Oe?a?inueea aeaaeai?y aa?a?ieo iaoe

?INOEOOO A?Ae?IOAOI?EE ? IAE?I?AOe??

*a?iee Aeieo?i Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 627.83:626.82.004:628.134

Aaeineiiaeaiiy niinia?a aiaei – ? aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy

a ?icaaeoaeaieo c?iooaaeueii — iaaiaeithth/eo nenoaiao

05.20.05 — A?ae?ioaoi?/i? iae?i?aoe??

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? a?ae?ioaoi?ee ? iae?i?aoe??

Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? Aa?a?ieo Iaoe

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: Oi?oaeee Iao?i Aeaieeiae/ aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
aiaeiiinoa/aiiy ? eaiae?caoe?? ?inoeoooo a?ae?ioaoi?ee ? iae?i?aoe??
OAAI;

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: Ieaiaa? Ieeiea A?eai?iae/ aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee iae?i?aoi? Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii
?inoeoooo a?ae?iiaoai?ee IAI Oe?a?ie;

IIIIA A?EOI? IEEIEAEIAE*, eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee, caa?aeoth/ee a?aeae?eii

?inoeoooo a?ae?ioaoi?ee ? iae?i?aoe?? OAAI

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee Aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao
aoae?aieoeoaa ? a?o?oaeoo?e, eaoaae?a oaoiieia?? aoae?aaeueiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 2 » a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.362.01 i?e ?inoeooo?
a?ae?ioaoi?ee ? iae?i?aoe?? OAAI ca aae?anith 252022, Ee?a-22 aoe.
Aaneeuee?anueea, 37.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
a?ae?ioaoi?ee ? iae?i?aoe?? OAAI.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neai?e » 31 » aeiaoiy 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, eaiaeeaeao n . -a. iaoe
E. I. Oaiaiei CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie Noaeee ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa iaiiaeeeaee aac
ae??oaiiy aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai, aei /enea yeeo a?aeiineoueny ? i?iaeaia
?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy a nenoaiao aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, iniaeeai, aiaei –
? aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy.

Aiaea ia? aeeeth/ii aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ye iniiaiee oaeoi? caaacia/aiiy
ethaenoaa i?iaeoeoaie oa?/oaaiiy oa ?ioeie oiiaaie aeeooy ia caie?.
Ia?aae a/aieie, niaoe?ae?noaie aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa oa aeiiii?noaie
aeieeea neeaaeia i?iaeaia caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy aiaeith aaea ia
iaeaeeae/o ia?niaeoeao.

No/ani? c?iooaaeuei? nenoaie, eiioiaeuei?, ae?iaie/? oa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? aiaeii?iaiaee ? e?oiieie niiaeeaa/aie aiaee ?
aeaeo?iaia?a??. A ca’yceo c oeei ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caoiae?a ii
aaeineiiaeaiith ?ano?nicaa??aath/eo oaoiieia?e a nenoaiao aiaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeiiii?th aiaee ? aeaeo?iaia?a??, ia?
aeeeth/ii aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy.

?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy aiaee oa ae?oaeo ?ano?n?a caeaaeeoue a?ae
oa?aeoa?enoee anueiai eiiieaeno oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano: caai?o,
i/euaiiy, iiaea/?, o?ainii?ooaaiiy, ?iciiae?eo ? ?? niiaeeaaiiy. Ioaea,
i?iaeaia aaeineiiaeaiiy oeueiai i?ioeano ? aeooaeueiith ? iineoue
eiiieaeniee oa?aeoa?.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? aaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?e caai?o,
iiaea/? oa eiio?ieth ca o?ainii?ooaaiiyi ? niiaeeaaiiyi aiaee aeey
ciaioaiiy ao?ao aiaee ? aeaeo?iaia?a?? a nenoaiao aiaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aoee aecia/ai? ianooii? caaea/?:

i?iaiae?coaaoe ?iaioo nenoai caai?o, iiaea/? ? o?ainii?ooaaiiy aiaee;

?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo aeo?ao aiaee ia
oaa?eiieoeueeeo oa?iao ? eiiieaenao, aeoiaey/e ?c i?ioeaaeo?ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy;

oeyoii aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeoe ?aoe?iiaeuei?
eiino?oeoeai? ? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e o?eueo?oaaeueiiai caaaioaaeaiiy
oa ?ic?iaeoe iia? eiino?oeoe?? aiaeicaa??ii – i/enieo nii?oae;

aaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo aei??thaaiue aeo?ao aiaee ii ia?oe?aeuei?e noai?
a o?oaao aaeeeiai ae?aiao?o oa iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy i?noeue ao?ao aiaee;

?ic?iaeoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeai?o ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a iiaea/? aiaee
ianiniith noaioe??th a iai??iee ?aca?aoa? i?e aeeoa?aioe?eiaai?e ieao?
ia i?ioyc? aeiae ca niiaeeaaio aeaeo?iaia?a?th.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

iaa?oioiaaia ? ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo aeo?ao
aiaee ia oaa?eiieoeueeeo oa?iao ?c a?aooaaiiyi oaeoe/ieo i?ioeaaeo?ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oo?eiaiiy oaa?ei;

?ic?iaeai? iia? eiino?oeoe?? aiaeicaa??ii – i/enieo nii?oae oa aecia/ai?
?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e ?o o?eueo?oaaeueiiai caaaioaaeaiiy;

aaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeee aiaeiiae?eo a o?oaao aaeeeiai ae?aiao?a ii
ia?oe?aeuei?e noai? oa aecia/aiiy i?noeue ao?ao aiaee ?c aiaeii?ia?aeieo
nenoai ca aeiiiiiaith iaiiiao?e/ii? ceiiee;

cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae ?ic?aooieo ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a iiaea/? aiaee
ianiniith noaioe??th a iai??iee ?aca?aoa? i?e aeeoa?aioe?eiaai?e ia
i?ioyc? aeiae ieao? ca niiaeeaaio aeaeo?iaia?a?th.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iio?aae o aiae? i?e i?iaeooaaii? oaa?eiieoeueeeo
ia’?eo?a, iniiaaia ia a?aooaaii? i?eeiyoeo oaoiieia?e oo?eiaiiy oaa?ei;

aaeineiiaeai? eiino?oeoe?? aiaeicaa??ieo nii?oae c o?eueo?oth/ei
ieaaath/ei caaaioaaeaiiyi;

iaoiaeeea aeyaeaiiy i?noeue ao?ao aiaee c aeiiiiiaith iaiiiao?e/ii?
ceiiee;

iaoiaeeea iioei?caoe?? ni?eueii? ?iaioe a?ae?ioaoi?/ieo nii?oae
eieaeueieo aiaeiaiae?a c o?aooaaiiyi aioo??oiueiaeiaiai?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? aa?oino? aeaeo?iaia?a??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe:

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? oi/i?oa aecia/aoe aeo?aoe aiaee i?e
i?iaeooaaii? ia`?eo?a oaa?eiieoeoaa.

Cai?iiiiiaai? ae?iaieoeoao iia? eiino?oeoe?? aiaeicaa??ii – i/enieo
nii?oae, ye? ia o?eueee i/euothoue aiaeo, aea e cao?eiothoue iaeuee?a
?ea oa cia/ii aeiiiieyoue aiaeo ? aeaeo?iaia?a?th a oaeiae ni?eythoue
caoenoo aeiae?eey.

?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii iaoiaee aiaeiiae?eo ? aecia/aiiy i?noeue ao?ao aiaee,
ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue aeiiiieoe aiaeo ? ?aoe?iiaeueii aeo?a/aoe ??.

Noai?ai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?ic?aooieo ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?aaeei?a ?iaioe
ianinii? noaioe?? aeaaeooue ciiao ciaioeoe aeo?aoe ia aeaeo?iaia?a?th
aeey iiaea/? aiaee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a:

Aaeineiiaeaii i?eeaae aeey aaoiiaoe/ii? ?a?no?aoe?? aeo?ao aiaee, ui
i?ioiaeeoue ii o?oaii?iaiaeo, ? aeeiiai? aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy ia oaa?eiieoeueeeo oa?iao.

Aeeiiaia iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a ia AII o
i?ia?aiao EXEL oa COSTAT, ? cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo aeo?ao
aiaee ia oaa?eiieoeueeeo oa?iao c o?aooaaiiyi i?ioeaaeo?
aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy.

Aeaioiaeaia eaai?aoi?ia onoaiiaea, aeeiiai? a?ae?aae?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy
?iaioe o?eueo??a aiaeicaa??ii – i/enieo nii?oae oa ?ic?iaeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?o i?iaeooaaiith ? aenieoaoaoe??.

Noai?aia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ?iaioe ?icaaeoaeaieo aiaeii?ia?aeieo
nenoai, i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaeie?/eeueieea, ui ae?? ii
ia?oe?aeuei?e noai?, aeeiiaii iaiiiao?e/io ceiieo ?icaaeoaeaii?
aiaeii?ia?aeii? nenoaie oa ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy i?noeue ao?ao
aiaee a nenoai?.

Anoaiiaeai? iioeiaeuei? ?aaeeie ?iaioe ianinieo noaioe?e i?e ??cieo
?aaeeiao aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe ? ioae?eaoe??:

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ie?ai? ?icae?ee ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue ia iaoeiai –
i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: «No/ani? i?iaeaie aiaeiiinoa/aiiy ?
ciaoeiaeaeaiiy no?/ieo aiae» (Euea?a, 1996); «I?iaeaie aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo ?ano?n?a oa iae?i?aoe?? caiaeue» (Ee?a,1996);
«Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa» (??aia, 1997); 53 – ?e
iaoeiai – oaoi?/i?e ? iaoeiai – iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe??, OAeOOA?A

(Oa?e?a – 1998); IV Anaoe?a?inueeee iaoeiai – i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Aiaea i?iaeaie ? ??oaiiy» (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998), I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeiai – oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Ieoueaaay aiaea – 98″ (Iaeana, 1998).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? o 9 noaooyo
o iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao. Iaea?aeaii ??oaiiy i?i aeaea/o
iaoaioa Oe?a?ie ia aeiao?ae.

Ci?no ?iaioe:

?icae?e 1. Aiae?c i?e/ei ao?ao aiaee ? aeaeo?iaia?a?? a nenoaiao
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aiaeiiinoa/aiiy.

Iniiaith ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy aiaee ? iaoeiaa ii?ioaaiiy ??
niiaeeaaiiy, ine?eueee /a?ac ii?ioaaiiy iiaeia cae?enithaaoe eiio?ieue
ca aeo?a/aiiyi aiaee.

Aea/aiiyi oaeoe/iiai aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy a n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?
caeiaeenue a?aeii? a/ai? ? niaoe?ae?noe — A.N. Iaiaeia, I.A. Ea?aia??ia,
A.I. Iae?eyi,

I.A. ??io?i, A.I. Aeieeinueea, A.A. Eaiaeaa, E.A. Iaaieuen?ia, I.?.
Ia?oei,

E.A. Oiiainueeee, E.I. Aoae??n, A.I. Oi?oaeee oa ?io?. Aea/aiiy ieoiieo
aeo?ao aiaee aacoaaeinue ia aiae?c? iieaciee?a aiaeie?/eeueiee?a i?e
aeeiiaii? aeine?aeaeaiue a iaoo?ieo oiiaao. I?ioa i?e oeueiio
?a?no?oaaeeny ye ei?eni? aeo?aoe aiaee, oae ? ia?aoe?iiaeueia
aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy. Oiio aenia?eiaioaeueiee iaoiae o?aaa aoei aeiiiaieoe
iaoiaeii aiae?oe/iiai ii?ioaaiiy, i?e yeiio aea/athoueny ia o?eueee
caaaeueia aaee/eia niiaeeaaiiy aiaee, aea ? ?? neeaaeia? aeaiaioe
(i?ioeaaeo?i? aeo?aoe). Oea aea? ciiao oi/ii ioe?ieoe ei?eni? aeo?aoe, a
oaeiae i?iaiicoaaoe niiaeeaaiiy aiaee.

Aeey oiia Oe?a?ie ?aaeei aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy ia oaa?eiieoeueeeo oa?iao
iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aii, a iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo aeo?ao aiaee
? iaaeineiiaeith, ine?eueee ia a?aoiao? eiie?aoieo i?ioeaaeo?ieo
iia?aoe?e aeei?enoaiiy aiaee ia oaoiieia?/i? iio?aae.

?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy aiaee caeaaeeoue a?ae oaeineiiaeaiiy anueiai
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ?? aeiaoaaiiy, i/euaiiy, iiaea/?,
o?ainii?ooaaiiy, ?iciiae?eo ? niiaeeaaiiy.

Iniiaieie oeyoaie aeiiiiiiai aeo?a/aiiy aiaee ? aeaeoi?aia?a?? a
nenoaiao aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ?:

oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo aeo?ao aiaee
niiaeeaa/aie ia iniia? a?aooaaiiy ?nioth/i? oaoiieia??
aiaeiei?enooaaiiy;

canoinoaaiiy aiaeicaa??ii – i/enieo nii?oae c iaoith ?eaicaoenoo ?
cao?eiaiiy iniiaii? iane caa?oaeiaiue aaciina?aaeiuei o aiaeiiio
aeaea?ae?;

oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee aiaeiiae?eo a o?oaao aaeeeiai ae?aiao?o ia
?icaaeoaeaieo aiaeiaiaeao c iaoith aeiiii?/iiai noeioethaaiiy
aiaeicaa?aaeaiiy;

?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aeyaeaiiy i?noeue i?eoiaaieo aeo?e?a oa
iaeiio?ieueiaaieo a?aeai??a aiaee c o?oaii?iaiaeo;

iioei?caoe?y ?aaeei?a noi?nii? ?iaioe ianin?a ? ?aca?aoa??a a oiiaao
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaii? ieaoe ca niiaeeaaio aeaeo?iaia?a?th.

?icae?e 2. Aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo aeo?ao
aiaee ia

oaa?eiieoeueeeo oa?iao i?e i?iaeooaaii? iaaiaeithaaeueieo nenoai

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy cae?enithaaeenue iaie ia oaa?eiieoeuee?e
oa?i? aaeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae i’yni–iiei/iiai iai?yieo a n. Ai?aie/? oa
ia naeiieiiieaen? a n. Aeieo??aea Ee?anueei? iaeano?. Aoea ?ic?iaeaia
iaoiaeeea i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?ic?aooieiaa
e?euee?noue niinoa?aaeaiue aeey io?eiaiiy iaiao?aeii? aeinoia??iino?
noaiiaeoue aeey oa?ie A?O – 26, a aeey naeiieiiieaeno – 29 aeine?ae?a.

Aiaeeii? aeo?aoe aiaee aecia/aeenue ca aeiiiiiaith naiiieoo/eo
i?eeaae?a, ye? anoaiiaethaaee ia aiaeie?/eeueieeao. Oae? i?eeaaee aoee
?ic?iaeai? iaie c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeeee ia?aa??ee aiaeie?/eeueiee?a
Eooeueeiai caaiaeo.

Ia?iaea ?ioi?iaoe?? aeeiioaaeanue ca eiaeio aeiao. Nii/aoeo aoaeoaaeenue
a?ao?ee iiaiaeeiieo aeo?ao aiaee, iio?i ia ieo iaeeaaeaeenue a?ao?ee
iia?aoe?eiiai ?icii?yaeeo aeiy, a ?acoeueoao? /iai anoaiiaethaaeenue
oaeoe/i? aeo?aoe aiaee ia i?ioeaaeo?i? iia?aoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iaeneiaeuei? eiao?oe??ioe ia??aiii??iino?
iiaiaeeiiiai aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy caeaaeaoue a?ae e?eueeino? oaa?ei ? aeo?ao
aiaee ia iaeio aieiao. ?o iiaeia ia/enethaaoe ca oi?ioeaie:

a) aeey oa?ie A?O

E/. iaen = 3,528 – 0,002N – 0,006qn; (1)

a) aeey naeiieiiieaeno

E/. iaen = 11,305 – 1,424N + 0,049N2 + 0,145qn2 – 1,625qn; (2)

aea N – e?euee?noue oaa?ei, oen. aie; qn – aeo?aoa aiaee ia iaeio
aieiao, e/aeiao.

Aeeiiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aeey oa?i A?O ieoiia
aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy ciaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao qn = 108…130 e/aeiao ia iaeio
aieiao, a iaeneiaeueiee eiao?oe??io ia??aiii??iino? iiaiaeeiiiai
aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy E/. iaen = 2,25…3,49. Aeey naeiieiiieaeno ieoiia
aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy ciaoiaeeoueny o iaaeao qn = 14…98 e/aeiao ia iaeio
aieiao, a E/. iaen = 2,45…6,86.

Iaie ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy iaeneiaeueii? iiaiaeeiii? aeo?aoe
aiaee, yea niiaeeaa?oueny ia oaa?eiieoeueeeo oa?iao. A iniiao ??
iieeaaeaii aeei?enoaiiy iaai?o oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioeaaeo? ? a?aeiia?aeieo
aeo?ao aiaee ia ieo. Ia?aa??ea iieacaea, ui oeae iaoiae ia 17% oi/i?oee,
i?ae oeiiaa iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo aeo?ao aiaee.

?icae?e 3. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaioe aiaeicaa??ii – i/enieo nii?oae c
ieaaath/ei o?eueo?oaaeueiei caaaioaaeaiiyi ia c?iooaaeueii –
iaaiaeithth/eo nenoaiao.

Aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo eiino?oeoeaieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ia?aiao??a
o?eueo??a o aiaeicaa??ii – i/enieo nii?oaeao iaie aoee aeeiiai?
eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaioe o?eueo?a c ieaaath/ei o?eueo?oaaeueiei
caaaioaaeaiiyi ?c ni?iaiiai iie?noe?ieo c ae?aiao?aie a?aioe a?ae 3,5
aei 10 ii ? oiaueiith caaaioaaeaiiy a?ae 0,3 aei 0,6 i i?e aeno?aeiiio
?on? aiaee ?c oaeaee?noth a?ae 30 aei 60 i/aiae. Eaai?aoi?ia onoaiiaea
(?en. 1) aoea ?ici?uaia ia oa?eoi??? aenia?eiaioaeueii – iaoai?/iiai
caaiaeo a n. TH?iaea Ee?anueei? iaeano?. Caaaeaiiyi aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aoei anoaiiaeaiiy caeaaeiino? ao?ao iaii?o ia ii/aoeo
o?eueo?ioeeeea a?ae oiaueie o?eueo?oaaeueiiai caaaioaaeaiiy l ?
oaeaeeino? o?eueo?oaaiiy aiaee Vo:

ho = f(l, Vo)
(3)

A i?ioean? aeeiiaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue oaiia?aoo?a aiaee ? o?aeoe?eiee
neeaae o?eueo?oaaeueiiai caaaioaaeaiiy (aea?aaeaioiee ae?aiao? ca?ai da
oa eiao?oe??io ?o iaiaeii??aeiino? Ei) i?aeo?eioaaeenue iino?eieie, a
ci?ii? oaeoi?e l, Vo aoee eiio?ieueiaaieie, oiaoi aeey eiie?aoiiai
aeine?aeo ?o cia/aiiy aoee caaeaieie ? iino?eieie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
caaaeueia e?euee?noue ??cieo aeine?ae?a iiaeiia

aei??aithaaoe 16.

Ca aeiiiiiaith neoiaiai aiae?co aoei anoaiiaeaii a?aioeiiao?e/iee neeaae
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai o?eueo?oaaeueiiai caaaioaaeaiiy ?c ni?iaiiai
iie?noe?ieo. Eiai oa?aeoa?i? ia?aiao?e aeyaeeeny oaeeie: d10 = 5,28 ii;
d80 = 6,88 ii; da = 8,13 ii;

Ei = 1,30. Ae?aiao?e /anoie ni?iaiiai iie?noe?ieo ciaoiaeeeenue a iaaeao
3,5 – 10 ii.

I?e aeeiiaii? eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ci?ithaaeenue ne?aeoth/e
ia?aiao?e:

a) oiaueia o?eueo?oaaeueiiai caaaioaaeaiiy:

l1= 0,3 i; l2= 0,4i; l3= 0,5i; l4= 0,6i;

a) oaeaee?noue o?eueo?oaaiiy aiaee:

V1=30i/aiae; V2=40i/aiae; V3=50i/aiae; V4=60i/aiae.

Ao?aoe iaii?o aei??thaaeenue c aeiiiiiaith i’?ciiao??a, i?ee??ieaieo aei
ei?iono o?eueo?a /a?ac 7,5 – 20 ni, a oiaueia o?eueo?oaaeueiiai
caaaioaaeaiiy – ca aeiiiiiaith e?i?eee c oi/i?noth aei 1 ii. Cia/aiiy
oaeaeeino? o?eueo?oaaiiy aiaee aei??thaaeenue c oi/i?noth aei 0,1i/aiae.

?en. 1. Noaia i?eno?ith aeey aea/aiiy a?ae?aae?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee
ieaaath/iai o?eueo?oth/iai caaaioaaeaiiy c e?oiiia?aioeueiiai
i?iiiie?noe?ieo.

1 — oeaia iiaea/? ao?aeii? aiaee; 2 — ei?ion i?eno?ith noaa?e?caoi?a
iaii?o;

3 – ia?aeeaiee i?eno??e; 4 — e?ai – ?aaoeyoi? iiaea/? aiaee; 5 — oeaia
aeey neeaeaiiy ia?aeeaii? aiaee; 6 — eiiiainaoi? ao?ao iaii?o ia
o?eueo??; 7 — ei?ion o?eueo?o;

8 — ?ao?oea aeey oo?eiaiiy caaaioaaeaiiy; 9 — oeaia aeey iiaea/? aiaee
ia o?eueo?;

10 — ieaaath/a caaaioaaeaiiy c a?aioe i?iiiie?noe?ieo; 11 — oeaia aeey
aecia/aiiy oaeaeeino? o?eueo?oaaiiy; 12 – iueaciiao?e; 13, 14, 15-
aaioee?; 16- iao?oaie aeey aeioneo iia?o?y.

Ii ?acoeueoaoao aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue iiaoaeiaai? a?ao?ee
caeaaeiino? ho = f(l, Vo), i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en. 2, c yeeo aeaeii, ui
caeaaei?noue ao?aoe iaii?o a?ae oaeaeeino? o?eueo?oaaiiy aiaee iathoue
i?eaeecii e?i?eio caeaaei?noue i?e cia/aiiyo inoaiiuei? ia a?eueoa 50
i/aiae aai 1,4 ni/n.

Ioaea, aeey aeine?aeaeoaaiiai i?iiiie?noe?ieueiiai caaaioaaeaiiy ?c
na?aaei?i ae?aiao?ii da = 0,813 ni i?e aeno?aei?e o?eueo?aoe?? c
oaeaee?noth aei Vo(1,4 ni/n iaiai??ia o?eueo?aoe?y Aea?n? ia? oaeo
aa?oith iaaeo canoinoaaiiy:

Vodo( 1,4*0,813= 1,14 ni2/n
(4)

aai i?e /ene? ?aeiieueaena

Re = (Vd)/((114
(5)

Ioaea, aeey i?iiiie?noe?ieueiiai o?eueo?oaaeueiiai caaaioaaeaiiy ?c
na?aaei?i ae?aiao?ii a?aioe da ( 8 ii i?e aeno?aeiiio o?eueo?oaaii? ?c
noaeith oaeaee?noth

Vo( 50 i/aiae a?aeaoaa?oueny eai?ia?iee ?oo aiaee, yeee iiaeia ae?aceoe
oi?ioeith Aea?n?

Vo=EoI, (6)

I?e oeueiio eiao?oe??ioe o?eueo?aoe?? ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao Eo = 10…17
ni/n, a a?ae?aae?/iee iioee I ( 0,8…0,14. Oe? cia/aiiy ni?aaaaeeea? aeey
ii/aoeiaiai ia??iaeo o?eueo?oaaiiy (Oo = 0).

I?e oaeaeeino? aeno?aeiiai o?eueo?oaaiiy aiaee Vo, ui ia?aaeuo? 50
i/aiae, /a?ac i?iiiie?noe?ieueia caaaioaaeaiiy c d = 3,5…10 ii ?
oiaueiith l = 0,3…0,6 i, aeieea? oo?aoeaioia o?eueo?aoe?y, aeey yei?
a?ae?aae?/iee iioee iiaeia ae?aceoe oi?ioeith

I = 0.08 Vo + Vo2
(7)

Iioeaea i?e ?? canoinoaaii? ia ia?aaeuo? 17 %.

Oaeei /eiii, aeeiiai? a?ae?aae?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee iiaeeea?noue
canoinoaaiiy o aiaeicaa??ii – i/enieo nii?oaeao e?oiiia?aioeueiiai
i?iiiie?noe?ieueiiai o?eueo?oaaeueiiai caaaioaaeaiiy c ae?aiao?ii ca?ai

d = 3,5…10 ii, ? c oiaueiith o?eueo?oth/iai oa?o l = 0,3…0,5i, oa
oaeaeeino? o?eueo?oaaiiy Vo= 40 – 50 i/aiae. A oaeiio caaaioaaeaii?
ii/aoeia? ao?aoe iaii?o ia ia?aaeuoaaee ho = 0,12 i.

Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?/i? noaie ? eiino?oeoe?? aiaeicaa??ii –
i/enieo nii?oae c ieaaath/ei o?eueo?oth/ei caaaioaaeaiiyi. Oea
eiino?oeoe?? ne?aeoth/eo aiaeicaai??a:

a) aiaeicaa?? neoiiii – o?eueo?oth/iai oeio;

a) aiaeicaa?? c o?oa/aoei o?eueo?oth/ei iaieiaeii;

a) ieaaath/ee o?eueo?oth/ee aiaeicaa??;

a) oaooiee aiaeicaa??.

Oae? nii?oaee aeeiiothoue iiia?aaei? i/euaiiy aiaee ? caaacia/othoue
aeiiae ?eaicaoenoo.

Ia cai?iiiiiaai? aaoi?ii eiino?oeoe?? io?eiaii ??oaiiy oeaio?o
iaoaioii? aenia?oece Oe?a?ie i?i aeaea/o iaoaioo ia aeiao?ae aai aeaeai?
ni?aaee i?i i??i?eoao oeeo ?ic?iaie.

?icae?e 4. ?ic?iaea cania?a aiaeicaa?aaeaiiy a nenoaiao iiaea/? ?
?iciiae?eo aiaee

Iaei??th c iaia’yceiaeo oiia aiaeicaa?aaeaiiy ? i?aaeeueii i?aai?ciaaiee
? iaae?eiee aiaeiiae?e. A o?oaao aaeeeeo ae?aiao??a ?icaaeoaeaieo
aiaei?iciiae?eue/eo nenoai aei??thaaiiy aeo?ao aiaee aeioe?eueii
aeeiioaaoe ii ia?oe?aeuei?e noai? (?en. 3), yea aeaoaaoa a
aoae?aieoeoa?, i?ino?oa a aenieoaoaoe?? ? ia aeiaaa? i?aeaaaeaiiy
aeeo?iaia?a??, ui iniaeeai aaaeeeai o iieueiaeo oiiaao. Aaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoiaeeee aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo i?eeaae?a cae?enithaaeinue ia iniia?
?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii ia ?eaiaoeueeiio
a?oiiaiio aiaeii?iaiae?.

?en.3 Noaia ia?oe?aeueiiai aiaeie?/?eueiiai aocea ?c noeniaiiyi iioieo
aiaee ia ?eaiaoeeiio a?oiiaiio aiaeii?iaiae?:

1- iaa?no?aeueiee aiaeiaiae; 2- ae?ao?aaia; 3- aaeian; 4- caaeaeaeee;

5- oo?a?iiee aiaeie?/eeueiee.

Aeo?aoo aiaee a iaa?no?aeueiiio aiaeii?iaiae? i?e aeei?enoaii?
ia?oe?aeueieo aiaeiaei??thaaeueieo nenoai ne?ae aecia/aoe ca oi?ioeith

, (8)

aea Qi ? Qa — aeo?aoe aiaee, a?aeiia?aeii o iaa?no?aeueiiio
aiaeii?iaiae? ? aaeian?, i3/n;

Sae ? Sa – a?ae?aae?/iee ii?? ?ooia? aiaee, a?aeiia?aeii ae?ao?aaie ?
aaeiano, n5/i;

Cia/aiiy Sae oa Sa i?eeiathoue ii oaae. 1. ? oaae. 2.

Oaaeeoey. 1

A?ae?aae?/iee ii?? Sae a caeaaeiino? a?ae ae?aiao?a o?oaii?iaiaeo D ?
ae?ao?aaie d

Ae?aiao? o?oaii?iaiaeo Ae, ii

400

450

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Aaee/eia

Sae n/i5 aeey ni?aa?ae-iioaiiy d/D 0,6 37.861 23.597 15.602 7.462 4.025
2.361 1.472 0.966

0.7

15.890

9.881

6.509

3.122

1.682

0.988

0.615

0.4.04

Oaaeeoey 2

A?ae?aae?/iee ii?? o aaeian? Sa

Eae?a? aiaee?/?eueieea

50

80

100

150

200

250

300

Cia/aiiy Sa, n/i5

26500

2070

575

130

45,3

19,4

8,3

Iaaeie?eii ia?oe?aeueii? noaie ? a?aeiinii iecueea ?? oi/i?noue i?e
oaeaeeino? ?ooo aiaee, iaio?e 1,3i/n. Iaie ?ic?iaeaii niin?a aiaeiiae?eo
a nenoaiao c iaeeie oaeaeeinoyie ?ooo aiaee (V=0,2-1,3 i/n), i?e
aeei?enoaii? yeiai iioeaea aei??thaaiiy aeo?ao aiaee ia ia?aaeuo? 5-8 %.
A iniiao eiai iieeaaeaii canoinoaaiiy eiao?oe??ioa ia?a?aooieo, aaee/eia
yeiai i?eeia?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae na?aaeiuei? oaeaeeino? ?ooo aiaee
a iaa?no?aeueiiio o?oaii?iaiae?.

I?e aenieoaoaoe?? ?icaaeoaeaieo aiaei?iciiae?eue/eo nenoai aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy ia? nai?/ania aeyaeaiiy i?noeue aeo?e?a aiaee. Oaeo ?iaioo
aeioe?eueii aeeiioaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith iaiiiao?e/ii? ceiiee ?
aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaie iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo.

I?noea ?icoaooaaiiy oaeiai aeo?eo aiaee c o?oaii?iaiaeo ia/eneth?oueny
ca oi?ioeith

(9)

— aaee/eia a?aeai?o aiaee ?c o?oaii?iaiaeo an?ia iiia?aaei?ie
niiaeeaa/aie aei e – i? ae?eyiee nenoaie, i3/n.

Iaeii/anii aaaeaoueny ia?aa??ea a?ae?aae?/ii? caaaioaaeaiino? ae?eyiie
nenoaie ii oaeoe/ieo aaee/eiao a?ae?aae?/ieo iioee?a, ye?
ii??aiththoueny c ?aeiiaiaeiaaieie aeey o?oa ?c a?aeiia?aeieo iaoa??ae?a
? ae?aiao??a. Oea aea? iiaeeea?noue aeiiiiii aeo?a/aoe aeaeo?iaia?a?th
ia o?ainii?ooaaiiy aiaee.

Aeei?enoaiiy oe??? iaoiaeeee ia i?aeoeoe? iieacaei aenieo ??
aoaeoeai?noue. ?ic?iaeai? niiniae iae?eo oa caa?aaeaiiy aiaee noaaeai? ?
caoaa?aeaeai? aeey ?o aeei?enoaiiy a nenoaiao aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
Oe?a?ie.

5 ?icae?e. ?ic?iaea iioeiaeueieo ?aaeei?a noi?nii? ?iaioe
aiaeii?ia?aeieo nii?oae a nenoaiao iiaea/? ? ?iciiae?eo aiaee.

I?e i?iaeooaaii? ? aenieoaoaoe?? nenoai iiaea/? ? ?iciiae?eo aiaee
iaiao?aeii iioei?coaaoe a?ao?ee iiaea/? aiaee ianinaie, ui aoaea
caaacia/oaaoe i?i?iaeuei? aeo?aoe ia aoae?aieoeoai ? aenieoaoaoe?th
a?ae?aae?/ii aca?iiae?th/eo nii?oae.

I?e iino?ei?e ia i?ioyc? aeiae aa?oino? aeaeo?iaia?a?? iioeiaeueiei
aoaea ??oaiiy, i?e yeiio ?aaoethth/ee ia’?i aiaee a ?aca?aoa?ao aoaea
iaeiaioei, a aeey nenoai, a yeeo aa?o?noue aeaeo?iaia?a?? ia i?ioyc?
aeiae ci?ith?oueny, oiaoi, aeey ?eieiaeo oiia ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
iioeiaeueiee a?ao?e iiaea/? aiaee ianinaie iiaeia aecia/eoe iaoiaeii
iine?aeiaiiai iaaeeaeaiiy (?oa?aoe?e). Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeaia i?ia?aia
aeeiiaiiy oaei? ?iaioe ia AII ca aeiiiiiaith aeaeo?iiieo oaaeeoeue

MS EXEL 5, aeoiaey/e ?c oiia caaacia/aiiy i?i?iaeueii? aaee/eie
i?eaaaeaieo aeo?ao ii anueiio eiiieaeno aca?iica’ycaieo nii?oae nenoaie.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui iioeiaeuei? a?ao?ee iiaea/? aiaee
ianinaie caeaaeaoue a?ae aaee/eie aeiaiai? aeo?aoe aiaee Qaeia oa
eiao?oe??io?a iiaiaeeiii? ia??aiii??iino? aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy Eaiae. Oae?
a?ao?ee ?ic?iaeai? aeey

Qaeia = 25…500 i3/aeia oa Eaiae = 1,5…3,0. ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui i?e Q
aeia = 25 i3/aeia aeey aoaeue – yeiai cia/aiiy Eaiae iioeiaeueiee a?ao?e
aiaeiiiaea/? iaeiaeiaee ? o?eaa?, ??aiith 14 aiaeei ia aeiao. Aeey
aeiaiaeo aeo?ao aiaee 50; 100 ? 200 i3/aeiao iioeiaeueia aeiaiaa
o?eaae?noue ?iaioe ianin?a noaiiaeoue 20 aiaeei ia aeiao i?e aoaeue –
yeeo eiao?oe??ioao iiaiaeeiii? ia??aiii??iino? aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy.
Iioeiaeueia o?eaae?noue ?iaioe ianin?a aeey aeiaiaeo aeo?ao aiaee

Qaeia = 500 i3/aeia oa Eaiae = 2,5 noaiiaeoue Tiio = 14 aiaeei ia aeiao,
a i?e Eaiae = 1,5…2 oa Eaiae = 3 oey aaee/eia aei??aith? Tiio = 15 aiae.

Aeey i?i?iaeueieo aeo?ao aeaeo?iaia?a?? ia iiaea/o aiaee niiaeeaa/ai
iaiao?aeii i?aaeeueii i?ae?a?aoe ianine oa aea?aoe iioeiaeueiee ?aaeei
?o ?iaioe. A ca’yceo c oeei aoea cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea i?aeai?o
ianin?a aeey ??cieo oaoiieia?/ieo noai iiaea/? aiaee, yea aeicaiey?
aecia/eoe ?ic?aooieia? aeo?aoe ? iaii?e ianin?a.

?icae?e 6. Ioe?iea aoaeoeaiino? cai?iiiiiaaieo aaeineiiaeaiue

A oeueiio ?icae?e? ie iaaaee ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino? i?iiiceoe?e.
Ine?eueee i?iiiceoe?? noinoaaeeny ??cieo ia`?eo?a, a ?o aoaeoeai?noue
ioe?ithaaeanue ii ??cieo e?eoa??yo, oi a oaae. 3 iaaaaeai? eiiieaene,
ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue aeioe?euei?noue ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy. Aeai?, iaaaaeai?
a oe?e oaaeeoe?, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaoe noia?io ioe?ieo oi? /e
?ioi? i?iiiceoe??.

Oaaeeoey 3

?acoeueoaoe canoinoaaiiy aeena?oaoe?eieo ?ic?iaie

?

n/n Ci?no ?ic?iaee ?acoeueoaoe canoinoaaiiy

1 Ooi/iaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo aeo?ao aiaee ia oaa?eiieoeueeeo ia’?eoao
I?aeaeuo? oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy

ia 17%

2 Canoinoaaiiy iiaeo eiino?oeoe?e aiaeicaa??ieo nii?oae c ieaaath/ei
o?eueo?oth/ei caaaioaaeaiiyi. ?eaicaoeno, aeiiii?y aiaee ?
aeaeo?iaia?a?? aei 40%

3 Iioei?ciaaia ia?oe?aeueia noaia aiaeiiae?eo Iaaaeeea nia?aa?o?noue, ia
iio??aia aeaeo?iaia?a?y, i?aoeth? a ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae iioieo a?ae
0,2 aei 2 i/n

4 Aeei?enoaiiy aeaieo iaiiiao?e/ii? ceiiee aeey aeyaeaiiy i?noeue
aeo?e?a aiaee ia aiaei?iciiae?euei?e ia?aae? Aeyaeaiiy i?noeue aeo?e?a
aiaee c aeiiiiiaith aeinooiieo i?eeaae?a, io?eiaiiy aeiaeaoeiai?
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai ia?aae?.

5 Iioei?caoe?y a?ao?e?a ni?eueii? ?iaioe ianinieo noaioe?e c ?ioeie
a?ae?ioaoi?/ieie nii?oaeaie a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee Cieaeaiiy
aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeaeaoe?a ia 10%

Aeniiaee

Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaieo iaie aeine?aeaeaiue ie i?eeoee aei ianooiieo
aeniiae?a:

A iaoiaeeoe? aecia/aiiy iio?aae o aiae? i?e i?iaeooaaii?
oaa?eiieoeueeeo ia’?eo?a ne?ae canoiniaoaaoe aiae?c aioo??oiueiaeiaiaiai
aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei i?eeiyoi? a i?iaeo? oaoiieia??
oo?eiaiiy oaa?ei.

Eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai? c o?eueo?oth/ei ieaaath/ei
caaaioaaeaiiyi oiaueiith 40…50 ni ? c ae?aiao?ii ca?ai 3,5 …10 ii c
ni?iaiiai iie?noe?ieo, yeee ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeey aeei?enoaiiy a
o?eueo?oth/eo aiaeicaai?ao ??ciiiai?oieo eiino?oeoe?e, aeicaieeee
anoaiiaeoe iioeiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e oeiai caaaioaaeaiiy:
oaeaee?noue o?eueo?oaaiiy aiaee — aei Vo = 40…50 i/aiae, ?ioaineai?noue
i?iieaee q = 12…15 e/n i2, a o?eaae?noue neeaaea? t = 3…5 oa.

Aaeeeia?aioeueia i?iiiie?noe?ieueia caaaioaaeaiiy c ae?aiao?ii /anoie

dy = 8.13 ii o aeno?aeiiio o?eueo?oaaeueiiio iioioe? caa??aa? eai?ia?iee
?aaeei aei oaeaeeino? aiaee, ??aii? 50 i/aiae aai i?e /ene? ?aeiieueaena
Re( 114, ? i?e oeeo oiiaao eiao?oe??io o?eueo?oaaiiy aeey /enoiai
caaaioaaeaiiy aoaea ciaoiaeeoeny a iaaeao Eo =10…17 ni/n.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeeio ?iaioe ?eaiaoeueeiai aiaeiaiaeo iieacaee, ui
i?e/eiith iano?eeeo cia/aiue iieaciee?a aeo?ao aiaee, aei??yieo ca
aeiiiiiaith ia?oe?aeueii? noaie, ? aeineoue /ano? cieaeaiiy oaeaeeino?
iioieo aiaee, ui aeieeathoue ?c-ca aaa??e, a?aeeeth/aiiy aeaeo?iaia?a??,
oa cieaeaiiy aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy a i?/i? aiaeeie, ?ai?oa oe? oaeoi?e ia
a?aoiaoaaeenue i?e aecia/aii? eiao?oe??ioa ia?a?aooieo.

Oaeo ao?aoe aiaee aai ?? e?aae?aeee iiaeia anoaiiaeoe ii aeaieo
iaiiiao?e/ii? ceiiee, a i?noea c oi/i?noth aei iao?a, — ei?enooth/enue
?ic?iaeaiei niiniaii ?c canoinoaaiiyi oi?ioee (9).

Iioei?caoe?th ni?eueii? ?iaioe ianin?a ? ca’ycaieo ?c ieie
a?ae?ioaoi?/ieo nii?oae a oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiioaiue ne?ae i?iaiaeeoe c
o?aooaaiiyi ia o?eueee oaoiieia?/ieo iniaeeainoae, aea e ci?i oe?ie ia
aeaeo?iaia?a?th. I?e ci?i? ia i?ioyc? aeiae oe?ie ia aeaeo?iaia?a?th
i?aea?? e?auiai ??oaiiy iiaeeeaee o?eueee ca aeiiiiiaith AII, ? eiai
aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe, ei?enooth/enue cai?iiiiiaaiith iaoiaeeeith,
iai?aaeaiith ia i?i?i?caoe?th i?eaaaeaieo aeo?ao.

Eiiieaen ?ic?iaeaieo caoiae?a, iai?aaeaieo ia aaeineiiaeaiiy caai?o,
o?ainii?ooaaiiy ? ?iciiae?eo aiaee, aeanoue iiaeeea?noue caeiiiieoe
aiaeo oa aeaeo?iaia?a?th (aei 30%), a oaeiae nei?ioeoe aenieoaoaoe?ei?
aeo?aoe.

?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ae?iaieoeoao

I?e i?iaeooaaii? oaa?eiieoeueeeo ia’?eo?a ?ic?aooiie iio?aae o aiae?
i?iiiio?oueny i?iaiaeeoe ii i?ioeaaeo?i?e iaoiaeeoe?, ui a?aoiao?
i?eeiyoo oaoiieia?th oo?eiaiiy oaa?ei.

Aeey caai?o aiaee c iiaa?oiaaeo aeaea?ae i?iiiiothoueny ?ic?iaeai?
eiino?oeoe?? aiaeicaa??ieo nii?oae c o?eueo?oaaeueiei ieaaath/ei
caaaioaaeaiiyi c ni?iaiiai iie?noe?ieo.

A o?oaao aaeeeeo ae?aiao??a ?icaaeoaeaieo aiaei?iciiae?eue/eo nenoai o
aeiaaeeo a?aeaeaeaiino? aiaeii??iiai aocea a?ae ianaeaieo ioieo?a ?
aeaea?ae aeaeo?iaia?a??, aei?? aeo?ao aiaee aeioe?eueii cae?enithaaoe ca
ia?oe?aeueiith noaiith c ooi/iaiiyi eiao?oe??io?a ia?a?aooieo.

Aecia/aiiy i?noeue ao?ao aai e?aae?aeie aiaee i?iiiio?oueny
cae?enithaaoe oeyoii ia?iaee aeaieo iaiiiao?e/ii? ceiiee ? cia/aiue
aeo?ao ia aiaeiaeae?eao ae?eueieoe?, ui aeine?aeaeo?oueny, ca
aeiiiiiaith cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaie niiniao, yeee aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe oe?
i?noey c oi/i?noth aei iao?a.

I?e ci?i? ia i?ioyc? aeiae aa?oino? aeaeo?iaia?a?? iioeiaeuei? a?ao?ee
iiaea/? aiaee ianinaie iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai? niiniaii i?aeai?o ca
aeiiiiiaith AII iaeiaioiai cia/aiiy i?eaaaeaieo aeo?ao aeey an?o
iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a ?iaioe ianino.

Aeei?enoaiiy iaaaaeaieo aeua i?iiiceoe?e aeicaieeoue cieceoe
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe ia 15… 20%.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o

Oi?oaeee I. Ae., *a?iee Ae. A, Oiiooaoeueea O.I. oa ?io. No/ani?
i?iaeaie n?eueainiaiaeiiinoa/aiiy ? oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy /ca??.»Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa» o. 2, ??aia «Aeaeaaieoeoai Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa» 1997, 85n.

Oi?oaeee I. Ae., *a?iee Ae. A. Aei??thaaiiy aeo?ao aiaee a o?oaao
aaeeeiai ae?aiao?a oo?a?iieie aiaeie?/eeueieeaie/ ca. Iae?i?aoe?y ?
aiaeia ainiiaea?noai — Ee?a, Aa?a?ia iaoea, ? 83, 1996, 139n.

Oi?oaeee I. Ae., *a?iue Ae. A. Oi?oaeee A. I. Ii?aaeaeaiea ?an/aoiuo
?anoiaeia aiaeu a nenoaiao naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai aiaeiniaaaeaiey a
Oe?aeia/ ca. Iae?i?aoe?y ? aiaeia ainiiaea?noai — Ee?a, «O?iaeaea», ?
79, 1993, 65n.

Oi?oaeee I. Ae., *a?iee Ae. A. Iaoeaethe ?. I. ?ioaineo?eaoe?y ?iaioe
nenoai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aiaeiiinoa/aiiy/ Oe?a?ii-Iieuenueea
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y «No/ani? i?iaeaie aiaeiiinoa/aiiy ?
ciaoeiaeaeaiiy no?/ieo aiae»,

— Euea?a 1996, n.319

*a?iee Ae.A., Oi?oaeee I.Ae. Iae?e, iie?auaiiy yeino? ? cieaeaiiy ao?ao
aiaee o ?iciiae?eue/?o nenoaiao n?eueainiaiaeiiinoa/aiiy/ iaoeiai —
i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y «I?iaeaie aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aiaeieo
?ano?n?a oa iae?i?aoe?? caiaeue» Ee?a, 1996 n.76-77.

*a?iue Ae. A. Iaoiaeeea auai?a ia YAI iioeiaeueiiai a?aoeea iiaea/e
aiaeu ianinaie a aiaeiiaii?ioth aaoith/ «No/ani? i?iaeaie
aiaeiiinoa/aiiy ? ciaca?aaeaiiy no?/ieo aiae», ??aia 1997, n. 24-25.

*a?iee Ae. A., Oi?oaeee I.Ae., Ieoaeeia TH. I. Iaoiaeeea aeeiiaiiy
aei??thaaiue i?e aiaeiiae?eo ca ia?oe?aeueiith noaiith ia o?aiceoieo
ae?eyieao o?oaii?iaiae?a // Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c iai?yiiai
aiaeiiae?eo ia c?iooaaeueieo nenoaiao, Ee?a, 1997, 22-23n.

*a?iue Ae. A. Auai? iaeauaiaeiaeoeo a?aoeeia iiaea/e aiaeu a naoue
eieaeueiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo aiaeii?iaiaeia a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee // Eiiioiaeueiia oicyenoai ai?iaeia, Eeaa, «Oaoieea», ? 12,
1997, 81 n.

Oi?oaeee I. Ae., *a?iue Ae. A. ?ac?aaioea ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee
a naeueneioicyenoaaiiii aiaeiniaaaeaiee / “Aeaiiie?iaaiiua iao/iua
?aaiou AEIEOE” 1995, ?9(285), a/i 368.

Aiioaoe?y

*a?iee Ae.A Aaeineiiaeaiiy niinia?a aiaei – ? aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy a
?icaaeoaeaieo c?iooaaeueii – iaaiaeithth/eo nenoaiao – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.20.05 – a?ae?ioaoi?/i? iae?i?aoe?? – ?inoeooo
a?ae?ioiaoi?ee ? iae?i?aoe?? OAAI, Ee?a 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy aiaee ?
aeaeo?iaia?a?? a nenoaiao aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. Ooi/iaia iaoiaeeea
aecia/aiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo aeo?ao aiaee ia oaa?eiieoeueeeo oa?iao, yea
a?aoiao? i?ioeaaeo?i? iia?aoe?? ii oo?eiaiith oaa?ei. ?ic?iaeai? iia?
oaoiieia?/i? noaie ? eiino?oeoe?? aiaeicaa??ii – i/enieo nii?oae c
i?iiiie?noe?ieueiei o?eueo?oaaeueiei caaaioaaeaiiyi, anoaiiaeaii ?o
iioeiaeuei? eiino?oeoeai? oa oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e. ?ic?iaeai?
iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo aeo?ao aiaee ca ia?oe?aeueiith noaiith a o?oaao
aaeeeiai ae?aiao?o ?icaaeoaeaieo aiaei?iciiae?eue/eo nenoai oa aeyaeaiiy
i?noeue aeo?e?a aiaee c ieo ca aeiiiiiaith iaiiiao?e/ii? ceiiee.
Cai?iiiiiaai? iioeiaeuei? a?ao?ee ?iaioe ianin?a oa iaoiaeeea ?o
i?aeai?o aeey aeiiii?? aeo?ao aeaeo?iaia?a??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aiaeiniiaeeaaiiy, aeo?aoe aiaee, aiaeicaa??ii – i/eni?
nii?oaee, i?iiiie?noe?ieueia o?eueo?oaaeueia caaaioaaeaiiy, aiaeiiae?e,
aeo?ee aiaee, iaiiiao?e/ia ceiiea, a?ao?ee ?iaioe ianin?a.

Aiiioaoeey

*a?iue Ae. A. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiea niiniaia aiaei – e yia?ainaa?aaeaiey a
?acaaoaeaiiuo i?ineooaeueii – iaaiaeieoaeueiuo nenoaiao – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.20. 05 – aeae?ioaoie/aneea iaeei?aoeee – Einoeooo
aeae?ioaoieee e iaeei?aoeee OAAI, Eeaa 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inii ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey aiaeu e
yeaeo?iyia?aee a nenoaiao aiaeiiai oicyenoaa. Ooi/iaia iaoiaeeea
ii?aaeaeaiey ?an/aoiuo ?anoiaeia aiaeu ia aeeaioiiaiae/aneeo oa?iao,
eioi?ay o/eouaaao i?ioeaaeo?iua iia?aoeee ii niaea?aeaieth aeeaioiuo.
?ac?aaioaiu iiaua oaoiieiae/aneea noaiu e eiino?oeoeee aiaeicaai?ii –
i/enoiuo nii?oaeaiee n iaiiiieenoe?ieueiie oeeueo?othuae caa?oceie,
onoaiiaeaiu eo iioeiaeueiua eiino?oeoeaiua e oaoiieiae/aneea ia?aiao?u.
?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeeee ?an/aoa ?anoiaea aiaeu a o?oaao aieueoiai
aeeaiao?a ?acaaoaeaiiuo aiaeii?iaiaeyueo nenoai ii ia?oeeaeueiie noaia e
auyaeaiey iano ooa/ae aiaeu i?e iiiiue iaiiiao?e/aneie nuaiee.
I?aaeeiaeaiu iioeiaeueiua a?aoeee ?aaiou ianinia e iaoiaeeea eo iiaeai?a
aeey yeiiiiiiai eniieueciaaiey yeaeo?iyia?aee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aiaeiiio?aaeaiea, ?anoiae aiaeu, aiaeicaai?ii –
i/enoiua nii?oaeaiey, iaiiiieenoe?ieueiay oeeueo?othuay caa?ocea,
aiaeio/ao, ooa/ee aiaeu, iaiiiao?e/aneay nuaiea, a?aoeee ?aaiou ianinia.

Annotation

Charniy D.V. Improvement of resource-saving technologies in water
economy systems — Manuscript.

Thesis for a scientific degree of a candidate of engineering science on
a speciality 05.20.05 — Land Reclamation Hydraulic Engineering —
Research Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation of the
Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Science (UAAS), Kiyv 1998.

The thesis is devoted to the problems of water and electric power
economical and efficient use in water economy systems. The technique of
calculated water discharges determination on the cattle-breeding farms
is defined on a more accurate basis which takes into account a
procedural operations for maintaining and servicing the animals. New
technological schemes and offtake-purification structures with
cellular-polystyrene filters are developed as well as their optimal
design and technological parameters are defined. The techniques of water
discharges in pipes of large diameter in branching water-conveying
systems under the partial scheme as well as finding the places of water
leakage through manometer survey are worked out. Optimal time schedules
of pump work and techniques of their selection for economical electric
power use to supply the water are proposed.

Key words: Water demand, water discharge, offtake-purification
structures, cellular-polystyrene filters, water-metering, water leakage,
manometer survey, time schedule of pump work.

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