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Відстрочена меатотимпанопластика у хворих на хронічний гнійний середній отит: Автореф. дис… канд. мед. наук / О.О. Пелешенко, Київ. НДІ отоларинголо

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I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Ee?anueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo ioiea?eiaieia??
?i.i?io.I.N.Eieii?e/aiea

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Iaeaoaiei Ieaenaiae? Ieaen?eiae/

OAeE: 616.28-002:616.285-089.844

A?aeno?i/aia iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeea o oai?eo

ia o?ii?/iee ai?eiee na?aaei?e ioeo

14.01.19 – ioi?eiiea?eiaieia?y

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anuee?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
?i.I.E.Ooieea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? ?nuee?a Aiaaeai A?eai?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ioi?eiiea?eiaieia?? Ee?anueei?

iaaee/ii? aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee oa oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? O?eaoia A?eoi? Oiie/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ioi?eiiea?eiaieia?? Oa?e?anueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo;

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? Ia/eii?aiei A?oae?e Iao?iae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ioi?eiiea?eiaieia??

oaeoeueoaoo i?neyaeeieiiiiai iaa/aiiy

Aeiiaoeueeiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao

?i.aeaae.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey, IIC Oe?a?ie,

eaoaae?a ioi?eiiea?eiaieia??, i.Ee?a,.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “____” ______________1999 ?ieo i ……….
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.611.01 a
Ee?anueeiio iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? ioi?eiiea?eiaieia?? ?i. i?io.
I.N.Eieii?e/aiea IIC Oe?a?ie ( 252057, Ee?a-57, aoe.Ciieia?/ia, 3 ).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo ioiea?eiaieia?? ?i. i?io. I.N.
Eieii?e/aiea.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “____”________________1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao iaaee/ieo iaoe
A.I. ?iceeaaeea

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. *ioe?e aeanyoee?ooy ?icaeoeo neooiiie?iooth/eo
iia?aoe?e o oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee ai?eiee na?aaei?e ioeo (OANI) i?ecaaee
aei iiyae cia/ii? e?eueeino? ??ciiiai?oieo iaoiaeee, niinia?a ?
iiaeeo?eaoe?e oeiiaiiieanoeee (A.O.Oeeaoia, 1977; I.A.I?aia?aaeaineee,
I.E.Iaoyeeia, 1978; TH.A.Nooei, 1981; Ae.E.Oa?ania ? ni?aaao., 1988;
A.I.Ia/eii?aiei ? ni?aaao.,1993; TH.A.Nooei, I.I.Ai?enaiei, N.O.sseiaie
oa ?i., 1995; I.I.Ai?enaiei, 1999; O.Aoeueooaei, 1972; R.Hausler, 1999).
Cie?aia, canoiniaothoue “a?aee?eoo”, “cae?eoo” oeiiaiiieanoeeo,
oeiiaiiieanoeeo c inoaiieanoeeith, ?icae?eueio aoeei- aio?ioii?th c
oeiiaiiieanoeeith. ?acii c oei, aeiaeia c ?nioth/eo iaoiaeee ia ?
aeeeth/iith ? aaniethoii aecia/aiith, oiio ioio??o?a iiaeiai aeae?aoe
iaaiee niin?a o??o?a?/iiai ao?o/aiiy c iaeyaeo ia oi?io ai?eiiai
caiaeaiiy, nooi?iue iioe?aiiy aeano?oeoe?? o na?aaeiueiio aon?,
ii?ooaiiy i?io?aeiino? neooiai? o?oae, iayai?noue /e a?aenooi?noue
oieanoaaoiie, ii?ooaiiy ooieoe?? caaeoee, iiaeeea?noue
aioo??oiuei/a?aiieo oneeaaeiaiue, ia?ac eeoeaaiai ia?aa, caaaeueiee noai
caei?ia`y iaoe??ioa oa ?i.

Caaaeath/e ia aeineoue cia/ia iioe?aiiy caoai?thaaiiy ia OANI (292,48
aeiaaeee ia 100000 ianaeaiiy ca aeaieie IIC Oe?a?ie (1998)) oa
a?aoiaoth/e iaaee/iee ? nioe?aeueiee aniaeo oe??? iaoieia??, noa?
aeooaeueiei oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo oa ?ic?iaea iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei
o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ia OANI.

Ia?niaeoeaieie, ia iao iiaeyae, ? iaoiaeeee, ye? caaacia/othoue
iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeao naiaoe?th na?aaeiueiai aooa ? a?aeiiaeaiiy
aiaoii?/ieo ni?aa?aeiioaiue oa ooieoe?? eiai. Oae, ?ic?iaeai?
inoaiieanoe/i? ao?o/aiiy, i?e yeeo aeeiiothoue naiaoe?th na?aaeiueiai
aooa, a c?oeiiaai? a ?acoeueoao? iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano ? o??o?a?/iiai
ao?o/aiiy /anoeie no?iie ciai?oiueiai neooiaiai oiaeo a?aeiiaeththoue ca
aeiiiiiaith aooi- aai aeiaaiieo o?ainieaioao?a oa i?iaiaeyoue
oeiiaiiieanoeeo c ineeoeiieanoeeith (I.A.Ieoaiueeei, 1975, 1979;
I.E.Iaoyeeia, 1978; A.Ae.Aonaeia, 1981, 1985; A.A.Aa?acithe, 1988, 1995,
1997; A.TH.Caii?iuaiei, 1989; I.A.Ia/eii?aiei, 1997; A.N.Iie?uoe, 1997;
Sekula, 1968; Feldmann, 1977; G.Geyer, 1999; oa ?i.). Iaeiei ?c
iai?yie?a neooiiie?iooth/i? o??o?a?? ? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeea, yea
a?aeiineoueny aei “cae?eoiai” aa??aioo ao?o/aiiy. I?e/iio oeei oa?i?iii
Naito et al. (1969) iicia/athoue iia?aoe?th, eiee caa??aa?oueny caaeiy
e?noeiaa no?iea ciai?oiueiai neooiaiai oiaeo, a A.A.?nuee?a (1984;
1988), A.I.Oei?aiooi (1988), J.Sekula (1969, 1972), eiee i?iaiaeeoueny
?? ?aeiino?oeoe?y.

Ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui i?ae aieeaii oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy
aioeaaeoa??aeueieo i?aia?ao?a, iia??oaiiy noaio aeiae?eey ci?ith?oueny
?ioiieia?/ia ?aaeoeai?noue i?aai?cio ? ia?aa?a o?ii?/iiai i?ioeano. O
oai?eo ia OANI iiia?aaei? eiina?aaoeaia e?eoaaiiy aaea ia aea? aaaeaiiai
?acoeueoaoo. A?aenooi?noue /ooeeaino? i?e?ioei?e ?c na?aaeiueiai aooa
aei o?aaeeoe?eieo aioea?ioee?a, iaaeinooii?noue aei?iaeo iiaeo
aioeaaeoa??aeueieo cania?a noaaeoue oai?eo ? e?ea??a o aeiyoeiai
neeaaei? oiiae. Ia?aoo?, yeui ? i?iaiaeeoueny aoaeoeaia
aioeaaeoa??aeueia oa?ai?y, oi aiia aea? oei/aniaa iie?auaiiy ? ia
aa?aioo? a?ae iiaeaeueoeo oneeaaeiaiue. Oiio aeieeea i?iaeaia a?eueo
oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy o??o?a?/ii? naiaoe?? o iaoe??io?a ?c ??cieie
i?iyaaie o?ii?/iiai caiaeueiiai i?ioeano, eiee iiia?aaei? eiina?aaoeaia
e?eoaaiiy ia aea? aoaeoo, i?iaeiaaeothoueny ?aoeeaeeae aii?oa/?.
Ia??aeei aooi noa? “nooei”, aea i?ioean iaaoaa? i?eoiaaiiai oa?aeoa?o.

Aacia?a/ii, ia o an?o aeiaaeeao ?nio? iiaeeea?noue cae?enieoe naioth/a ?
neooiiie?iooth/a ao?o/aiiy iaeiiaoaiii. Ia ia?aoeiae? /anoi noi?oue
iayai?noue caaino?aiiy o?ii?/iiai ioeoo aai aeoeaiiai caiaeueiiai
i?ioeano, iioe?aia oieanoaaoiia c? cia/iith aeano?oeoe??th ne?iiaai?
e?noee, ae?aaeai? iie?iici? ci?ie /e a?aenooi?noue c ??cieo i?e/ei
neeciai? iaieiiee aa?aaaiii? ii?iaeieie (TH.A.Nooei, 1969; I.E.Io?aoia,
1974; O.Aoeueooaei, 1972; Y.Bajaj et al., 1998; Y.Iino et al., 1998).
I?e oaeeo ci?iao aeaye? ioio??o?ae canoiniaothoue iiaoaiia e?eoaaiiy:
nii/aoeo naioth/a ao?o/aiiy, a iio?i – oeiiaiiieanoeea. I?ioa iieacaiiy
aei oaeiai oeio aoaiiino? naia o aeiaaeeo iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee ia ?
aecia/aieie ? iaa?oioiaaieie ? cae?eniththoueny, caeaa?eueoiai, aac
o?aooaaiiy ? ciaiiy aeeaeiieo i?ioean?a ia?aa?ao caoai?thaaiiy, cie?aia
a?noieia?/ieo oa aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ieo aeaieo. Iiaeeaeaia aea/aiiy
oeeo aeaieo aea? iiaeeea?noue oaeiae i?iaiicoaaoe ? ?aia?aoeai?
iiaeeeaino? neeciai? iaieiiee aa?aaaiii? ii?iaeieie o i?ii?aeeao i?ae
aoaiaie iia?aoeaiiai ao?o/aiiy oa i?ecia/aoe aaeaeaaoia i?noeaaa ?
caaaeueia e?eoaaiiy.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ia nueiaiaei? a?aenooiy oa?i?iieia?/ia onoaeai?noue
o ieoaii? aoaiiiai o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee ai?eiee
na?aaei?e ioeo. C iaeiiai aieo, eiai iacaa ci?ith?oueny o caeaaeiino?
a?ae iieacaiue, a c ?ioiai – iaeio ? oo ae iaoiaeeeo iaceaathoue ii
??ciiio ??ci? aaoi?e. Oae cono??/athoueny oae? iacae, ye aeaiaoaiia
oeiiaiiieanoeea, aeaiaoaiia o??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy, aoi?eiia
oeiiaiiieanoeea, oeiiaiiieanoeea i?ney naioth/i? iia?aoe?? ia aon?,
iiaoaiia oi?ioaaiiy iaioeiiaiaeueii? ii?iaeieie, ei?eaoth/a ao?o/aiiy,
iiaoi?ia iia?aoe?y c iaoith aeaeaeaiiy ?aceaeoaeueii? oieanoaaoiie,
a?aeno?i/aia oeiiaiiieanoeea.

Ia aeoieo I.A.I?aia?aaeaineiai ? I.E.Iaoyeeiie (1978), R.B.Meek et al.
(1999) caoiieaiiy caaea/aie oaoi?/iiai ia?aai?aiiy caiaeaiiy oeaiei
na?aaeiueiai aooa ? o?aaeaiiy caoeii?ia?aeieo aeaiaio?a a?aeaie?eei
oaaao a/aieo a?ae aea/aiiy a?ieia?/ieo i?iaeai o?ii?/iiai caiaeaiiy
na?aaeiueiai aooa ?, ye iane?aeie, i?ecaaei aei iiyae oaeeo
i?neyiia?aoe?eieo oneeaaeiaiue, ye a?aeoi?aiaiiy eeaioy, ?aoeeaeea
oieanoaaoiie oa ?i. Aiaieua caiaeaiiy ?nio? ia naia ii nia?, a
ciaoiaeeoueny a i?aai?ci?, aiiny/e oei naiei cia/i? ei?aeoeae o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aoaeue-yei? nenoaie. I?e?iaeiuei, ui ? aiaieua caiaeaiiy
iino?eii ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae eiio?ieai ai?iii?a, oa?iaio?a oa ?ioeo
noeioe?a (Ae.I.Iayineee, 1991).

Ia inoaiith ?ieue o i?ioean? caiaeaiiy a?ae?a?athoue a?iieenethaa/?
(noia?ieneae I2, I2I2, II oa ?i.), a oaeiae ?ia?a?oi?e I2I2, cie?aia,
eaoaeaca.

Aea i?ioeane ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a (IIE), aioeieneaeaioiiai
caoenoo ? ?o aieea ia a?aeiiaeaiiy ?aia?aoeaieo iiaeeeainoae oeaiei i?e
OANI iaaeinoaoiuei aea/ai?.

Aea/aiiy ai?noo o ne?iaaooe? oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee ai?eiee na?aaei?e ioeo
i?iaeoeo?a IIE, a oaeiae aeoeaiino? aioeieneaeaioiiai caoenoo ca
oa?iaioii eaoaeacith iiaea aeicaieeoe anoaiiaeoe ?o ?ieue o ?icaeoeo,
i?aeo?eioe? aiaieua caiaeaiiy o na?aaeiueiio aon? oa o i?ioeanao
?aeiiaaeanoeaioe?? i?ney o??o?a?/iiai e?eoaaiiy ai?eiiai caoai?thaaiiy
na?aaeiueiai aooa.

Caycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie

Aeena?oaoe?y ? o?aaiaioii iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eaoaae?e
ioi?eiiea?eiaieia?? Ee?anueei? IAII ?i.I.E.Ooieea “Ae?aaiinoeea ?
e?eoaaiiy caoai?thaaiue i?aaia neooo ? noiooiuei? iaoieia?? aa?oi?o
aeeoaeueieo oeyo?a” (?a?no?aoe?eiee iiia? EA.01013640).

Iaoa ? CAAAeAIIss aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? e?eoaaiiy oai?eo c oaeeie
??ciiaeaeaie ia?aa?ao caiaeueiiai i?ioeano a na?aaeiueiio aon?, i?e yeeo
iaiiaeeeaa i?iaaaeaiiy iaeiiaoaiiiai ao?o/aiiy, oeyoii ?ic?iaee
oaeineiiaeaii? iaoiaeeee a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe ae??ooaaeeny oae? caaaeaiiy:

1. Aea/eoe ? ooi/ieoe ??ciiaeaee ia?aa?ao o?ii?/iiai i?ioeano a
na?aaeiueiio aon? ia iniia? ee?i?/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy o ni?anoaaeaii? c
iaoiii?oieia?/ieie ci?iaie, aeyaeaieie i?e iia?aoe?yo.

2. I?iaanoe aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oeaiei na?aaeiueiai
aooa acyoeo i?ae /an iia?aoe?? i?e aeayeeo ??ciiaeaeao ia?aa?ao
caiaeaiiy, c iaoith aeyaeaiiy ?aaaia?aoeaieo iiaeeeainoae neeciai?
iaieiiee ? ianooiiiai i?iaaaeaiiy iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee.

3. Aeine?aeeoe noai IIE oa aioeieneaeaioiiai caoenoo o iaoe??io?a,
oai?eo ia OANI aei oa i?ney naioth/iai ao?o/aiiy.

4. Ia iniia? ee?i?/ieo, ooieoe?iiaeueieo, aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieo,
a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeoe iieacaiiy aei a?aeno?i/aii?
iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee.

5. I?iaanoe ioe?ieo ?acoeueoao?a o?aaeeoe?eii? a?aeno?i/aii?
iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee ? ?ic?iaeoe iiaee oaeineiiaeaiee iaoiae
a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee.

6. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aaaeaiiy oai?eo i?ney
oaeineiiaeaii? a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee ?c canoinoaaiiyi
ae?aioaaiiy ii?iaeiei na?aaeiueiai aooa, aioenaioe/ii-ei?oeeinoa?i?aeieo
iacae, aaeth ni?aaioo iie?iaoeeneeienaio.

7. Aea/eoe ee?i?ei-ii?oieia?/i? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? ?acoeueoaoe iiaiai
iaoiaeo a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia

1. A?oiooth/enue ia ee?i?/ieo aeaieo ? iaoiii?oieia?/ieo ci?iao a
ii?iaeieiao na?aaeiueiai aooa, aeyaeaieo i?e naioth/iio ao?o/aii?,
ooi/iaii ??ciiaeaee ia?aa?ao OANI: caaino?aiiy c i?iyaaie caaaeueiiai ?
i?noeaaiai oa?aeoa?o (i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e o?ea, a?eue o aon?,
iineeaiiy aii?oa/?); caaino?aiiy o?eueee c iineeaiiyi aii?oa/?;
ieyaiia?aa?aath/ee i?ioean ; i?eoiaaiee i?ioean.

2. Ia iniia? aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iioao?a
neeciai? iaieiiee na?aaeiueiai aooa ?c ??cieo oiiia?ao?/ieo eiai
ae?eyiie aeyaeaii oae? oa?aeoa?i? i?iyae o?ii?/iiai caiaeueiiai
i?ioeano: i?ae /an caaino?aiiy c caaaeueieie ? i?noeaaeie i?iyaaie –
aenieo ?aaeoe?th nenoaie ee?oeiiiai caoenoo ye iane?aeie aeueoa?aoeaieo
ci?i a neecia?e iaieiioe? oa iinooiiaa caeo/aiiy ee?oei, ye?
caaacia/othoue ianooii? ieanoe/i? i?ioeane; i?e caaino?aii? o?eueee c
iineeaiiyi aii?oa/? – cia/io aioo??oiueiee?oeiio ia?aaoaeiao
ai?oae?ioeeo?a, iiaycaio c i?ioeanaie ?ioaineaii? i?ie?oa?aoe??,
noi?iaiaeaeoaaieie i?aeee?oeiiei iaa?yeii ? oi?ioaaiiyi aaaaoioa?iaiai
ieineiai ai?oae?th; i?e ieyaiia?aa?aath/iio i?ioean? – ?i?oe?eiaaiee
caiaeueiei i?ioeanii neea?ic aeanii? ieao?aee neeciai? iaieiiee, ui
iae/ano?oa ia? iacai?ioiee oa?aeoa?, aea c iii?oiith oaiaeaioe??th aei
noaa?e?caoe??, o aeiaaeeo i?eoiaaiiai i?ioeano – oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoioa?iaiai ieineiai c?iaia?aath/iai ai?oae?th ?c an?ia eiai
no?oeoo?ieie eiiiiiaioaie i?e caiaeueieo ci?iao aeanii? ieao?aee:
iiaiie??a’?, iaa?yeo, ee?oeii?e ?io?eueo?aoe??, ye? noi?iaiaeaeoaaee
i?ioean ai?oae?caoe??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ci?ie a cii?
aacaeueii? iaia?aie a?aeca?eaeththoue noai ai?oae?th ? i?e
no?oeoo?ii-eiiiainiaai?e ??aiiaac? ai?oae?th oa aeanii? ieao?aee iiaeia
i/?eoaaoe ia ni?eyoeeaee ia?aa?a ?aia?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a.

3. Aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e ioio??o?a?? io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai aea/aiiy IIE ? aioeieneaeaioiiai caoenoo ca
aeoeai?noth oa?iaioa eaoaeace o ne?iaaooe? e?ia? iaoe??io?a c OANI aei ?
i?ney naioth/iai ao?o/aiiy.

4. Aeoiaey/e c aeaieo ee?i?/iiai, ooieoe?iiaeueiiai,
aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaeai? iieacaiiy aei
a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee oaeineiiaeaiee iaoiae i?iaaaeaiiy a?aeno?i/aii?
iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee ? iaoiaeeea eiiieaeniiai e?eoaaiiy i?ae aoaiaie
ao?o/aiiy oa i?ney iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee ?c canoinoaaiiyi ae?aioaaiiy
ii?iaeiei na?aaeiueiai aooa, o?c?ioa?aiaaoe/ieo iaoiae?a,
aioenaioe/ii-ei?oeeinoa?i?aeieo iacae, aaeth iie?iaoeeneeienaio,
i?aia?ao?a aioeieneaeaioiiai caoenoo.

Iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ooi/iththoue ??ciiaeaee ia?aa?ao
OANI, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii anoaiiaeoe iieacaiiy aei
a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee.

Aeniiaee aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiai, a?io?i?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiue
ia?aeeniiai ieeneaiiy e?i?ae?a ?icoe?ththoue oyaeaiiy i?i iaoiaaiac,
iaoiiioieia?/i? ci?ie i?e OANI ia noaee?oeiiiio oa iieaeoey?iiio ??aiyo.

?ic?iaeaia oaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiaiiieanoeee
aeicaiey? ?icoe?eoe eiioeiaaio oai?eo, yeei iiaeia i?iaanoe ia o?eueee
naioth/a, aea ? neooiiie?iooth/a ao?o/aiiy aeey iie?auaiiy nioe?aeueiiai
noaoono iaoe??io?a oa i?aoeacaeaoiino?.

Canoiniaaia iaoiaeeea a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee aeicaiey?
caiia?aoe aeieeiaiith oaeeo oneeaaeiaiue, ye aoyaiaiiy caaeiuei? no?iee
ciai?oiueiai neooiaiai oiaeo a i?ieneiaeueiiio a?aeae?e?, caoaeaiith
eiai a aeenoaeueiiio, ?aoeeaeeao oieanoaaoiie.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? a e?eoaaeueio ?iaioo 2-ai EI?
a?aeae?eaiiy Ee?anueei? iaeanii? ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i?, EI? a?aeae?eaiiy
ee?i?/ii? e?ea?i? ? 16 i.Ee?aa, a eaeoe?? oa i?aeoe/i? caiyooy ia
ia?aaeaoanoaoe?eieo oeeeeao c ioiea?eiaieia??, oeeeeao ?ioa?iaoo?e
(niaoe?ae?caoe??) EI? eaoaae?e EIAII.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
tha?eaei?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 95-??//th c aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy
i?io.I.N.Eieii?e/aiea (i.Ee?a, 1993 ?.), V eiia?an? NOOEO
(i.Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1994 ?), VI eiia?an? NOOEO (i.Iaeana,1996),
ia?oiio c`?cae? o?ainieaioieia?a Oe?a?ie (i.Caii??aeaey, 1995 ?.), VIII
c`?cae? ioi?eiiea?eiaieia?a Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a, 1995 ?.), ia can?aeaiiyo
Iaoeiaiai iaaee/iiai oiaa?enoaa ioi?eiiea?eiaieia?a i.Ee?aa ? Ee?anueei?
iaeano? (1994 – 1998 ?.?.), i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ?aeiiieo
ioiea?eiaieia?a Ee?anueei? iaeano? a 1993 – 1998 ?.?.

?acoeueoaoe ? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeia?aaeai? a 10
iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo (?c ieo 3 – a i?io?eueieo aeo?iaeao).

Ianya oa no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??.

?iaioo aeeeaaeaii ia 144 noi??ieao iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, aiia
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, 4 ?icae?e?a aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, cae?i/aiiy, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae,
yeee i?noeoue 229 a?o/eciyieo oa ?iicaiieo aeaea?ae. Aeena?oaoe?y
?ethno?iaaia 12 oaaeeoeyie ? 28 ?enoieaie.

Ci?no ?iaioe

Iaoa??aee oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue i?iaaaeaii ee?i?ei-aoae?ieia?/ia
ianoaaeaiiy oa o??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy 110 oai?eo ia OANI, ?c ieo o 70
(aeine?aeaeoaaia a?oia) o 1992-1998?.?. canoiniaaiee aaeineiiaeaiee
niin?a a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe
ii??aithaaee ?c a?oiith oai?eo 40 in?a, a yeeo i?iaiaeeee a?aeno?i/aio
iia?aoe?th o iiia?aaei? ?iee ca ?ioith iaoiaeeeith.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaia neooo o oai?eo ia OANI neeaaeaeiny ?c aecia/aiiy
ni?eeiyooy oai?oii?, ?iciiaii? iiae, aeoiao??? ? aoae?iiao??? ca
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeeeaie (A.A.Aaca?ia e niaao., 1984).

I?io?aei?noue neooiai? o?oae aeine?aeaeoaaee ca aeiiiiiaith i?iae
Oieia?, Aaeuenaeueae, i?iaeoaaiiy ca Iie?ooea?ii, eaoaoa?ecaoe??,
ani??aoe?eiei iaoiaeii ca Miller-Sidentop (1965).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aanoeaoey?iiai aia?aoo iieyaaei o aea/ai? nea?a oai?iai,
aiaiiaco caoai?thaaiiy, ?a?no?aoe?? niiioaiieo aanoeaoey?ieo ?aaeoe?e, a
o ?yae? aeiaaee?a aea/aee aenia?eiaioaeuei? aanoeaoey?i? i?iae
(eaei?e/io oa iaa?oiao).

Aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iioao?a neeciai? iaieiiee ?c
??cieo ae?eyiie na?aaeiueiai aooa i?iaaaeaia o 30 oai?eo ia OANI.
Oiaoi/ee oeaieie ?ici??ii ia a?eueoa 2o2 ii o?enoaaee a 2,5 % ?ic/ei?
aeooa?aeueaeaa?aeo a aooa?? I?eeii?aa i?e ?I=7,3 i?ioyaii 2-o aiaeei.
I?ney i?iieaaiiy a oeueiio ae aooa?? i?ioyaii 16-18 aiaeei iaoa??ae
aeio?eniaoaaee a 1% ?ic/ei? /ioe?eieeno ini?th o aooa?? I?eeii?aa a
oiiaao oieiaeeeueieea – 2 aiae. I?ney aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? o aeno?aeieo
eiioeaio?aoe?yo aoeeiaiai nie?oo ca noaiaea?oieie iaoiaeeeaie caeeaaee a
noi?o aiieneaeieo niie “aiii” – “a?aeaeeo”. Caiie?ia?eciaai? oiaoi/ee
??caee ia i?aoiie? c??ce oiaueiith 0,5 – 1 ii, ye? oa?aoaaee
oieo?aeeiiaei nei?i aai aco?ii I + iaoeeaiiaei aeaeeoiei. I?ney
i???ioiaii? ioe?iee i?aia?ao?a, aiooaaee oeueo?aoiie? c??ce ia
oeueo?aoii? EEA. C??ce, i?ney a?aeiia?aeiiai eiio?anooaaiiy
o?ai?e-aoeaoaoii ? oeeo?aoii naeioeth, aeine?aeaeoaaee a aeaeo?iiiiio
i?e?ineii? JEM-100 (ssiii?y).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a IIE oa aioeieneaeaioiiai caoenoo ca aeoeai?noth
oa?iaioa eaoaeace cae?eniaia o 73 in?a, ?c ieo 52 iaoe??io?a oai?eo ia
OANI oa a 21 i?aeoe/ii caei?iai? ethaeeie. O ne?iaaooe? e?ia? 52 oai?eo
ia o?ii?/iee ai?eiee na?aaei?e ioeo aecia/aee ia?aeii? i?iaeoeoe IIE
(a?ae?iia?aeene ? ae??iiao eii`thaaoe?th iaiane/aieo aee?ieo eeneio) ca
a?aeiiei iaoiaeii i?e aeiiiiic? ?o aeno?aeoe?? ?c ne?iaaoee e?ia? a
nenoai? aaioai-?cii?iiaiie (A.I.Aaa?eeia, I.E.Ieoei?oaeiay, 1983) oa
?aooaaee ?o i?iii?oe?eii aenoeieoe?? i?e 232ii ? iicia/aee a iaeeieoeyo
iioe/ii? u?eueiino?. Aeoeai?noue oa?iaioo eaoaeace aecia/aee ca
oaeaee?noth ?iceeaaeaiiy ia?aeeno aiaeith ca a?aeiiei iaoiaeii
(I.A.Ei?iethe ? ni?aaao.,1988).

Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue cae?eniaia c
canoinoaaiiyi iaoiae?a aa??aoe?eii? noaoenoeee ca aeiiiiiaith
ia?niiaeueiiai eiii’thoa?a. Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo aeaieo ?ic?aoiaaia
?c canoinoaaiiyi e?eoa??th No`thaeaioa .

?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue.A?aeno?i/aia iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeea
ca aaeineiiaeaiith iaoiaeeeith aeeiiaia o 70 iaoe??io?a, o oiio /ene? o
18 (25,7%) oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee ai?oeiiai?o, o 52 (74,3%) – ia o?ii?/iee
ai?iacioeiiai?o.

Ia?aa?a iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano o na?aaeiueiio aon? ciaoiaeeany o noaae??
caaino?aiiy c iayai?noth oeiiaeo iciae (i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e o?ea,
a?eue o aon?, iineeaiiy aii?oa/? c aooa) o 8 in?a.

OANI a aeoeai?e noaae?? ai?eiiai caiaeaiiy c iineeaiiyi aii?oa/? ?c aooa
aac i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e o?ea, ??ceiai aieth o aon?, a?aecia/aiee o
27 oai?eo.

O 25 iaoe??io?a, ui nea?aeeeenue o?eueee ia cieaeaiiy neooo oa iino?ei?
iacia/i? neeciai-ai?ei? aeae?eaiiy c aooa, a i?ae /an iia?aoe?? aeaeaii
aeoeai? caiaeuei? ci?ie, i?ioean ?icoe?iaii, ye ieyaiia?aa?aath/ee.

Ee?i?/ii “nooa” aooi aoei aeyaeaii a 10 in?a, oa i?ae /an naioth/iai
ao?o/aiiy aoee aeyaeai? oae? ci?ie, ye iaa?ye neecia? iaieiiee ? ai?eiee
aenoaeao a aa?aaaii?e ii?iaeiei? oa ea??ici? ci?ie no?iie na?aaeiueiai
aooa. Oaeee ia?aa?a caoai?thaaiiy aaaaeaee i?eoiaaiei.

Oieanoaaoiia ae?aaiinoiaaia o 49 (70,0%) ianoaaeaieo, na?aae ieo o 5 – c
o?ii?/iei ai?oeiiai?oii, o 36 – c o?ii?/iei ai?iacioeiiai?oii. ?c ieo o
32 oai?eo a?aecia/aii ii?aeiaiiy oieanoaaoiie c iie?iii aai
a?aioeyoe?yie.

Ea??icii-a?aioeyoe?eiee i?ioean niinoa??aaany o 21 (30,0%) iniae,
na?aae ieo o 13 – i?e o?ii?/iiio ai?eiiio ai?oeiiai?o? ? o 16 i?e
o?ii?/iiio ai?eiiio ai?iacioeiiai?o?.

?iciiaio iiao 57 (81,4%) oai?eo ni?eeiaee ia a?aenoai? aei 3 i, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i nioe?aeueii iaiiaiioe?eiee neoo. Nioe?aeueii
caaeia?eueiee neoo, oiaoi ni?eeiyooy ?iciiaii? iiae a?ae 3 i ? a?eueoa,
a?aecia/aiee o13 (18,6%) iaoe??io?a.Ii?iae ni?eeiyooy
iia?o?yiii?iaaaeaieo caoe?a o ae?aiacii? (0,5-4) eAoe o 14 (20,0%)
aeiaaeeao aoee aei 55aeA, a 56 (80,0%)- a?eueoa 55 aeA.

Aei eiio?ieueii? a?oie oa?eoei 40 oai?eo. ?c ieo 8 – c o?ii?/iei
ai?oeiiai?oii, 32 – c o?ii?/iei ai?iacioeiiai?oii.

O?eaae?noue caoai?thaaiiy o na?aaeiueiio neeaaeaea 15,8 ?ie?a.

Oieanoaaoiiiee i?ioean ae?aaiinoiaaii o 35 iaoe??io?a,
ea??icii-a?aioeyoe?eiee – o 5. Caaino?aiiy c aieai o aon?, i?aeaeuaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e o?ea a?aecia/aeenue o 3 oai?eo, o?eueee iineeaiiy aii?oa/? c
aooa – o 12, iino?ei? iacia/i? neeciai- ai?ei? aeae?eaiiy c aooa aoee o
19 ,”nooa” aooi aeyaeaia o 6 in?a.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iciiaii? iiae iieacaei iayai?noue nioe?aeueii
iaaaeaeaaoiiai neooo o 32 (80,0%) in?a.

O an?o oai?eo eiio?ieueii? a?oie aoea cae?eniaia a?aeno?i/aia
iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeea ca iaoiaeeeith, ui canoiniaoaaeanue a EI? ee?i?oe?
EIAII, a 1980 – 1989?.?.

O??o?a?/ia e?eoaaiiy oai?eo ia OANI ?c caaino?aiiyi (i?aeaeuaiiy
oaiia?aoo?e o?ea, a?eue o aon?, iineeaiiy aii?oa/?) i?iaiaeeee a?ae?aco
i?ney iinooieaiiy o a?aeae?eaiiy. O ?aooe iiia?aaei? e?eoaaiiy, naiaoe?y
aa?oi?o aeeoaeueieo oeyo?a /anoi ia caaacia/oaaee aeiaaio?eaaeiai
“nooiai” aooa – iacaaaeath/e ia eiina?aaoeaia e?eoaaiiy, o oeeo
iaoe??io?a ioi?ay i?iaeiaaeoaaeany o o?e /e ?io?e i???. A in?a ?c
“nooei” aooii i?ney iiia?aaeiueiai e?eoaaiiy i?ioean iaaoaaa i?eoiaaiiai
oa?aeoa?o

Inoaoi/ii ieoaiiy i?i i?iaaaeaiiy iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee ae??ooaaeiny ia
iia?aoe?eiiio noie?.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee, yea o
caeaaeiino? a?ae ianyao ?oeioaaiue oa ?o oa?aeoa?o o ne?iiaa?e e?nooe?,
nooiaiy aeaoaeoo aa?aaaiii? ia?aoeiee, eaioethaa neooiaeo e?noi/ie,
aeaeo naioth/iai ao?o/aiiy iiaea cae?enithaaoenue /a?ac 14-17 aei?a
i?ney naioth/i? iia?aoe??.

Ee?i?/ieie iieacaiiyie aei a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee aoee: OANI
o noaae?? caaino?aiiy c i?iyaaie caaaeueiiai ? i?noeaaiai oa?aeoa?o
(i?aeaeuaiiy oaiia?aoo?e o?ea, a?eue o aon?, iineeaiiy aii?oa/?) (aac
ioiaaiieo aioo??oiuei/a?aiieo oneeaaeiaiue); OANI a noaae?? caaino?aiiy
o?eueee c i?noeaaeie i?iyaaie (iineeaiiy aii?oa/?); OANI c
ieyaiia?aa?aath/ei i?ioeanii a na?aaeiueiio aon?; OANI c i?eoiaaiei
ia?aa?aii.

O aeiaaeeao, eiee a?aecia/athoueny cia/i? ?oeioaaiiy a na?aaeiueiio
aon?, iaoieia?/i? ci?ie neeciai? iaieiiee, iioe?aiiy oieanoaaoiie a
ee?oeie i??ai?aee ne?iiaai? e?noee, iacioeiiaioi, oeiiaiaeueiee ioa??
neooiai? o?oae, ui aeiaaa? niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ia?aa?aii i?ioeano i?ioyaii
iaaiiai /ano (2-3 oeaei?) i?ney naioth/iai ao?o/aiiy c oei, uia
inoaoi/ii ae??oeoe ieoaiiy i?i iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy
oeiiaiiieanoeee. A?aeiinii ??aeei a?aeno?i/aia ao?o/aiiy iiaea aooe
iia’ycaia c noiooi?ie caaaeueieie caoai?thaaiiyie, iicaaooieie
ii?ooaiiyie (i?aeaeuaia e?iaioi/ea?noue aiane?aeie a?ia?oii??,
iae?ioee?eoeyoi?ii? aeenoii??, ii?ooaiiy nenoaie cn?aeaiiy e?ia?).

O 80-o ?ieao o EI? ee?i?oe? EIAII oaeiae i?iaiaeeeanue a?aeno?i/aia
iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeea. Oaoi?ea oeueiai ao?o/aiiy iieyaaea a ianooiiiio:
ia naioth/iio aoai? oi?ioaaee niieo/iioeaieiii-ia?einoaeueii-e?noeiaee
eeaiioue ia ia?aaei?e aeeaey/?e i?aeoe?, i?e oeueiio ?ic??ce ia?einoo
cae?enithaaee ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii aei caaeiuei? no?iee ciai?oiueiai
neooiaiai oiaeo. Niieo/iioeaieiii-ia?einoaeueio /anoeio eeaioy oi?ioaaee
oianoith ca ?aooiie i?aeoe??ii? niieo/ii? oeaieie. I?e caaa?oaeueiiio
aoai? ao?o/aiiy cae?enithaaee oeiiaiiieanoeeo ca ??? oeiii Wullstein,
ia?einoaeueii-e?noeiaee eeaiioue aeeaaeaee aeeaieith /anoeiith aei
aaeeoona, ia ia?ae?eaath/e eiai. A?aeaeaeai? ?acoeueoaoe oeueiai iaoiaeo
ia caaaeaee aoee caaeia?eueieie. Ia??aeei ianooiaei aoyaiaiiy caaeiuei?
no?iee ciai?oiueiai neooiaiai oiaeo a i?ieneiaeuei?e /anoei?, caoaeaiiy
eiai – a aeenoaeuei?e. Aeieeea iio?aaa a oaeineiiaeaii? iaoiaeeee
a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee.

Aaeineiiaeaiee iaoiae a?aeno?i/aii? iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeee.

Oaoi?ea naioth/iai ao?o/aiiy a?ae??ciyeany oei, ui i?ney cae?niaiiy
caaooiiai ?ic??co oe??e ? i?aeeaaeeo oeaiei aei ia?einoa nineiiiae?aiiai
a?ae?inoea ci?iaii oaoi?eo oi?ioaaiiy ia?einoaeueii-e?noeiaiai eeaioy.
?ic??ce ia?einoo i?iaiaeyoueny i?ae aino?ei eooii aei caaeiuei? no?iee
ciai?oiueiai neooiaiai oiaeo, ia?einoaeueia /anoeia eeaioy ooai?th?oueny
oiieith. Ooai?aiee ia?einoaeueii-e?noeiaee eeaiioue ia ia??iae iia?aoe??
aeeaaea?ii ia caaeith iiaa?oith aooii? ?aeiaeie ? i?eoenea?ii
?aii?icoe?thaa/ai. Cae?enith?ii naioth/a ao?o/aiiy, ianya yeiai
aecia/a?oueny ianyaii iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano. Ii iiaeeeaino?, caeeoie
aa?aaaiii? ia?aoeiee ?c aea?aeaeueoeai iieioi/ea caa??aaee. Onoaa?oueny
oieanoaaoiia, ea??icia e?noea, a?aioeyoe??, iie?iicii ci?iai? ae?eyiee
neeciai? iaieiiee. Oe??a ciai?oiueiai neooiaiai oiaeo caa??aa?oueny.
Iaeici?iai? ae?eyiee neeciai? iaieiiee iaci-, a?iioeiiaioia,
oeiiaiaeueiiai ioai?o neooiai? o?oae oaae caa??aathoue. Ii?iaeieio
na?aaeiueiai aooa i?iieaa?ii ?ic/eiii aioea?ioeea c a?ae?iei?oeciiii.
*a?ac caaooio ?aio aaiaeeii ae?aiaaeio o?oaeo ae?aiao?ii 2ii a
oeiiaiaeueiee a?aeae?e neooiai? o?oae, iacioeiiaioi caiiaith?oueny
iaaaeeeei oaiiiiii c aioenaioe/ii-ei?oeeinoa?i?aeiith iaccth, aai c
a?ae?iaaeai iie?iaoeeneeienaio. O ciai?oi?e neooiaee o?ae oaiaeeoueny
aiaeia?/iee oaiiii. Ia?einoaeueii-e?noeiaee eeaiioue aeeaaea?oueny ia
i?noea caaeiuei? e?noeiai? no?iee. Ianoi?aeaeueia ii?iaeieia oaeiae
caiiaith?oueny oaiiiiii c aioenaioe/ii-ei?oeeinoa?i?aeiith iaccth, a o
aeiaaeeao aeoeaiiai caiaeueiiai i?ioeano – c a?ae?iaaeai
iie?iaoeeneeienaio. Caaooia ?aia caeeoa?oueny a?aee?eoith. O
i?neyiia?aoe?eiiio ia??iae? i?iaiaeeoueny aeoeaia caaaeueia ? i?noeaaa
i?ioecaiaeueia oa?ai?y, o oiio /ene? ? oiiioi?ac e?ea?nueeeo cania?a.

Ia?aa’ycee ii/eiaee i?iaiaeeoe /a?ac aeaiue i?ney iia?aoe?? c iaoith
aieeao ia caiaeueiee i?ioean o aa?aaaii?e ii?iaeiei?. *a?ac ae?aiaaei?
o?oaee aaiaeeee ?ic/ei i?ioaie?oe/iiai oa?iaioo (2,5-5ia a 1iee
o?c?ieia?/iiai ?ic/eio), aioea?ioeea, aei yeiai /ooeeaa i?e?ioei?a
na?aaeiueiai aooa (10ia a 1iee o?c?ieia?/iiai ?ic/eio), noniac??
a?ae?iei?oeciio (2,5-5ia a 1iee). A ii?iaeieio ciai?oiueiai neooiaiai
oiaeo ? a aio?oi oaiaeeee oaiiiie c aaeai iie?iaoeeneeienaio. Ia?aaaaeii
aeinoaoiuei aaaaeaiiy aaeth i?ioyaii 2 aei?a, uia i/enoeoe ii?iaeieie
na?aaeiueiai aooa a?ae aenoaeaoo. C 4-ai aeiy i?ney iia?aoe?? i?ney
i?ioaiiy ii?iaeiei na?aaeiueiai aooa aeuaiacaaieie ?ic/eiaie
cae?enithaaee aiaeao?aeueiee oiiioi?ac c ieie, canoiniaoaaee oaiiiie
ei?oeeinoa?i?aeii? iac? (“A?ienecii”, “Ieneei?o”) a noi?o? c ii?ioeii
eiaeioi?io. I?e ii?aeiaii? aaeoa??aeueii? ? a?eaeiai? i?e?ioei?e
canoiniaoaaee ei?oeeinoa?i?aei? iac? c ii?ioeii o?iicieo. Aei 14-ai aeiy
i?ney iia?aoe?? aeinyaaee e?ea?aeaoe?? caiaeueiiai i?ioeano a aa?aaaii?e
ii?iaeiei?: cieeaa iaa?ye, ?io?eueo?aoe?y neeciai? iaieiiee,
a?aeiiaethaaeanue i?io?aei?noue neooiai? o?oae.

I?ney e?ea?aeaoe?? aai ciaioaiiy aeoeaiino? caiaeueiiai i?ioeano o
na?aaeiueiio aon? (/a?ac 14 – 17aei?a) cae?enith?ii
iaaoioeiiaiiieanoeeo. Iia?aoe?y i?iaiaeeoueny i?ae i?noeaaith
aianoac??th ia oii? iae?ieaioaiaeueaac??. Aaiaeyoueny oaeiae caniae, ye?
i?aeaeuothoue cn?aeaiiy e?ia? (ae?oeeiii, aoaiceeao). Ia?o ca ana,
caaacia/oaaee aeinoaoi?e iaeyae aa?aaaiii? ii?iaeieie.
Ia?einoaeueii-e?noeiaee eeaiioue ci?uoaaee ?acii c? oe??ith caaeiuei?
no?iee ciai?oiueiai neooiaiai oiaeo (i?ney a?aeiia?aeii? a?aenaia?iaee
??) aei ia?aaeiuei? no?iee, aai aeoyaaee eiai iaciai? ? i?eoeneaee
?aii?icoe?thaa/ai. A?eueiee eeaiioue oanoe?? aeneiaiai i`yca aeeaaeaee
i?ae caeeoie aa?aaaiii? ia?aoeiee. I?e noaoioaeueiiio /e oioaeueiiio
aeaoaeo? aa?aaaiii? ia?aoeiee oeiiaiaeueiee eeaiioue aeeaaeaee ia
e?noeiaa eiaea, i?ney iiia?aaeiueiai a?aeoa?oaaiiy oe??e ciai?oiueiai
neooiaiai oiaeo, o?a?icia e?eueoea ca iiaeeea?noth caa??aaee. Ii?iaeieio
ciai?oiueiai neooiaiai oiaeo caiiaithaaee oo?oiaeaie c aioenaioe/ieie
iacyie. Ia?einoaeueii-e?noeiaee eeaiioue aeeaaeaee ia i?noea caaeiuei?
e?noeiai? no?iee ciai?oiueiai neooiaiai oiaeo ? eaoa?aeueii? no?iee
aoeea iicaaeo oe??e aei aaeeoona ia ia?ae?eaath/e eiai. I?ney oeueiai
a?aenaia?iaoaaee niieo/io oeaieio a?ae caaeiuei? iiaa?oi? aooii?
?aeiaeie ? noai?thaaee ia?aaei?e niieo/iioeaieiiee eeaiioue, a oeyoii
iia?e?coaaiiy i?aeoe??ii? niieo/ii? oeaieie ii caaeiueiio e?ath caaooii?
?aie ooai?thaaee caaei?e eeaiioue. Cae?enithaaee ae?aioaaiiy ii?iaeiei
na?aaeiueiai aooa aeaiia o?oaeaie: oe?ieith – aio?oia, aocueeith –
aaeeoona ? aoeea. Aeenoaeuei? e?ioe? o?oaie aeaiaeeee iaciai? /a?ac
caaooio ?aio. Iaeeaaeaee eaoaooia? oae ia ia?aaei?e ? caaei?e
niieo/iioeaieii? eeaio?, a ?acoeueoao? oeueiai a?aeoyaoaaee ciai?oi?e
neooiaee o?ae ? aooio ?aeiaeio aeicaaeo. Ia oe??o iaeeaaeaee eaanaiia?
oae.

I?neyiia?aoe?eia aaaeaiiy i?ney caaa?oaeueiiai ao?o/aiiy aoei iai?aaeaia
ia e?ea?aeaoe?th caiaeueiiai i?ioeano, yeee aeieeaa a ?acoeueoao?
ao?o/aiiy, oi?ioaaiiy iia?o?yieo aa?aaaiii? ? aio?aeueii? ii?iaeiei.
Nii/aoeo i?iaiaeeee cai?io o?eueee ciai?oiuei? iia’ycee, aaiaeeee
?ic/eie e?e?a /a?ac ae?aiaaei? o?oaee /a?ac aeaiue. Oaiiiie ?c
ciai?oiueiai neooiaiai oiaeo onoaaee ia 7-8 aeaiue i?ney iia?aoe??. C
oeueiai /ano canoiniaoaaee oaiiiie c? noeioethth/eie iacyie
(iaoeeo?aoeeeiaa, eaeaioia, eaeaiaeoee). I?ioaiiy ii?iaeiei na?aaeiueiai
aooa ?ic/eiaie e?e?a cae?enithaaee iiee aeae?eyany aenoaeao /a?ac
ae?aiaaei? o?oaee (10-11 aeaiue). Uiaeaiii i?iaiaeeee i?iaeoaaiiy
neooiai? o?oae, i?ecia/aee noaeeiii-caoaeoth/? e?aie? a i?n. I?e yaeuao
naeuei?ia?oo cae?enithaaee aieea ia aeioeiaee a?aeae?e neooiai? o?oae
(?inooeyoe?? aea?aiaeeeo, oiiioi?ac ei?oeeinoa?i?aeieo iacae,
ii?ii?iaiiy iina, aeioee eaiiith “A?iio?ii-2”. Ae?aiaaei? o?oaee onoaaee
ia 10-12 aeaiue i?ney iia?aoe??. Iiaia ai?oae?caoe?y iaioeiiaiaeueii?
iaia?aie ianooiaea ia 12-14 aeaiue i?ney iia?aoe??.

Oeiiaiiieanoeeo ca ??? oeiii aeeiiaii o 44 oai?eo, o oiio /ene? no?aiaii
i?aeaeuaii o 12 in?a (ca aeiiiiiaith noiai/eea aiiio?yua – o 9 oa
aooie?noee – o 3). Eiethiae?caoe?y i?iaaaeaia o 26 iaoe??io?a, ?c ieo o
16 ca aeiiiiiaith i?ioaca ?c aooie?noee, o 8 – ?c aeio?yua, o 2 – ?c
caeeoe?a iieioi/ea ? eiaaaeea.

?acoeueoaoe aeaeo?iiii- i?e?ineii?/ieo oa a?io?i?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoia?noieia?/ia oa aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iioao?a
neeciai? iaieiiee na?aaeiueiai aooa ?c ??cieo eiai ae?eyiie i?iaaaeaia o
30 iaoe??io?a. Io?eiai? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui iaoia?noieia?/i? ci?ie a
neecia?e iaieiioe? i?e o?ii?/ieo ai?eieo na?aaei?o ioeoao o?nii
iia`ycai? c caaaeueiei ia?aa?aii iaoieia?/iiai i?ioeano, ui aea? ciiao
i?aeoaa?aeeoe ee?i?/i? aeai? oa i?iaiicoaaoe ?acoeueoaoe e?eoaaieo
caoiae?a. Ia iniia? aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iioao?a
neeciai? iaieiiee na?aaeiueiai aooa ?c ??cieo oiiia?ao?/ieo eiai
ae?eyiie aeyaeaii oae? oa?aeoa?i? i?iyae o?ii?/iiai caiaeueiiai
i?ioeano: i?ae /an caaino?aiiy c caaaeueieie ? i?noeaaeie i?iyaaie –
aenieo ?aaeoe?th nenoaie ee?oeiiiai caoenoo ye iane?aeie aeueoa?aoeaieo
ci?i a neecia?e iaieiioe? oa iinooiiaa caeo/aiiy ee?oei, ye?
caaacia/othoue ianooii? ieanoe/i? i?ioeane; i?e caaino?aii? aac oeiiaeo
iciae – cia/io aioo??oiueiee?oeiio ia?aaoaeiao ai?oae?ioeeo?a, iiaycaio
c i?ioeanaie ?ioaineaii? i?ie?oa?aoe??, noi?iaiaeaeoaaieie i?aeee?oeiiei
iaa?yeii ? oi?ioaaiiyi aaaaoioa?iaiai ieineiai ai?oae?th; i?e
ieyaiia?aa?aath/iio i?ioean? – ?i?oe?eiaaiee caiaeueiei i?ioeanii
neea?ic aeanii? ieao?aee neeciai? iaieiiee, ui iae/ano?oa ia?
iacai?ioiee oa?aeoa?, aea c iii?oiith oaiaeaioe??th aei noaa?e?caoe??, o
aeiaaeeo i?eoiaaiiai i?ioeano aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/i? aeai?
i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaee oi?ioaaiiy aaaaoioa?iaiai ieineiai c?iaia?aath/iai
ai?oae?th ?c an?ia eiai no?oeoo?ieie eiiiiiaioaie i?e iayaiino?
caiaeueieo ci?i aeanii? ieao?aee: iiaiie??a’?, iaa?yeo, ee?oeii?e
?io?eueo?aoe??, ye? noi?iaiaeaeoaaee i?ioean ai?oae?caoe??. Anoaiiaeaii,
ui ci?ie a cii? aacaeueii? iaia?aie a?aeca?eaeththoue noai ai?oae?th ?
i?e no?oeoo?ii-eiiiainiaai?e ??aiiaac? ai?oae?th oa aeanii? ieao?aee a
iaeici?iaieo ae?eyieao neeciai? iaieiiee a?aei?/a?oueny ni?eyoeeaee
ia?aa?a ?aia?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a. A ae?eyieao c? caa?aaeaiei ee?oeiiei
eiiiiiaioii, e?iaiiinoa/aiiyi oa iaoai?ciii iicanoaeeiii?
i?e?ioee?eoeyoe??, iiaea ?nioaaoe ai?aea?iaeueia iie?eooy ia neecia?e
iaieiioe? ? oae? ae?eyiee aeaeaeythoueny i?e ia?oiio ao?o/aii?.
Iaeici?iai? ia ai?aea?i?ciaai? ae?eyiee neeciai? iaieiiee caeeoathoueny,
ui ? oiiaith ianooiieo ?anoeoooe?eieo i?ioean?a, ? ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeoaaeinue ee?i?/ieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie iinoiia?aoe?eiiai
noaio.

Iaeiae, a oiiaao iaoo?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo o?ii?/iiai caiaeaiiy
aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeee aeyaeoe ?ioee
iaoai?ci, ui iiaea i?ecaanoe aei iaoaieac?? ai?oae?th, eiee ee?oeie
aacaeueiiai oa?o ai?aea?i?no nai?th ieaciaoe/iith iaia?aiith
eiioaeoothoue c? neeaaeiaeie aacaeueii? iaia?aie, aeyaeyth/e
noeeuei?noue aei ?ioaineaiiai ?iciiiaeaiiy. A oaeiio aeiaaeeo
?ioaineo?eaoe?y ooieoe?? aacaeueii? iaia?aie iiaea aooe iaei??th ?c
eaiie a iaoai?ci? ooai?aiiy oieanoaaoiie.

I?ie?oa?aoeai? yaeua a neecia?e iaieiioe? i?e o?ii?/ieo caiaeaiiyo
na?aaeiueiai aooa iiaeooue i?ecaiaeeoe aei ooai?aiiy /eneaieo
?cieueiaaieo e?no a noaai?oae?aeueiiio oa?? caiiaiaieo neecii –
i?iaeoeoii eaeeoiiiae?aieo ee?oei. E?noe aeieeathoue a ?acoeueoao?
caio?aiiy ai?oae?th o aeanio ieao?aeo. Aeyaeaii oaeiae ooai?aiiy
?aoaioe?eieo ai?aea?iaeueieo e?no. Oea oneeaaeith? ia?aa?a oai?iae oa
?iaeoue iaeiaoaeoeaieie eiina?aaoeai? iaoiaee e?eoaaiiy.

O i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo iaie a?aecia/aia iica?/i?noue
iaoia?noieia?/ieo ci?i o neecia?e iaieiioe?, yea noai?th? iaai?
o?oaeiiu? a neeaaeaii? i?iaiic?a e?eoaaiiy, oiio aaeueie aaaeeeaith ?
oiiia?ao?/ia ?o iciaea. Aeii?ioth/? a?aioeyoe?ei? i?ioeane, ?oeioaaiiy
neooiaeo e?noi/ie oa e?noee, ui iaiaaeo? oeiiaiaeueio ii?iaeieio,
oi?ioaaiiy oieanoaaoiie a?eueo oa?aeoa?i? aeey ai?oeiiai?o?a;
i?ie?oa?aoeai? ci?ie neeciai? iaieiiee, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoue
a?ia?nae?aoe?th inoaiiuei?, /ano?oa cono??/athoueny i?e o?ii?/ieo
caiaeaiiyo na?aaeiueiai a?aeae?eo aa?aaaiii? ii?iaeieie. Ia?aiane/aiiy
aacaeueii? iaia?aie aiaeith ni?aiaaeaei c oaeei aea yaeuai a ai?oae??.
Ou?eueiaiiy aacaeueii? iaia?aie niinoa??aaeiny ia oe? aeeno?io?/ieo ci?i
a ai?oae?ioeeoao. A?ia?a?ae?aoaoe?y oa a?ia?nae?aoe?y ai?oae?th
niinoa??aaeany i?e i?ie?oa?aoeaieo i?ioeanao a iaaeao inoaiiueiai.
ssaeua noaai?oae?aeueiiai neea?ico oa caaaeueiiai ou?eueiaiiy aeanii?
ieao?aee niieo/iioeaieiieie aieieiaie ni?aiaaeaee c ?iaiethoeaieie
ia?aaoaeiaaie a iie?eaiiio oa?? neeciai? iaieiiee.

Oaeei /eiii, aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iioao?a neeciai?
iaieiiee ?c ??cieo a?aeae?e?a na?aaeiueiai aooa iieacaee ??ci? i?iyae
o?ii?/iiai caiaeueiiai i?ioeano: aenieo ?aaeoe?th ee?oeiiiai caoenoo,
ia?aaoaeiao ai?oae?ioeeo?a, neea?ic aeanii? ieao?aee, ?ioaineo?eaoe?th
ooieoe?? aacaeueii? iaia?aie, ui i?e eiioaeo? ?? c ieaciaoe/iith
iaia?aiith aacaeueiiaioa?o ai?aea?i?no iiaea aooe iaei??th c eaiie a
iaoai?ci? oi?ioaaiiy oieanoaaoiie. A ae?eyieao iaio o?aaeaii? neeciai?
iaieiiee i?e no?oeoo?ii-eiiiainiaai?e ??aiiaac? ai?oae?th oa aeanii?
ieao?aee iiaeia ia?aaeaa/aoe ni?eyoeeaee ia?aa?a ?aia?aoe?eieo
i?ioean?a.

Aea/aiiy ??aiy i?iaeoeo?a IIE ? aioeieneaeaioiiai caoenoo ca aeoeai?noth
oa?iaioa eaoaeace ne?iaaoee e?ia? i?iaaaeaia o 52 iaoe??io?a.

C iaoith aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ioe?iee i?ioean?a
ia?ieneaeaoe?? e?i?ae?a, ei?aeoe?? ?o ii?ooaiue eiaeia c a?oi oai?eo ia
o?ii?/iee ai?iacioeiiai?o oa oeo, ui ia?aianee naioth/o iia?aoe?th ia
aon?, aoea ?icae?eaia ia o?e i?aea?oie: ia?oa – c i?aeaeuaiei ??aiai
i?iaeoeo?a IIE, ae?oaa – c “ii?iaeueiei” ??aiai i?iaeoeo?a IIE, o?aoy –
c? cieaeaiei ??aiai i?iaeoeo?a IIE.

O a?oi? oai?eo ia o?ii?/iee ai?iacioeiiai?o (34 iniae) i?aeaeuaiee
??aaiue i?iaeoeo?a IIE aeyaeaii o 22 iaoe??io?a ? iieaciee ??aiyany
3,40,20 a?aei.iae./ie (?1-20,05), a eaoaeaca – 20,33,39 ieao/e (?1-2>0,05).
Iaoe??ioe c? cieaeaiei ??aiai i?iaeoeo?a IIE noaiiaeee 6 in?a ? iieaciee
??aiyany 0,650,15 a?aei.iae./ie (?1-2>0,05), aeoeai?noue eaoaeace – 23,7
5,56 ieao/e (?1-2>0,05). 3 iniae c oe??? i?aea?oie iaee a?e 18, 19 ? 20
?ie?a, iao?eaaeee /an ia?aa?ao caoai?thaaiiy oa a?aenooi?noue oaeeo
i?iya?a, ye oieanoaaoiia /e a?aioeyoe??.

C 18 oai?eo, ui ia?aianee naioth/o iia?aoe?th ia aon? i?aeaeuaiee
??aaiue i?iaeoeo?a IIE iaee 5 in?a – iieaciee neeaaeaa 4,20,73
a?aei.iae./ie (?1-3

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