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I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea

Naeaciueiaa Oaoyia ?aaai?aia

OAeE: 616.831-005.4-8:616.133.3-08

A?AeAeAEAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE

IAAeEEAIAIOICIIAI ? O??O?A?*IIAI E?EOAAIIss

IIAOI?IEO ?OAI?E I?E IEETHCEAIEO ?

NOAIICOAAEUeIEO I?IOeANAO EA?IOEAeIIAI

AANAEIO

14.01.15 – ia?aia? oai?iae

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Ee?anuee?e iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
?i.I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Cicoey ?aai Naaiae/,
Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe ?i.I.E.Ooieea IIC
Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a oaeaeei? oa iaa?aeeeaaeii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Naiinthe ?aai
Caoa?iae/, Ee?anueea iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe
?i.I.E.Ooieea IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a ?aaa?e?oaoe??, o?c?ioa?ai?? oa
eo?i?oieia??, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaaaaa Aieiaeeie? Ieeieaeiae/,
Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.Aeaieee Aaeeoeueeiai
IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a iaa?ieia?? ? iae?io??o?a?? oaeoeueoaoo
i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:Oe?a?inueeee IAe? ee?i?/ii? oa aenia?eiaioaeueii?
iaa?ieia?? ? ineo?ao??? IIC Oe?a?ie, i.Oa?e?a, a?aeae?e noaeeiii?
iaoieia?? aieiaiiai iiceo

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 24 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 11-00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.613.01. i?e Ee?anuee?e
iaaee/i?e aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe IIC Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
254112, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aei?iaiaeeoeueea 9, aoaeeoi??y ? 3.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii?
aeaaeai?? i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe IIC Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 254112,
i.Ee?a, aoe. Aei?iaiaeeoeueea 9.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 23 ” ethoiai 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

e.i.i., aeioeaio
?iiaiaiei I.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. Noaeeiii caoai?thaaiiy aieiaiiai iiceo o?aaeathoue cia/io
eieueeinoue ianaeaiiy a onio e?a?iao naioo. O no?oeoo?i caaaeueii?
nia?oiinoi nia?oiinoue aiae caoai?thaaiue noaeei iiceo iiniaea?
ae?oaa-o?ao? iinoea. A Oe?a?ii aiae iinoeueoo iiie?a? iiiaae 200 oeny/
oai?eo ia ?ie, ui aaeai/i aieueoa, iiae o NOA oa Caoiaeiie ?a?iii
(Cicoey TH.A., 1996; Aiie/oe N.I., 1996). A inoaii? aeanyoe?i//y a
Oe?a?ii iiaeaeueany ?iaaiue caoai?thaaiinoi inia iieiaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai aieo ia oea?aa?aeueio noaeeiio iaoieiaith (Aeoaaiei ?.A.,
1989; ?oaeaiei A.TH., 1993; Iaiueeianueeee I.A. i niiaaao., 1996).
Ia?niaeoeae aiaeiiaeaiiy i?aoeacaeaoiinoi cia/ii iaiaaeaii – aei ?iaioe
iiaa?oathoueny eeoa 20% oai?eo. Oiio ieoaiiy i?ioieaeoeee oa eieoaaiiy
inia ic noaeeiieie caoai?thaaiiyie ia?aiai? nenoaie iathoue ia oieueee
iaaee/ia, a i aaeeea nioeiaeueii-aeiiiii/ia cia/aiiy.

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. Ioaii/iee iinoeueo (II) cono?i/anoueny a 4 ?ace
/anoioa, iiae aaii?aai/iee (Aieioei I.A., Oaeoeeei A.E., 1991; Aeeaineee
A.N., 1995; O?aueineee A.E. e niaao., 1997). Aeieeiaiiy iiaoi?ieo II
aa?ith? aiae 20 aei 40%, a iaeieiaaii o?aiceoi?ii ioaii/ii aoaee
i?ioyaii 48 iinyoeia caeii/othoueny iiceiaei iinoeueoii (OeeiaeeiI.A.,
1992; Cicoey I.N.,1996). Iiaoi?ii ioaii/ii o?aaeaiiy aieiaiiai iiceo a
ea?ioeaeiiio aanaeii a 53-97% aeiaaeeia aeieeathoue aianeiaeie
ieethceaieo i noaiicoaaeueieo o?aaeaiue aeno?a-, iio?ae?aiiaeueieo
noaeei o niiaaiaeiioaiii 4:1 (Aieioei I.A., 1995; Cicoey TH.A., 1996).

Caeaaieueoiai ieethceaii i noaiicoaaeueii o?aaeaiiy aeno?ae?aiiaeueieo
aiaeaeieia iaaino?aeueieo a?oa?ie aieiae aoaeoeaii onoaathoueny
oi?o?ai/iei iaoiaeii (Iieeuoe I.A., 1991; Neieoeueeee N.I., 1995; Cicoey
TH.A., 1996). I?ioa, o ?aci eieoaaiiy oei?? oi?ie iaoieiai? noaeei
oi?o?ai/ia eieoaaiiy ia aeineoue iioe?aia. A Oe?a?ii oi?o?ai/ii iaoiaee
i?ioieaeoeee i eieoaaiiy ioaii? iiceo canoiniaothoue cia/ii ?iaeoa, iiae
aeieea? a oeueiio iio?aaa, i caeieniththoueny caeaaieueoiai eeoa o
oeaio?aeueieo eeiiieao. E?eoa?i? aeiaaiinoeee oa i?eioeeie i?ioieaeoeee
i eieoaaiiy oai?eo c iiaoi?ieie ioaiiyie ea?ioeaeiiai aanaeio,
iaoiiaeaieie ieethceaieie i noaiicoaaeueieie i?ioeanaie noaeei aieiaiiai
iiceo noia?a/eeai i iio?aaothoue ooi/iaiue.

Ca”ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoeiy
aeeiiaia caiaeii c ieaiii iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue ca oaiith ?0196E010574
(1996-1998?.) Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeaii? iineyaeeieiiii? inaioe
ii.I.E.Ooieea “?ic?iaea oeieani?yiiaaii? eieoaaeueii? oaeoeee i?e
ioaii/ieo ii?ooaiiyo iiceiaiai e?iaiiaiao aino?iai oa ?aiiueiai
ia?iiaeia “.

Iaoa i caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iioeiicaoeiy eieoaaeueii? oaeoeee o ?aci
iiaoi?ieo ioaiie aieiaiiai iiceo, yei coiiaeaii ieethceaieie oa
noaiicoaaeueieie o?aaeaiiyie noaeei ea?ioeaeiiai aanaeio ia iniiai
eiiieaeniiai aea/aiiy aiaeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoaoia iaaeeeaiaioiciiai oa
oi?o?ai/iiai eieoaaiiy.

Aeey ?aaeicaoei? cacia/aii? iaoe iinoaaeaii ianooiii eiie?aoii caaea/i:

1.I?iaanoe aeineiaeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e a?oi oai?eo c iiaoi?ieie ioaiiyie a
ea?ioeaeiiio aanaeii i?e iaaeeeaiaioiciiio oa oi?o?ai/iiio iaoiaeao
eieoaaiiy.

2.Aea/eoe no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueii ciiie iiceo oa eiai noaeei o ?aci
iiaoi?ieo ioaiie ca aeiiiiiaith no/anieo iaoiaeia aeiaaiinoeee –
oeueo?acaoeiai? aeiiie??ia?aoi? (OCAeA), aiaiia?aoi? (AA), eiii”thoa?ii?
oiiia?aoi? (EO), yaea?ii-iaaiioii-?aciiainii? oiiia?aoi? (ssI?O).

3.?ic?iaeoe e?eoa?i? aeiaaiinoeee ioaiie aieiaiiai iiceo, yei ni?e/eiaii
ieethceaieie oa noaiicoaaeueieie i?ioeanaie aioo?ioiuei? niiii? a?oa?i?
(ANA).

4.Aecia/eoe aoaeoeaiinoue oi?o?ai/iiai eieoaaiiy ioaiie aieiaiiai iiceo,
ni?e/eiaieo ieethceaieie oa noaiicoaaeueieie i?ioeanaie.

5.Aecia/eoe aoaeoeaiinoue iaaeeeaiaioiciiai eieoaaiiy ioaiie aieiaiiai
iiceo, ni?e/eiaieo ieethceaieie oa noaiicoaaeueieie i?ioeanaie.

6.Caeienieoe ii?iaiyeueiee aiaeic aiaeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoaoia
iaaeeeaiaioiciiai oa oi?o?ai/iiai eieoaaiiy ioaiie aieiaiiai iiceo,
ni?e/eiaieo ieethceaieie oa noaiicoaaeueieie i?ioeanaie ANA.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. O ?acoeueoaoi caeieniaiiy
eiiieaeno no/anieo eeiiiei-iino?oiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue iiaoi?ieo
ioaiie aieiaiiai iiceo ieethceaii-noaiicoaaeueiiai aaiaco
nenoaiaoeciaaii aeaii uiaei iniaeeainoae eeiii/iiai ia?aaiao aino?i?
oea?aa?iaaneoey?ii? iaaeinoaoiinoi, ni?e/eiaii? ieethceaieie i
noaiicoaaeueieie i?ioeanaie ANA.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ieioui ii?ooaiiy iiceiaiai e?iaiiaiao (IIIE) oa II o 55%
oai?eo iaoiiaeaii ieethceaieie i noaiicoaaeueieie o?aaeaiiyie
aeno?ae?aiiaeueiiai aiaeaeieo iaa?no?aeueieo a?oa??e aieiae.

Aia?oa aecia/aia aeiaaiinoe/ia oeiiiinoue aeiaeaoeiaeo iaoiaeia
aeineiaeaeaiue (OCAeA, ssI?O, EO, AA) o ?aci aeaii? iaoieiai? oa
cai?iiiiiaaia iineiaeiaiinoue ?o aeeiiaiiy.

?ic?iaeaii e?eoa?i? aeeoa?aioeiaeueii? aeiaaiinoeee ii?ooaiue iiceiaiai
e?iaiiaiao ioaii/iiai oa?aeoa?o ?icii? aoiieiai? (aoa?ineea?ioe/ii
noaiice, o?iiaice ANA, iiaeiaaeaiiy oa ia?aaeie), yei iiaeia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ia aeiainiioaeueiiio aoaii oa a iieieeiii/ieo oiiaao
aeey iioeiicaoei? iiaeaeueoi? aeiaaiinoe/ii? oa eieoaaeueii? oaeoeee.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui o ?aci ioaii/ieo ii?ooaiue iiceiaiai e?iaiiaiao,
iaoiiaeaieo ia?aaeiaie i iiaeiaaeaiiyie ANA nai?/ania i iiaiioeiiia
i?ecia/aiiy eiina?aaoeaiiai eieoaaiiy ni?ey? aieueo oaeaeeiio ?aa?ano
iaa?ieiai/ieo neiioiiia iiae o ?aci iaoieiai?, iaoiiaeaii?
aoa?ineea?ioe/iei noaiicii, o?iiaicaie ANA, oia?ii”ycaaeie aeenieaciyie.

?ic?iaeaii niinia iiaeeaiaeoaeueiiai iiaeoiaeo iiae /an aeai?o
iaaeeeaiaioiciiai oa oi?o?ai/iiai iaoiaeia eieoaaiiy oai?eo ic
ieethceaieie i noaiicoaaeueieie i?ioeanaie ANA.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oieueee eiiieaenia aeineiaeaeaiiy iiceiai? aaiiaeeiaiiee
oa iioi?iaoeiy uiaei i?ioiaeiinoi i ooieoeiiiaeueii? cia/ouinoi onio
a?oa?iaeueieo aanaeiia aieiaiiai iiceo aeicaiey? i?aaeeueii ioeiieoe
noai oai?iai i aecia/eoe iioeiaeueio oaeoeeo eieoaaiiy.

Aeei?enoaiiy eeoa iaaeeeaiaioicii? oa?aii? ioaii/ieo ii?ooaiue iiceiaiai
e?iaiiaiao o ?aci ieethceaieo i noaiicoaaeueieo o?aaeaiue
aeno?ae?aiiaeueieo aiaeaeieia ANA ? iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaiei, oiio ui
no/anii iaaee/ii na?aaeieee ia ni?iiiaeii eieaiaeoaaoe i?aaii/ia
o?aaeaiiy noaeeie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aei e?eoa?i?a, ca yeeie iai?aaeythoue oai?eo ia
iia?aoeaia eieoaaiiy o ?aci ieethceaieo i noaiicoaaeueieo o?aaeaiue
aeno?ae?aiiaeueieo aiaeaeieia ANA, iaeaaeeoue iayaiinoue IIIE aai
ia?aianaii II ca aiaenooiinoi a?oaeo iaa?ieiai/ieo aeaoaeoia.

E?eoa?iyie aei canoinoaaiiy oi?o?ai/iiai eieoaaiiy iiaeooue aooe
iiaoi?ii IIIE, yei aeieeathoue iacaaaeath/e ia i?iaaaeaii eo?ne
eiina?aaoeaiiai eieoaaiiy, aai iayaiinoue neiae?iio ia?inoath/i?
noaeeii-iiceiai? iaaeinoaoiinoi aac IIIE.

O oai?eo ic ieethceaieie i noaiicoaaeueieie o?aaeaiiyie
aeno?ae?aiiaeueieo aiaeaeieia ANA, yeei caeieniaia iia?aoeaia ei?aeoeiy
noaeei i a iiaeaeueoiio ?aaoey?ii i?iaiaeeeeny eo?ne iaaeeeaiaioiciiai
eieoaaiiy, iiaoi?ieo iinoeueoia ia aeieeaei.

Aecia/aii, ui nai?/anii i?iaaaeaia oi?o?ai/ia eieoaaiiy (aei aeieeiaiiy
oyaeeeo ioaii/ieo iinoeueoia, yei i?ecaiaeyoue aei iiaaeiaeecaoei?
oai?eo) aeicaiey? iaeaieueo aaeaeaaoii aiaeiiaeoe iiceiaee e?iaioie i
noa? iaaeieiith i?ioieaeoeeith aino?i? oa o?iii/ii? iaaeinoaoiinoi
iiceiaiai e?iaiiaiao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. Ia iiaenoaai caeieniaiiy
eiiieaeno no/anieo eeiiiei-iino?oiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue iiaoi?ieo
ioaiie aieiaiiai iiceo ieethceaii-noaiicoaaeueiiai aaiaco i aea/aiiy
aeaieo i?i iniaeeainoi eeiii/iiai ia?aaiao aino?i? oea?aa?iaaneoey?ii?
iaaeinoaoiinoi, ni?e/eiaii? ieethceaieie i noaiicoaaeueieie i?ioeanaie
ANA, ?ic?iaeaii eeiii/ii e?eoa?i? aeey aeyaeaiiy i ooi/iaiiy ieethceaieo
i noaiicoaaeueieo i?ioeania ANA.

Aacoth/enue ia ii?iaiyeueiiio aiaeici aiaeaeaeaieo ?acoeueoaoia
iaaeeeaiaioiciiai oa oi?o?ai/iiai eieoaaiiy ioaiie aieiaiiai iiceo,
ni?e/eiaieo ieethceaieie oa noaiicoaaeueieie i?ioeanaie ANA, ?ic?iaeaii
niinia iiaeeaiaeoaeueiiai iiaeoiaeo iiae /an aeai?o iaaeeeaiaioiciiai oa
oi?o?ai/iiai iaoiaeia i?ioieaeoeee i eieoaaiiy o ?aci ieethceaieo i
noaiicoaaeueieo i?ioeania ANA, anoaiiaeaii e?eoa?i? iai?aaeaiiy oai?eo
ia iia?aoeaia eieoaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo ioi?iie caei?ia”y: a
iae?ioi?o?ai/iiio aiaeaeieaiii Ee?anueei? eeiii/ii? eiea?ii oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae, a iaa?ieiai/iiio aiaeaeieaiii Eueaianueei?
eeiii/ii? iaeanii? eiea?ii, a iaa?ieiai/iiio aiaeaeieaiii eeiii/ii?
eiea?ii Eueaianueei? caeicieoei, a iaa?ieiai/iiio aiaeaeieaiii eiea?ii
oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i.Eueaiaa, a iaa?ieiai/iiio aiaeaeieaiii
*a?iiaaoeueei? iaeanii? ineoiao?i/ii? eiea?ii, a iaa?ieiai/iiio
noaeeiiiio aiaeaeieaiii 3-? iinueei? eeiii/ii? eiea?ii i.*a?iiaoei oa a
iaa/aeueiee i?ioean ia eaoaae?i oaeaeei? oa iaaiaeeeaaeii? iaaee/ii?
aeiiiiiae i eaoaae?i iae?ioi?o?ai? EIAII ii.I.E.Ooieea, ia eaoaae?i
ia?aiaeo oai?ia Aoeiaeinueei? aea?aeaaii? iaaee/ii? Aeaaeaii?, ui
iiaeoaa?aeo?oueny aeoaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoeiy ? naiinoieiei aeineiaeaeaiiyi
aaoi?a. Iei ?ic?iaeaia ea?oa ianoaaeaiiy oai?iai, iniaenoi i?iaaaeaii
ianoaaeaiiy i iaaeeeaiaioicia eieoaaiiy anio oai?eo, noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea
i iaoeiaa iioa?i?aoaoeiy anio io?eiaieo aeaieo, iiaeaioiaea iaoeiaeo
noaoae. Ioi?ieaiiy aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe i aaoi?aoa?aoo caeieniaii
aaoi?ii naiinoieii.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei?. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo
aeineiaeaeaiue iiaiaeiieaii ia I Iaoeiiiaeueiiio eiia?ani
iaa?iiaoieiaia, ineoiao?ia i ia?eieiaia Oe?a?ie (Oa?eia, 20-23 o?aaiy
1997 ?.), ia eiioa?aioei? iieiaeeo o/aieo EIAII (Ee?a, 19 a?oaeiy 1997
?.), ia thaaeieiie eiioa?aioei?, i?enay/aiie 80-?i//th EIAII
ii.I.E.Ooieea (Ee?a, 26-27 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.), ia nani? Aeaaeaii? iaoe
aeui? oeiee (Ee?a, 19 a?oaeiy 1997 ?.).

Ioaeieaoei?. Iniiaii iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii o 12
ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao, c ieo: 4 o i?ioieueieo iaaee/ieo aeo?iaeao, 6 o
cai?ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 2 a iaoa?iaeao iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioeie.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. Aeena?oaoeiy aeeiiaia ia 135 noi?iieao
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo oa neeaaea?oueny ci anooio, iaeyaeo eioa?aoo?e,
aeeeaaeo iaoiaeia aeineiaeaeaiiy oa oa?aeoa?enoeee ianoaaeaieo oai?eo,
?icaeieo ?acoeueoaoia aeanieo niinoa?aaeaiue, aiaeico i ocaaaeueiaiiy
?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue, aeniiaeia oa ia?aeieo eioa?aoo?e, yeee
iinoeoue 210 aeaea?ae, c ieo 137 – aio/eciyieo i 73 – ca?oaiaeieo.
?iaioa iethno?iaaia 15 ?enoieaie oa 14 oaaeeoeyie.

CIINO ?IAIOE

Iaoa?iaee oa iaoiaee aeineiaeaeaiiy. A iniiao ?iaioe iieeaaeaiee
iaoa?iae eiiieaeniiai eeiiiei-iino?oiaioaeueiiai ianoaaeaiiy i
eaoaiianoe/iiai niinoa?aaeaiiy 120 oai?eo c iiaoi?ieie ii?ooaiiyie
iiceiaiai e?iaiiaiao a ea?ioeaeiiio aanaeii i?e ieethceaieo i
noaiicoaaeueieo i?ioeanao aeno?ae?aiiaeueieo aiaeaeieia ANA, yei
ia?aaoaaee ia eieoaaiii a iae?inoaeeiiiio aiaeaeieaiii Ee?anueei?
eeiii/ii? eiea?ii oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae c 1988 ii 1997 ?., aea
aacothoueny eaoaae?a oaeaeei? oa iaaiaeeeaaeii? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae i
eaoaae?a iae?ioi?o?ai? Ee?anueei? iaaee/ii? aeaaeaii? iineyaeeieiiii?
inaioe ii.I.E.Ooieea.

Aeey ii?iaiyiiy aoei i?iaiaeiciaaii a?oie oai?eo, yei io?eiaee
eiiieaenia eieoaaiiy ic canoinoaaiiyi oi?o?ai/iiai eieoaaiiy,
ni?yiiaaiiai ia onoiaiiy aeaoi?iaoei? noaeeie, ui oo?oaeithaaea e?iaioie
(60 oai?eo), i yei io?eiaee eeoa iaaeeeaiaioicia eieoaaiiy (60 oai?eo)
aieii aiae 27 aei 65 ?ieia. *ieiaieia aoei 68, aeiiie – 52.

Iaoiaee aeineiaeaeaiiy aeeth/aee eiiieaenia eeiiiei-iaa?ieiai/ia
ianoaaeaiiy oai?eo, OCAeA, AA, EO. O 65% oai?eo i?iaiaeeee ssI?O.

Eeiii/ia ianoaaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/aei aea/aiiy aiaiiaco, ioeiieo /eiieeia
?eceeo caoai?thaaiiy. Iaia”yceiaei aoa aiaeic oeio ioaii/iiai o?aaeaiiy
iiceo – IIIE, II i i?ia?anoth/a aeenoee?eoeyoi?ia aioeaoaeiiaoiy.
?iaaiue ii?ooaiiy naiaeiiinoi aecia/aee ca eeaneoieaoei?th
A.I.Eiiiaaeiaa (1985), ui iinoeoue iaeaieueo iioi?iaoeaii iaa?ieiai/ii
iciaee, ii?aeiaiiy yeeo aeicaiey? aecia/eoe ?icii oace ii?ooaiiy
naiaeiiinoi. E?ii oeueiai, aeey aecia/aiiy oyaeeinoi noaio ie
aeei?enoiaoaaee oeaeo eii Aeacai. Nooiiiue ?ooiaeo i iiaieo ii?ooaiue
oienoaaee ca nenoaiith A.N.Eaaeeeiaa (1991), iiaieo – E.A.Noiey?iai?
(1973). Iniaeeai? oaaae iaaeaaaee iaeueiaoei? oa aoneoeueoaoei? niiieo
a?oa?ie ia oe?.

Oeueo?acaoeiao aeiiie??ia?aoith i?iaiaeeee ia no/aniiio
aeiiie??ianueeiio niaeo?iaiaeicaoi?i oi?ie “Appleton Floscan Plus”
(Aiaeiy). O anio oai?eo ianoaaeoaaee e?iaioie o caaaeueiie niiiie
a?oa?i?, ANA, iaaeaeieiaeo a?oa?iyo, o?aaoeaaeo a?oa?iyo, a oaeiae
e?iaioie o ?aci eiii?anni? eiio?eaoa?aeueii? caaaeueii? niiii? a?oa?i? i
aieie o?aaoeaai? a?oa?i?. Iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie aeiiie??ianueeiai
niaeo?a aoee iaeneiaeueia nenoiei/ia /anoioa, eiioeaaa aeianoiei/ia
/anoioa, na?aaeiy /anoioa e?iaioieo ca oeeee (N*EOe), eiiieia
oaeaeeinoue e?iaioieo (EOE), yei ae?aoiaoaaeenue o nenoaii “Appleton”
aaoiiaoe/ii.

AA-ianoaaeaiiy aeno?a- i iio?ae?aiiaeueieo noaeei ea?ioeaeiiai aanaeio
aoei i?iaaaeaii anii oai?ei. O 60% aeiaaeeia aeineiaeaeoaaee iaeaeai
niiii a?oa?i?.

No?oeoo?ii iniaeeainoi aieiaiiai iiceo aea/aee ca aeiiiiiaith
aio/eciyiiai ?aioaaiianueeiai eiii”thoa?iiai oiiia?aoa N?O-1010 i
yaea?ii-iaaiioii-?aciiainiiai oiiia?aoa MR-MAX ae?iaieoeoaa oi?ie
“General Electric” (NOA). Oiiia?aoi/iee aiaeic iinoea caaaeueio
aicoaeueio ioeiieo i eieueeinii iieacieee. Iaoieiai/ii ciiie ioeiithaaee
o oaeee niinia: eieaeicaoeiy aiaieua, neaiae aiae iueiai (aiii-, aiia?-
aai iciaeainiee aei ioi/oth/eo oeaiei), ?icii?e (o ii), oi?ia (e?oaea,
aeoyaiooa, iai?aaeeueia oa ii.), eiioo? (?iaiee aai ia?iaiee, /ioeee aai
ia/ioeee), aioo?ioiy no?oeoo?a (iaeii?iaeia aai iaiaeii?iaeia ic
cacia/aiiyi oa?aeoa?o iaiaeii?iaeiinoi), noai ioi/oth/eo oeaiei
(oeoii/eiai? nenoaie oa noaa?aoii?aeaeueiiai i?inoi?o, iayaiinoue
ciiuaiiy, iaa?yeo iiceo, ia”?iii? aei? ia iicie).

O ?iaioi aeei?enoaii a?oiaiee iaoa?iae: inoi?i? oai?ia iaoei?ioia c
aino?eie ii?ooaiiyie iiceiaiai e?iaiiaiao (AIIE), yei ia?aaoaaee a
iae?inoaeeiiiio aiaeaeieaiii Ee?anueei? eeiii/ii? eiea?ii oaeaeei?
iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae c 1988 ii 1997 ?.

Iaea?aeaii ?acoeueoaoe noaoenoe/ii ia?iaeaii. Ioeiieo ca”yceo iiae
?yaeaie niinoa?aaeaiue i?iaiaeeee ca aeiiiiiaith e?eoa?ith eooiaiai
ia?aoai?aiiy ( ) Oioa?a (Aoaea? A.A., 1978).

?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue oa ?o iaaiai?aiiy. I?iaaaeaiee aiaeic 2026
inoi?ie oai?iae iaoei?ioia c AIIE , yei ia?aaoaaee a iae?inoaeeiiiio
aiaeaeieaiii Ee?anueei? eeiii/ii? eiea?ii oaeaeei? iaaee/ii? aeiiiiiae c
1988 ii 1997 ?. canaiae/ea, ui eieueeinoue II neeaaeaea 72% aiae onio
AIIE. Caeaaieueoiai oea aoee ethaee iieiaeiai aieo 30-60 ?ieia.
Iaeaieueo /anoith i?e/eiith ioaii/iiai iinoeueoo aoea iaoieiaiy
iaaino?aeueieo a?oa?ie aieiae (70%), a oiio /enei aeno?ae?aiiaeueieo
aiaeaeieia (55%). Oai?i c iiaoi?ieie ii?ooaiiyie iiceiaiai e?iaiiaiao
neeaee 40%.

Na?aae 120 oai?eo ic iiaoi?ieie ii?ooaiiyie iiceiaiai e?iaiiaiao a
ea?ioeaeiiio aanaeii o ?aci ieethceaieo i noaiicoaaeueieo i?ioeania
aeno?ae?aiiaeueieo aiaeaeieia ANA, yei aoee ianoaaeaii iaie, o 34
(28,3%) niinoa?aaeaiiyo iiaoi?ii ii?ooaiiy iiceiaiai e?iaiiaiao
aeyaeyeeny o aeaeyaei eeoa IIIE, o 86 (71,7%) – o aeaeyaei II. I?ioa,
aeaoaeueiee cai? aiaiiaco c”ynoaaa, ui o 35 oai?eo c iiaoi?ieie ioaiiyie
o aeaeyaei II caoai?thaaiiy aeaathooaaei ye IIIE. Oiaoi, o aeiaaeeao, ui
?o i?iaiaeiciaaii, ii/aoie caoai?thaaiiy o aeaeyaei IIIE aiaecia/aii o
57,5% (69 aeiaaeeia), ui ei?aeth? c aeaieie eioa?aoo?e (Iie?ianeee A.A.,
1986).

Na?aae /eiieeia ?eceeo i?iaiaeia iinoea caeiaa aoa?ineea?ic, yeee
aeyaeaii o 89,1% oai?eo. Ca aeaieie Aeoaaiei ?.A.(1989), oeae iieaciee
neeaaea? aiae 53 aei 97%. O 69,1% oai?eo aeyaeaii ii?aeiaiiy
aoa?ineea?ico c a?oa?iaeueiith aiia?oaici?th, i eeoa o 5,6% – c
aiiioiii?th aianeiaeie ii?ooaiiy na?aeoeaai? aeiyeueiinoi. I?ioa neiae
cacia/eoe, ui a 49,6% aeiaaeeia II aeieeee ia oei ia?aiaaeia
a?oa?iaeueiiai oeneo (AO), a naia, o 39,6%- ia oei iiaeaeuaiiy AO i a
10%- ia oei eiai cieaeaiiy. Aeieeiaiiy ioaii/ieo noaiia iiae /an
cieaeaiiy AO aoei iaeaieueo oa?aeoa?iei aeey oaeeo ciii ANA, ye
iiaeiaaeaiiy, iaoeaooai?aiiy, ia?aaeie. *eiieeaie ?eceeo II o ?aci
ieethceaieo i noaiicoaaeueieo o?aaeaiue aeno?ae?aiiaeueieo aiaeaeieia
ANA aoee oaeiae ioaii/ia oai?iaa na?aeoey (ION) – 33,3%, ceiaaeeaaiiy
iieioeiii – 22,1% oa aeeiaieai – 20%, oeoe?iaee aeiaaao – 2,5% oa
?aaiaoeci – 2,5%.

Eeiii/iee aiaeic ii?ooaiue naiaeiiinoi naiae/eoue, ui aieueoa ae?aaeaii
ii?ooaiiy naiaeiiinoi aoee o oai?eo, eiee ioaii/ii ii?ooaiiy aeieeaee ia
oei a?oa?iaeueiii aiia?oaici?, i iaioa ae?aaeaii – o oai?eo c iinoeueoii
iaoiiaeaiei eeoa aoa?ineea?icii. Iaeaieueo ae?aaeaii ii?ooaiiy
naiaeiiinoi niinoa?iaaeeny oaeiae o ?aci ii?aeiaiiy o?aaeaiue
ea?ioeaeii? i aa?oaa?aeueii-aaceey?ii? nenoaie.

Aieiaiee aieue, caeaaieueoiai ia?iceee, niinoa?iaaany o 34,2%
ianoaaeaieo oai?eo, caiiii?i/aiiy nenoaiiiai oa?aeoa?o o 18,3%. Ic
aiaieuaai? neiioiiaoeee aaiiieaaith aeyaeaii – o 19,2% oai?eo,
ae?aaeaiee aaiiia?ac – o 25,8%, iiii?ii ae?aaeaiee – o 27,5% oai?eo,
eaaeee – o 14,2% oai?eo, a oaeiae ?iceaaee /ooeeaino? ca aaiioeiii o
anio oeeo aeiaaeeao. O 74,2% oai?eo ?ooiai ii?ooaiiy i ?iceaaee
/ooeeaino? noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny iaaeinoaoi?noth VII oa XII ia? /a?aiieo
ia?aia ii oeaio?aeueiiio oeio. Iioeei-ii?aiiaeiee neiae?ii
niinoa?iaaany a 13,3% aeiaaeeia, ia?aaaaeii o aeiaaeeao caoaeaiiy
a?oa?i? iiiaae 60%. O 9,2% oai?eo AIIE noi?iaiaeaeoaaeeny noaeiiaie, ye
aiaieuaaiai, oae i aaia?aeiciaaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Caeaaieueoiai noaeiie
aeieeaee o oai?eo noa?oiai aieo c o?aaeaiiyie ca oeiii ia?aaeiia,
iiaeiaaeaiue, iaoeaooai?aiue.

O eeiii/iie aeiaaiinoeoei iiae /an ia”?eoeaiiai ianoaaeaiiy aaaeeeao
?ieue aiaeia?aaaee iaoiaee iaeueiaoei? i aoneoeueoaoei? noaeei oe?.
Cieaeaiiy ioeuenaoei? aoei aeyaeaii a 35% aeiaaeeia, iineeaiiy – o
29,9%. O ?aci aeyaeaiiy ciii ioeuenaoei? noaeeie aeieea? iiaeic?a ia
ciiie a aeno?ae?aiiaeueieo aiaeaeieao niiieo a?oa?ie. Aieue iiae /an
iaeueiaoei? noaeei oe? (11,7% aeiaaeeia) ni?e/eith? iiaeic?o ia aino?ee
o?iiaic. Nenoiei/iee ooi iaae noaeeiith ? aaccaia?a/iith iciaeith
noaiicoaaiiy a?oa?i?. I?ioa neiae cacia/eoe, ui o ?aci iiaii? ieethci?
noaeeie nenoiei/iee ooi iiaea cieeaoe i ciia iiiiaethaaoeny o ca”yceo c
?icaeoeii ?aeaiae?caoe?? e?iaiiaiao. Iecueeee aiaenioie aeyaeaiiy
nenoiei/ieo ooiia (24,2%) ei?aeth? c aeaieie Aaa?iaeyia A.N. i niiaaao.
(1991), yei aeyaeee nenoiei/ii ooie eeoa o 27% oai?eo. Iniaeeaa
cia/aiiy, ia iaoo aeoieo, ia? iaeueiaoeiy oa aoneoeueoaoeiy noaeei oe? o
oai?eo c aiaenooiinoth eeiii/ii? iaiioanoaoei? caoai?thaaiiy
(aacneiioiiii ieethci? oa noaiice), yei caa?oathoueny aei eiea?y c
i?eaiaeo aeenoee?eoeyoi?ii? aioeaoaeiiaoi? oa a?oa?iaeueii? aiia?oaici?.

Iiaeic?a ia ieethceaii i noaiicoaaeueii o?aaeaiiy ea?ioeae o oeeo
aeiaaeeao aeicaiey? a/anii aeiaaiinooaaoe aacneiioiiii noaaei? oai?iae,
ia?aaeaa/eoe ?ecee aeieeiaiiy ii?ooaiiy iiceiaiai e?iaiiaiao i aea?aoe
iioeiaeueio oaeoeeo ?o eieoaaiiy i i?ioieaeoeee.

Iaeiei c iaeaieueo iioi?iaoeaieo iaoiaeia aeiaaiinoeee o ?aci iiaeic?e
ia ciiie a niiieo a?oa?iyo ? OCAeA, yea aea? iiaeeeainoue aecia/eoe
ieethci?, noaiice, iaoei, ia?aaeie niiieo a?oa?ie i cie?aia ?o
aeno?ae?aiiaeueieo aiaeaeieia, iaaioue o oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee eeiiiea
ioaii? iiceo ae?aaeaia iaei. Iaoieiai/ii ciiie noaeei aoee aeyaeaii o
anio ianoaaeaieo.

O ?aci noaiico aei 50% i?inaioo noaeeie (o 45% oai?eo) i o ?aci noaiico
– 50-75% (o 32,5% oai?eo) niinoa?iaaeiny iiaeaeuaiiy EOE i N*EOe o
iinoei noaiico, cieaeaiiy EOE aeenoaeueiioa i i?ieneiaeueiioa noaiico ca
?aooiie nenoiei/ii? i aeianoiei/ii? ?i neeaaeiaeo aiaeiiaiaeii. ?iaaiue
aeianoiei/iiai iii?o aeenoaeueiioa noaiico cieaeoaaany, a
i?ieneiaeueiioa – iiaeaeuoaaany. O aeiaaeeao ae?aaeaiiai noaiico (

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