a?aeoai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-eaceiaiai eiei?eoo — iaiao?aeia
oiiaa aeinyaiaiiy i?aaiaoe/ii? aaeaeaaoiino? ia?aeeaaeo, aoiiiiaiee
iae?ieiiiiiaio oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? eacee, ye aaaiiee /eiiee ??
i?aaiaoeee, o?aaa caa?aaoe a ia?aeeaae?. I?ioa oey i?iaeaia
oneeaaeith?oueny a?aei?noth ia?iaeii? eacee o no/aniiio aiaeiiiaiiio
na?o?, aea ia?aaaaea? e?oa?aoo?ia eacea.

O?ainieaioaoe?y aoiiiiaieo ia?ac?a eaceiaiai na?oo c iaei??? iiaii?
nenoaie a ?ioo aeiaaa? a?aooaaiiy ia o?eueee niaoeeo?ee aeai?o e
e?oa?aoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??, a e aoiiiiaii? eiioi?eaoeaii? eiiiaoaioe??
?aoeei??ioa. Aaeaea iaiao?aei?noue caa?aaoe aoiiiiai? ia?ace ia?iaeii?
eacee a ia?aeeaae? noeea?oueny c caa?icith ii?ooeoe eiai iiaio i?e?iaeo,
eiai aeinooii?noue anoaoe/iiio ni?eeiyooth ?ioiiiaiiai ?aoeei??ioa,
iniaeeai aeeoy/i? /eoaoeueei? aoaeeoi??? c iaiaaeaiei ianyaii oiiiaeo
ciaiue i?i eoeueoo?o oiai ia?iaeo, iiaith yei? iaienaiee i?ea?iae.
A?aeoai?aiiy naiaioeee aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa eacee oneeaaeiththoue
e?iaaiaoi?/i? aa?’??e. Eeoa iaeo?ae?coaaaoe ?o caiiaiaiiyi ??cii?
aeeaeie «nieneiaeo u?eei» ? eaeoi, iiaeia e?ea?aeoaaoe aai oi/ caanoe
aei i?i?ioio ?icoiaeaeaiiy aoiiiiaii? eiiiaoaioe?? ??ciiiiaieo
eiioi?eaio?a, a ioaea, e aoiiiiaieo eiioaeno?a ? eiiiiiaio?a
ia?oioai?o e ia?aeeaaeo. Ca?aene iaiao?aei?noue aenie?eaoe??
aoiiiiaii? naiaioeee a ia?aeeaae? oa o?enaoe?? a eaeneeia?ao??
e?iaai-aoi?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? (eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ii?,
aeooaeueii-iiiyoo?ai? ? eiie?aoii-neooaoeaii?), aeoaea aaaeeeai? aeey
aea/aiiy iiae, ?icoi?iiy e aaeaeaaoii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oaenoo, aeey
oai??? ? i?aeoeee ia?aeeaaeo, noee?noeee oa ii??aiyeueii? oeiieia??.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aeeaaeiciaa/iai aniaeoo aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa aea?
ia?aeeaaea/ai iaaiee ?ino?oiaioa??e aeey aeyaeaiiy aeaoa?i?iiaaieo
e?iaaiaoi?/ieie /eiieeaie «oi/ie ?ica?aeiinoae» ?aaeoe?e iin??a
aeo?aeii? iiae e iiae-ni?eeia/a. ?o iiaeia ciyoe a ia?aeeaae? ca
aeiiiiiaith aaeaeaaoieo cai?i oa i?aaiaoe/ii? aaeaioaoe?? iaio
?aeaaaioieo /e iaia?aeeaaeieo aoiai.

Aiae?c ??cieo aiaeiiiaieo ia?aeeaae?a 315 oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie
cana?ae/o?, ui a?aooaaiiy aoiiiiaii? naiaioeee e aeai?iai?
?aeaaaioiino? eiaeiiai i?e?ieiiiiiaioa a ooaeiaei?e no?oeoo?? eacee
caaacia/o? aaeaeaaoia a?aeoai?aiiy ?? aoiiiiaiiai iae?ieiiiiiaioa. Oea
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? e aiae?c i?iaoeueeeo ia?aeeaae?a Aeae.A??iia oa
?.A?oaa?a. Iaeiae iciaeiieaiiy aiaeiiiaiiai na?oo c oe?a?inueeith
eaceith /a?ac ?in?enueea iina?aaeieoeoai ?ioa?i?aoaoe?yie ?.AEae?ciiai?
a?aeaeeiny ? ia na??eieo aeaeaiiyo ?? 78 ia?aeeaae?a, ui ?yni?thoue
?in?enueeeie ?iaiaie e ?aae?yie, ye? iaaeathoue ?i ?ioiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiei?eoo. E?aueie o ieai? caa?aaeaiiy aoiiiiaiiai
eiiiiiaioa oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? eacee ? 50 ia?aeeaae?a A.A?eaiea, 27 —
?.Aaeia, 10 — N.Aeaaeiaa oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? eaiaaenueeeo ia?aeeaaea/?a
Aeaeiia A??a, I.Ne?eiiee, I.I?ieiia e ?ioeo. Inai?iiy aiaeiiiaieie
ia?aeeaaeaie oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie o?eaa? ? ? i?aenoaae
niiae?aaoeny, ui ia?aae ieie a?aee?ethoueny iia? ia?niaeoeae o ca’yceo c
aeine?aeaeaiiyi a?aeoai?aiiy aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa eacee.

Caa?aaeaiiy a ia?aeeaae? aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ia?iaeii? eacee
aeinyaa?oueny ianaiia?aae a?aeoai?aiiyi iaaecae/aeii ?ioi?iaoeaiiai
eaene/iiai e o?acaieia?/iiai oa?o aoiiiiaieo iaeeieoeue. Aaeaeaaoia
ia?aaea/a ae?aaeaieo ieie iaa?ae’?iieo a?ae i?noey oa aiioe iiiyoue
eaeneei-o?acaieia?/ieie /e neioaene/ieie caniaaie iiae-ni?eeia/a iiaea
aeaoe ?ioiiiaiiio /eoa/aa? aeoaea aaaaoi aeey i?ciaiiy niiniao ieneaiiy,
iiaooo e ?noi??? inaithaaiiai ia?aeeaaeii aoiino, eiai eoeueoo?e oa oiia
noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Aaaeeea?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy oeueiai ieoaiiy
coiiaeaii a?ae nooi?noth o iin??a ?ioi? iiae iicia/oaaieo aoiaiaie
?aoa?aio?a, ye ? iiiyoue i?i oe? ?aoa?aioe, oiaoi ia’?eoe ae?eniino?,
oa?aeoa?i? aeey aeaiiai aoiino aai iienai? iaoe?iiaeueii-niaoeeo?/iei
niiniaii.

Iniiai? o?oaeiiu? a?aeoai?aiiy aoiai coiiaeththoueny ? iaiao?aei?noth
i?o/ c aeaiioaoeaiei cia/aiiyi aoiaie ia?aaeaoe eiei?eo, eiiioaoe??
?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai (?noi?e/iiai /e eaceiaiai) caaa?aeaiiy.
Ia?aeeaaea/aa? aeiaiaeeoueny ia?aai?thaaoe i?ioe??//y: aai iieacaoe
niaoeeo?eo aoiai ? oei naiei aianoe a aecioeeo, aai ciaoooaaoe
aoiiiiaiei eiiiiiaioii ? ao?aoeoe eiei?eoio niaoeeo?eo. Oeth aeeeaio
iiaea caeieaoe eeoa aeina?ae/aiee ia?aeeaaea/, ui aeia?a cia? /oaeee
niin?a aeeooy, iiaoo, a?ae/oaa? cia?aaeoaaeuei? iiaeeeaino? aienaiiai a
ooaeiaei?e oaeno neiaa ?, aiaeii/an, oiiei a?ae/oaa? ??aeio iiao.
Ca?aene e iinoa? ia?aae iei ? aein? aeooaeueia i?iaeaia ia?aeeaaeiino?,
i?e ?icaeyae? yei?, ii/eiath/e a?ae A.Aoiaieueaeoa, iineeathoueny
cae/aeii ia iaoe?iiaeueio nai???aei?noue i?ea?iaeo. Oa iacaaaeath/e ia
o?oaeiiu?, iia’ycai? c aacaea?aaeaioi?noth aoiai, ia?aeeaaeiciaaoe?
noaa?aeaeothoue, ui iaia?aeeaaeieo oai??a iaia?, oi/ o aoaeue-yeiio
ooaeiaeiueiio oai?? ? oae? aeaiaioe oaenoo, ye? niiaia ia?aaeaoe
iaiiaeeeai. A ciyoe oeth noia?a/i?noue iiaeia iaeaaeiith oaaaith
ia?aeeaaea/a aei eiaeiiai i?e?ieiiiiiaioa, i?aeii?yaeeiaaiiai caaaeuei?e
ooaeiaei?e nenoai?, ui e caaacia/eoue aaeaeaaoi?noue a?aeoai?aiiy
aoiiiiaiiai iae?ieiiiiiaioa ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o, oiaoi eiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiei?eoo.

Ieoaiiy i?i a?aeoai?aiiy aacaea?aaeaioii? eaeneee ? o?acaieia??, ui
iana aaaiia nieneiaa ? noee?noe/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy, cie?aia oaeeo
eiiiiiaio?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai e ?noi?e/iiai eiei?eoo, ye ?aae??,
iaiaeii?aciai i?aei?iaee ia?aeeaaeiciaaoe?, a?aecia/ath/e aacia?a/iee
aieea aeai?o aeo?aeii? iiae ia aioo??oiueioaenoia? ooieoe?? ?aae?e ? ia
niiniae ia?aaea/? ?o o ia?aeeaae? (N.Aeaoia, N.Oei??i, A.Oaaei?ia,
?.Ci??a/ae, I.Iia?eiaa, I.Oaaeoea?, N.Nei?ioiaeueei e ?io?).
Ne?oioeueicii aiae?coaaeeny ? niiniae a?aeoai?aiiy aoiieaeneee.
Ia?aa??ai? i?aeoeeith ia?aeeaaeo oa neiiaeainiaai? a iaa/aeueiiio
iin?aieeo ?.Ei?oioey, aiie noaee o?enoiiao?eieie ye aeey nooaeaio?a,
oae ? aeina?ae/aieo ia?aeeaaea/?a.

Ine?eueee iiaith ia?ac?a ?ioi? eoeueoo?e aaaeei ia?aaeaoe naiaioeeo
aoiieaeneee e aoiio?acaieia??, c?iaeaii ni?iao cina?aaeeoeny ia
i?aaeiao? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia i?ae eooii ci?o iaioaeueiino? iin??a
i?ea?iaeo, a /eoa/?a ia?aeeaaeo ioe?ieoe iioaioe?ei? iiaeeeaino?
eiaeiiai niiniao ?? a?aeoai?aiiy c iiaeyaeo ?aoeei??ioa ?ioi?
iaioaeueiino?, caaaiooe yeo aeoaea aaaeei. Ia aeiiiiaaathoue i?
neiaieee, a yeeo caiaei aoiiiiaii? ?ioi?iaoe??, i? ?ioi?iaioe, yeei
/anoi a?aeo? aoiiiiaii? eiiiaoaioe??. Uia ia(?oiooaaoe aeioe?euei?noue
aeai?o oiai /e ?ioiai niiniao a?aeoai?aiiy aoiaie o?aaa aieeiooe a
oai?/o eaai?aoi??th naiiai ia?aeeaaea/a, iaaeoi ae aiaeiiiaiiai
(eaiaaenueeiai, aiae?enueeiai), aea iaoa iaioaeuei?noue oaea
ia?aeiieth?oueny e??cue i?ecio ?ioiiiaii? iaioaeueiino?.

C oe??th iaoith e i?iaiaeeoueny ii??aiyiiy ??cieo aa??aio?a
a?aeoai?aiiy iaei??? ? o??? ae aoiaie, coiiaeaieo e?iaaaeueii (??
naiaioe/iith ? no?oeoo?iith neeaaei?noth) e aeno?ae?iaaaeueii
(niaoeeo?eith aoiieoeueoo?iiai iiiyooy, eiai iiaeciith, e?oa?aoo?iith
o?aaeeoe??th /e noa?ith aaeeoeo aoiaie a iia?-aeaea?ae? oa ??
ia?aeeaaeaoeueeeie iiaeeeainoyie).

?icoe?aiiy oe?a?inueei-aiae?enueeeo eoeueoo?ieo ca’yce?a ?ice?eaa?
ia?niaeoeao oe?oiai canoinoaaiiy o?aine?eioe?? c i?ea?iaeo, ui caa??aa?
i?e?iaeia cao/aiiy aoiai. I?e inai?ii? aiae?enueeith iiaith
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueieo ?aae?e noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy aoaeoeaia e
o?aine?oa?aoe?y. Eaiaaenuee? ia?aeeaaea/? ?icoe?ththoue noa?o ??
aaeeaaiiy a aiaei-oe?a?inueeiio na?aaeiaeu? e ia iiaooia? ?aae??,
cie?aia a aeo?iae? «The Ukrainian Canadian»: aa?aieee — varenyky;
eioiaee — Koshovyi, aaeath/enue ? aei eiia?iiaaii? ?aiii?iaoe??,
aaeaeaaoi?oi?, i?ae naia o?aine?oa?aoe?y: borshch (beet soup).

Aoiiiiaio niaoeeo?eo ?aae?e, ui oe?iei aaeeaathoueny a ia?iaeieo
eaceao, iaee?aua ia?aaeathoue oae? niiniae ia?aeeaaeo, ye eiia?iiaaia
?aiii?iaoe?y ? eaeueeoaaiiy. ?? o iaio?e i??? caa?aaeaii o?aine?eioe??th
e o?aine?oa?aoe??th, aeo/ieie ia?eo?acaie, neooaoeaieie
a?aeiia?aeieeaie, o?ainiiceoe??th ia eiiioaoeaiiio ??ai?,
eiioaenooaeueiei ?icoeoia/aiiyi ?aae?e. Iaoooaaiiy oeei aaaiiei
aoiieiiiiiaioii o ia?aeeaae?, ye ? i/aaeaeia ia?aaaaa aeei?enoaiiy
aiaeia?a ? a?ia?ii?i?/iiai ia?aeiaioaaiiy ?aae?e, ia ni?ey? noai?aiith a
aiaeiiiaiiai /eoa/a /?oeiai oyaeaiiy i?i eoeueoo?o, oa iiaoo oe?a?ioey,
cie?aia i?i eiai iaeya, ?aeo, aeeoei oiui.

Aiae?c cana?ae/o? cian?i ?ioee i?aeo?ae aei a?aeoai?aiiy aeania
eaceiaeo ?aae?e, cie?aia iaca eaceiaeo i?aaeiao?a, coiiaeaiee ?oiueith
aeai?iaith ?aeaaaioi?noth. Ooo ia?aaaaea? aeane?eioeaia ia?eo?aca oa ??
eiia?iiaaia iiaeeo?eaoe?y icia/aiiyi, iniaeeai eaenaiith magic,
a?aeiia?aeiiai a?ia?ii?ia, ui, iii?e ao?aoe oiiaoe/ii? e ii?oieia?/ii?
no?oeoo?e oe?a?inueeeo ?aae?e, ona ae caa??aa? eaceiaee eiei?eo. Iai?.:
ia/-naiin?/ — magic sword; yeoea-?aeoea — the Magic egg.Oa iaee?auei
niiniaii a?aeoai?aiiy iaca eaceiaeo i?aaeiao?a ? eaeueeoaaiiy: oe?ethua
? aeeao/a aiaea — healing and life giving water. O?aine?oa?aoe??
ia?aeeaaea/? ooo ia canoiniaothoue, ai aiia iaaei?a/ia i?e a?aeoai?aii?
oeeo aoiai.

Oei /anii iacae eaceiaeo ia?niiaae?a /anoi o?aine?eaothoueny,
o?aine?oa?othoueny /e ia?aeeaaeathoueny eiia?iiaaiith ?aiii?iaoe??th:
eicae Iaia?eaa — Mamariha the Cossack; ?eey Io?iiaoeue — Illya Muromets,
Illya of Murom. Aeane?eioeaia ia?eo?aca ia?aaaaea? i?e a?aeoai?aii?
i??caenuee /ei?iiiaenoeo ?iai: Eieiaie — Little Round Bun; Nei?ioiae —
Fleet-Foot; Neo-oaeei — Keen-Ear; Nooeueii?aea — Snapmuzzle oa ?io?.
?iiae? aaea c naiiai caaieiaea i???iooth/e /eoa/a ia iaaia ni?eeiyooy
ooaeiaeiueiai iiaeaiiy, oe? aeania eaceia? ?aae?? aeyaeythoueny
iae?aeaaaioi?oeie ? iaeaio/e?oeie caniaaie a?aeoai?aiiy a ia?aeeaae?
aoiiiiaiiai iae?ieiiiiiaioa oe-?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? eacee.

Caa?aaeaiith eaceiaiai e nai???aeiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
eiei?eooni?ey? iniaeeaa oaaaa eiaeiiai ia?aeeaaea/a aei ??ciiiai?oieo
eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo, oiiaoeei-ii?oieia?/ieo ? neioaene/ieo oei?a iaca
eacei-aeo ia?niiaae?a, i?e a?aeoai?aii? yeeo ?.AEae?ciiaa a?aeaea?
ia?aaaao nai???aeiei aecioeai?e/iei eiiiiceoai, a?aiaoe/iei ?
eaeneei-a?aiaoe/iei o?ainoi?iaoe?yi, N.Aeaaeia — eaeneei-neioaene/iei ?
eaeneei-naiaioe/iei, a A.A?eaiei — eiia?iiaaiei ?aiii?iaoe?yi.
Aa??thaaiiy niinia?a a?aeoai?aiiy iaca eaceiaeo ia?niiaae?a coiiaeaii ia
o?eueee naiaioe/iith i?noe?noth ? no?oeoo?iith neeaaei?noth oeeo aoiai,
a e ?ioiiaoe?eii-neioaene/ieie /eiieeaie, cie?aia i?iioneii i?e
caa?oaii? ?aeaaaioii? a iii?iaoea? aiaeyoeaii? i?eeeaaeee.

Aea?? niiniao ia?aeeaaeo neeaaeieo eaceiaeo ?iai caeaaeeoue ? a?ae
oeiieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae iiae ia?aeeaaeo. No?oeoo?ieie ?ica?aeiinoyie
c?noaaethaaieo o ia?aeeaae? iia oa niaoeeo?eith aiae?enueeiai aeeoy/iai
iiaeaiiy iiynith?oueny a?eueoa ??ciiiai?ooy aiae?enueeeo ?eiiaaieo
eiiiiceo?a, eaeneei-a?aiaoe/ieo ? eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e,
i?ae o i?iaoeueeeo ia?aeeaaeao, aea ia?aaaaea? neiaineeaaeaiiy ?iaiieo
iniia. Aiaeiiiai? ae ia?aeeaaea/? /anoi aaeathoueny aei ?eioaaiiy, ui
caeaa?eueoiai aaco?oueny ia ye?enue iaei?e naiaioe/i?e iciaoe?:
eica-aea?aca — Nibbly-Quibbly the Goat; cae/ee-iia?aae/ee Runny-Bunny,
Fleet-Feet the Rabbit; aeaaea-ne?aeioooea — Hop-Stop the Frog.
?eioaaiiyi aeaiioaoeaii aaaiii? iinoiiceoeaii? i?eeeaaeee iaca eaceiaeo
ia?niiaae?a /anoeiai a?aeoai?th?oueny ?oi?e aoiiiiaiee eiiiiiaio.
Ia?aaea?oueny a?i ? ca aeiiiiiaith eaeueie, eiioaenooaeueieo
a?aeiia?aeiee?a, eaeneei-a?aiaoe/ieo, eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e
? eiia?iiaaii? ?aiii?iaoe?? i?iiiaenoeo ?iai, ui ianooue aaaiia
naiaioeei-noee?noe/ia iaaaioaaeaiiy a ia?aci?e no?oeoo?? eacee:
Aa?ieaeoa — Vernidub, Uprooter of Oaks, Vernidub Pull-an-Oak, Twist-Oak;
Aa?ieai?a — Vernihora, Mover of Mountains, Vernihora Move-a-Hill,
Move-Mountains; ?aai Iiaeaai — Ivan the Dragon Killer; ?aai Aieee —
Ivan-Not-A-Stitch-On; Aaneeue Iaaie?aea — Vasyl Ne’er-die. Aio?iiii?ie
o?aine?oa?othoueny, i?ioa e ia aac ia??o?a, iniaeeai a o?aine?eioe?yo,
c?iaeaieo ia aaciina?aaeiuei c oe?a?inueei? iiae, a c ?in?enueei?,
iai?.: Ee?eei Eiaeoi’yea — Kirilo Kozhumyaka; Aeaieei-ao?ieei — Danilo
Burmilo.

I?aaiaoe/io aaeaeaaoi?noue ia?aeeaaeo caaacia/othoue ? nai???aei?
eaene-ei-a?aiaoe/i? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ia?eo?ace oa aiaeiae o?iia?/ieo
cania?a. Aiaeiiiaiee /eoa/ io?eia? caaaeii i?aaeeueia oyaeaiiy i?i
ia?acia ieneaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo c iiaieo ? /anoeiaeo aea?aaeaio?a
oa eaeueie neiaanieo ia?ac?a, iniaeeai a?ia?aie, ai?oao?a, iaoaoi?,
?iiae? e ii??aiyiue. Oa iaa?yae /e aeiaeoue aiaeiiiaaoeue o noa?oiio
iaoaoi?e/iiio a?ia?aie?/iiio ia?ac? ?aioiaiai aeaooo ao??
(terrible gale blew up) nai???aei?noue ?? aa/aiiy oe?a?inueeei
eacea?ai, coiiaeaio eiie?aoi?oeie ae??ne?aieie aoiinaiaie, caaaeyee yeei
o /eoa/a e c?eia? yne?aa?oee ia?ac: ?icia?acaeany no?aoia ao?y. Ia
aeiiana eiio aoiiiiaii? eiiioaoe?? oe?a?inueeeo ia?ac?a, cie?aia
neiaie?/ieo, ? eaeueeoaaiiy.

I?e a?aeoai?aii? aoiiiiaii? niaoeeo?ee neiaanieo ia?ac?a ca aeiiiiiaith
eaeueeoaaiiy o?aaa aooe aeoaea iaa?aaeiei, uia ia aeiionoeoe aoeaae?cio
e caa?aaoe iiaio i?e?iaeo ia?aeeaaeo. Eaeueeith iiaeia caaacia/eoe
i?aaiaoe/io aaeaeaaoi?noue a?aeoai?aiiy ii??aiyiiy ca oiiae a?aooaaiiy
niieo/oaaiino? eiai eiiiiiaio?a oa iayaiino? aiaeia?/ieo anioe?aoe?e o
iia? ia?aeeaaeo. Iaeiae, caaaeath/e ia iaoe?iiaeueio nai???aei?noue
ia?aciiai iaioae?oaoo oe?a?ioe?a oa aiaeiiiaoe?a, ia?aaaaeathoue
ia?eo?ace e aiaeiae, ui caeiiii??ii i?ecaiaeeoue aei ao?aoe aoiiiiaii?
niaoeeo?ee eaceiaeo ia?ac?a. *anoeia? aea?aaeaioe aeyaeythoue a?eueoo
eiie?aoi?noue oe?a?inueeeo iiaieo ia?ac?a, aiaeiae — ?ioa aa/aiiy ?o, a
ia?eo?ace — ao?aoo neiaaniiai ia?aco.

O?oaeiiu? ia?aaea/? ia?acieo ii??aiyiue coiiaeththoueny aaeeeith
ieoiiith aaaith ae??neiaa i?e ciaethaaii? aeeiai?ee eaceiaeo iiae?e ?
eiai ??ciith anioe?aoeai?noth a ia?aciiio ieneaii? aiae?eoe?a oa
oe?a?ioe?a, i?i ui na?ae/eoue, cie?aia, ia oe?eeii aei?a/ia cai?ia
cae/aeiei ii??aiyiiyi c oaiiith oia?ith yne?aaiai oieueeei?iiai ia?aco
ianoaaiiy a?ice — iaaaciaee ia?ane?aeoaaiiy naieoeny/iith ca?a?th
aeaiaieiaeo niaae-a??i ia?niiaae?a eacee «?aai — ioaee/ee nei». Aei oiai
ae o ia?aeeaae? ciaoooaaii eiai a?ao?/iei aeae?eaiiyi ie?aiei
?a/aiiyi-aacaoeii ? niaoeeo?/iith naiaioeei-neioaene/iith no?oeoo?ith
?a/aiiy oa iineaaeaii a?ia?aie?/iee ia?ac aiane?aeie cai?ie ae??ne?aiiai
aiioe?eii-aeni?aneaiiai eiiiiiaioa ii??aiyiiy iaio aeni?aneaiei —
i?eeiaoieeiaei: Niaaee a?aeaoue — ye oia?a nei?? — Like a dark cloud the
dogs came after them.Ia?aianaiiyi ii??aiyiiy a i?aiiceoe?th e cai?iith
yne?aaeo ae??ne?aieo oi?i oaia??oiueiai /ano ieioeei, a neeaaeiiai
?a/aiiy — i?inoei, oei a?eueoa i?e?aeiaiei aei iiia?aaeiueiai aacaoeo,
aeinyaiaii eeoa eiinoaioaoe?? oaeoo. Caa??aoe ooo aeoaea aaaeeeao
no?oeoo?o ii??aiyeueiiai ?a/aiiy oa eiai aoiiiiaiee ae??ne?aiee
eiiiiiaio, iiaeia aoei e oi?iaie ieioeiai /ano aeeaiieni?oa ia?aaeaoe
oeae a?ia?aie?/iee ia?ac: The dogs were approaching as if clouds were
getting darker and darker.

I?ioa ao?aoe aoiiiiaii? naiaioeee neiaanieo ia?ac?a, iaaeoi ae
ia-oaoi?e/ieo ?eiiaaieo ii??aiyiue o aeane?eioeai?e ia?eo?ac? i?ene?a’?a
? i?eeacie oe?eeii ii?aaaeai?, oi/a aiie i?ecaiaeyoue aei caooooaaiiy
yne?aai? ia?acii? iaioaeueiino?, ioae?ino? ia?iaeii? /e e?ane
ethaenueei? i?aoe? a aiaeiiiaieo ia?aeeaaeao: E?aua aieiaeia aiey, ye
neoa iaaiey — Freedom, even if it means to go hungry, is better any
day than captivity however fed you may be!

Caeiiii??i? ao?aoe aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie
a aiae?enueeeo ia?aeeaaeao, coiiaeai? oeiieia?/ieie e na?oiaeyaeieie
?ica?aeiinoyie, cana?ae/othoue, iane?eueee a i?ioean? ia?aeeaaeo
a?aeaoaa?oueny c?oeiaiiy eoeueoo? ? na?oiaa/aiue. Oei-oi aeane?eioeae
?iiae? caaacia/othoue a?eueoo aaeaeaaoi?noue a?aeoai?aiiy, i?ae
aoeaae?cie (as handsome as the sun, as pretty as a star), iacae/i? aeey
aiaeiiiaoe?a, aeey yeeo niioea ? c??ea anioe?ththoueny ia?aaeon?i c
yne?aa?noth, a e?ana — c iaethieii: handsome (pretty) as piant (as a
picture).

Iacaaaeath/e ia no?oeoo?i? e aoiiiiai? ?ica?aeiino?, o?iie, cie?aia
a?ia?aiee e ai?oaoe iiaeia aaeaeaaoii a?aeoai?eoe e eiiiainoaaoe ao?aoo
?ioeo neiaanieo ia?ac?a. sseui ia?aeeaaea/ aieiae?? aioeeeeiiaaee/iith
?ioi?iaoe??th, oacao?onii /eoa/a aenieiai ina?oiueiai e eoeueoo?iiai
noaoono ? a?aoiao? oiiia? ciaiiy oa ineoieia?th ni?eeiyooy nai?o
/eoa/?a, a?i caiaeeoue aei i?i?ioio e?iaaiaoi?/i? aa?’??e e ciaioo? ia
o?eueee noa’?eoeai?, a e ia’?eoeai? ao?aoe aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa a
ia?aeeaae?. O?eueee oiae? eacea iiaea caoiiethaaoe aiaeiiiaoey, eiee a
i?e caa?aaeaii aaeaeaaoiee aieea ia ii/oooy /eoa/a, ui aeinyaa?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith iiaieo ? /anoeiaeo aea?aaeaio?a /e aiaeia?a a?ia?aie,
ai?oao?a, iaoaoi?, ii??aiyiue oa ?ioeo neiaanieo ia?ac?a.

Aaaeeeao ?ieue o caa?aaeaii? aoiieiiiiiaioa oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo
eacie a aiaeiiiaieo ia?aeeaaeao a?ae?a?a? aaeaeaaoia a?aeoai?aiiy
aeni?aneaii-noee?noe/ieo eiiioaoe?e nai???aeieo caeiaiiee?a, aeaoe?a,
/anoie, ii?oieia?/ieo oi?i, iniaeeai aiioe?eii caaa?aeaieo,
?ioei?coth/eo.

Noee?noe/ii aaaii?o? a ooaeiaei?e oeaiei? ia?iaeii? eacee aeei?iooeai?
aieaoeae aeiaaathoue a?eueoi? oaaae ia?aeeaaea/a, i?ae iii?iaoeai?
aeei?iooeae. Aiae?c a?aeoai?aiiy 100 iii?iaoeaieo ? 50 aieaoeaieo
aeei?iooea?a, c?a?aieo iaoiaeii nooe?eueiiai a?aeai?o ?c 20-oe
oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie i?i oaa?ei, yeei iaea?eueoa aeanoeaa
aiioe?eii caaa?aeaia eaeneea, aeyaey? cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy ii?oieia?/ieo
cania?a aeey ?o a?aeoai?aiiy oa ciaioaiiy i?eaeecii aaea?/? iaeo?aeueii?
eaeneee i?e iaeaea iaeiaeiaiio a?aenioeo eaeneei-naiaioe/ieo (34% ? 31%)
? eaeneei-neioaene/ieo cania?a (10% ? 11%). I?e/iio caaaeyee a?eueoiio
iaaaioaaeaiith a ooaeiaei?e no?oeoo?? eacee na?aae ao?eaooeaieo
aeaiaio?a (little, dear, darling, small, old, young etc) ?aeaaaioi?oeo
o ia?aeeaae? aeei?iooeaieo aieaoea?a c?inoa? ieoiia aaaa ai?oao?a
little, dear oa darling, a icia/aiiy small, yeiio aeanoeaa eeoa naia
aeei?iooeaiino?, o caa?oaiiyo iaeaea ia aaeeaa?oueny. Aeey aiioe?eiiai
i?aeneeaiiy ?ioeiieo caa?oaiue neoao? e ?ioaineo?eaoi? old, a aeey
a?aeoai?aiiy ciaaaaeeeaeo oa eaeeeaeo a?aeo?ie?a oe?a?inueeeo caa?oaiue
— ao?eaooeai? eiiiiiaioe, i?aeneeai? caeiaiieeii you: eaaeaui,
iao?iaoi — you lazy slouch; nyeee-oaeee — you bad so-and-so, i?aaiaoe/io
aaeaeaaoi?noue yeeo caaacia/o? eiai a?eueoa /anoioi?noue a aiae?enueeeo
eaeeeaeo caa?oaiiyo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeoai?aiiy ianoeeaeo caa?oaiue oaeiae cana?ae/o? ?
ca?eueoaiiy ieoiii? aaae ii?oieia?/ieo cania?a (noo. -o, -?a),
ii?aeiaieo c eaeneei-neioaene/ieie i?e aiioe?eiiio i?aeneeaii? oa
eaeneei-a?aiaoe/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e. Iaeiae aaea?/? c?inoa? ao?aoa
aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa aieaoea?a a aiaeiiiaieo ia?aeeaaeao, ai
ia?aeeaaea/? iaaeinoaoiueith i??ith iineoaiaothoueny ii?oieia?/ieie
caniaaie, yeeie ia iaoooaaee aiae?enuee? eacea??, aeei?enoiaoth/e,
iai?., oae? oi?ie, ye dearie, dovie, sonny, buddy, oldie, kiddy, sweety,
dovelet, cana?ae/ai? e oeoia/ieie neiaieeaie oa ooaeiaeiueith
e?oa?aoo?ith. Ine?eueee iaeo?aeueiith eaeneeith ia iiaeia ia?aaeaoe
oeae aaaeeeaee no?oeoo?ii-eiiioaoeaiee aiioe?eii-aeni?aneaiee eiiiiiaio
oe?a?inueeeo caa?oaiue, a eaeneei-naiaioe/i? e eaeneei-neioaene/i?
caniae caaacia/othoue eeoa /anoeiao aaeaeaaoi?noue ia?aeeaaeo, a
aiaeiiiaieo ia?aeeaaeao iiaeia ? o?aaa ?icoe?eoe noa?o aeei?enoaiiy oeeo
iaeaaeaeaaoi?oeo cania?a eiai a?aeoai?aiiy.

Ia?aeeaaeiciaa/ee aiae?c o?aaeeoe?eieo oi?ioe aeyaey? ? aeai?iao
aoiiiiaio ?ica?aei?noue. A oe?a?inueeiio oieueeei??, ii??aiyii c
aiae?enueeei, aeai?ia? iaae? no?oie?o?, e eacea ia? ae?aci?o? iciaee,
/ei a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae ia?aeaco, eaaaiaee e ?ioeo aeai??a. A
aiae?enueeiio ae iaae? i?ae eaceith oa iaeaceiaith i?icith iaio /?oe? e
caia?a/io «iiaeaeuei?noue i?aaaeeaino?» ae?aaeaii neaaoa, i?ae a
oe?a?inuee?e eacoe?. Oiio a o?iae? oe?a?inueeeo eacie /?oei aenooia?
iniaeno?noue iiia?aea/a: aaeaea a?i c oeueiai ?aaeueiiai na?oo ? eiai
iiyaa a e?ioe? eacee i?ae ia?aiineoue neooa/a c? na?oo eaceiaiai a
?aaeueiee. A oe?a?inueeeo eaceao ia?aaaaeathoue ?i?oe?aeuei? oi?ioee
iiaoooaaiiy, ui ii/eiathoueny c ae??neiaa aeea (aoa) nia? aai aeeee ia
na?o?, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue aoiiiiaio niaoeeo?eo ?aiaoe/iiai aaaaeaiiy a
oe?a?inuee?e iia?, yea ia?aaea?oueny aiae?enueeith iiaith ca aeiiiiiaith
eiino?oeoe?e there was (were), there lived. Oiio a aiae?enueeeo
?i?oe?aeueieo oi?ioeao ia ia?oiio i?noe? aenooia? caeaa?eueoiai /aniaa
eaoaai??y: once upon a time, once. Ca?aene e ?ioa i?aaiaoe/ia
caaeai?noue ? iaiaeiaeiaa ?aeaaaioi?noue a?aeoai?aiiy aoiiiiaiiai
eiiiiiaioa eaceiaeo o?aaeeoe?eieo oi?ioe ia?oioai?o a ia?aeeaae? oa
coiiaeaia oeei caeiiii??ia i?aaiaoe/ia aaeaioaoe?y: iaaei??ia aaeeaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii ia?eiaaieo aeaiaio?a, iniaeeai a ca/eiao, i?ecaaei a aei
ii?ooaiiy ?oi?o ooieoe?e, ai aoiiiiaia aecioe/i?noue ia ciiaea a
iaeaoooaaoe /eoa/a /e neooa/a ia ni?eeiaiiy eacee, ia?aianoe eiai a
eaceiaee na?o. Oei-oi ii??aiyii c ?ioeie o?aaeeoe?eieie oi?ioeaie,
cie?aia c iaa?/ieie caeeeiaiiyie, eaceia? aoiiiiai? eiiiiiaioe o
ca/eiao caciathoue yeiaea?eueoi? i?aaiaoe/ii?aaeaioaoe??, iaioi?
— o e?ioe?aeao oa cian?i iacia/ii? o na?aaeeiieo eaceiaeo oi?ioeao,
ca aeiyoeii ni?aiiiaie, ?eoi?/io i?aai?caoe?th yeeo, ye ? iiaoi??a (? oi
ia o?eueee neeaaeieo oeeee?/-ieo iiaoi??a-eiei?eoi?a, a e
nai???aeieo /anoie, i?aeneeaieo ?eiiaaieie onoaeaieie aeneiaaie), o?aaa
caa?aaoe a ia?aeeaae?. Iaoooaaiiy ieie iicia/a?oueny ia caaaeuei?e
a?o?oaeoii?oe? eacee e i?ecaiaeeoue aei iineaaeaiiy iai?oaeaiino?
cia?aaeoaaii? neooaoe?? oa noe?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-eaceiaiai eiei?eoo,
ia?iaeii? iaia?e eaceiai? iiia?ae?.

Iniaeeai? oaaae ia?aeeaaea/a aeiaaa? a?aeoai?aiiy ni?aiiiaie, ye?,
aie?oath/enue o iiaio eaiao eacee, oeaiaioothoue ?? no?oeoo?o ?
iaaeeaeothoue eaceo aei i?ni?, ui ni?ey? eaaoiio ? nei??oiio canai?iith
?? nthaeaoo. Aaeaeaaoi?noue ia?aeeaaeo ni?aiiiaie aeinyaa?oueny
caa?aaeaiiyi e?eueeino? neeaae?a o eiaeiiio a??o? oa ?o ?eioaaiiyi. I?e
a?aeoai?aii? ?eoio aaaeeeai caa?aaoe aioo??oiueioaenoiaa ?eioaaiiy, ai,
ye i?aaeei, ?eiothoueny iaeaaaeeea?o? i?noey a eacoe?. Ia ia?
caa?oathoue oaaao an? ia?aeeaaea/?, oi/a ia an?i oea aaea?oueny.
Aaeaeeie caeaa?eueoiai ? oai?/? ciao?aeee ?.AEae?ciiai?. Caa?aaeaiiy
nai???aeii? eiiiiceoe?eii? no?oeoo?e eacee, iniaeeai? noee?noe/ii? oi?ie
?? iiia?ae?, ia?aieaii? ca/eiaie e e?ioe?aeaie oa iane/aii? iiaoi?aie,
cie?aia ?eiiaaieie oa oeeee?/ieie, ye ? aaeaeaaoia a?aeoai?aiiy
aoiieaeneee oa aoiio?acaieia??, iniaeeai iaca eaceiaeo ia?niiaae?a oa ?o
?ioei?coth/i? ooieoe?? ni?ey? a?aeoai?aiith a ia?aeeaae? ?? ?eoi?/ii?
i?aai?caoe??, a ioaea, e iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiei?eoo eacee, ?? aoiiiiaiiai
iae?ieiiiiiaioa.

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co c?iaeaii ?yae i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
uiaei aeioe?eueiino?/iaaeioe?eueiino? aeai?o oiai /e ?ioiai niiniao
a?aeoai?aiiy aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ia?iaeii? eacee oa iniiaiee
aeniiaie: eeoa a?aoiaoth/e coiiaeaio e?iaaaeueii, eiioaenooaeueii e
aeai?iai ?aeaaaioi?noue eiaeiiai aoiiiiaiiai i?e?ieiiiiiaioa a
ooaeiaei?e oeaiei? oai?o, iiaeia aaeaeaaoii a?aeoai?eoe eiai
iae?ieiiiiiaio. Ine?eueee a?i noino?oueny ia eeoa oeueiai aeai?o, a e
ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o caaaeii, eiai iiaeia acyoe ca iniiao iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeoai?aiiy aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ooaeiaeiueiai oai?o a
?ioiiiaieo ia?aeeaaeao.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. O?aaeeoe?ei? oi?ioee ye i?iaeaia a?aeoai?aiiy aiae?enueeith iiaith
aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie // Oai??y ? i?aeoeea
ia?aeeaaeo: Oe?. iaoe. ca. / EAeO. — Aei. 20. — Ee?a, 1994. — N. 74-82.

2. Iia? ia?aeeaaee oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie — aiaeiiiaiiio
/e-oa/aa? // Oai??y ? i?aeoeea ia?aeeaaeo: ?ani. i?aea?ae.
iaoe. ca. / EAeO. -Aei. 18. — Ee?a, 1992. — N. 73-80. (O ni?aaaoi?noa?
c aeioe. I.N.Iaaea?aeue).

3. Niiniau aini?iecaaaeaiey ?aaeee a aiaeeeneeo ia?aaiaeao
oe?a-eineeo ia?iaeiuo neacie. — 34 n. Aeai. a EIEII ? 38988 io 25.07.89.

4. Oe?a?inuee? eaceia? ia?niiaae? o i?iaoeuee?e oa aiae?enuee?e
?ioa?i?aoaoe??. — 17 n. Aeai. a EIEII ? 42335 a?ae 06.07.90.

5. Ia?aci? ii??aiyiiy oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie a aiae?enueeeo
ia?aeeaaeao // Acta philologica / Ae?iaia. aea?ae. iaae. ?i-o. — O. III
— Ae?iaiae/, 1995. — N. 75-78.

6. Aei ieoaiiy i?i oeiieia?th ?iciiaii? iniiae eaceiaiai aiino // Acta
philologica / Ae?iaia. aea?ae. iaae. ?i-o. — O. III — Ae?iaiae/, 1995. —
N. 72-75. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c aeioe. I.N.Iaaea?aeue).

7. I?aeiiaia ei?aeyoe?y aoiiiiaii? naiaioeee ?iciiaii-i?inoi??/- ieo
aeaiaio?a oe?a?inueeiai eaceiaiai aiino // I?iaeaie c?noaaii? naiaioeee:
Iaoa?. Anaoe?. iaoe. eiioa?. / ?i-o iiaiciaanoaa ?i. I.Iioaai? IAI
Oe?a?ie, ?i-o oe?. iiae IAI Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a, 1995. — N. 212-213. (O
ni?aaaoi?noa? c aeioe. I.N.Iaaea?aeue).

8. ?iciiaia ?ioiiaoe?y ye anoaoe/ia oi?aa?nae?y eaceiaiai aiino // Iiae
?a?iiaenueeiai eoeueoo?iiai a?aaeo: i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ? aca?iiae??: Oace
aeii. 1-i? I?aeia?iaei. iaoe. eiioa?. iai’yo? i?io. TH.I.AEeoeoaiea
(1915-1990) / EAeO — Ee?a, 1995. — N. 61.

9. Aoiiiiaiee eiiiiiaio oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? eacee ye i?iaeaia
ia?aeeaaeo // I?ia?aei? e?iaa?noe/i? eiioeaioe?? e?ioey OO noie?ooy:
Oace Anaoe?. iaoe. eiioa?. / Euea?a. aea?ae. oi-o. — Euea?a, 1996. — N.
150.

10. Coding and decoding language world pictures in fiction // English
language teaching in Ukraine: IATEFL — Ukraine International Linguistic
and Methodological Conf. / Lviv State University. — Lviv, 1995. — P.
101-102. (O ni?aaaoi?noa? c aeioe. I.N.Iaaea?aeue).

11. Ethnolingual component of Ukrainian folktales in English
translations // Cultural aspects of language functioning: IATEFL —
Ukraine SIG Research International Conf. to the memory of
O.M.Morokhovsky / Kyiv State Linguistic University. — Kyiv, 1996. — P.
19-20.

Aiioaoe?y

O aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th aoiiiiaiiai eiiiiiaioa ia?iaeii?
eacee ye aoiiiiaii? e ia?aeeaaeiciaa/i? eaoaai???, aecia/aii eiai
neeaaeia?. Anoaiiaeaii oiiae eiai aaeaeaaoiiai/iaaaeaeaaoiiai
a?aeoai?aiiy oa i?aaiaoe/ii? aaeaioaoe?? a aiaeiiiaieo ia?aeeaaeao,
cie?aia a ca/eiao ? e?ioe?aeao. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c niinia?a
a?aeoai?aiiy aoiinaiaioeee ?aae?e, iaca eaceiaeo i?aaeiao?a ?
ia?niiaae?a, neiaanieo ia?ac?a, ?ioei?coth/eo caa?oaiue oa ?ioeo
no?oeoo?ii-eiiioaoeaieo, aiioe?eii-aeni?aneaieo ? ?eoiioai?/eo
aoiii?e?i-eiiiiiaio?a oe?a?inueeeo ia?iaeieo eacie.

Aiiioaoeey

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaaouaaaony eiioeaioeey yoiiycu/iiai eiiiiiaioa
ia?iaeiie neacee eae ia?aaiaeiaaae/aneie eaoaai?ee, ii?aaeaeythony aai
ninoaaiua e oneiaey aai aaeaeaaoiiai aini?iecaaaeaiey e i?aaiaoe/aneie
aaeaioaoeee a aiaeiycu/iuo ia?aaiaeao. I?iaiaeeony aiaeec niiniaia
aini?iecaaaeaiey yoiinaiaioeee ?aaeee, iacaaiee neaci/iuo i?aaeiaoia e
ia?niiaaeae, neiaaniuo ia?acia, eioeiece?othueo ia?auaiee e ae?oaeo
no?oeoo?ii-eiiiioaoeaiuo, yiioeeiiaeueii-yeni?anneaiuo e ?eoiioai?/aneeo
iee?ieiiiiiaioia oe?aeineeo ia?iaeiuo neacie.

Annotation

To research rendering ethnolingual characteristics of Ukrainian
folk-tales in Anglophone translations the conception of ethnolingual
component has been elaborated, its constituents and rank in Ukrainian
folktales as well as conditions of their faithful reprodution and
pragmatic adaptation in English translations have been determined. The
author also analyses ways of rendering units of national lexicon, verbal
images, names of folktale characters, their intimate forms of address as
well as other structural and connotative, emotional and expressive as
well as rhythmic ethnolingual microcomponents of Ukrainian folktales
into English.

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