EUeA?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? ?AAIA O?AIEA

OAeE 808.3–7

EIIIA?IAeNUeEA Aaeaioeia Eaa?aio??aia

AA?AAEUeIEE EIIIIIAIO O?AAeEOe?EIIAI IIOIAAEUeIIAI IA?ssAeO A IIE?NUeEEO
AIAI?AO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.01 – oe?a?inueea iiaa

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? oe?a?inueei? iiae AEeoiie?nueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ieeii/oe
Ieeiea Aaneeueiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae
AEeoiie?nueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe – aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iiethaa Eaa
Ieoaeeiae/, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa
?i. ?. E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie;

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio A?aonye Ieoaeei Aaneeueiae/,
aeioeaio eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae I?eea?iaonueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
Aaneey Noaoaieea.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e
ae?aeaeoieia??.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 14 a?oaeiy 1999 ?. i 10.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.35.051.06 o Euea?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290602 i. Euea?a, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Euea?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (290005 i. Euea?a, aoe.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 12 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe C.I.Oa?eae

7

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Oi?iaeiaae inoaii?o aeanyoee?oue o neia’yiiciaanoa? iii?oii c??n ?ioa?an
aei aea/aiiy noa?iaeeoiinoae o noeoiiino? aeaiaio?a iaoa??aeueii? e
aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e oa ?o iii?iaoe??. C’yaeany ?yae aeine?aeaeaiue,
cae?eniaieo ia noi?aeae? e?iaa?noeee, aoiia?ao??, ?noi???, a?oaieia??,
aaia?ao??, ye? iiaoaeiaai? ia neioac? iaoiae?a oa aca?iiiio iiaiaeaeaii?
na?ae/aiue ? ?acoeueoao?a oeeo ??cieo iaoe.

Iiaa ye aeaiaio ? cia?yaeaey eoeueoo?e aoea ? caeeoa?oueny aaaeeeaei
aeaea?aeii aeey ?aeiino?oeoe?? aeaaiuei? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e. Oiio
aeooaeueiei ? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiaoe/ieo a?oi eaeneee, iia’ycaieo c
o?aaeeoe?eiith iaoa??aeueiith e aeooiaiith eoeueoo?ith, aeya ??
i?inoi?iai? aa??aoeaiino? ia i?aenoaa? ea?oia?aooaaiiy. O
caaaeueiineia’yinueeiio eiioaeno? aeooaeueiei ? aea/aiiy iaoa??aeueii? e
aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e Iie?nny ye iaei??? c a?oa?/ieo cii Neaa??. Ie?ai?
oaiaoe/i? a?oie eaeneee iie?nueeeo aiai??a aeieeaaeii ?ai?acaioiaai? a
aeine?aeaeaiiyo I.Ieeii/oea, A.Nieieianueei?, O.Aaa?y, E.Aeaiiii?,
A.Aaooi?o, ?.Oo?/ei, ?.Eo/eoey-Oaaei?oey, A.Oo?a, A.Eo?eeaiea,
?.*a?aiaiiai?, I.Ieeii/oea, I. ?aoooea, E.Aei?ioaiei, A.A?eooeia oa ?i.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a aeine?aeaeaii? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e Iie?nny iaeaaeeoue
aea/aiith ia?yae?a oa ?o iii?iaoe??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy eaene/iiai iiey
ia?yaeo ye oe?e?niiai aeieo o?aaeeoe?eii? eoeueoo?e a?aeiia?aea?
caaaeaiiyi aea/aiiy iaoaiiae ia?iaeii? eoeueoo?e (aeea. i?aoe?
I.Oienoiai, N.Oienoi?, E.Aeiia?aaeiai?, I.Ao?e, I.N?aeaeiai?,
I.Oa?iianueei?, A.AEo?aaeueiaa, I.Aaa?eethe, I.?iiaithea, I.A?aonyea,
A.Iien??iea, I.Oiacae oa ?i.).

Iie?nueeee iioiaaeueiee ia?yae iniaeeai oe?iiee aeey aeine?aeieea
neia’yinueei? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e ye aeaai?e ? eiina?aaoeaiee ia?yae
iaei??? c a?oa?/ieo neia’yinueeeo cii. I?ioa aein? ia cae?eniaii
aeieeaaeieo caien?a oeueiai ia?yaeo ia anueiio Iie?nn?, ia
nea?oia?aoiaaii iaoa??ae, ia iienaii eiai iii?iaoeaiee ?aia?ooa?. Oiio
ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii aa?aaeueiee eiiiiiaio iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo oe?a?inueeeo iie?nueeeo ae?aeaeo?a oa i?eeaaeeo aei ieo
i?aaeaiiia?ei?onueeeo aia??ie ia oe? aeoe?iiaeueii? oa iaoa??aeueii?
noi??i ia?yaeo.

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noth o?enaoe??
na?ae/aiue i?i iie?nueeee iioiaaeueiee ia?yae oa eiai iii?iaoe?th, aeyao
oeyoii ea?oia?aooaaiiy i?inoi?iai? aa??aoeaiino? ia?yaeo oa anaa?/iiai
eiiieaeniiai eiai aea/aiiy ye iaei??? c eaiie oe?a?inueei? o?aaeeoe?eii?
eoeueoo?e.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?: iien iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo oa eiai iii?iaoe?? a
iie?nueeeo aiai?ao; aoiie?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo; aeya noaeeo ? aa??aoeaieo eiai aeaiaio?a; c’ynoaaiiy no?oeoo?e
oa aaiaceno ie?aieo neeaaeiaeo ia?yaeo oa eiai oe?eino?.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ?ica’ycaoe oae?
caaaeaiiy:

1) cae?enieoe o?enaoe?th oa?eoi??aeueieo aa??aio?a iie?nueeiai
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo, aeine?aeeoe eiai no?oeoo?o oa iii?iaoe?th;

2) cae?enieoe iien iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiai? iii?iaoe?? iie?nueeeo aiai??a o
oe?ieiio aeno?ae?iaaaeueiiio eiioaeno?, ui ia?aaeaa/a? ?icaeyae
i?aaeiaoii-ae?eiaiai neeaaeo ia?yaeo ye iaaa?aaeueiiai oaenoo;

3) anoaiiaeoe a?aeiioaiiy naiaioeee ? neiaie?ee eaeneee oa
i?aaeiaoii-ae?eiaiai neeaaeo iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo Iie?nny aei oeiiaeo
neia’yinueeeo iiaieo nai?ioe/ieo nenoai;

4) aeyaeoe a o?aaeeoe?eiiio iie?nueeiio iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? ?oaeeiaioe
aeaaiueiai neia’yinueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo o ca’yceo c i?o?/ieie
oyaeaiiyie neia’yi i?i nia?oue oa iioiea?/ia aeeooy;

5) c’ynoaaoe a?aaeia?th iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiai? oa?i?iieia?? oa iaeeieoeue
iaaa?aaeueiiai oaenoo ia?yaeo.

Aeaea?aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iineoaeeee aeani? iieueia? caiene
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo, cae?eniai? a 130 i.i. Iie?nny oi?iaeiaae
1982-1992 ??. ca ieoaeueieeii c iiiaae 300 ieoaiue; ye aeaea?aei
caeo/aii iioae?eiaai? caiene oe?a?inueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo oa
ia?yaeo ?ioeo no?aeieo neia’yi, a oaeiae na?ae/aiiy neiaiee?a, aoean?a,
aoiia?ao?/ieo i?aoeue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiia ? ia?oith a oe?a?i?noeoe?
ni?iaith aeine?aeaeaiiy aa?aaeueii? noi?iie iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo
Iie?nny ia oe? ia?yaeo ye iie?eiiiiiaioii? oe?eino?; a i?e oia?oa
aaaaeaii a iaoeiaee ia?a cia/iee ca ianyaii ae?aeaeoiee oa aoiia?ao?/iee
iaoa??ae, yeee a?aeaeaa? noai caa?aaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?eiiai iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo o 80-90 ??. OO no. o oe?e a?oa?/i?e cii? Neaa??.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iiaeeaeaii? iieiaeaiue i?i
aeaoa?i?i?ci, aca?iicoiiaeai?noue aa?aaeueiiai, aeoe?iiaeueiiai ?
?aaeueiiai ieai?a ia?yaeo, a oaeineiiaeaii? iaoiaeo ?aeiino?oeoe??
?oaeeiaio?a aeaaiueiai neia’yinueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo oa eiai
aa?aaeueieo eiiiiiaio?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o o?enaoe?? e caa?aaeaii?
e?iaaaeueiiai, aoiia?ao?/iiai oa oieueeei?iiai iaoa??aeo, yeee iiaea
aooe aeei?enoaiee o ae?aeaeoi?e eaeneeia?ao??, neia’yinuee?e aoeiieia??,
o neioaoe/ieo i?aoeyo c oe?a?inueei? ae?aeaeoieia??, aoiia?ao??, a
oaeiae o e?iaai- oa aoiiaeeaeaeoeoe? aeui? oeiee.

?iaioa ai?iaiaaia a aeiiia?aeyo ia OV, OV?, OV?? ?anioae?eainueeeo
ae?aeaeoieia?/ieo ia?aaeao (AEeoiie?, 1983, 1990; Ee?a, 1997), ia ???
i?ae?anioae?eainuee?e ae?aeaeoieia?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? (Aiiaeue, 1985), ia
ananithcieo eiioa?aioe?yo (Iineaa, 1985; Oa?e?a, 1991), ia can?aeaii?
eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae AEeoiie?nueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeaeoi a aeaa’yoe ioae?eaoe?yo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, ?icae?e?a
“O?aaeeoe?eiee iioiaaeueiee ia?yae ye ia’?eo aoiia?ao?/iiai oa
e?iaa?noe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy”, “Aa?aaeueia ?ai?acaioaoe?y iie?nueeiai
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo”, “I?inoi?iaa aa??aioi?noue iie?nueeiai
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo”, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (36
iaeeieoeue) oa e?oa?aoo?e (238 iaeeieoeue), aeiaeaoe?a, ye? aeeth/athoue
nienie ianoaaeaieo ianaeaieo ioieo?a Iie?nny, “Aoean iie?nueeiai
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo” c 248 ea?o oa eiiaioa??a aei ieo,
iaea?oia?aoiaai? iaoa??aee. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? – 673 noi??iee.

Ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? aecia/aii ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai i?noea a nenoai?
aeine?aeaeaiue neia’yinueeeo noa?iaeeoiinoae oa iie?nueei? eoeueoo?e,
ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ? iaoeiao iiaecio oaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo
? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, oai?aoe/ia e i?aeoe/ia ?? cia/aiiy, ie?aneaii
aeaea?aea aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “O?aaeeoe?eiee iioiaaeueiee ia?yae ye ia’?eo
aoiia?ao?/iiai oa e?iaa?noe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy” neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio
i?ae?icae?e?a: 1) “?noi??ia?ao?y aeine?aeaeaiiy no?aeiineia’yinueeiai
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo”, 2) “Aa?aaeueiee eiiiiiaio o?aaeeoe?eiiai
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo ye ia’?eo e?iaa?noe/iiai aea/aiiy. I?eeiie ?
iaoiaee”, 3) “No?oeoo?a, ?noi?e/i? ei?ai? o?aaeeoe?eiiai iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo”.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? iiaeaii iaeyae i?aoeue, o yeeo iayai? caiene e
aeine?aeaeaiiy no?aeiineia’yinueeiai oa aa??aio?a oe?a?inueeiai
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo (i?aoe? A.Aiaothea, C.Eocae?, ?.A?iueeianueeiai,
I.*oaeinueeiai, A.A??i/aiea, I.Iaeneiiae/a, I.Noioeiaa,
?.Na?ioe?oeueeiai, O.ssuo?aeeinueeiai, E.Eai/aanueeiai, TH.Ei?oa,
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, O.Eieanne, ?.O?aiea, ?.Aa?aiiaa, I.Iaeeiee, I.?aaiiaa
oa ?i.). Ni?iae ??ciiieaiiaiai aiae?co neia’yinueeiai iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo oa ie?aieo eiai aeaiaio?a iiaeaii a i?aoeyo I.Eioey?aanueeiai,
I.Aoaianue?aa, I.Iioaai?, Ae.Aio/eia, Ae.Caeai?ia, I.Aiaaoe?ueiaa oa ?i.
Aeine?aeaeaiith eiiieaeno /e ie?aieo ?eooae?a, iia’ycaieo c iioiaaiiyi
oa iiieiaiiyi iiia?eeo, i?enay/aii i?aoe? I.Aaeaoeueei?, I.N?aeaeiai?,
I.Oienoiai, N.Oienoi? oa ?i. I?ioa /anoi iia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
??oioothoueny ia?aaaaeii ia noa?eo aoiia?ao?/ieo oa oieueeei?ieo
aeaea?aeao, ia ie?aieo, /anoi o?aaiaioa?ieo iienao e. O?O — ii/. OO no.,
na?aae yeeo iaa?oue iaeiiai?o? caiene ia caaeiaieueiythoue no/anieo
aeiia /a?ac aacnenoaii?noue, aeiouaiiy o?aaiaio?a ia?yaeo; aei oiai ae
caiene ia ioiieththoue on??? aoi?/ii? oe?a?inueei? oa?eoi???, ?iiae? ia
iathoue eieae?caoe??. *anoi caiene c?iaeaii ?in?enueeith iiaith, a
e?auiio aeiaaeeo – oe?a?inueeith e?oa?aoo?iith, ? eeoa ?iiae? – c?
caa?aaeaiiyi iniaeeainoae aia??ee. ? yeui a iiaiciaanoa? aaea ?nio?
oyaeaiiy i?i ae?aeaeoiee neia’yinueeee eaiaeoaoo, oi o noa??
o?aaeeoe?eii? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e aeine?aeieee ia iathoue ?ioi?iaoe??
i?i a?aaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo oeeo yaeu.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? aecia/aii iniiaiee ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy –
iii?iaoe?y iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo ye iaeei ?c aeie?a iaoaiiae
o?aaeeoe?eii? ia?iaeii? eoeueoo?e; a iiiyooy iioiaaeueiee ia?yae ye
ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? aeeth/aii ia eeoa ?eooaeueii
ioi?ieaiee aeo iioiaaiiy iiia?ei? ethaeeie, a e o?eaaeee o /an? ?yae
?eooaeueieo ? iaa?/ieo ae?e a?ae i?iaiicoaaiiy nia?o? aei iioiaaiiy e
aeyaeaiiy ii/anoae iiia?eiio aei, i?ae /an ? i?ney iioiaaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? oaeiae ie?aneaii iniiai? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy –
iieniaee oa e?iaaiaaia?ao?/iee. O iueiio cacia/aii, ui iaoea i?i
neia’yinuee? yce/ieoeuee? noa?iaeeoiino? cia/ii ?icoe?eea iiaeeeaino?
c?noaaiiai aea/aiiy neia’yinueei? eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe?? a iaaeao
?iaei?a?iiaenueei? i?oieia?? oa eoeueoo?e caaaeyee iiaei, aeineiiae?oei
iaoiaeai aioo??oiuei? e ciai?oiuei? ?aeiino?oeoe?? oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
iiaieo, aoiia?ao?/ieo ? oieueeei?ieo oaeo?a ? nooo?ai ci?noeea oeaio?
oaaae c ienaiieo aeaea?ae ia na?ae/aiiy ae?aeaeo?a ? ia?iaeii?
eoeueoo?ii? o?aaeeoe??. O iaaeao oeueiai iai?yieo iac??ea iio?aaa a
neioac? e?iaa?noe/ieo oa aoiia?ao?/ieo na?ae/aiue, ui ? i?aaeiaoii
aoiie?iaa?noeee. A iniia? aoiie?iaa?noe/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy
eoeueoo?ieo yaeu ? ?icaeyae onyei? eiie?aoii? ?aae?caoe?? iiaeae? na?oo
ye oaenoo, a yeiio oa?i?iieia?y oeeo yaeu iaaiei /eiii ni?aa?aeianaia c
?ioeie nai?ioe/ieie aeaiaioaie eoeueoo?e – aeoe?iiaeueieie,
i?aaeiaoieie, ia?niiaaeieie oiui.

Ia?yae ? iaei??th c oi?i ethaenueei? iiaaae?iee, a yeeo ?aae?ciaaia
iiaeaeue na?oo, a oiio eiai ia??oioiaaii ?icaeyaeathoue ye oaeno.
Ia?yaeiaee oaeno neeaaei?oee a?ae aeania iiaiiai, ine?eueee noaiiaeoue
?aei?noue aa?aaeueiiai, ?aaeueiiai oa aeoe?iiaeueiiai ieai?a. Oeth
?aei?noue ci?oeith? neiii?i?/i?noue ciae?a, i?aaenoaaeaieo o ?eooae? a
??cieo oi?iao – ?eooaeueiiai neiaa, ?eooaeueii? ?a/?, ?eooaeueiiai aeoo.

Oiae aeine?aeaeaiiy eaeneee ia?yaeo iaiiaeeeaa aac o?aooaaiiy naiaioeee
iicaiiaieo nenoai. Neiii?i?/i?noue /e ?cinai?/i?noue ??ciiieaiiaeo
iaeeieoeue ia?yaeiaiai oaenoo coiiaeaia ni?euei?noth iane??cieo
naiaioe/ieo iciae, oai, iioea?a, ui i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac oaanue ae?eiaee ?
i?aaeiaoiee neeaae ia?yaeo, oi?iothoue eiai oaeno ye oe?e?noue. sse
aeaiaioe ieaio ci?noo oe? iciaee (oaie, iioeae) oi?iothoue oeie
iaceaaiiy ia?yaeiai? ?aaeueiino?. Ioaea, iii?iaoe?y ia?yaeiai?
?aaeueiino?, ui ia? ia?aaaaeii noanoeoooeaiee oa?aeoa?, ?ai?acaioo? ieai
ci?noo iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo, oiaoi iaai? i?oieia?/i? oyaeaiiy, ui
oi?iothoue ia?yaeiaee oaeno. I?eioeei ?cinai??, neiii?i?? iaeeieoeue
eaene/iiai, aeoe?iiaeueiiai oa ?aaeueiiai ieai?a ia?yaeo coiiaeth?
iino?eia caeo/aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo yaeu ?ioeo ieai?a i?e ?icaeyae? oaeoo
iaeiiai c ieo.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? aecia/aii iniiai? eiiiiiaioe iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo ye nai?ioe/ii? oe?eino?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Aa?aaeueia ?ai?acaioaoe?y iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo” neeaaea?oueny c a?n?iiaaeoeyoe i?ae?icae?e?a. A iniiao
no?oeoo?ii? noaie ?icae?eo iieeaaeaii nthaeaoio iine?aeiai?noue
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo; iiae?e ia i?ae?icae?ee ia?aaaaeii coiiaeaiee
aeaiaioaie ia?yaeo.

Aeieeiaiiy iioiaaiue acaaae? ? iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo ye neeaaeiiai
eiiieaeno ?eooaeueii-iaa?/ieo aeo?a aoei coiiaeaia ia eeoa ooee?oa?ieie
iio?aaaie, a e i?o?/ieie oyaeaiiyie: iao? aeaeae? i?aaeee oyaeyee
nia?oue ia ye inoaoi/ia cieeiaiiy, a eeoa ye ci?io noaoono, ye ia?ao?ae
a ?ioee i?ino?? a ?io?e oi?i? aoooy. Iiaeyaee neia’yi-yce/iee?a ia oi?ie
? i?noea iinia?oiiai aoooy noia?a/eea? e iaiine?aeiai?: a?ae a?/iiai
aeaaeainoaa aacieioii? aeoo?, yea iieeioea oe?iia o?ei, a oea?noa?
iaaaniiio – aei i?iaeiaaeaiiy aeeooy a iaoa??aeueieo oi?iao o iiaee? oa
?ioeo i?noeyo ia caie? aae aei aaciina?aaeiuei? aeecueeino? aei aeeaeo.
Noia?a/eeaei ? noaaeaiiy aei naii? nia?o? oa aei iiia?eiai. C iaeiiai
aieo, nia?oue – oea iiaa aeeooy a ?aenueeiio naaeo, aac ai?y,
no?aaeaeaiue, oai?ia, aaaeei? iianyeaeaiii? ai?ioueae ca ?nioaaiiy; c
ae?oaiai, – iaa?aeii?noue, oiio aiia o?eaiaeia e no?aoia. Ei?ai?
eiiieaeno ?eooaeueieo ae?enoa, ui neeaaeaee iioiaaeueiee ia?yae
neia’yi-yce/iee?a, nyaathoue oyaeaiue i?i aeaaeo ia?oaeo iaae aeeaeie ?
oaeiae ??oioothoueny ia ?o iiaea?eiiio ni?eeiyoo?: c iaeiiai aieo,
iiia?eee – oea aeoo-canooiiee, ethaey/ee ? oo?aioeeaee, aeaea?aei
caei?ia’y, oni?o?a oa aeia?iaooo; a c ae?oaiai, – ao?eaiiy oai?ia oa
nia?o?, i?e/eia an?eyeeo iauanoue ? eeoa, iin?e iaaeia?ice/eeaiai
noaaeaiiy oa oe?aeeeaiai aieeao ia aeeaeo ? aeiae?eey. Oaea
noia?a/eea?noue oyaeaiue i?i iioiea?/ia aoooy a?aeaeaa?oueny o an?o
iaeeieoeyo ia?yaeiaiai oaenoo, ia an?o eiai ??aiyo, o an?o aeaiaioao
ia?yaeo.

Iii?iaoe?y a iie?nueeiio iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? oaeiae cia/iith i??ith
a?aeaeaa? aeaai? i?o?/i? oyaeaiiy, ia?aaaaeii ? noanoeoooeaiith,
ine?eueee iinoaea caaeey oieeiaiiy i?yii? caaaeee nia?o?. *anoi a iniia?
?? aeieeiaiiy eaaeeoue iaaiee oaiaoe/iee eiae nia?o? – aei?iaa, inaey,
iae?oaeaiiy, aiaiiue, aiaea oiui. ? iaa?oue iaeo?aeuei? c iiaeyaeo
i?oieia?/iiai iaiiaiaiiy iacae /anoi oaeiae ? iane?aeeii oaao?caoe?? oa
aaoai?caoe?? a iaceaaii?. Oae, aeey iii?iaoe?? iiiyooy ‘aaciaae?eii
oai?ee, oie?ath/ee’ o iie?nueeeo aia??eao a?aeii? iacae, ui i?noyoue o
nia? iioea oo?aoe aeeoo?ai? iioaioe??: oea aea?eaaoe a?ae ei?ai?a
-neaa-, -aiae-, -aeoae- oa iiiaeeiie? iacae ianiiniaiee, iaaa?oiee,
i?eoaeeoi?e. ?yae iaca i?noeoue o nia? iioea a?aeaeeoiai /ano,
aecia/aiiai aeieath; oea eaenaie a?ae ei?ai?a -aee- ? -/an-.
I?oieia?/iei eiaeii aaoai?/ieo iaca iiiyooy ‘aaciaae?eii oai?ee,
oie?ath/ee’ ia c?acie ia aei?ic? o aa?aaeuei?e /anoei?
iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiaiai oaenoo ? aei?iaa, oeyo. Oaia aeeoea, inae?, ui
a?aeaeaa? aeaai? oyaeaiiy i?i oi?ie iioiea?/iiai ?nioaaiiy,
i?aaenoaaeaia iieniaeie iacaaie oeueiai iiiyooy – cae?a?oueny aeiaeiio.
Aeey iii?iaoe?? i?ioeano aaii?? iioe?ai? oa?i?ie eiia?, ui
iai?oanoothoue oaio aeie?, a?eo; iio?aei? a?ae ei?aiy -oiae- oa
iiiaeeiie? iacae caae?a?oueny oa caiaaea? ? ?ai?acaioaioaie oaie
aei?iae, ia?aoiaeo a iioiea?/iee na?o. Oyaeaiiy i?i aeooo oa oi?ie ??
?nioaaiiy i?aaenoaaeai? iii?iaioaie aeooa aeoiaeeoue oa ?caea?oueny.
Iacaa aaii??, yea noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny ia?aaenia?oieie ioeaie, iieooo? ?
ao?eaiiyi ?aea? ea?e, ?icieaoe ?, eiia??ii, i?ci?oei ooai?aiiyi, ui
nyaa? o?enoeyinueei? eoeueoo?e; oyaeaiiyie i?i ia?ao?ae o iioiea?/iee
na?o, i?i aei?iao, iia’ycaio c oeei ia?aoiaeii, i?i o?oaeiiu? iiooe?a
oeyoo iioeaiaai? oa?i?ie, iio?aei? a?ae ei?ai?a -a?iae- ? -aeoae- oa
eieaeueii iaiaaeai? iacae ieooa? ? c ioo? c?toei. Aeine?aeieee
aaaaeathoue, ui oa?i?i iaa?ae/ee ia iicia/aiiy iiia?ei? ethaeeie ?
?ai?acaioaioii oaie aeie?, a?eo o aa?aaeueiiio oaeno? ia?yaeo.
Aaoai?/ieie ? iaeo?aeuei? c iiaeyaeo ca’yceo c i?o?/iei na?oii iacae
iiia?ei? ethaeeie iaaeeaee oa iiiaeeiie? iiiaie iaaeeaaoeue ?
iauaniee. Aaoai?/ia iacaa iie?eiee, iie?eiee a?aeaeaa? ciai?oi? o?ce/i?
iciaee ia?oaiai o?ea. I?ioa oe? eaenaie, iaaooue, ia iicaaaeai? e
i?oieia?/iiai ci?noo: iacaa ia? aeeiioaaoe ua e iaa?/i? ooieoe?? –
caaacia/oaaoe niie?e iiia?eiai ia oiio na?o?, ine?eueee a?aenooi?noue
oaeiai niieith /anoi ? i?e/eiith i?eoiaeo ia?oey aei aeeaeo ?iaee/?a.
Oiae o aeayeeo aeiaaeeao a iniia? aeiai?o cai?iieea oaaoeiaai?e iaca?
eaaeeoue iaiaaaiiy aieeiooe naiaioeeith noanoeoooa ia i?e?iaeo iacaaiiai
iei ia’?eoa a aaaeaiiio iai?yi?. Aoeiieia?? aeathoue i?aenoaae aaa/aoe ?
a iaeaeaai?oeo iacaao nia?o? – iio?aeieo a?ae ei?aiy *mer-
aaoai?caoe?th. Aea?eaaoe a?ae ei?aiy aeii- oa eaenaia oaoa ye iacae
o?oie i?aaenoaaeythoue oaio aeeoea, inae? ieaio ci?noo iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo. A?eueo?noue iaca a?aea?aeei iiia?eiai a eiai inae?, ui
aeacothoue ia iaoo a?ceoo aei iiia?eiai, iio?aei? a?ae ei?ai?a -a?ae-
(-a?ae-, a?aeae-, -a?no-, -a?u-), aiae- (aiae-, -aano-), a oaeiae
eaenaie i?iuaoeny, aei ia?oey oa eieaeueia iacaa iine/aoe iaaiith i??ith
a?aeaeaathoue aeaaith naiaioeeo oeeo a?aea?aeei – cana?ae/eoe naith
iiaaao, i?e/aoi?noue aei aeyaeaiiy ii/anoae c iaoith aeinyaoe
i?eoeeueiino?, ieeinoeaiai noaaeaiiy iie?eieea oa ni?eyiiy eiai c oiai
na?oo. Iniaeeai ae?acii ia ooieoe?iiaeueia ni?yioaaiiy ?eooaeueieo ae?e
i?ae /an a?aea?aeei ‘noaoe ia eie?ia a?ey iiia?eiai’ oa ‘iioe?eoaaoe
iiia?eiai’ aeacothoue ooai?aiiy ia aac? ei?ai?a -cia- ? ciai-
(i?eciaoeny, iiciaiaioaaoeny): nii??aeiai? ciaiaioaaoe oa ciaiaioaaoeny
ye eieaei? a oe?a?inuee?e iia? a?aeii? c? cia/aiiyie a?aeiia?aeii
‘na?ae/eoe i?i ui-iaaoaeue, icia/aoe uinue’ oa ‘a?aecia/aoeny,
a?aei?/aoeny /ei-iaaoaeue’. Oae? iacae i?/iiai ieeueioaaiiy a?ey
iiia?eiai, ye noa?aaoe aeooo (~ ia?oey), aa?ooaaoe, ieeueioaaoe,
aeyae?oe (aeiaeyaeaoe) oa eieaeueia iacaa aa?aaoe iieieieea, oaeiae
a?aeaeaathoue iaai? i?oieia?/i? oyaeaiiy. Aaaeeeaeie ? canoa?aaeaiiy ia
caeeoaoe iiia?eiai ia naiio?, ui /anoi iioe?th?oueny ? ia aeaiue,
caai?iia niaoe aii/? a?ey iie?eieea an?i i?enooi?i iaeii/anii oa ??
iiyniaiiy: iiaea eeoi? aa?aoena ? iiia?eee i?ney iioiaaiiy aoaea
i?eoiaeeoe aei ?iaeeie; aiie aeacothoue ia naiaioeeo oeueiai aeaiaioa
ia?yaeo ? ?ice?eaathoue iioeaaoe?th eiai iaca. I?ioa oae? oyaeaiiy,
eiia??ii, ? i?ci?oeie iaoa?oaaiiyie, ?acoeueoaoii o?enoeyinueeiai
aieeao, i?i ui na?ae/eoue ? cia/ia aa??thaaiiy iie?nueeeo oa?i?i?a ia
iicia/aiiy oeueiai aeoo. Aaeaea a?ceoe iiia?eeo ?iaee/?a iao? aeaeae?
i?aaeee ia iia’ycoaaee c ia/enoith neeith. Aiaeanoaaii? ia?oe?, ye
a?aeiii, aieiae?ee neeith iiceoeaiiai /e iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia aeeaeo.
Oa?aeoa? aieeao – iiceoeaiee /e iaaaoeaiee, oa e niie?e iiia?eiai
caeaaeaee a?ae i??e aeyao ii/anoae, caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ? aaaeaiue
iie?eieea, aeio?eiaiiy ?eooae?a iioiaaiiy oa iiieiaiiy. I?i cia/aiiy
aeyao ii/anoae iiia?eiio na?ae/eoue iioeaaoe?y iaia’yceiai? i?enooiino?
ethaeae a?ey iueiai i?ioyaii onueiai ia?yaeo oa caai?iie niaoe aii/?
on?i i?enooi?i iaeii/anii, aea iaia? caaaeee i?i ioi?iio a?ae ia/enoi?
neee: Niaoe ia iiaeia, o?aaa iine?aei?e aea? aeaoe. Neaeyoue aei
?aieo; ii aea aa/eoue, oi eiai eeaeathoue. O?aaa aa?iaiueei a
iine?aeith iooue i?iaanoe. Aoaea aeaeoaaoeny, oi ? ??aeiy, ? i?ooi
ia oi/a neae?oe.

Ioaea, iaiao?aeiith oiiaith c’ynoaaiiy iioeaaoe??, oiia iinoaiiy
aaaaoueio ia?yaeiaeo iaca ? ?icaeyae iii?iaoe?? iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo o
ca’yceo c caaaeueiith no?oeoo?ith oa naiaioeeith ia?yaeiaiai oaenoo.
Oiio a ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iiaeaii iien iaaa?aaeueii? /anoeie ia?yaeiaiai
oanoo oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y naiaioeee e neiaie?ee eiai iaeeieoeue.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?eeiaoe, ye? a?uothoue nia?oue” ?icaeyiooi ?yae
i?eeiao, caaaeyee yeei ia?aaeaa/aee iaaeeaeaiiy nia?o?. O ia?aaaaei?e
a?eueoino? oe? yaeua ia ? nooi iie?nueeeie, ine?eueee i?eeiaoe, ye?
a?aeaeaathoue iiaeyaee ia nia?oue ? iioiea?/ia ?nioaaiiy aeoo?, noiae? o
an?o no?aeieo neia’yi.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?iuaiiy. Aaii?y” iienaii ?eooae i?iuaiiy
aie?ath/iai c ??aeieie e aeecueeeie, caoiaee aeey i?enei?aiiy e
caaa?oaiiy aaii??, a oaeiae iii?iaoe?th ia iicia/aiiy iiiyoue
‘aaciaae?eii oai?ee, oie?ath/ee’, ‘aaii?y’, ‘ia?yaeiai ia?eiaaia na?/ea,
yeo aeei?enoiaothoue aeey caaa?oaiiy aaii??’. Niiniae aeinyaoe
caaa?oaiiy aaii?? a ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? ???aoe?iiaeuei?. I?ioa aeaye?
c ieo (iai?., caiaeeoe nieiio i?ae iino?eeth aie?ath/iai ciaoa?y /e oi/a
a iieeanoe oai?iai ia nieiio) ?, eiia??ii, ?oaeeiaioaie ?aaeueii
aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ? iiaeooue neoaoaaoe i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi aeoiee i?i
iioiaeaeaiiy oeueiai cae/ath c ?eooaeo a?aei?aaeaiiy.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aeo?ae aeoo?. Nia?oue” iienaii o?aaeeoe?ei?
oyaeaiiy i?i aeooo. Ia?ac, o yeiio i?enooi? ?iiae? aa/aoue aeooo i?ae
/an aeoiaeo ?? c o?ea, /anoi caa??aa? caeeoee a??e a ?a?iea?iaoe?th.
Eaeneea oa o?acaieia?y ia iicia/aiiy naiai ‘aaciaae?eii oai?ee,
oie?ath/ee’, ‘aaii?y’, ‘i?eieiaiiy a?ieia?/iiai ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie,
nia?oue’ oa ‘iiia?ea ethaeeia, iie?eiee’ (i?e caaaeuei?e a?aeiini?e
a?aeiino? iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiai? oa?i?iieia??, coiiaeaii? caaaeueiei ??
oaaothaaiiyi) ? ?icaaeoaeaiith. Cia/ia /anoeia oa?i?iieia?? aeey
iii?iaoe?? oeeo iiiyoue, ye ? a?eueo?noue ia?yaeiaeo ?aae?e oa aeo?a,
aeyaey? o?niee ca’ycie c o?aaeeoe?eieie i?oieia?/ieie a??oaaiiyie.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?eaiooaaiiy o?ea aei iioiaaiiy” iienaii
i?ioean iaieaaiiy e ia?yaeaeaiiy iiia?eiai, iniaeeaino? iaeyao oa acoooy
aeey iueiai, a oaeiae iii?iaoe?th oeeo ia?yaeiaeo aeo?a oa ?aae?e.
Iaei??th c iie?nueeeo iniaeeainoae aeeiiaiiy oe??? /anoeie ia?yaeo ?
iaa?/i? caoiaee, ye? aaeeaathoue o aeiaaeeo ao?aoe o?eii aio/eino? c
iaoith a?aeiiaeoe ?? – iii?ineoe iiia?eiai ia /eieoe iii?o, iiaeaoe
?oee, iaoeeeoe aieiao, aeiiiiiaoe ?i iaeyaiooe eiai, iai?.: Iaaie
aieiao ? aeae iai ?oee, oi ia aoaea iai c oiaith ioee. I?i a??o a
aoaeoeai?noue oaeeo caoiae?a na?ae/eoue eiiaioa?, ui /anoi ?o
noi?iaiaeaeo?: I, oaea iii’yeoaea ?oea, eaaoa ianaaeeoe. O oeueiio
?eooaeueii-iaa?/iiio aeo? ii?aeiaeeny noia?a/eea?, /anoi ianoi?ni?
iiaeyaee ia aeeooy ? nia?oue, o?ei ? aeooo, ia oi?ie ? niiniae
iinia?oiiai aoooy.

O i’yoiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aeaioiaeaiiy o?oie oa i?eaiooaaiiy iiaeeueii?
yie” iienaii iii?iaoe?th o?oie, a?ea oa iiaeeueii? yie, a oaeiae aeaye?
iniaeeaino? ?o i?eaiooaaiiy.

O oinoiio i?ae?icae?e? “Ii/aoie oea?aiii?? aeyaeaiiy ii/anoae iiia?eiio”
iiaeaii iien iii?iaoe?? iiiyoue ‘i?noea iieeaaeaiiy iie?eieea’,
‘oea?aiii?y aeyaeaiiy ii/anoae iiia?eiio a eiai inae?’, ‘a?aea?aeeie
iiia?eiai’, ‘?eooaeuei? ae?? a?aea?aeoaa/?a a?ey o?ea iiia?eiai’ oa
ie?aieo aeo?a oe??? /anoeie ia?yaeo. O No?aeiiio Iie?nn? iioe?aiee
cae/ae i?eiineoe a oaoo iiia?eiai iiaea?oiee – oe?a, ei?aeeee, yeoey,
oeoei? oiui. I?e/iio oae? oaeoi?e, ye iayai?noue iacae (ainoeioe?),
canoa?aaeaiiy uiaei iaia’yceiaino? (C aieeie ?oeaie ia oiaeeee. C
aieeie ?oeaie ia eaea), iioeaaoe?y i?ecia/aiiy i?eiioaiue (Uia
ia?aaeaa ii?i ?iaeeoaeyi. sse aoaeueoi ia?aaeathoue ia oie na?o
ainoeioe? ?iaee/ai), i?noea iieeaaeaiiy (ia a?ei?) oa iiaeaeueo? ae?? c
ainoeioeyie (Ia iiaeeeao ?icaeathoue ethaeyi. ?icaeaaaee ia iiaeeeao
ae?oyi, ethaeyi. Ia iiaeeeao ?icaeaaaee ethaeyi. ?icaeaaaee ia
iiaeeeao), ae?acii aeacothoue ia naiaioeeo i?eiioaiue: oea ia aeiiiiiaa
?iaeei? iie?eieea, a oieeinoeaethaaeuei? aea?e iiia?eei i?aaeeai.

O nueiiiio i?ae?icae?e? “Iieaeoaaiiy iiia?eiai” iienaii iii?iaoe?th
cacia/aiiai i?ioeano, eiai ?eooaeueii? naiaioeee: iea/ o iioiaaeueiiio
ia?yae? – oea ?eooae?caoe?y i?e?iaeiiai noaio nei?aioe. O oeueiio
i?ae?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii oaenoe aiein?iue c iiaeyaeo ?o i?oieia?/iiai
ci?noo.

O ainueiiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?/ia ieeueioaaiiy” ?icaeyiooi iniaeeaino?
oeueiai aeaiaioa iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo. Aeiiiaiaiiy ?o
?ioeie oaeoaie – iayai?noth a iie?nueeiio iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? a?oai?,
ciaaaaeeeai?, eaeeeai? eaeneee oa oa?niaeo aiein?iue, a oaeiae
ii??aiyiiy iie?nueeiai iaoa??aeo c iayaieie a e?oa?aoo?? iienaie i?/ieo
?icaaa o i?enooiino? iie?eieea a ?ioeo eoeueoo?ieo ciiao aeicaiey?
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui i?/ia ieeueioaaiiy a iie?nueeiio iioiaaeueiiio
ia?yae? caa??aa? ?oaeeiaioe aeaai?o iioiaaeueieo i?a?e.

O aeaa’yoiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aeo?ae c ??aeii? aeii?aee” iiaeaii iien
i?ioeano aeeaaeaiiy ia?oaiai a o?oio, ??ciiiai?oieo aea?oaii?eiioaiue
eiio, caiia?aeieo caoiae?a i?ioe caoaiiai aieeao nia?o?, niinia?a
i/euaiiy aeeoea, naaeeae e ethaeae a?ae oeueiai aieeao oiui.

O aeanyoiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aei?iaa ia eeaaeiaeua” iienaii iniaeeaino?
o?ainii?ooaaiiy iiia?eiai ia eeaaeiaeua, cie?aia c aeei?enoaiiyi
a?oa?/iiai o?ainii?oo – naiae, iniaeeainoae noi?iaiaeo, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y
eiai naiaioeee e neiaie?ee oa c’ynoaaiiy iioea?a iii?iaoe??: iacae,
iio?aei? a?ae ei?aiy aiae- naiaie ‘aeiineoe iiia?eiai c oaoe’
(aeaiaeeoe), ‘noi?iaiaeaeoaaoe iiia?eiai ia eeaaeiaeua’ (i?iaiaeaeaoe,
i?iaanoe), ‘iioiaaeueia i?ioean?y’ (i?ia?ae), ? ?acoeueoaoii aieeao
?eooaeo a?aei?aaeaiiy ia iioiaaeueiee ia?yae.

A iaeeiaaeoeyoiio i?ae?icae?e? “Eeaaeiaeua. Iioiaaiiy. Iiaeea”
?icaeyiooi iii?iaoe?th iiiyoue ‘eeaaeiaeua’, ‘iiaeea’, cae?eniaii ni?iao
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? naiaioeee oa neiaie?ee ?eooaeo eeaeaiiy aeiai? caie?
i?enooi?ie oa ia/aoaiiy iiaeee nayuaieeii, a oaeiae (c iiaeyaeo ioe?iee
cia/aiiy aeoo iioiaaiiy) c’ynoaaiiy iioiaeaeaiiy oeeo cae/a?a.
I?iaiae?ciaaiee iaoa??ae aeicaiey? c?iaeoe i?eiouaiiy, ui aeaai?oei
cia/aiiyi eaenaie a??a (a?ia) ? ‘iiaeea’, a eaenaie iiaeea – ‘ai?a’,
‘eeaaeiaeua ia ai?ao’, ‘eeaaeiaeua’. Naiaioe/i? no?oeoo?e no/anieo
no?aeiineia’yinueeeo eaenai a??a, iiaeea, iiaeeee, eeaaeiaeua, oeaeioa?
a?aeaeaathoue naiaioe/i? c?ooaiiy a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo
no?aeiineia’yinueeeo iia.

O aeaaiaaeoeyoiio i?ae?icae?e? “Iaaeiiaeeuei? nii?oaee” iiaeaii iien
aeae?a ? oi?i iioe?aieo ia Iie?nn? iaaeiiaeeueieo nii?oae oa ?o
iii?iaoe??, yeee na?ae/eoue, ui an? aeaee iie?nueeeo iaaeiiaeeueieo
nii?oae iathoue aeaai? iioiaeaeaiiy. ?ai?acaiooth/e ia?aaaaeii oaio
oeyoo oa aeeoea (iaaeiiaeeuei? nii?oaee o aeaeyae? o?anoa, aea?aaa,
aeiua/ee, aoaeeii/ea, iacae aeayeeo ?c ieo eeaaei/ea, ia?oa, c?oa,
i?eoi?ii), aiie a?aeaeaathoue i?o?/i? oyaeaiiy neia’yi-yce/iee?a.
Iaaeiiaeeuei? nii?oaee ? oaeiae na?ae/aiiyi ?aeaieia?? eoeueoo i?aaee?a,
ine?eueee /anoi ?o aeaai?o? /e iia?o? iacae (eaiee/ea, i?eeeaae, no?e)
iioeaaoe?eii iia’ycai? c iacaaie eoeueoiaeo i?noeue – aea?oiaieea,
a?aoa?y, o?aio.

O o?eiaaeoeyoiio i?ae?icae?e? “Aeiyoeia? iioiaaiiy” iienaii i?noey oa
niiniae iioiaaiiy iiia?eeo ia?aae/anii e ianeeueieoeueeith nia?oth oa
aeayeeo ?ioeo iie?eiee?a. sse na?ae/eoue iaoa??ae, ca iiia?eeie
iao?auaieie ae?oueie, caaeaeeie oa naiiaoaoeyie ia?iaeia o?aaeeoe?y
caa?aaea aeaai? yce/ieoeuee? i?noey iioiaaiiy. C iaeyaeo ia
ni?a?nioaaiiy a iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? ??cieo o?aaeeoe?e, ui
a?aeaeaathoue ??ci?, /anoi ianoi?ni? iiaeyaee, ? oea yaeua (iioiaaiiy
iiia?eeo ia?aae/anii ? iai?e?iaeiith nia?oth) aeyaeeiny iie?naiaioe/iei.
O iueiio caa?aaeeny ? ia?aaeeoee aeaaiueiai caaaeueiiai iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo (yce/ieoeuee? i?noey iioiaaiiy, ?oaeeiaioe aeaaiueiai niiniao
iioiaaiiy – e?aiaoe??, cae/ae eieaeoeaiiai ioi?ieaiiy iiaeee oiui), ?
caeeoee ?eooaeo a?aei?aaeaiiy (?oaeeiaioe cai?ci?eiai iioiaaiiy – ye
e?aiaoe??, oae ? ioi?ieaiiy iiaeee); c iaeiiai aieo, aei iiia?eeo
ia?aae/anii oa ianeeueieoeueeith nia?oth ? aei i?noeue ?o iioiaaiiy
noaaeyoueny ye aei /iainue ia/enoiai (Ia oiio i?noe?, aea caeiiathoue,
eyea?), a c ae?oaiai, – iaae?eythoue ?o oe?ethueie aeanoeainoyie,
aeei?enoiaothoue aeey e?eoaaiiy oai?ia, aeinyaiaiiy aeia?iaooo,
iniaenoiai uanoy. C no/aniiai iiaeyaeo iioiaaiiy ia/enoeo iie?eiee?a o
aieioao, noiy/eo aiaeao, y?ao, ia iaaeao, ye? ia?iaeia o?aaeeoe?y
iia’yco? c iaeeii, noaiiaeoue ?aae?caoe?th iiiceoe?? caiey : iaeei, aea
caiey aenooia? i?e?iaei?i i?noeai iioiaaiiy iiia?eeo nai?th nia?oth,
aiaeii/an – ia/enoeo caiey ia i?eeia?.

O /ioe?iaaeoeyoiio i?ae?icae?e? “Iiieiaiiy” iienaii iii?iaoe?th oeueiai
?eooaeo, a oaeiae iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiaeo oe?aieo ae?ia?a oa iiieiaeueieo
no?aa. Cae?eniaii ni?iao c’ynoaaoe naiaioeeo iiieiaeueii? o?aiace a
oe?eiio e ie?aieo ?? aeaiaio?a, a oaeiae iioeaaoe?? ?o iaca:
i?aee?aneaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo iniaeeainoae iiieiaeueii? o?aiace,
iiieiaeueieo no?aa ? iaeiei ?c i?iya?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? a neiaie?/i? oi?ie
cae/ath ii?aeaiiy i?aaeea, a yeiio aeooaeueiei caeeoeany iaeei ?c
nieneiaeo iiiaio?a ?eooaeo, ui aeyaey?oueny a iacaao ia c?acie aa?y/ee
ia?ae, aa?y/ee oe?a, aa?y/ee no?e, a oaeiae o iacaao ooieoe?iiaeueiiai
ni?yioaaiiy aeayeeo ia?yaeiaeo aeo?a – a??oe iie?eieea oiui.

O i’yoiaaeoeyoiio i?ae?icae?e? “I/euaiiy” iienaii i?noey oa niiniae
cieuaiiy, ?ciethaaiiy oa i/euaiiy ?a/ae iiia?eiai oa ?ioi?
iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiai? ao?eaooeee. A?eueo?noue i?noeue ?cieyoe?? /e
cieuaiiy oeeo i?aaeiao?a o iie?nuee?e o?aaeeoe?? ca?aa?oueny c i?noeyie
iioiaaiiy naiiaaeaoeue (o e?n?, a aieio?, ia aa?ac?, ia a?aieoe? naea /e
eeaaeiaeua), iao?auaieo ae?oae (ia iaae? naaeeae, i?ae i?//th, i?ae
ii?iaii), a?aeueii oa ciaoa??a (o e?n?, ia iaae? naea /e naaeeae), ui,
iiaeeeai, ua ?ac na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui aiie ? aeaai?ie yce/ieoeueeeie
i?noeyie iioiaaiiy, oa aeicaiey? eaae?o?eoaaoe oe? ae?? ye ae?oaee oei
neiaie?/ieo iioiaaiue (iioiaaiiy noanoeooo?a iiia?eiai).

O o?noiaaeoeyoiio i?ae?icae?e? “Iaa?/ia aeei?enoaiiy ?a/ae iiia?eiai”
iiaeaii iien iioe?aieo o iie?nuee?e eoeueoo?? ??ciiiai?oieo niinia?a
aeei?enoaiiy ?a/ae, ye? iaeaaeaee iiia?eiio, ia?aaoaaee a eiioaeo? c iei
aai iaeaaeaoue aei noa?e iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiai? ?aaeueiino?, a
e?eoaaeuei?e, ethaiai?e oa ?ioeo aeaeao iaa??. Iaae?eaiiy iaa?/ieie
aeanoeainoyie ?a/ae – noanoeooo?a ?o aeaniee?a, o yeiio ?ici?ciathoueny
ne?aee oaoeoecio, aacia?a/ii, ? ia?aaeeoeii aeaaiueiai eoeueoo i?aaee?a.

O n?iiaaeoeyoiio i?ae?icae?e? “Eaeaiaea?i? iiieiee” iienaii eaeaiaea?i?
nayoa ia /anoue iiia?eeo oa ?o iii?iaoe?th. Iacae oeeo eaeaiaea?ieo
nayo, iio?aei? a?ae ei?ai?a ae?ae- oa -?iae-, iioeaiaai? iacaaie an?o
iiia?eeo, ooai?aieo a?ae oeeo ei?ai?a (ae?aee, ?iaeeoae?). C?noaaeaiiy
aoiia?ao?/ieo oa e?iaa?noe/ieo na?ae/aiue i?aeaiaeeoue aei aeniiae?a, ui
ia oi?ioaaiiy neia’yinueeeo iioiaaeueii-iiieiaeueieo ia?yae?a iaeeaa
a?aeaeoie ?eooae a?aei?aaeaiiy ia oie na?o c ianooiiei ii?aeaiiyi
aiaeanoaaiiiai i?aaeea, yeiio ia?aaeoaaa ?eooae aeyaeaiiy ii/anoae
iiaaaeiiio i?aaeeo, a i?ney iueiai aeaooiaoaaany iiieiaeueiee
ia?yae-aea?oaa. Aeaiaioe iie?nueeeo iioiaaeueii-iiieiaeueieo ia?yae?a o
??ciiio ni?aa?aeiioaii? neie?aoe/ii ii?aeiothoue caeeoee oeeo o?ueio
aca?iiiia’ycaieo aeaai?o ?eooae?a.

O a?n?iiaaeoeyoiio i?ae?icae?e? “Eoeueo i?aaee?a” cacia/aii, ui
neeaaeiee eiiieaen iioiaaeueii-iiieiaeueieo ia?yae?a ? ao?eaiiyi
?aeaieia?? eoeueoo i?aaee?a, yeee ia ??cieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa
caciaaaa o?ainoi?iaoe?e aiane?aeie ia?ainieneaiue oa ci?uaiue iiiyoue,
iia’ycaieo c? ci?iith ?ae?a??, ii?aeueii-aoe/ieo ii?i, aea a
iaeaeaai?oiio aeya? ana-oaee aeeth/aa ?eooae a?aei?aaeaiiy ia oie na?o –
?eooaeueia aaeanoai e?oi?o oaiiaaieo /eai?a eieaeoeao. Neiaie?/i?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?eooaeo, ye? caa??a iie?nueeee iioiaaeueii-iiieiaeueiee
ia?yae, iathoue, ia iao iiaeyae, aeaa aieiai? aeyae: ii-ia?oa, /anoeiaa
ia?aianaiiy aeanoeainoae (a iniiaiiio – iiceoeaieo) a?aei?aaeaieo
i?aaee?a ia an?o iiia?eeo ?iaee/?a, ui aeine?aeieee aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e
iaceaathoue aeania eoeueoii i?aaee?a, ?, ii-ae?oaa, /anoeiaa ia?aianaiiy
aeanoeainoae (ia?aaaaeii – iaaaoeaieo) a?aei?aaeaieo i?aaee?a ia
iiia?eeo ia?aae/anii ? ianeeueieoeueeith nia?oth, ui a aoiia?ao?/ieo
i?aoeyo aecia/aii ye eoeueo caeiaeieo. I?iaiae?ciaaiee iaoa??ae aea?
i?aenoaae cai?iiiioaaoe ei?aeoeae o a?aeii? iioeaaoe?? eaenaie caeiaei?
‘iiia?e? ia?aae/anii ? ianeeueieoeueeith nia?oth’, c’ynoaaoe ei??iiy
aeayeeo iie?nueeeo iia??’?a, ?eooae?a, iaa?/ieo aeo?a, iia’ycaieo c
eoeueoii iiia?eeo, oa iioea?a ?o iii?iaoe?? (ae?aee, caeiaeaiiy); oea ua
?ac ?ethno?o? iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui aeine?aeaeaiiy iii?iaoe??
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo iaiiaeeeaa aac o?aooaaiiy naiaioeee iicaiiaieo
noi?aeieo nenoai ? ia?aaeaa/a? caa?iaiiy aei neeaaeiiai eiiieaeno
ia?yaeiaeo ?aae?e oa ae?e.

Aca?iicoiiaeai?noue, ?cinai?/i?noue /e neiii?i?/i?noue ??ciiieaiiaeo
iaeeieoeue ia?yaeiaiai oaenoo a ?iaio? i?i?ethno?iaaii o caaaeai?e
oaaeeoe? iniiaieo iane??cieo iioea?a, ui, ye ieai ci?noo, oi?iothoue
oaeno iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “I?inoi?iaa aa??aioi?noue iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo oa eiai iii?iaoe??” iiaeaii aaia?ao?th aa??aio?a aeyao aeaiaio?a
iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo ? eiai iii?iaoe??. Ea?oia?aooaaiiy ?
acaaae? a?aaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo oaeo?a oa aeaiaio?a ia?iaeii?
eoeueoo?e iiaea iaoe ??cia iaoeiaa ni?yioaaiiy – aai ia i?aaeiao
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aai ia oa?eoi??th aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo
oaaao cina?aaeaeaii ia a?aaeuei?e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? naii? oa?eoi???. O
?iaio? iaaeaii ia?aaaao ia?oiio i?aeoiaeo: cae?eniaii o?enaoe?th e
aiae?c oa?eoi??aeueieo aa??aio?a iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo, aeyaeaii noae? e
aa??aoeai? eiai iciaee, ui aeaei ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaee ia eeoa i?i
no?oeoo?o, a e i?i aaiacen neeaaeiaeo /anoei ia?yaeo ye oe?eino?.

Na?aae aa?aaeueieo iaeeieoeue iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiaiai oaenoo ? oa?aeoa?i?
aeey anueiai iie?nueeiai ia??//y: cae?a?oueny aeiaeiio ‘aaciaae?eii
oai?ee, oie?ath/ee’, eiia?, e?i/a?oueny, aeooa aeoiaeeoue ‘oie?a?’,
aia?oe ‘aia?oe’, nia?oue ‘nia?oue’, i?aoeue (ia?oaaoeue), iie?eiee
‘iiia?eee’, o?oia, aeiiiaeia ‘o?oia’, a?ei ‘a?ei o?oie’ yia (yiea)
‘iiaeeueia yia’, iioi?ii ‘iioi?ii’, ieaeaoe (i?eieaeoaaoe), i?eeacoaaoe
(aeeacoaaoe), aieineoe (i?eaieiooaaoe), i?e/eooaaoe (ae/eooaaoe)
‘iieaeoaaoe iiia?eiai’, iiaeeee (iiaeeoe?) ‘eeaaeiaeua’, iiaeea
‘iiaeea’, ia?ae ‘ia?oa iiieiaeueia o?aiaca’, eieeai ‘iiieiaeueia
no?aaa’, ae?aee, aeoo? ‘on? iiia?e? ?iaee/?’, ae?aee ‘eaeaiaea?i?
iiieiaeuei? nayoa in?iiuei-ceiiaiai oeeeeo’.

*anoeia iii?iaoe?e iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo cana?ae/o?
i?inoi?iao aa??aioi?noue, aeyaey? a?aaeuei? i?ioenoaaeaiiy. Oa?aeoa?ieie
eeoa aeey no?aeiiiie?nueeiai ae?aeaeoo ? iacae iaaeeaeyoe, iaaeeaooeo,
ia aeeao ieoeo ‘oia, yeee aeei?enoiaothoue i?e aeaioiaeaii? iaeyao aeey
iiia?eiai’, iai?oea ‘acoooy iiia?eiai’, ainoeioe? ‘i?eiioaiiy
a?aea?aeoaa/aie iiia?eiai’ ainothaaoe ‘ii/oaaoe a oao? (i?i iiia?eiai)’.
Eeoa a cao?aeiiiie?nueeiio ae?aeaeo? cao?eniaaii iacae caeoe c aei?iae
‘ia?aoeiaeeoe caaa?oaiith aaii??’, a?iiieoey ‘na?/ea, yeo
aeei?enoiaothoue aeey iieaaoaiiy aaii??’, aeoeaioiee aa??aio oia?oe.
Aeaye? iacae a?aeii? a na?aaeiuei- e cao?aeiiiie?nueeiio ae?aeaeoao,
cie?aia ia aoaea, ia aei?ic?, i?aoeue (ia?oaaoeue) ‘aaciaae?eii oai?ee,
oie?ath/ee’, iaa?ae/ee ‘iiia?ea ethaeeia’, ia?eeie (ia?oaeie)
‘iioiaaeueiee ia?yae’, a?ia ‘iiaeea’. O na?aaeiuei- oa
no?aeiiiie?nueeiio ae?aeaeoao iioe?ai? iacae ia?anoi?iaa (iinoi?iaa,
iinoa?aaa) ‘i?noe/ia a?uoaaiiy nia?o?’.

A?eueo?noue iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiaeo iaca iioe?aia a iie?nueeeo aia??eao o
a?eueo?e /e iaio?e e?eueeino? eieon?a, ye? ia?aaaaeii ia ? oeiiaeie, ca
aeiyoeii aeayeeo – c ae?aciith oaiaeaioe??th aei iiaoi?thaaieo cii
iioe?aiiy, cie?aia: i?e?ia?aae a iaaee??//? ieaeiuei? oa/?? ?.
I?ei’youe – ?. ssnaeueaea (A?anonueei-I?inueea Iie?nny) (a?aeaeea
‘aaciaae?eii oai?ee, oie?ath/ee’, a?ae?eoia ‘iiia?’, eaoee ‘i?ei?oeaia
acoooy iiia?eiai’, neeaiii (neeaiiaaia) ‘?iiaiiiae?aia oi?ia o?oie’,
aeyeoaaoe, i?eaiai?thaaoe ‘iieaeoaaoe iiia?eiai’, ia?oa (c?oa)
‘??ciiaeae iaaeiiaeeueii? nii?oaee’, eooy ‘iiieiaeueia no?aaa’,
iaanueeee Aaeeeaeaiue ‘iiieiaeueiee aeaiue o /aoaa? i?ney Aaeeeiaeiy’),
ia yeee iaeeaaeathoueny aoae/? i?e?iciie, ui aeeth/athoue aia??ee
iaaeiei i. A?anoa (i?i?ea’th, c/aieoe ‘niaoe?aeueiee oia, yeee
aeei?enoiaothoue i?e aeaioiaeaii? iaeyao aeey iiia?eiai’, ia?yae ‘iaeya,
i?ecia/aiee aeey ia?yaeaeaiiy iiia?eiai’, caai? ‘i?ei?oeaia acoooy
iiia?eiai’, ieao ‘iie?eaaei iiia?eiai’), aia??ee aanaeio ?. ssnaeueaee
oa aia??ee I?iueie (ieeueioaaoe ‘i?iaiaeeoe i?/ a?ey iiia?eiai’,
i?eoi?ii ‘??ciiaeae iaaeiiaeeueii? nii?oaee’), aia??ee aanaeio ieaeiuei?
oa/?? ??/ie ssnaeueaea e Noe? oa na?aaeiuei? oa/?? ?. I?ei’yo?
(ioonoiaaoe ‘iaeyaiooe iiia?eiai’, eieeaae ‘i?ei?oeaia acoooy
iiia?eiai’, iaeaiooe ‘iae?eoe iiia?eiai niaoe?aeueiei iie?eaaeii’,
i?eeeaae ‘??ciiaeae iaaeiiaeeueii? nii?oaee’, iioaioe? ‘iiieiaeueia
no?aaa’); i?e?ia?aae o aanaei? ?. Noioiaeo (c/aieoe ‘niaoe?aeueiee oia,
ui aeei?enoiaothoue i?e aeaioiaeaii? iaeyao aeey iiia?eiai’, ieao
‘iie?eaaei iiia?eiai’, ae/eo ‘iioiaaeueiee iea/, aiein?iiy’); i?e?ia?aae
o aanaei? aa?o?a’y ??/ie Oai?oue, Oae, Oaoa??a (no??/aiia na?/ea
‘inay/aia ia No??oaiiy na?/ea, yeo aeei?enoiaoaaee aeey caaa?oaiiy
aaii??’, ia?yae ‘iaeya, i?ecia/aiee aeey ia?yaeaeaiiy iiia?eiai’,
i?eciaoeny ‘iioe?eoaaoe iiia?eiai i?ae /an a?aea?aeei’); i?e?ia?aae o
aanaei? na?aaeiuei? oa/?? ?. Aeanie oa ieaeiuei? oa/?? ?. Naeio (ai?aaoa
‘?iiaiiiae?aia oi?ia o?oie’, i?iaiaeie/ie ‘iioiaaeueia na?/ea’).

Iaoa??ae iieaco?, ui aa?aaeuei? iaeeieoe? iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiaiai oaenoo
aeyaeythoue a?eueoo i?inoi?iao aa??aioi?noue, i?ae iaeeieoe? ?aaeueiiai
oa aeoe?iiaeueiiai ieai?a, iai?., iacae i?ei?oeaiiai acoooy iiia?eeo, ui
ia? aeaeyae oiaoe?a iieioia oa oio?e?a ia Iie?nn? i?aaenoaaeai? oaeeie
iacaaie: iio/?, iai?oea, eaoee, o?yii/ee, caai?, eieeaae, iie?eaaea
iiia?eiai – iie?eaaei, ieao, ieaoe//?, iano?eueiee (iano?eueieoey),
iai?oea (iai?oaoeue), iieioii, ia?oiaeia; o?oie – o?oia, aeiiiaeia,
a?ia, oaoa, neeai; oea?aiii?? aeyaeaiiy ii/anoae o oao? iiia?eiai –
iioi?ii, ia?eeie (ia?oaeoe), iioiaaiiy, oaaoo?e, iia??a; iiiyooy
‘i?iaiaeeoe i?/ a?ey iiia?eiai’ – neae?oe, ii/oaaoe, noa?aaoe (~ aeooo),
aa?ooaaoe, ieeueioaaoe, aeyae?oe, aeiaeyaeaoe; ia?oi? iiieiaeueii?
o?aiace – ia?ae, aeae?aiee ia?ae, aa?y/ee ia?ae, ia?oee ia?ae, ia?aeeua,
aa/a?y, iiieiee, no?e oiui. Cia/ia e?euee?noue oioiaeieo /e noiaeeo
iaoa??aeueieo aeaiaio?a o iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? ??cieo eieaeueieo
iie?nueeeo o?aaeeoe?e /anoi ia? ??cia iiaia ae?aaeaiiy, oi/a caa??aa?
i?e oeueiio ?aei?noue i?o?/ieo oyaeaiue, ui eaaeaoue a iniia? iioeao
iaaii? iacae, iai?.: iacae an?o iiia?eeo ?iaee/?a – ae?aee, i?aaeee,
?iaeeoae?, iio?aei? a?ae ??cieo ei?ai?a, iathoue oie naiee oei iioeao
iaceaaiiy – caa??aathoue ne?aee ?eooaeo a?aei?aaeaiiy, a iniia? yeiai
eaaeeoue a??a a caeaaei?noue aeeooy, caei?ia’y oa aeia?iaooo aeeaeo a?ae
i?aaee?a, ui ia? oeiieia?/i? iciaee. ?iiae? ??ci?noue iii?iaoe?? iiaea
aooe coiiaeaia a?aeiinii i?ci?i ioi?ieaiiyi iiaiiai ae?aaeaiiy aeayeeo
iiiyoue, a oaeiae e?eueeaaoaiiith oaao?caoe??th oa aaoai?caoe??th
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo, iai?.: naiaia ‘aaciaae?eii oai?ee, oie?ath/ee’
i?aaenoaaeaia iacaaie: i?e nia?o?, i?aoeue, neaaee, iaaiaeiee,
iaaeoaeee, a?aeaeea, /ano?, ia aoaea, caieath iaoia, cae?a?oueny ia oie
na?o, ia aei?ic?, cae?a?oueny aeiaeiio, iaeia iiaa a iiaee?, a?eueo?noue
yeeo ? aaoai?/ieie (oi/a ?iiae? iaeo?aeueieie c iiaeyaeo ca’yceo c
i?o?/ieie oyaeaiiyie – ye? oi?io? iioea nia?o?, iaaoooy, caie?,
iiaeeueii? yie); ?io? aaoai?cie ?ai?acaioothoue oaie aeie? (a?eo), oeyoo
oa inae?, ui aeyaeeeny aeooaeueieie i?e iinoaii? iacae (aeea.: e. 1-a,
1-a). I?e/eiith ?icaaeoaeaiiai iii?iaoeaiiai ?yaeo oaeiae iiaee aooe
ci?ie a iiaoo?, ci?ie ie?aieo iciae naieo ?aae?e, ii?.: cia/ia
aa??aioi?noue iie?nueeeo iaca oaa, yeee aeei?enoiaothoue i?ae /an
aeaioiaeaiiy iioiaaeueiiai iaeyao (i?ieiaoe, i?ieiii, ia aeeao ieoeo,
iaaeeaooeo, iaaeeaeyoe, c/aieoe, noueiaaoe, i?ioyaiooe, i?inoya,
i?i?ea’th, iino?e?oaaoe, i?inoiooe, i?inoieii, ooaiii, iiooaioaaoue,
c??aeea, ca?eueoa, a iaeei a?e, i?inoei oaii, oi?inoi, /a?ac aa?o, a
iaeio ieoeo, ia no?iao ieoeo, ia na?aeo ieoeo, iecaoe, i?iieccth,
i??nieeii, i?ieoe, i?iaa?ii, ia?aae?aoue, ceeaaoue, neeaeaoue,
noaaoeoue, ia?aeieioue), iaca ?iiaiiiae?aii? oi?ie aeiuaoi? o?oie, ui ?
a?aeiinii iiaith ?aae??th (?iceeaaeenoa, o?iceeaae, iaeeaaeiay, einay,
einyeii, oeinii, neeai, neeaiiaaia, neioenoi, c iieaoii, ai?aaoa,
ai?aii, einiai?enoi, ?iceiaeenoa, niaoiaa, caiaeenoa, niouanoa,
aa?oiaaoa, e?oaea, aeioeea, aeieiaaoa, ieaaea, iieiaaoa, o?ieeiioii,
noiey?nueea, iainueea, ia aea? iieiaeie) oiui.

Ioaea, aaia?ao?/ia aa??aioi?noue noanoeoooeaii? eaeneee iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo /anoi coiiaeaia aeooae?caoe??th iioeao iii?iaoe?? i?e iinoaii?
iacae a aia??oe?, ??ci? i?inoi?ia? aa??aioe yei? ?ai?acaioothoue oo naio
oaio ieaio ci?noo ia?yaeo.

Aoiie?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo oa eiai
ea?oia?aooaaiiy aeicaieeei c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee.

Iii?iaoe?y iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo, iacaaaeath/e ia ??
a?aeiinio a?aei?noue, yea coiiaeaia caaaeueiei oaaothaaiiyi ia?yaeo,
ana-oaee iaaecae/aeii ?icaaeoaeaia. Ia iicia/aiiy eiaeiiai iiiyooy a
iie?nueeeo aia??eao ?nio? ii e?eueea eaenai, o?acai, ye? ia
iaaeae?aeaeoiiio ??ai? ooai?ththoue ?yaee i?aeaia??eiaeo
a?aeiia?aeiee?a. O iie?nueeiio iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? iayai? ??ci? oeie
iii?iaoe??: eaene/ia, i?aaenoaaeaia eaenaiaie ??cieo /anoei iiae a
??cieo oi?iao, i?iiiceoeaia oa aeeneo?neaia, i?aaenoaaeai?
neiainiieo/aiiyie ??cieo no?oeoo?ieo oei?a, iieniaeie iioe?aieie
eiino?oeoe?yie oa oaenoaie.

Eaene/ia iii?iaoe?y iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo aeyaeeanue
iaiaeii??aeiith c iiaeyaeo ia?yaeiaiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ui oiiaeeeaeei
aeae?eaiiy oaeeo a?oi: 1) iacae i?aaeiao?a ? ae?e, aeiyoeiai iaeaaeieo
aei noa?e iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiai? ?aaeueiino?; 2) iacae i?aaeiao?a ? ae?e,
iiaoooaaiiy yeeo aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo, aea iica
ia?yaeii a?aeiia?aei? ?aae?? a?aeii? c ?ioeie iacaaie; 3)
caaaeueiiaaeeaaia eaeneea, naiaioe/ia iiea yei? aeeth/a? e cia/aiiy
iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiai? ?aaeueiino?.

Iaeiei ?c oeyo?a ia?yaeiai? oa?i?iieia?caoe?? ? ia?ao?ae ne?a ?c noa?e
caaaeueiiaaeeaaii? a noa?o ia?yaeiai? eaeneee.

Cia/ia /anoeia eaeneee oa o?acaieia?? aeey iii?iaoe??
iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiai? ?aaeueiino? ia? noanoeoooeaiee oa aaoai?/iee
oa?aeoa?, ui ? iane?aeeii oaao?caoe?? aaaaoueio aeaiaio?a ia?yaeo.

Iii?iaoe?y ia?yaeo /anoi a?aeaeaa? iaaiee iioea, yeee iiaeia
eaae?o?eoaaoe ye oaiaoe/iee eiae nia?o?, ui ? ae?aaeaiiyi ieaio ci?noo
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo – i?o?/ieo oyaeaiue, ye? oi?iothoue eiai oaeno.
Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy aa?aaeueieo iaeeieoeue iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo
ia?aaeaa/a? o?aooaaiiy naiaioeee iicaiiaieo nenoai, caa?iaiiy aei
neeaaeiiai eiiieaeno ia?yaeiaeo ?aae?e oa ae?e.

Ea?oia?aooaaiiy iii?iaoe?? iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo cana?ae/o?
iayai?noue caaaeueiiiie?nueeeo yaeu, ui ?ai?acaioothoue iiiyooy
a?aaeueii iai?ioenoaaii, a oaeiae i?inoi?iao aa??aioi?noue oa iayai?noue
ie?aneaieo i?e?icii (aeea.: e. 1-a, 1-a, 2).

I?inoi?iaa aa??aioi?noue noanoeoooeaii? eaeneee oa o?acaieia??
iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo coiiaeaia aeooae?caoe??th iaaiiai
i?oieia?/iiai iioeao, ui aeyaeany aeii?ioth/ei i?e iinoaii? iiiaia a
aia??oe?.

Noeoii?noue cao?eniaaiiai a aia??eao iiaiiai iaoa??aeo, inieneaiiy eiai
ye oe?eino? oa a i?iaeoe?? ia iicae?iaaaeuei? eiiiiiaioe ia?yaeo,
ea?oia?aooaaiiy aeaiaio?a ia?yaeo oa aa?aaeueieo eiai cania?a a?aee?eei
iiaeeeaino? aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iioeaaoe?? oa iioiaeaeaiiy ia a?aeiieo
?ai?oa iaca, aeicaieeei cai?iiiioaaoe iia? aa?n?? iiyniaiiy oeyo?a
iinoaiiy aeayeeo eaenai oa onoaeaieo neiainiieo/aiue.

Ca iioiaeaeaiiyi cao?eniaaia a iie?nueeeo aia??eao iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiaa
eaeneea iiae?ey?oueny ia ni?eueiineia’yinueeo,
ni?eueiino?aeiineia’yinueeo, ieoiii oe?a?inueeo. Iacia/io /anoeio
iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiai? eaeneee neeaaeathoue caiice/aiiy.

O aeine?aeaeaii? iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo a oe?eiio, iniaeeai i?e
c’ynoaaii? a?oa?/ieo eiai aeaiaio?a, iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe aaia?ao?/io
oa nioe?aeueio aa??aioi?noue ia?yaeo a ieioeiio. I?e oeueiio aeooaeueiei
caeeoa?oueny iieiaeaiiy i?i oeiieia?/io iaeii??aei?noue neia’yinueeiai
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo oa i?i caaaeueiiethaenueeee oa?aeoa? eiiieaeno
oyaeaiue, iia’ycaieo ?c iioiaaiiyi i?aaee?a.

Iie?nueeee iioiaaeueiee ia?yae ye oaeno ??cieie eiiiiiaioaie
aeyaey?oueny ni?aa?aeianaiei c ??cieie o?iiieia?/ieie c??caie, a a?aeoae
– c ??cieie oiiaaie e iioeaaie ?o iinoaiiy. Oaea ?icoi?iiy /aniai?
??ciino? aeaiaio?a ia?yaeo aeicaiey? aeyaeoe a?oa?/i? ?ene, ye? ?
?oaeeiaioaie aeaaiueiai neia’yinueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo /e
iia’ycaieo c iei i?oieia?/ieo oyaeaiue.

?oaeeiaioe aeaai?o cae/a?a o iie?nueeiio iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? /anoi
aeyaeythoueny ?acoeueoaoii ?o o?ainoi?iaoe?? a neiaie?/i? oi?ie,
?iceeaaeo iaeiiai ia?yaeiaiai yaeua ia ?yae eiai neiaie?/ieo
o?ainoi?iaoe?e, ye? a i?ioean? ?icaeoeo ia?yaeo iaaoaathoue iiai?
naiaioeee. Oea ni?e/eiy? iiyao oaaoieia?? e aiie?o?eaoe?? eiiiiiaio?a
iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiaiai oaenoo oa iie?nai?? eiai iaeeieoeue, yaeu, ye?
i?eoaiaii? an?i ia?yaeai.

A?aaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeei i?inoi?iao aa??aioi?noue iie?nueeiai
iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo oa eiai iii?iaoe??, ui aeaco? ia aoaie iinooiiaeo
no?oeoo?ieo ? naiaioe/ieo ci?i, ? caeeaaea? iniiae ?aeiino?oeoe??
aeo?aeii? oi?ie oa ia?a?niiai ci?noo ia?yaeo.

Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaeoi a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Naeoaeueneay A.E. Iiuo ea?oia?aoe?iaaiey iieanneiai iia?aaaeueiiai
ia?yaea // Neaayineee e aaeeaineee oieueeei?. Yoiieeiaaenoe/aneia
eco/aiea Iieanuey. – I., 1995. – N. 188-208.

2. Na?oaeuenueea A.E. Iie?nueeee iioiaaeueiee ia?yae (?c aeina?aeo
ea?oia?aooaaiiy) // Ae?aaeyie. Aei. ?. – Euea?a, 1996. – N. 201-224.

3. Eiiia?iaenueea A. ?oaeeiaioe iaa?? ?a/ae iiia?eiai o iie?nueeiio
iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? // Iie?nny: iiaa, eoeueoo?a, ?noi??y. – E., 1996.
– N. 140-146.

4. Eiiia?iaenueea A. Iii?iaoe?y iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo. ? //
Oe?a?inueeee ae?aeaeoieia?/iee ca??iee. Eieaa 3. Iai’yo? Oaoyie
Iaca?iai?. – E., 1997. – N. 428-458.

5. Eiiia?iaenueea A. ?oaeeiaioe ?eooaeueieo i?a?e a?ey iiia?eiai a
iie?nueeiio iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae? // Aaeeea Eyaei. Ca??iee noaoae,
i?enay/aiee 60-??//th aeieoi?a o?eieia?/ieo iaoe i?ioani?a Ieeiee
Aaneeueiae/a Ieeii/oea. – AEeoiie?, 1997. – N. 198-212.

6. Na?oaeuenueea A.E. Aoean iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo //
No?oeoo?a ? ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeeo aiai??a ia no/aniiio aoai?. Oace
aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue. – AEeoiie?, 1983. – N. 34-36.

7. Naeoaeueneay A.E. Oe?aeinei-aaei?onneea i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiey a
oa?ieiieiaee iia?aaaeueiiai ia?yaea // ?aaeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe
ainoi/iineaayineeo ycueia, eeoa?aoo?, oieueeei?a e iaoiaeu eo eco/aiey.
Oacenu aeieeaaeia e niiauaiee ??? ?anioaeeeaineie eiioa?aioeee. –
Aiiaeue, 1985. – *.??. – N. 140-142.

8. Na?oaeuenueea A.E. Iaeei ?c iioea?a oa?i?iieia?caoe?? iie?nueei?
iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiai? eaeneee // I?iaeaie oe?a?inueei? ae?aeaeoieia?? ia
no/aniiio aoai?. Oace aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue. – AEeoiie?, 1990. –
N. 65-67.

9. Na?oaeuenueea A.E. Neiai a i?o?/ieo oyaeaiiyo iie?uoe?a i?i nia?oue,
iioiaaiiy, iioiea?/ia aeeooy // A.A.Iioaaiy – enneaaeiaaoaeue neaayineeo
acaeiinaycae. Oacenu Ananithciie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee. – Oa?ueeia, 1991.
– *.?. – N. 110-112.

Eiiia?iaenueea A.E. Aa?aaeueiee eiiiiiaio o?aaeeoe?eiiai iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo a iie?nueeeo aiai?ao. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.01 – oe?a?inueea iiaa. – Euea?anueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao, Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia iienia? o?aaeeoe?eiiai iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo oa eiai iii?iaoe??. O i?e iiaeaii no?oeoo?o ia?yaeo, c’yniaaii
iniiai? oaeoi?e e oaiaeaioe??, ui oi?iothoue iioiaaeueiee ia?yae,
?ice?eoi eiai na?oiaeyaeio, i?oieia?/io iniiao. Cae?eniaii
aoiie?iaa?noe/iee aiae?c iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo ye oe?e?niiai
iaaa?aaeueiiai oaenoo, iiaeaii iien iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiai? iii?iaoe??
iie?nueeeo aiai??a o oe?ieiio aeno?ae?iaaaeueiiio eiioaeno?. C?iaeaii
ni?iao ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? naiaioeee e neiaie?ee iii?iaoe?? oa
i?aaeiaoii-ae?eiaiai neeaaeo iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo Iie?nny o ca’yceo c
caaaeueieie ci?noiaeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie neia’yinueeeo iiaieo nai?ioe/ieo
nenoai. Aeyaeaii ?oaeeiaioe aeaaiueiai neia’yinueeiai iioiaaeueiiai
ia?yaeo oa ?ioeo iia’ycaieo ?c iei ?eooae?a, ye? a?aeaeaathoue i?o?/i?
oyaeaiiy aeaai?o neia’yi i?i nia?oue ? iioiea?/ia aeeooy, ui caa?aaeeny
a o?aaeeoe?eiiio iie?nueeiio iioiaaeueiiio ia?yae?. ?ice?eoi iniaeeaino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iioiaaeueiiia?yaeiaeo iaca, oeyoe ?o ia?yaeiai?
oa?i?iieia?caoe??, oiiae iinoaiiy, iioeaaoe?th. Iienaii i?inoi?iao
aa??aioi?noue aeaiaio?a iie?nueeiai iioiaaeueiiai ia?yaeo oa eiai
iii?iaoe??, cae?eniaii ni?iao ?noi?e/ii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aaia?ao?/ieo
aa??aio?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iie?nuee? aiai?e, iioiaaeueiee ia?yae, ia?yaeiaee oaeno,
aoiie?iaa?noeea, ea?oia?aooaaiiy, a?aae, a?aaeueia aa??thaaiiy.

Eiiia?iaeneay A.E. Aa?aaeueiue eiiiiiaio o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iia?aaaeueiiai
ia?yaea a iieanneeo aiai?ao. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.01 – oe?aeineee ycue. – Eueaianueeee
iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao, Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia iienaieth o?aaeeoeeiiiiai iieanneiai
iia?aaaeueiiai ia?yaea, /oi yaeyaony iaeiei ec caaiueaa eco/aiey
neaayineeo ae?aaiinoae. A iae i?aaenoaaeaia no?oeoo?a ia?yaea,
ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua oaeoi?u e oaiaeaioeee, oi?ie?othuea iia?aaaeueiue
ia?yae, ?ane?uoa aai ie?iaicc?ai/aneay, ieoieiae/aneay iniiaa.
Inouanoae?i yoiieeiaaenoe/aneee aiaeec iieanneiai iia?aaaeueiiai ia?yaea
eae oeaeinoiiai iaaa?aaeueiiai oaenoa, /oi i?aaeiieaaaao i?eaea/aiea
?aciiieaiiauo aai aaeeieoe – aa?aaeueiuo, aeoeeiiaeueiuo, ?aaeueiuo,
i?aauaathueo a ioiioaieyo ecinaiee, neiiieiee. Aeaii iienaiea
iia?aaaeueiiia?yaeiaie iiieiaoeee iieanneeo aiai?ia a oe?ieii
yeno?aeeiaaaeueiii eiioaenoa. Naeaeaia iiiuoea eioa?i?aoaoeee naiaioeee
e neiaieeee iiieiaoeee e i?aaeiaoii-aeaenoaaiiiai ninoaaa iia?aaaeueiiai
ia?yaea Iieanuey a nayce n iaueie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie neaayineeo ycueiauo
naieioe/aneeo nenoai. Auyaeaiu ?oaeeiaiou ae?aaiaai neaayineiai
iia?aaaeueiiai ia?yaea e ae?oaeo naycaiiuo n iei ?eooaeia, io?aaeathueo
ieoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey ae?aaieo neaayi i nia?oe e caa?iaiie aeecie,
nio?aieaoeany a o?aaeeoeeiiiii iieanneii iia?aaaeueiii ia?yaea.
I?aaeeiaeaii oniaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaea ?aeiinooeoeee a?oae/aneeo
yeaiaioia ia?yaea. ?ane?uou iniaaiiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
iia?aaaeueiiia?yaeiauo iaeiaiiaaiee, iooe eo ia?yaeiaie
oa?ieiieiaecaoeee, oneiaey iiyaeaiey, iioeaaoeey, eaeneei-naiaioe/aneea
i?ioeannu a nenoaia ia?yaeiaie iiieiaoeee. Nicaeai “Aoean iieanneiai
iia?aaaeueiiai ia?yaea”, a eioi?ii nea?oia?aoe?iaai eeiaaenoe/aneee e
yoiia?aoe/aneee iaoa?eae ia?yaea. Iienaia i?ino?ainoaaiiay aa?eaioiinoue
yeaiaioia iieanneiai iia?aaaeueiiai ia?yaea e aai iiieiaoeee, a oaeaea
ioia/aii nouanoaiaaiea ia?aeeaeae a aa?aaeueiii e iaaa?aaeueiii oaenoa
iia?aaaeueiiai ia?yaea Iieanuey e ia?yaea ae?oaeo oe?aeineeo e
ainoi/iineaayineeo aeeaeaeoii-eoeueoo?iuo cii. Inouanoaeaia iiiuoea
enoi?e/aneie eioa?i?aoaoeee aaia?aoe/aneeo aa?eaioia iieanneiai
iia?aaaeueiiai ia?yaea e aai iiieiaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieanneea aiai?u, iia?aaaeueiue ia?yae, ia?yaeiaue
oaeno, yoiieeiaaenoeea, ea?oia?aoe?iaaiea, a?aae, a?aaeueiia
aa?uee?iaaiea.

Konobrodska V.L. Verbal component of traditional burial ceremony in
Polissya dialects. – The manuscript.

Competing dissertation for the candidate of philological sciences degree
with the specialty 10.02.01 – Ukrainian. Lviv National University, Lviv,
1999.

The dissertation is dedicated to the description of Polissya burial
ritual and its nomination. The author introduces the structure of the
ritual, clarifies the basic factors and tendencies which form it, and
uncovers the basis of its myths and consciousness. The author performs
linguistic analysis of Polissya burial ritual as an intact, non-verbal
text, which presupposes paying attention to its various units – verbal,
actionable and real. The burial ritual nomination of Polissya dialects
description has been made in the wide paralingual context. An attempt
has been made to interpret the semantics and symbols of the nomination
and the subject-actional content of Polissya burial ritual in connection
with the common content characteristics of the Slavic lingual semiotic
systems. Certain remnants of the ancient Slavic burial ritual and other
connected with it rites which reflect the mythical beliefs in death and
life after it of the ancient Slavs have been signed out. Several
peculiarities of the burial ritual nomination functioning have been
introduced alongside with the ways of the ritual terminologisation,
appearing conditions and motivation of certain names. The author
describes the spatial variants of the Polissya burial ritual elements
and their nomination and an attempt of geographical variants
interpretation has been made.

Key words: polissya dialects, burial ritual, the rite text,
ethnolinguistics, mapping, area, areal variation.

_________________________________________________

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 10.11.99 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16

Oi.ae?oe.a?e.0,9. Iae.-aeae.a?e. 0,9.

Iaeeaae 100. Cai. 460

_________________________________________________

i.Ee?a-5, aoe. *a?aiiia?i?enueea, 57/3, e.201.

Aeaeaaieoeoai «Iaoeiaee na?o»

227-41-23, 294-71-27

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