IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO OE?A?INUeEI? A?OAIA?AO?? OA AeAEA?AEICIAANOAA

?i. I.N. A?OOAANUeEIAI

AAEAE

NOAIAI AeIEO?IAE*

OAeE 321 (092) (477)

AANEEUe EO*AANUeEEE: A?Ae IAOe?IIAEUeII? ?AeA? AeI AeA?AEAAIINO?

(OE?A?INUeEA EIINA?AAOEAIA IIE?OE*IA AeOIEA

IA?OI? IIEIAEIE OO no. OA ?? AEEAAe A ?NOI?E*IO IAOEO)

07.00.06 – ?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aeiciaanoai oa niaoe?aeuei? ?noi?e/i?
aeenoeeie?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? iiiia?ao?y.

?iaioo aeeiiaii o Euea?anueeiio a?aeae?eaii? ?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei?
a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.N. A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie oa
ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? ? iie?oieia?? Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai??

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aeaoeaae/
ss?ineaa ?iiaiiae/, ea??aiee Euea?anueeiai a?aeae?eaiiy ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ?iicaiiee /eai IAI
Oe?a?ie Iaeainueeee ss?ineaa Aiaaeaiiae/, aee?aeoi?
No?aeii?a?iiaenueeiai aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo A.Eeieinueeiai o
i.O?eaaeaeueo?? (NOA), aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo no?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe Oaiiaae TH??e ?aaiiae/, ea??aiee oeaio?o
?noi?e/ii? iie?oieia?? ?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo oa aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie;

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Neeaea TH??e TH??eiae/, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eii iia?oiuei? ?noi??? ?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa
?i.?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea, eaoaae?a ?noi??? neia’yinueeeo e?a?i.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 29 ea?oiy 1999 ?. ia 11 aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 226.28.01. ii caoenoo
aeena?oaoe?e a ?inoeooo? oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa
?i. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie

(25 2001, i. Ee?a, aoe.O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea,4).

C iiiia?ao??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie

(25 2001, i. Ee?a, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea,4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 22 aa?aciy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
?.A.Aa?aa

1. CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Oe?a?inueea ?noi?e/ia iaoea XIX-XX no. ?icaeaaeany i?ae aieeaii
??cieo iie?oe/ieo ? o?einionueeeo oa/?e, ia?iaeii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo,
e?aa?aeueieo, eiina?aaoeaieo, iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo oa nioe?ae?noe/ieo
iiaeyae?a. O i?e o?nii ia?aie?oaeeny aeaa iniiai? iai?yie:
ia?iaeieoeueeee oa aea?aeaaieoeueeee. Iaeaeeae/ith uiaei
aea?aeaaieoeueeiai iai?yio aoea eiina?aaoeaia oa/?y o
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? Oe?a?ie. Oi?iaeiaae O?O no. aiia
i?inoaaeo?oueny nii/aoeo ye oaiaeaioe?y, i?ci?oa, ye oa/?y, ia ii/aoeo
OO no. – ye yaeua iie?oe/iiai ?ooo, a a 20-30-o ?ieao – ye iaoeiai
noi?iiaaia eiioeaioe?y ?noi??? ? i?aeoeee oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, ii?aoeueiaaia a?aeiieie ?noi?eeaie A.Eeieinueeei,
N.Oiiao?anueeei, A.Eo/aanueeei. Eiina?aaoecio iaeaaeeoue i??i?eoao o
caoeno? aea?aeaaieoeueeeo iiceoe?e o ?iee aecaieueieo ciaaaiue, aaaiiee
aianie a ?ioaeaeooaeueio nea?aieoeth oe?a?inueei? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii?
aeoiee, a ?icaeoie ?noi?e/ieo ciaiue, a i?aeio??aie noaa?aiii?
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe. Aiae?c aianeo i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei?
eiina?aaoeaii? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee a ?icaeoie ?noi?e/ii? iaoee aea?
iiaeeea?noue ia eeoa iciaeiieoenue c ?o ioe?ieaie iie?oe/ieo,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa eoeueoo?ii-aeooiaieo i?ioean?a, a e
i?inoaaeeoe iniiai? aoaie oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaieoeueeeo eiioeaioe?e. O
aeai?? oaie aeena?oaoe?? aaaeeeao ?ieue a?ae?a?aei oa, ui iniiaia
caaaeaiiy ?noi??ia?ao?? iieyaa? o aea/aii? ? i?aaaeeaiio aena?oeaii?
an?o aniaeo?a, iia’ycaieo c iaoe?iiaeueieie o?aaeeoe?yie oe?a?inueei?
?noi?e/ii? aeoiee, ?? aeaeaoieo iin??a. Iaeiei c i?aaenoaaiee?a
iia?oiuei? iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie aoa A.Eo/aanueeee, yeee iaeaaeeoue
aei aecia/ieo a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a oa ?noi?ee?a ia?oi?
iieiaeie OO no. O?aaa oeiaeoaaoe, ui eiai aaaaoia?aiia ae?yeuei?noue ye
iie?oeea, a?enueeiaeea, ioae?oeenoa oa ?noi?eea, a, iaeaieiai?oa, eiai
iaoeiaa niaaeueia ia ciaeoee iaeaaeiiai aena?oeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
oai?aoe/ii? niaaeueie a/aiiai ni?eyoeia aeeaoiio inieneaiith iaoi?
aaaaoi? ? neeaaeii? ieioaoeie, ?icoe?aiith ai?eciio?a iaoe?iiaeueii?
?noi?e/ii? na?aeiiino?, iineoaeeoue ?iioeuenii aeey i?aeianaiiy
a?o/eciyii? ?noi?eei-iie?oieia?/ii? iaoee.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iai?yiie
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith aea?aeaaieo ?
i?aeaoc?anueeeo iaoeiaeo i?ia?ai, iia’ycaieo c ?noi???th iie?oe/ii?
aeoiee a Oe?a?i?. Aea/aiiy oe??? oaie ia?aaeaa/aii ieaiaie eaoaae?e
?noi??? ? iie?oieia?? Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai??, Euea?anueeiai
a?aeae?eaiiy ?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaaonaa ?i.
I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?eo iia?oiuei? ?noi??? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooo
no?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aaiethoe?y ?noi?e/ii? aeoiee a
Oe?a?i? a?ae i?ioieiina?aaoecio “?noi??? ?on?a”, oai?/ino? I.Eoe?oa,
aaeeoeueeiai eiina?aaoecio ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. aei ooaa?aeaeaiiy
iaoeiai? eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? i?ae aieeaii
eiina?aaoecio A.Eeieinueeiai, N.Oiiao?anueeiai, A.Eo/aanueeiai.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?noi?e/i? oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?
iiaeyaee A.Eo/aanueeiai a eiioaeno? ?noi?eei-iie?oieia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e
?ioeo oai?aoee?a oe?a?inueeiai eiina?aaoecio, iaoiaee i?ciaiiy,
canoiniaai? iei aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? ? i?aeoeee oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?, eiai ?ieue ? i?noea a na?oia?e ?noi?eei-iie?oieia?/i?e
iaooe?.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ae?oao iieiaeio XIX
– ia?oo iieiaeio OO no. Eiina?aaoeaia o?aaeeoe?y a Oe?a?i? caii/aoeiaaia
“?noi???th ?on?a”. ?? i?iaeiaaeaii I.Eoe?oai oa i?aaenoaaieeaie
aaeeoeueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? a O?O no. Ia ii/aoeo OO no. I.I?oiianueeee
c?iaea ni?iao a?ae?iaeeoe ?noi?eei-th?eaee/io i?ia?aio “?noi??? ?on?a” .
?icaeoie eiina?aaoecio i?ney Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie a?aeaoaaany i?ae
aieeaii iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917-1921 ??. cie?aia a aeiao
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae aaoueiaia I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai, aea?aeaaieoeueeeo
eiioeaioe?e A.Eeieinueeiai, N.Oiiao?anueeiai, A.Eo/aanueeiai. A
iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? eiina?aaoeaia ?aeaieia?y
ooaa?aeaeo?oueny ia canaaeao iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaiie?ao??.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy – aea/eoe ?noi?e/i? oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?
iiaeyaee oai?aoee?a oe?a?inueeiai eiina?aaoecio – A.Eeieinueeiai,
N.Oiiao?anueeiai, A.Eo/aanueeiai, i?iaiae?coaaoe ?o iaoiaeieia?th
i?ciaiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy aeieo?eie oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?,
ie?aneeoe ?oith ?ieue ? i?noea o na?oia?e ?noi?eei-iie?oe/i?e iaooe?,
aeie?aieoe o? eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee, ye? e iei? caa??aathoue naith
aeooaeuei?noue ia eeoa a ?noi?e/i?e iaooe?, a e o iie?oe/i?e i?aeoeoe?
no/aniiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy.

Aaoi? noaaeoue ia?aae niaith oae? caaaeaiiy:

i?inoaaeeoe aca?iiaieea ?noi?e/ii? aeoiee oa eiina?aoeaii-iie?oieia?/ii?
eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, cie?aia ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeeo
aaaeeeaeo /eiiee?a ye iaoe?y ? aea?aeaaa, iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a,
iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa, ca?iei? neee;

?ice?eoe aianie oe?a?inueeeo eiina?aaoeaieo ?noi?ee?a oa iie?oieia?a –
A.Eeieinueeiai, N.Oiiao?anueeiai, A.Eo/aanueeiai – a ?ic?iaeo ?noi??? oa
oai??? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? 1917-1921 ??., o iie?oe/io i?aeoeeo oa
?noi?e/i? i?aenoiee.

aena?oeeoe iiaeyaee eiina?aaoi??a ia oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie
ye a ?noi?e/iiio /aniaiio ieei?, oae ? i?ae /an aecaieueieo ciaaaiue
1917-1921 ??., c’ynoaaoe caeaaei?noue oeeo a?aeiinei a?ae i?aeia?iaeieo,
aaiiie?oe/ieo oaeoi??a;

i?iaiae?coaaoe oai?aoe/io niaaeueio A.Eo/aanueeiai, eiai aianie a
oe?a?inueeo ?noi??ia?ao?th e?eoeee a?eueoiaecio, eiai i?e?iaee ?
ia?niaeoea caaeaae?, a ?ica?i/oaaiiy oia?i?noe/ii? iie?oeee
a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ?aaeeio;

iieacaoe ?icaeoie eiina?aaoeaieo ?aeae i?ney ?icaaeo ?aaeyinueeiai
Nithco, aeae?eeoe no/ani? oa/?? iaieiina?aaoecio a Oe?a?i?, ?o aieea ia
iia?oith ?noi??ia?ao?th.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny nenoaiith
i?eioeei?a oa iaoiae?a, oai?aoe/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue, ??cieo ??ai?a
nenoaiaoecaoe?? ?noi?eei-iie?oe/iiai ciaiiy, aii??e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue
ia ??ai? ?noi??inionueeiai oa ?noi?e/iiai aiae?co iie?oe/ieo yaeu ?
i?ioean?a. O aeine?aeaeaii? canoiniaothoueny oae? iaoiaeieia?/i?
i?eioeeie, ye ?noi?eci ? ia’?eoeai?noue, ui a?oioothoueny ia i??i?eoao?
aeieoiaioaeueieo oaeo?a oa a?aeiia? a?ae iie?oe/ii? caaiaaaeiaaiino?, a
oaeiae o?iiieia?/iee, ii??aiyeueiee, ?ao?iniaeoeaiee oa ?io? iaoiaee
i?ciaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeieeaa? c oiai, ui,
aeei?enoiaoth/e iaaeaaiiy ?noi?eei-iie?oieia?/ii? iaoee oa cia/ii?
aeaea?aeueii? aace ia iiaeo eiioeaiooaeueieo canaaeao, noai?aii ia?oo
i?aoeth ocaaaeueithth/iai oa?aeoa?o, a ye?e aena?oeaii aieea
eiina?aaoeaii? ?aeaieia?? ia oe?a?inueeo ?noi??ia?ao?th, i?iaiae?ciaaii
aianie oai?aoee?a oe?a?inueeiai eiina?aaoecio, cie?aia A.Eo/aanueeiai,
a ?noi??th iaoe?iiaeueiiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy;

aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? iieacaii aaiethoe?th
eiina?aaoeaii? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee a Oe?a?i? a?ae ii/aoeo O?O no. aei
nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy, c’yniaaii cia/aiiy eiina?aaoeaii-iie?oieia?/ii?
eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy A.Eo/aanueeiai ye aeey ?icai?oaiiy
iiaeaeueoeo ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, oae ? aeey i?aeoe/ii?
ae?yeueiino? no/anieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e iaieiina?aaoeaiiai iai?yio a
noa?? aoae?aieoeoaa iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae;

c?iaeaii ?noi??ia?ao?/iee aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo i?aoeue oe?a?inueeeo
?noi?ee?a eiina?aaoeaiiai iai?yio – A.Eeieinueeiai, N.Oiiao?anueeiai,
A.Eo/aanueeiai, ianaiia?aae /a?ac i?ecio oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?
1917-1921 ??. Aiae?coth/e ioe?iee A.Eo/aanueeiai ae?yeueiino?
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, Aaoueiaiaoo, Aee?aeoi???, Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee, iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui caaaeyee
aeii?ioaaiith o na?aeiiino? cia/ii? /anoeie no?aeiioe?a?inueei?
?ioae?aaioe?? ?aea? oe?a?inueei? aaoiiii?? o neeaae? aeaiie?aoe/ii?
?in?? oa ?aea? nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aaiethoe?? ia aaeaeiny neiinie?aeoaaoe
nioe?aeuei? aa?oe ? nioe?aeuei? iece iaaeiei iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?;

aeiaaaeaii, ui A.Eo/aanueeee aoa iaeiei ?c ia?oeo, ooi caii/aoeoaaa
?noi??ia?ao?th oe?a?inueeiai N?/iaiai No??eaoeoaa; ia?oei c oe?a?inueeeo
?noi?ee?a ona?aeiiea, ui i?ae eiioi?noe/iei na?oiaeyaeii ? na?oiaeyaeii
iaoe?iiaeueiei iaia? ? ia iiaea aooe i?/iai ni?eueiiai; ?ice?ea
oe?a?inueei-?in?enuee? oa oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie c iiceoe??
oai?/iai eiina?aaoecio, iieacaa ?o i?aai?/iee ca’ycie ?c caaaeueiith
?noi???th ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i;

aecia/aii eiiieaen oaeeo ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ye aaiiie?oe/ia noaiiaeua, ?noi?e/ia o?aaeeoe?y,
eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e ??aaiue, iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue, iie?oe/ia
eoeueoo?a, aea?aeaaii-i?aaiaa o?aaeeoe?y, iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa, iie?oe/ia
e?aea?noai, oa?eoi??aeueiee iao??ioeci, iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieuei?
ciaaaiiy, aeooiai?noue, ?noi?e/iee eaa?oei?ci, iao??ioe/iee ?aeaae?ci,
iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay, nioe?aeueia iniiaa, iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/i?
neee, aa?a?ia ieoaiiy, ?aaiethoe?eiee na?oiaeyae, iaoe?iiaeueiee
noaa?ai?oao.

Iaoeiaa ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe?? oa ?? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeiiia?aeaeenue ia i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo: “Noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia ? o?einionueea aeoiea ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo o eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
?icaeoeo ia?iae?a Aano?i-Oai?ueie” (Euea?a 5-7 a?oaeiy 1991 ?.),
“Ia?iae, iaoe?y, aea?aeaaa: oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy o ?a?iiaenueeiio aei???”
(Euea?a, 12-14 o?aaiy 1993 ?.), “Oiaa?enoai “I?ina?oa” ?
cao?aeiioe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a eiioaeno?
eoeueoo?ii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo ia?iae?a Aano?i-Oai?ueie” (Euea?a, 6-7
a?oaeiy 1993 ?.), “Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee ? Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia” (Euea?a,
26-28 aeiaoiy 1994 ?.), “Aeieia?y, aeiiii?ea ? o?enoeyinueea ii?aeue:
oe?a?inueea ae?eni?noue ? ia?niaeoeae” (Euea?a, 29-30 aa?aniy 1994 ?.),
“?noi??y ?ae?a?? a Oe?a?i?” (Ee?a; Euea?a, 3-5 o?aaiy 1995 ?.).
“Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaieoeueea oeiea: ?noi??y, iie?oieia?y, i?aai” (Ee?a,
11-13 a?oaeiy 1997 ?.), “Aaoueiai Iaaei Nei?iiaaenueeee oa Oe?a?inueea
aea?aeaaa 1918 ?ieo” (Ee?a, *a?i?a?a, 21-23 o?aaiy 1998 ?.),
“Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia ?anioae?ea: aei 80-??//y ooai?aiiy”
(Euea?a; ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 28-31 aeiaoiy 1998 ?.); ia ainueie
anaoe?a?inueeeo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo oa naie ui??/ieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo o Euea?anuee?e eiia?oe?ei?e aeaaeai??.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o i?iaaaeaii? eaeoe?eieo oa nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue ?c
nooaeaioaie Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai?? c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie,
?noi??? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, aeiiia?aeaeenue ia Ae?oaeo
/eoaiiyo iai’yo? A’y/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai: “I?iaeaia aeaaee a Oe?a?i? a
ieioeiio ? no/aniiio” (Eooeuee, 27-28 ea?oiy 1995 ?.), ia ia?oeo ,
ae?oaeo ? o?ao?o /eoaiiyo iai’yo? Aaneey Eo/aanueeiai: “Aaneeue
Eo/aanueeee – aeaeaoiee oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee, iie?oieia,
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iee ae?y/”, “?aeay oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? o
i?aoeyo oai?aoee?a eiina?aaoecio”, “Aeai?e 1998 ?. a Oe?a?i?: i?iaiice,
?acoeueoaoe, ia?niaeoeae” (Euea?a, 22 aa?aniy 1995 ?., 30 aa?aniy 1996
?., 7 o?aaiy 1998 ?.). Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii i?e iaienaii?
12 i?ae?o/iee?a oa iin?aiee?a c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, iie?oieia??, ?noi???
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee Oe?a?ie.

NO?OEOO?A ? INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

No?oeoo?a iiiia?ao??, i?aaenoaaeaii? ye aeena?oaoe?y,
aecia/a?oueny iaoith ? caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iiiia?ao?y
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a ? aeniiae?a (416 noi?.),
aeiaeaoe?a, ui aeeth/athoue iaiioae?eiaai? ?oeiieni? iaoa??aee
A.Eo/aanueeiai, ye? caa??aathoueny o OeAe?A Oe?a?ie o Eueaia? (15
noi?.), eenoe A.Eo/aanueeiai aei ?.E?ei’yeaae/a, N.Oiiao?anueeiai,
A.Aiaothea oa I.Iaca?oea (44 noi?.), ?aoeaic?? ia i?aoeth A.Eo/aanueeiai
“Die Westukraine im Kampfe mit Polen und dem Bolschewismus in den Jahren
1918-1923” (22 noi?.), a?ae?ia?ao?th i?aoeue A.Eo/aanueeiai (8 noi?.),
a?ae?ia?ao?th i?aoeue i?i A.Eo/aanueeiai (14 noi?.) oa ?iaiiee iieaae/ee
(10 noi?.). Caaaeueiee ianya iiiia?ao?? noaiiaeoue 532 noi?. (42,89
ae?oe.a?e.).

O anooi? ?ice?eoi nooue ? noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie, ??
cia/aiiy, i?aenoaae ? aeo?aei? aeai?, iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaoo ? caaaeaiiy, iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aea” ?ice?eoi noai
iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie oa ?? aeaea?aeueio aaco. Oiiaii ?? iiaeia
ca?oioaaoe a /ioe?e i?ae?icae?ee: aeieoiaioaeuei? oa e?oa?aoo?i?
aeaea?aea, ai?noiey?ia niaaeueia ae?y/?a oe?a?inueeiai eiina?aaoeaiiai
?ooo, iaoa??aee ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, iaoa??aee iniaiaiai iioiaeaeaiiy.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie noaee iaioa?i?
i?aoe? I.Iaca?oea, A.Aiae???anueeiai, Ae.Aei?ioaiea, ?.Eiiiaaeueoey,
N.Oooaae/a, I.Aaeaaaia, A.Iao??aa, I.Iiaeyiiae/a-Iaaeaiea,
TH.Othothiieea, I.Eioioeueeiai iaienai? a 20-30-o ?ieao; niiaaaee
A.Ia?oeioey, C.Eieoa, A.Ia?oina, I.Oaiiaaea, A.*a?iaoeueeiai,
I.Oe?eueiyea, ?.A?aoeueiie, ?.Eaae?eia, ?.Iaeno?aiea, I.Eeeieoeia,
iioae?eiaai? ca ei?aeiiii o iiai?iiee ia??iae, niiaaaee I.A?ooaanueeiai,
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai, I.Aooeoeyea, ui c’yaeeeny oaea a iao /an.

Ca??ieee aeieoiaio?a, ioae?eaoe?y yeeo aeoea?coaaeany c
na?aaeeie 50-o ?ie?a, noinoaaeeny ia?aaaaeii iaei??? oaie – anoaiiaeaiiy
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee a Oe?a?i?. Oeae i?ioean ca aeiiiiiaith oaiaeaioe?eii
i?ae?a?aieo aeieoiaio?a aeaeaaaany ye anaia?iaeia i?aeo?eiea
a?eueoiaeoeueei? iie?oeee a Oe?a?i?, yea, iiaeya, a?aeiia?aeaea
?ioa?anai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Iaoeiao oe?ii?noue iathoue aeieoiaioaeuei? ioae?eaoe??,
cae?eniai? aeine?aeieeaie c oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e, cie?aia I.Aeioeaieii
? O.Aoi/aeii, cai?oee ? iaoa??aee, iioae?eiaai? I.O?enotheii,
I.Eiceinueeei. Ca??ieee “Oe?a?inueea noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeoiea a XX
no.” /Ithioai, 1983. O.1,2/, “Oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o?? e?ioey XIX –
ii/aoeo XX no.” /Ee?a,1993/ ai?uothoue aeieoiaioe, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue
aaiaco, i?ia?aie, i?aai?caoe?ei? canaaee, ae?yeuei?noue iiiaae 30
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo XX no., na?aae ieo
oaeiae eiina?aaoeaiiai iai?yio.

Iaaecae/aeii oe?iieie ? ioae?eaoe?? a?o?ao A.Eeieinueeiai, ui
caa??aa?oueny a No?aeii-?a?iiaenueeiio aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo?
A.Eeieinueeiai o i.O?eaaeaeueo?? /NOA/. Oea noino?oueny cie?aia 6 ? 7
oii?a, a yeeo ai?uai? eenoe Ae.Aei?ioaiea ? I.Iaca?oea aei
A.Eeieinueeiai (?aaeaeoi?e ?.Ei?iaaoeueeee oa ?.Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee).
O.Inoaoei, TH.Oa?auaiei oii?yaeeoaaee ? aeaeaee 88 iaiioae?eiaaieo aein?
eeno?a A.Eeieinueeiai aei a?aeiieo oe?a?inueeeo ae?y/?a ?.Iaoeea,
?.E?aaaoeueeiai, Ae.Aei?ioaiea, I.Iaca?oea ? N.Oaeoo?ia, a oaeiae o
aeiaeaoeao o?e ie?ai? eenoe aei ?.O?aiea, A.Noa?inieuenueeiai ?
i.O.Ai?ieeaae/a. Aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? aeaioiiiee ca??iee aeieoiaio?a ?
iaoa??ae?a “Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea”, — a?i i?ieeaa? na?oei ia
ae?aiaoe/io ?noi??th, ui neiaie?co? noia?a/eeaee i?ioean a?aeiiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ia ii/aoeo XX no.

Oeaio?aeueia i?noea a aeaea?aeuei?e aac? caeia? oai?/a niaaeueia
A.Eo/aanueeiai – oea ia?aaeon?i iaoeia? oa ioae?oeenoe/i? i?aoe?, yeeo
ia nueiaiaei? aeyaeaii iiiaae 150. Iaea?oioiai?oith c ieo ?
i?iaoeueeiiiaia i?aoey, aeaeaia a Aa?e?i? 1934 ?. “Die Westukraine im
Kampfe mit Polen und dem Bolschewismus in den Jahren 1918-1923”. Aaeeea
iaoeiaa oa i?ciaaaeueia cia/aiiy iathoue oae? i?aoe? A.Eo/aanueeiai:
“Aieueoaaeci ? no/ania caaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai Caoiaeo” /1925/, “Ioaa?oa
a?aeiia?aeue iieuenueeiio eiina?aaoenoia?” /1933/, “N?/ia? No??eueoe?.
Ai?iii-?noi?e/iee ia?en” /1937/. A aeo?iae? “Aecaiie” a/aiee iioae?eoaaa
oae? i?aoe?, ye “Iieuenueea aeeieiiao?y ? “No?aeii-aaeeoeueea” ieoaiiy
ia Ia?enuee?e ie?ia?e eiioa?aioe?? a 1919-io ?ioe?”, “Oe?a?inueea
aeeieiiao?y ? aea?aeaae Aioaioe a ?ioe? 1919” /1931/, “Aaaa ? caaaeaiiy
Cao?aeii-Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae na?aae nee No?aeii? ?a?iie ia ia?aeii?
1918-1919-iai ?ieo”, “Cia/?iiy ?aeae Ay/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai” /1932/.

Iiiaae 90 iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo noaoae A.Eo/aanueeiai
iioae?eiaaii a uioeaeiaaeeo “Iaoa”. Aiie ioiieththoue oe?ieee niaeo?
?noi?e/ieo, iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai Aaee/eie,
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue, oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo oa
oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei. Aeei?enoaii i?aoe? A.Eo/aanueeiai,
iioae?eiaai? o ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo: “E?oiien iie?oeee, ienueiainoaa ?
ienoaoeoaa”, “Iie?oeea”, “Caienee Oe?a?inueeiai Iaoeiaiai Oiaa?enoaa a
Aa?e?i?”, “Ca??iee Oe?ai?ianueei? Oe?a?ie”, “E?oiien *a?aiii? Eaeeie”,
“Eaeaiaea? *a?aiii? Eaeeie”, “Oeyoe”, “Oe?a?inueea neiai”, “Oeyo
iaoe??”, “Ae?ei” oa ?i.

Aaeeeee ?ioa?an noaiiaeyoue ?oeiieni? iaoa??aee A.Eo/aanueeiai,
ye? caa??aathoueny a Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a?
Oe?a?ie o Eueaia?, eenoe, iaienai? a Aa?e?i? o 1925-1935 ??. aei
?.E?ei’yeaae/a, N.Oiiao?anueeiai, A.Aiaothea, I.Iaca?oea, ui
caa??aathoueny a OeAe?A Oe?a?ie o Eueaia?, o a?aeae?e? ?oeiien?a
Euea?anueei? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i.A.Noaoaieea IAI Oe?a?ie oa a
iniaenoiio a?o?a? ?.E?ei’yeaae/a o Eueaia?. (?oeiieni? iaoa??aee oa
ai?noiey?ia niaaeueia A.Eo/aanueeiai aia?oa ioae?eothoueny a aeiaeaoeao
aei oe??? i?aoe?).

Ia aeaeue, ia ana c iaoeiaiai aei?iaeo A.Eo/aanueeiai aaeaeiny
?icooeaoe. Aaeaea e aein? iaa?aeiii, aea, eiee ? ca yeeo ianoaaei
cae?i/ea nai? aei? a/aiee, ye iaa?aeiii, eoaee iiae?eany cia/ia /anoeia
eiai ?oeiien?a, aeaniee a?o?a, a?ae?ioaea. A eenoao aei N.Oiiao?anueeiai
a?ae 4 eenoiiaaea 1925 ?. oa aei I.Iaca?oea a?ae 17 ethoiai 1928 ?.
eaeaoueny i?i i?aoe? “Aieueoaaeci ? Oe?a?ia”(aaoi? aiooaaany aeaeaoe
oeth i?aoeth aiae?enueeith iiaith), “Aiioe oe?a?inueei? ?noi???” ?
“Oeyoe ? oe?e? (Cai?oee i?i no/ania iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/ia noaiiaeua
Oe?a?inueeiai caoiaeo)”. A i?aoe? “Ukraine and the European Turmoil
1917-1919” (New York, 1973) ciaoiaeeii iineeaiiy ia i?aoeth
A.Eo/aanueeiai “Die Westukraine im Krieg gegen Polen” /P.542,543/.
I?noea, ??e oa ianya oeueiai aeaeaiiy ia aeacothoueny. Iaoii?noue
a?aeiii, ui i?aoey “Die “Ostgalizishce” bw.die ukrainische Frage in der
au symbol 98 \f «Symbol» \s 12 b enpolitik Polens und der Entantemaechte
im Jahre 1919. Inaugurationsdissertation” aoea iioae?eiaaia iaaaeeeei
oe?aaeai a Aa?e?i? 1923 ?. ianyaii 173 noi??iee. Iaeiae oe?a?inueeith
iiaith aiia iiee ui ia aeaeaia. Iaa?aeiia oaeiae i?noea ciaoiaeaeaiiy
i?ea?iaeo aeiiia?ae? “Caaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? noni?eueiino? a iioi/iiio
iiiaio?”, aeaieioaii? ia Nooaeaionueeiio c’?cae? o Eueaia? a eeii? 1921
?. O?aaiaioe oeueiai aaaeeeaiai aeieoiaioa ciaoiaeeii a i?aoe?
A.Ia?oeioey “Oe?a?inueea i?aei?eey. A?ae OAI aei IOI” (A?ii?iaa, 1949. —
N. 37-40). O No?aeii?a?iiaenueeiio aeine?aeiiio ?inoeooo? A.Eeieinueeiai
/NOA/ caa??aathoueny 20 iaiioae?eiaaieo eeno?a A.Eo/aanueeiai aei
A.Eeieinueeiai. O OeAe?A Oe?a?ie o Eueaia? uieii ciaeaeaii aeaa eenoe
A.Eo/aanueeiai, iaienai? 29 /a?aiy 1934 ?. a Aa?e?i? oa 27 ea?oiy 1935
?. a E?e? aei A.Oaioeoeueeiai (O.358. – Ii.1 – Ni?. 286. – A?e. 96-101).
A ae?oaiio eeno? a/aiee iia?aeiiey? aeaao A?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae
i?i nai? iai??e i?enooieoe oaea ainaie oiai ae ?ieo aei iaienaiiy
ooiaeaiaioaeueii? i?aoe? “?noi??y Oe?a?ie a na?oiai-?noi?e/ieo
ca’yceao”. Ia noaee ua i?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy /eneaii? noaoo?, ye?
a/aiee ioae?eoaaa o oaeeo i?iaoeueeiiiaieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo, ye
“Osteuropa”, “Der deutsche Gedanke”, “Volk und Reich”, “Die Hilfe”,
“Zeitschrift fuer alteuropaeische Geschichte” oa ?i.

C?icoi?ei, ui eeoa aeeaiea aea/aiiy on??? oai?/i? niaaeueie
A.Eo/aanueeiai, cie?aia, iaiioae?eiaaieo ? iiee ui ia ciaeaeaieo
iaoa??ae?a, eeno?a, ui iiaeooue caa??aaoeny a a?o?aao oa a?ae?ioaeao
I?ia//eie, Iieueu?, ?in??, a i?eaaoieo ca??eao, aeanoue ciiao iiaiith
i??ith ioe?ieoe oeth aecia/io iinoaoue, ?? aianie o ?icaeoie iie?oe/ii?
?noi??? Oe?a?ie.

Aeoeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? eiina?aaoeaii? aeoiee
?icii/aeinue o oie /an, eiee aiia iaaoea nenoaiiiai ?icaeoeo, oiaoi c
iiyaith ciaiaieoeo “Eeno?a aei a?ao?a-oe?ai?ia?a” oa ?ioeo i?aoeue
A.Eeieinueeiai, ooai?aiiy i?ae eiai i?iaiaeii iie?oe/ii? i?aai?caoe??
i?ea?/iee?a iiia?o?? – Oe?a?inueeiai nithco oe?ai?ia?a-aea?aeaaiee?a.
Ia?o?noue a ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? oai?/i? niaaeueie caniiaieea ? oai?aoeea
eiina?aaoeaii? oa/?? a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oieia?? A.Eeieinueeiai
iaeaaeeoue A.Eo/aanueeiio. Naia a?i iacaaa aeaeaoiiai ieneeoaey “n?eeth
oe?a?inueei? caie?”, ai a eiai oai?/ino? iiaa/ea a?aeia?aaeaiiy i?ioeano
aeae?eaiiy ?c caaaeueii? iane oiai aeaiaioo, yeee i/euaa aeoo? a?ae
ia/eno? “aieeeo” /an?a ? e?enoae?coaaa o ieo ia eeoa ?ae?a?eiee, a e
aa?i?/iee a?enoie?aoe/iee aoin . O/i? oa iaeaeeae/? ni?aoieee
A.Eeieinueeiai – N.Oaiao, I.Caaa?aanueeee cacia/aee, ui ye? a aniaeoe
oe?a?inueeiai eiina?aaoecio ?icaeyaeaa o/aiee, o eiai aa/aii? aiie
iaaoaaee o?einionueei-ocaaaeueiaiiai cao/aiiy, a?aaeaee oi?iiyi
i?aaeeueii ?icnoaaeyoe iie?oe/i? aeoeaioe, caeo/aoe ethaeae aei
?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo aeaniiai ia?iaeo. Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee ?
iie?oe/iee ae?y/ N.Oiiao?anueeee iaiaaaany ia?aaeyiooe o?aaeeoe?ei?
i?aeoiaee aei oe?a?inueei? ?noi???, ?ica’ycaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy
oeyoii ii?eethaeiaiiy ia noi??ieao ?aaeaaiaaieo iei /aniien?a
“Oe?a?inueea neiai”, “E?oiien iie?oeee, ienueiainoaa ? ienoaoeoaa”,
“Iie?oeea”, “Iiaa ci?y” oa ?ioeo iiaeyae?a c iiceoe?? eiina?aaoeaii?
iie?oe/ii? aeoiee, ?icaeyioa no?aoaa?th ? oaeoeeo iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae.
Iniiaieie i?e/eiaie ii?acee aecaieueieo ciaaaiue aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a
o/aiee aaaaeaa ia?aioe?ieo aeanieo nee ? iiaeeeainoae. Aecia/iith
iinoaooth a oe?a?inueeiio eiina?aaoeaiiio ?on? aoa I.Iaca?oe.
Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui a?eueo?noue eiai i?aoeue iathoue ia?aaaaeii
ioae?oeenoe/iee oa?aeoa?, aiie a?ae?a?aee aaaeeeao ?ieue o ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? eiina?aaoeaii? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee. I?aoeth A.Eeieinueeiai
“Eenoe aei a?ao?a-oe?ai?ia?a” a/aiee iacaaa aeeneo/ith ca yni?noue,
ni?eea?noue oa i?iieeeea?noue aeoiie, ciaeoia a i?e aia?oa
noi?ioeueiaaio aea?aeaaieoeueeo eiioeaioe?th oe?a?inueei? ?noi???.
I?ioa, a?aeaeath/e aeaieio a?oaeeoe?? e oaeaioia? A.Eeieinueeiai,
I.Iaca?oe aaaaeaa eiai a/aiiy ooii?/iei, ui ia ia? aaeeeeo oain?a ia
canoinoaaiiy a ?aaeueiiio aeeoo?.

Cia/iee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an noaiiaeyoue ?noi?e/i? i?aoe?
Ae.Aei?ioaiea, ?.I??/oea, A.Iiio?aci?a, I.Nei?iiena-Eieoooianueeiai,
I.Oeiio??aa, N.Oaiaoa, iaae?oeiaai? 1931 ?. a Oaeai?iae? o ca??oe?
noaoae “Eeieinueeee ye ?aeaieia ? iie?oee”. Ca ieie A.Eeieinueeee
aaccanoa?aaeii aeciaaaany aecia/iei oe?a?inueeei ieneeoaeai ?
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iei ae?y/ai, iniiaiiieiaeieeii eiina?aaoeaiiai
iai?yio a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?. Eiio aoei i?enay/aii aeaa
/enea aeo?iaeo “Aecaiie”: iaeia – c i?eaiaeo nia?o? (a /a?ai? 1931?.), a
ae?oaa – c iaaiaee ??/ieoe? nia?o? (a /a?ai? 1932 ?.). A.Eo/aanueeee,
A.Caeicaoeueeee, I.Aeaieiae/-Aeia?yinueeee aino?i iieai?coth/e c oaeeie
/aniienaie, ye “Aiaineia?y”, “Nooaeaionueeee oeyo”, “A?eia”, “Oeyo
aeoiaaiiy ? iaa/aiiy”, “Oeyo iaoe??” iine?aeiaii a?aenoithaaee iie?oe/i?
iiaeyaee A.Eeieinueeiai. I.Eicae, A.Aiae???anueeee, O.Ooae,
A.No?ooeinueea, A.Ca?eei c?iaeee ia?o? ni?iae ocaaaeueieoe aaee/aciee
oai?aoe/iee aei?iaie A.Eeieinueeiai i?ney eiai nia?o?. O noaoo?
“Ay/aneaa Eeieinueeee ye ?noi?ee” A.Ca?eei cacia/ea, ui na?oiaeyae
A.Eeieinueeiai ia i?inoi aea?aeaaieoeueeee, a
o?enoeyinueei-aea?aeaaieoeueeee ? iiia?o?/ii-eeanie?aoe/iee. Naia
aoe/iiai oa eeanie?aoe/iiai aeaiaio?a o iia?oi?e oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??? oa
iie?oieia??, ia aeoieo a/aiiai, ia canai?ee iaa?oue i?aaenoaaieee
aea?aeaaieoeueeiai iai?yio, ca aeiyoeii iieiaeiai ? oaeaiiaeoiai
a/aiiai, ?aeaeiiai iine?aeiaieea A.Eeieinueeiai – A.Eo/aanueeiai oa
iie?oe/ieo ioae?oeeno?a I.Ei/oaay ? A.Caeicaoeueeiai .

Ie?ai? aniaeoe ?icaeoeo ?noi??? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee eiina?aaoeaiiai
iai?yio ciaoiaeeii a ioae?eaoe?yo ?.E?ei’yeaae/a, ?.E?aaaoeueeiai,
N.?oaeieoeueeiai, A.E?aeoeueeiai, A.I?ieiiiae/a, E.*aoiae/a,
I.Aeaieiae/a-Aeia?yinueeiai. I?aaaea, aiie /anoi iinyoue ioae?oeenoe/iee
oa?aeoa? ? ia i?noyoue aeeaieiai iaoeiaiai aiae?co. Aeeaoa c?icoi?oe
?noi?e/iee na?oiaeyae ?aeaieia?a eiina?aaoecio, cie?aia A.Eo/aanueeiai,
aeathoue ciiao ?aoeaic??, iaienai? ia eiai i?aoe? N.Oiiao?anueeei,
O.Eino?oaith, I.Aeaieiae/ai-Aeia?yinueeei, Ae.Ia?e?yiiae/ai, I.?na?aei
oa ?ioeie a/aieie, ye? a?aecia/aee a?oaeeoe?th aaoi?a, oe?ieee
iie?oe/iee iiaeyae ia ?noi?e/i? iiae?? a e?a?i?, iia? i?aeoiaee aei
ioe?iee oe?a?inueeeo aecaieueieo ciaaaiue, oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo oa
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo noinoie?a16. O ?aoeaic?? ia i?aoeth
A.Eo/aanueeiai “Cia/?iiy ?aeae A’y/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai”Ae.Ia?e?yiiae/
caa?ioa oaaao ia na?eicia noaaeaiiy ?? aaoi?a aei oaeeo i?iaeai, ye
aa?i?/ia ethaeeia ? ?? noni?eueia cia/aiiy, aoin oai?/eo iaeeieoeue,
aeooiaia e?aea?noai oa a?enoie?aoeci aeooo. Naio ae i?aoeth ?aoeaicaio
iacaaa oai?ii aeeaiei o?einionueeei /e ?aaeoa ?noi??inionueeei, ui
noaaea nia? ca iaoo caaaiooe nooue oiai/anii? ?a?iiaenueei? aeooiaiino?
oa ?? i?noea a ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo ? ia oeueiio oe? ?ice?eoe oai?/o
niaaeueio A.Eeieinueeiai aeey a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aa?i?/iiai e
a?enoie?aoe/iiai aeooo a Oe?a?i?.

I?ney Ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie oe?a?inuee? a/ai?-?noi?eee,
iie?oieiae a ae?anii??, e?eoe/ii ioe?ithth/e caeiaooee o?aaeeoe?eii?
?noi??ia?ao??, coi?ee i?aeiyoe oe?a?inueeo ?noi?eei-iie?oieia?/io iaoeo
ia na?oiaee ??aaiue, aienaoe ?? o caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeee eiioaeno. Aei
oaeeo ?noi?ee?a oa iie?oieia?a ianaiia?aae iiaeia a?aeianoe
?.Eenyea-?oaeieoeueeiai. Iaeaaaeeea?oeie ? eiai i?aoe? ai?uai? o
ca??ieeo “I?ae ?noi???th ? iie?oeeith”17 oa o iiai?oiio ca??ieeo noaoae
“Ia?ene c iiai? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie”18, ui aeaeai? iinia?oii Eaiaaenueeei
?inoeoooii oe?a?inueeeo nooae?e (aiae?enueeith iiaith), a oaeiae aeaeai?
?inoeoooii aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oa i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy i?e
Eaa?iao? I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie 1994 ?. “?noi?e/i? ana” o aeaio oiiao19.
?.Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee iniiaio oaaao cina?aaeea ia aeine?aeaeaii?
oaiiiaia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? XIX-XX no.,
i?inoaaeea aaiethoe?th oe?a?inueei? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee,
?ice?eaath/e aea?aeaaioai?/? ?aea? aecia/ieo eoeueoo?ieo ? iie?oe/ieo
ae?y/?a – A.Eeieinueeiai, N.Oiiao?anueeiai, A.Eo/aanueeiai, I.Iaca?oea20
oa ?i. O/aiee eiinoaooaaa ia?aaeienaeueiee oaeo, ui c /ioe?ueio iai?yi?a
oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee naia eiina?aaoeci, iaeneaaoa ? iaeiaioa
i?aeo?eiaiee o ianao, c?iaea iaea?eueoee ?ioaeaeooaeueiee aianie a
iei?oiueiio noie?oo?. Iaeaaaeeea?oei caaaeaiiyi iaeaooiuei? ?aaiethoe??
?.Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee aaaaeaa neioacoaaiiy oeeo iai?yi?a c iaoith
ia?aoai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? aoi?/iiiiaii? ni?eueiino? ia naiina?aeiio
iie?oe/io ? eoeueoo?io ni?eueiioo.

Aaaeeea? iaoeia? ocaaaeueiaiiy uiaei ?icaeoeo ?noi??ia?ao??
oe?a?inueei? eiina?aaoeaii? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee oa ?? aieeao ia ?noi?e/io
iaoeo c?iaeee A.A?aaiae/, ss.Iaeainueeee, E.A?ean, ?.Iecth?, O.Aoi/ae,
A.Na?/ee, A.E?aa/aiei, ?.Iaaa?anueeee oa ?i.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae ?.Eenyea-?oaeieoeueeiai, A.A?aaiae/ ia aaaaeaa
oaeoi? iayaiino? aai a?aenooiino? ae?oe — iin?y iie?oe/ii? na?aeiiino? ?
aeui? eoeueoo?e – e?eoa???i ?noi?e/iino? /e ia?noi?e/iino? ia?iaeo.
Aeaoe ia’?eoeaio ioe?ieo nooiaiy ?icaeoeo iaoe??, ei?enooth/enue o?eueee
oeei e?eoa???i, ia eiai aeoieo, iaiiaeeeai. A?aei?iiino?, ui
aecia/athoue iniiao aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iaoe?? ioiieththoue, ye aaaaeaa
o/aiee, ? oae? i?iaeaie, ye nioe?aeueia ? iie?oe/ia no?oeoo?a,
?noi?e/iee aeina?ae, o?aaeeoe?y, eoeueoo?a acaaae?. Aeoiaey/e c oeeo
i??eoaaiue, A. A?aaiae/ caia?a/ea iiaeyae ia oe?a?inueeo iaoe?th ye ia
ia?iae “ oeiia ? iiia”, a?aoiaioiaaii aeiaiaey/e, ui any oe?a?inueea
ae?oa ia?oi? iieiaeie XIX no.ye ia Noiae?, oae ? ia Caoiae? Oe?a?ie aoea
i?aaenoaaeaia aeo?aeoeyie c aeueo eean?a21 ss.Iaeainueeee caoaaaeea, ui
ia a?aei?io a?ae i?aaenoaaiee?a ia?iaeieoeueei? oeiee, ye? aoee
ia?aeiiai? a oiio, ui a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia?iaeo ? aecaieaiiy eiai c iaaie?
iiaeia aeinyaiooe oeyoii i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy eiio ?ioa?an?a ?ioeo
noni?eueieo a?oi, o/ai?-aea?aeaaieee aaaaeaee, ui aea?aeaaa, iniaeeai
iaoe?iiaeueia, a?ae?a?a? oai?/o ?ieue a i?aai?caoe?? oa caoeno?
?ioa?an?a noni?euenoaa22. E.A?ean, aeaoaeueii aiae?coth/e ?noi?e/io
i?aoeth A.Eeieinueeiai “Oe?a?ia ia ia?aeii?”, aeaco? ia iaoeiao oa
iie?oe/io cia/ei?noue ?ica?i/oaaiiy “Ia?ayneaanueei? eaaaiaee”. Aaeaea
aoaeo/e ca?i?th Iineae, oey eaaaiaea iaea ia iao? aeiiiiiaoe i?ea?aoe
Oe?a?io aei iineianueeeo ?oe23. ?.Iecth? i?iaeaio aaiethoe?? iie?oe/ieo
iiaeyae?a A.Eeieinueeiai iinoaaea o caeaaei?noue a?ae iac’yniaaii?
iaoaii?oice ia?aoiaeo iieyea A. Eeieinueeiai a eiii oe?a?inoaa. A?i,
ye ? E. A?ean, oiaaiaiee, ui A.Eeieinueeee i?eiee ia aoa aeaiie?aoii o
cae/iiio ?icoi?ii? oeueiai neiaa, i?ae aeaiie?ao??th ?icoi?a
?aeaieia?th, yea iiaeiia aoea neoaeeoe ethaeyi24. ?.Oii?ethe
noaa?aeaeo?, ui eiioi?ci, caia?a/oth/e aeieo?eie ?ioeo iie?oe/ieo
oa/?e, o oiio /ene? eiina?aaoeaii?, nai ia?aeiya aeaye? c
iaoe?iiaeueieo i?eioeei?a ? noaa iaoe?iiaeueiei, aeania
iaoe?iiae?noe/iei. A?i ?aeiiaiaeo? no/aniei iie?oeeai c iaoith oni?oiiai
oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? iaoe?? noai?eoe ia?ac “ni?eueiiai” ieioeiai,
i?eeiyoiee aeey an?o /anoei iaoe??25. O.Aoi/ae o ?icoe?aiiio aa??aio?
eo?no eaeoe?e, i?i/eoaiiio ainaie 1991 ?. aeey nooaeaio?a e?eueeio
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a i.Ee?aa, aena?oeth? neeaaeiee i?ioean iie?oe/iiai
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? ni?eueiioe, yeee, ia eiai aeoieo, aa?a ii/aoie c
ia?inoe?a a?ae?iaeaeoaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, ui c’yaeeeny
iai?ee?ioe? XIX no.26 ?ici??eiaoth/e iaae neeaaeieie eie?c?yie
oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? oa a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee, A.Na?/ee caoaaaeea, ui
ia ceai? XIX-XX no.aeieeea iio?aaa noai?eoe aeanio aea?aeaao, ine?eueee
eeoa aiia aeaaaea oain ? aa?aio?th ?aae?caoe?? i?aaiaiue ui ?o iino?eii
aenoaaa iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo. Nai?th /a?aith i?aaiaiiy aea?aeaaiino?
niiioeaei aei iiooeo aeanieo aeoie?a o aeaeaeiio ieioeiio, aei
?aoe?iiaeueiiai iaa?oiooaaiiy aenoiooeo aeiia oe?a?inueei?
iacaeaaeiino?27. A.E?aa/aiei aeine?aeea c?inoaiiy oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioe/iino? o eiioaeno? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii?
iiaea?i?caoe?? ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie o 20-70-o ?. A?i iieacaa, ui
neaae?noue oe?a?inueeiai, a oiio /ene? eiina?aaoeaiiai ?ooo ia ii/aoeo
OO no., aoea iia’ycaia c iaaeii?aaenoaaeai?noth oe?a?ioe?a o
no?aoaa?/ieo naeoi?ao iie?oe/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai e eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy
Oe?a?ie28. ?icaeoie iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? a Oe?a?i?, ui ioiieth? /ane
Oeaio?aeueii? ?aaee, Aaoueiaiaoo ? Aee?aeoi??? (1917-1921) a?oioiaii
aena?oeea ?.Iaaa?anueeee o i?aoe? “?noi??y oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?
aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy”. Ia iniia? aeieoiaio?a, na?ae/aiue no/aniee?a,
ia oe? oiai/anieo iiae?e a ?a?ii? a?i iieacaa ai?ioueao ca
aea?aeaai?noue O?a?ie a on?e ?? neeaaeiino? e noia?a/eeaino?, iciaeiiea
c iiaith ?noi?e/iith eiioeaioe??th e ioe?ieaie ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo
ae?y/?a ? iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oiai ia??iaeo29.

Cia/iee ieano iaoeiaeo ciaiue c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino?, a oiio /ene? ? eiina?aaoeaiiai iai?yio, i?noyoue
aeine?aeaeaiiy I.Oeaieaae/a, A.Ainiai, ?.Iaaaeea, A.?aaiena, Ae.Eaa/oea,
I.Aaceeaanueeiai, ?.*eeaeaiea, E.Eino?aa, TH.Io?eiiae/a,
A.Eaae?ianueeiai, I.I??/oea, A.?oaeea, Ae.*eaeaanueeiai,
I.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei, E.Aeia?a, I.Iaeiaeeia oa ?ioeo ?noi?ee?a
oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e30.

Iiaee aoai o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? ?noi?eei-iie?oe/ii? iaoee
?icii/aany c i?iaieioaiiyi iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. Aeine?aeieee
iaea?aeaee aeinooi aei ?ai?oa cae?eoeo a?o?aieo oiiae?a, /eneaiieo
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ca?oa?aeieo ? a?o/eciyieo aaoi??a. A?aeiiaeaoenue a?ae
onoaeaieo ?aeaieia?/ieo noa?aioei?a oa aeiai, aiie i?iaeiaaeeee aea/aoe
oaanue eiiieaen i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c ?icaeoeii iie?oe/ii? aeoiee,
iaaeeaeath/enue aei ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee oaeo?a, ?noi?e/ieo in?a oa
iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? o iaeneeaaei?oee ia??iae ?? ?noi???.
Iniaeeaa caoe?eaaeaiiy a aeine?aeiee?a aeeeeeaea ?noi??y
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy.

Aaaiiee aianie a ?noi??ia?ao?th oe?a?inueei? iie?oieia?? aiinyoue
i?aoe? A.Iiooeueieoeueeiai, yeee i?inoaaeea aeieeiaiiy e ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? iaoee a?ae na?aaeeie XIX no. aei 1939 ?.,
aeine?aeea iniiai? eiioeaioe?? oe?a?inueeeo iie?oieia?a oeueiai
ia??iaeo, cai?iiiioaaa aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th oe?a?inueei? ca?oa?aeii?
?noi?eei-iie?oe/ii? iaoee ca o?ueiia iai?yiaie: eiina?aaoeaiei,
ia?iaeieoeueeei oa iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeueeei31. Eiina?aaoeaio
iie?oe/io aeoieo a Oe?a?i? aeine?aeaeo? I.Oaaaoeye.A?i iaeei c ia?oeo
ie?aneea i?noea ? ?ieue aecia/iiai ?noi?eea ? iie?oeea N.Oiiao?anueeiai
o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee ? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia oe?
aeiaaeueieo na?oiaeo i?ioean?a, ioa?aeoa?ecoaaa aeaa ia??iaee eiai
oai?aoe/ieo iiooe?a o ae?eyioe? eiina?aaoeaieo ?aeae32. I.Caaoaeei,
?icaeyaeath/e ia oe?ieiio ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiio iaoa??ae? ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? XIX – ii/aoeo OO no. i?eoiaeeoue aei
aeniiaeo, ui oe?a?inueea iaoe?y ia iaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio aoai? aeiaea c
?a?iiaenueei? iie?oe/ii? ?noi???, ine?eueee ia ni?iiiaeany aaa?aaoe na?e
noaa?ai?oao aea?aeaaii33. Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e ia?iaeieoeueeo oeieo
A.Aioiiiae/a ? I.A?ooaanueeiai ye oaeo, ui ioioiaeithaaea oe?a?inueeo
iaoe?th c ia?iaeii e aoi?/ieie e?eoa??yie, ss.A?eoeae a?aecia/ea, ui
aea?aeaaieoeueea oeiea, i?aaenoaaeaia Ae.Aei?ioaieii, A.Eeieinueeei oa
A.Eo/aanueeei, ?icoe?eea oea iiiyooy nioe?aeueii ? oa?eoi??aeueii,
iieeaea a eiai iniiao iie?oe/iee e?eoa??e – eiyeuei?noue oeo /e ?ioeo
a?iiaaeyi aei Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae34.

?yae aniaeo?a iia’ycaieo c i?iaeaiaoeeith ?noi?e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue A.Eo/aanueeiai ?icaeyaea?oueny a i?aoeyo, i?enay/aieo
?noi??? noaiiaeaiiy e ?icaeoeo ca?ieieo nee Oe?a?ie – N?/iaiai
No??eaoeoaa, Aaeeoeueei? A?i??, A?i?? Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee.
?.Aeaieeaiei, I.Aac?o/ei, ?.E?ei’yeaae/, A.Aiaoaae/, C.Noaoai?a oa
N.O?ai/aiei, I.Aeoi?i, ?.A?oo, I.ss?ineaaei, I.A??iye, I.Eeoaei ?
E.Iaoiaiei, N.??iaoeueeee, ss.Oei/aiei, A.sseeiiae/, A.Aieoaei,
N.Iaea?/oe oa ?i., nie?ath/enue ia ??ciiiai?oiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae,
?ice?eee yne?aa? noi??iee ca?ieiiai /eio oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia an?o
aoaiao aecaieueieo ciaaaiue35.

Cia/ia i?noea o aea/aii? oe?a?inueeiai eiina?aaoecio oa eiai
aieeao ia ?icaeoie ?noi?e/ii? iaoee iin?aeathoue i?aoe?, ui
?ice?eaathoue oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? oa oe?a?inueei-?in?enuee?
a?aeiineie. O i?aoeyo ss.Aeaoeaae/a oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? aca?ieie
?icaeyaeathoueny e??cue i?ecio aca?iicaeaaeiino? iaoe?? i?eaiiaeaii? ?
iaoe?? – aiiaeoaey, any a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca o?aa?/iee noai oeeo
a?aeiinei iieeaaea?oueny ia iaiinooieea?noue oa oeueo?aeiina?aaoeci
iieuenueei? iie?oe/ii? aeieo?eie36. TH.Neeaea, aeaoaeueii ?icaeyaea?
caoiaee iieuenueei? ieoiaoe?eii? aeaaee i?ney naieoe?iiiaaii? ?aaeith
iine?a e?a?i Aioaioe a aa?aci? 1923 ?. aiaen?? No?aeii? Aaee/eie, ye?
cai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny aeey oiai, uia aeiaanoe niieiia?/i?noue iieuenueeiai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo37. I.Eeoaei ? E.Iaoiaiei
i?iaiae?coaaee iiae?? eenoiiaaeiaiai c?eao 1918 ?. o Eueaia?,
aea?aeaaioai?/o ae?yeuei?noue o?yaeo oa Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee COI?,
iiaeaee o?ii?eo oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie38. E.Caoe?eueiye aiae?co?
iieuenueeo ?noi??ia?ao?th ?noi??? Oe?a?ie caaaeii oa ??ci? aniaeoe
aaeeoeueei? ?noi???, nai???aeiith a?nnth yei? aoee
oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie39.

Uiaei oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo a?aeiinei, oi ?noi?eei-iie?oe/i?
aniaeoe a 20-o? ?iee aeine?aeaeoaaee A.AEeaioei, ?.Iacaia, O.Aeieea,
TH.Aa/einueeee40; o 50-o? – 80-o? ?iee – Ae.Nieiaae, ?.Iaeno?aiei, I.
Eiaaeaanueeee, I.I??/oe, E.Eiiiiaiei, I.Noao?a, I.TH?/aiei, ?.Aieaei,
?.Ianoa?iae, TH.Ai?en, N.Ia/iee, I. I?ieii41; a 90-o? ?iee –
A.Eiceinueeee, A.*aoiae/,TH.Oaiiaae, I.Aeaieeaiei, A.Eanueyiia,
N.Eoeue/eoeueeee, I.Iie/aiia, A.Eoeee, TH.Eo?iinia, N.Iaoiia,
I.Ia?eiiae/, ?.A?ean, Ae.Iaen, A.Aa?ai, I.?ya/aiei42. Aiie aeeaiei ?
anaa?/ii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaee iie?oeeo a?eueoiaeoeueeiai iie?oe/iiai
?aaeeio, ui caaa?oeeany i?ney i?eaeooaiiy aecaieueieo ciaaaiue
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ieoiaoe??th ? ?aaeyi?caoe??th Oe?a?ie, ?ice?eee
i?iyae oioae?oa?ecio a Oe?a?i? o ??cieo noa?ao noni?eueii-eoeueoo?iiai
aeeooy.

I?eaa?oathoue oaaao tha?eaei? ca??ieee i?aoeue, i?enay/ai? 110-?e
??/ieoe? a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy A.Eeieinueeiai43, 120-oe ? 125-oe —
??//th a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai44.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Eiina?aaoeaii-iie?oieia?/ia eiioeaioe?y
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy” ?icaeyaea?oueny aca?iica’ycie iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? ?
oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? aeoiee a Oe?a?i? e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo OO no.
a?aeia?aaeaii ia?ao?ae oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo
a?ae eoeueoo?iiai oe?a?iio?euenoaa aei oe?iei? i?aai?ciaaii? iie?oe/ii?
?iaioe a ianao, aeieeiaiiy ianiaeo i?aai?caoe?e. ? oi/ i?ia?aei?
iiceoe?? a ieo caeiaee ia?o?? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii? i???ioaoe??, ?acii
c aioenioe?ae?noe/ieie iano?iyie caiiaeii? /anoeie noni?euenoaa,
oi?ioaaeany eiina?aaoeaia iie?oe/ia oa/?y. I?ney Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie
?aeaieia?y eiina?aaoecio ?aaeueii iicia/eeany ia aeooiaiiio e
iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. Oeueiio cia/iith i??ith,
ni?eyea ae?yeuei?noue A.Eeieinueeiai, yeee noai?ea oeieo eiina?aaoeaieo
?noi?ee?a-aea?aeaaiee?a. Iaei??th c iaeyne?aa?oeo iinoaoae a oe?e oeie?
aoa A.Eo/aanueeee, yeee noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui iaiao?aeiith oiiaith
oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? eiioeaioe?? Oe?a?ie ? aea?aeaaia iaoe?iiaeueia
?aeay, a iniiaiith ia?aaeoiiaith noai?aiiy aea?aeaae – oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe??. Iaoe??th a/aiee aaaaeaa, ineo?/iee noai nai???aeiiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiiieaeno a?ae/ooo?a, iaoe?iiaeueiiai na?oiaeyaeo,
iaoe?iiaeueieo aaaeaiue, ia yeiio a?oioo?oueny oai?/a ciaaaiiy
eiie?aoii? ni?eueiino?. Eiaeia iaoe?y, ia eiai aeoieo, ae?inoa? c
iaaiiai aoi?/iiai oeaio?o e ioiieth?, aieiaiei /eiii, aoi?/ii
iaeii??aeio iano.

Aeoieo i?i aeioe?euei?noue iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, iacaaaeath/e
ia aea?oae, A.Eo/aanueeee iacaaa ?aaeoe?eiith ? aaaaeaa, ui oiai/ani?e
?aeaieia?? ia aenoa/eei naia aoe/ieo i?aenoaa. Oiio e ai?ioueao ca
aea?aeaai?noue iaai? iie?oe/i? neee noaaeee o ieiueio na?aeiiiai iaiaio
ian nioe?aeueieie aaneaie. C oaeith ae ??oo/?noth A.Eo/aanueeee
caia?a/oaaa e iaoe?iiae?noe/i? aanea, “iioe?aiiy ethaeiaea?ii? iaiaaenoe
aei caeiaioe?a”, aaaaeath/e, ui iaiaaenoue, ?o?ia ia iiaeooue cai?ieoe
oai?/ee /ei aoae?aieoeoaa iiai? aea?aeaae. Naia oiio ?noi?ee caia?a/oaaa
A.Eai?io, yeee aaaaeaa, ui “?aaiethoe?? a ?oeaae/eao ia ?iaeyoue”.
Aaeaea yeui iaoa a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?aaiethoe?? – ?o?ia, oi iaoa
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaiethoe?? – aoaeiaa…”

O aeiiia?ae? “Caaaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? noni?eueiinoe i?ae
oaia??oi?e iiiaio” ia nooaeaionueeiio c’?cae? o Eueaia?, ui a?aeaoany
ia ii/aoeo eeiiy 1921 ?. iieiaeee ua A.Eo/aanueeee cayaea, ui ?aaeueiee
oeyo aei aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino? eaaeeoue /a?ac ?aaiethoe?th, /a?ac
ai?ioueao. I?ioa ?noi?ee a?aeeeaeaa iaiaaeoiai? ianeeueieoeuee? ?aea?,
ye? i?/ei ia aoee iaeooioai?ai?: ca?ieia ai?ioueaa ia iiaeiia aooe
“aeaooii aiooc?acio e ?inoeieo?a, eaaaea??enueeith aoaeith”, a eeoa
“caaa?oaiiyi onueiai eiiieaeno iaoe?iiaeueii? i?aoe?, anueiai i?ioeano
iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy…” A?i aecia/ea /ioe?e ia?oi/a?aia?
caoiaee, ye?, ia eiai aeoieo, iiaee a ni?eyoe i?aeaioiaoe? aaee/ai aei
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae: 1) a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae ?ethci?ii?
iaae?? ia /oaeo aeiiiiiao; 2) i???iooaaoeny aeeeth/ii ia aeani? neee; 3)
aeciaoe oe?aeeeaeie iiiaeeiie? aenooie, cie?aia oa?i?enoe/i? aeoe??, ye?
ia i?aeo?eiai? ianiaith aeoeai?noth o?oaeyueo; 4) cieueoe a?iiic no?aoo
ia?aae iieuenueeith oth?iith ? ineo?/ii i?aeaiooaaoeny aei neeaaei?oeo ?
?eceeiaai?oeo ianiaeo aenooi?a o iaeaooiueiio.

A.Eo/aanueeee e?eoeeoaaa ethiiai?ciaaiee aeaiaio, ui iaiaaaany
aeeeooaaoe iaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo ? aeaaaeoaaa ??ciiiai?oi? ?aeaieia??,
canoaeaeoaaa oa?i?eci ye aea?aeaaieoeueeo iie?oeeo, aenooiaa i?ioe
?iciaethaaiiy iaiaaeno? aei iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, iaceaath/e oea
ca?acith, ui c’?aea? ian naieo, ii?ooo? aioo??oith a??aiiaaaeai?noue,
canoa??aaa a?ae oiai, uia ea??aieoeoai iie?oe/iei i?iaiaeii ia acyee a
nai? ?oee e?eeoie ? aeaiaaiae, ye? ia oi/ooue a/eoeny, ia oi/ooue
aiooaaoe naaa aei oiai, uia aeeoe c /anii? i?aoe?, aac aea?aeaaii?
iinaaee, a eeaeathoueny a “iie?oeeo”, aae c ia? aeeoe, iaaieiooaaa ia
iaiao?aeiino? caa?iooe iniaeeao oaaao ia aeoiaaiiy iieiaeiai iieie?iiy,
yea “i?ae?inoa? caee/aa?ea e i?a?ioae?aaioia”, ?aaeea aeaaaoe eiio e?auo
ina?oo e aeaaaeea?oa aeoiaaiiy, iioe?eoe ai?eciioe eiai aeoiee, iaa/eoe
eiai a?ae?ace aei iei?oiuei? “ianiai?” iaoooeeaino? oa ?noa???.

A ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui A.Eo/aanueeee caeeeeaa oe?a?inueeeo
?noi?ee?a, ienueiaiiee?a, ioae?oeeno?a iieeoeoe i?aoeth ia ?aeaieia?/i?e
iea?, aeineiiaei ? ia’?eoeaii aea/eoe ?noi?e/io ae?eni?noue ??cieo /an?a
? ia?iae?a oa c’ynoaaoe,yeee oeyo, ui aaaea aei aea?aeaaiino?,
iaee?auee. Iiaeia, ia eiai aeoieo, o oe?e ni?aa? iia/eoeny o
A.Aioiiiae/a, I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, ye? ae??ciyeeny aeooiaiith noaa?euei?noth
? aeoiaai? ia o?aaeeoe?yo eeane/ii? a?aoeueei? oa ?einueei? ?noi???.
Oeueiai ia iiaeia neacaoe i?i oiai/anieo iie?oee?a, ye? ia iaee
aeinoaoiueiai ?ioaeaeooaeueiiai i?aea?oioy, a oiio eaaei
?aeaieia?coaaeeny, oiaoi niaeoethaaee aano?aeoieie eaoaai??yie oa
noaiaie. Naia oiio ?noi?ee aoa i?ioe oiai, uia oai?aoe/ii ieney/?
iniaenoino? aenooiaee a ?ie? “i?aeoe/ieo iie?oee?a”, “?aeaieia?a” ?
“i?aai?caoi??a”. O oeea?e?ciaaieo aea?aeaaao oeei caeiathoueny iie?oe/i?
ia?o??. A?i aeiaaaa, aae ia?iaeia? aiai?eoe i?aaaeo, ia aiy/enue
ao?aoeoe “iiioey?i?noue” /e iaa?oue iio?aieoe i?ae eoe? oa?i?eno?a,
aaaaeaa, ui /aniei ethaeyi aoei iaeaaei i?iaeoeny aei iaoe?iiaeueii?
iie?oeee, ai eiieo?oaaoe c aeaiaaiaaie, ?io?eaaiaie ? iaeeaiieeaie
iaiiaeeeai. Neooaoe?y oneeaaeithaaeany oei, ui i?ioean
ii?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ?iceeaaeo ca/?iaa ia eeoa aa?oi? oa?e ianaeaiiy, a
e i?iieeaa aei naieo iec?a. Aeo?ae c oe??? aaaeei? neooaoe?? a/aiee
aaa/aa o caa?iaii? aei aeooiaieo ia?oiaeaea?ae, o e?enoae?caoe?? a
aeooao ethaeae iiaiai aoino, yeee o nai?e iniia? iaa aooe ?ae?a?eiei,
aa?i?/iei ? a?enoie?aoe/iei.

A iiaeyaeao ia iie?oe/io eoeueoo?o A.Eo/aanueeee aeio?eioaaany
eiioeaioe?? A.Eeieinueeiai, nooi?noue yei? a?oiooaaeany ia iioeiaeueiiio
ii?aeiaii? iie?oe/ii? iaoee ? iie?oe/iiai aeina?aeo. Aeoiaey/e ?c oaeiai
?icoi?iiy, a?i aaaaeaa, ui iie?oe/ia eoeueoo?a aeeth/a? ia o?eueee
i?aaeeueio ioe?ieo ?nioth/iai, a ua a?eueoith i??ith oi/io ioe?ieo
iaeaooiueiai. Aiia ia?aaeaa/a? ia eeoa iia? ?aea?, ui a?aoiaothoue
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? ?aae??, a e neeueieo aieueiaeo ethaeae, caeaoieo
ao?eeoe oe? ?aea? a aeeooy. Ae?oo A.Eo/aanueeee ?icoi?a ye
a?enoie?aoe/io aa?noao, caeaoio ?ica’ycaoe iac??e? ieoaiiy no/aniino?.
?? iiyaa iiaeeeaa aiane?aeie ci?ie aeooiaii? noo? ia?iaeo. Oe?a?inueeo
ae?oo 1917-1921 ??. a?i ioa?aeoa?ecoaaa ye oaeo, ui ia aieiae?ea
aea?aeaaii-aeaaeieie ?enaie, a a?eueoa noeeyeany aei aia?o?cio,
i?iaeaaeiino?, a?ae/oaeaiino?, iaoa??aeueiiai eiioi?oo. Ia aeoieo
a/aiiai, aeniei ?icaeiaio aeooiaio ae?oo iiaeia noi?ioaaoe o?eueee ia
canaaeao eiina?aaoecio, aeey /iai iaiao?aeii i?aeaeueoe ina?oi?e ??aaiue
iieiae?, a?ae?iaeeoe aeoo iao??ioecio, aeoiaaoe ona?aeiieaiiy ??aiino? e
ni?eueiino? iieye?a ? cao?aeieo oe?a?ioe?a. Aea/ath/e i?iaeaio
e?aea?noaa, A.Eo/aanueeee iia’ycoaaa iiyao aecia/ieo in?a c
a?aeiia?aeiith ?noi?e/iith neooaoe??th, ineo?/iei noaiii iaoe??. A?i
aeae?eea o?e oeie e?aea??a: i?i?i/?, Aiaii iaooiaii? iinoao?, aa?i?/i?
?aoi?iaoi?nuee? iniaenoino? e o?, ui iiaeooue i/ieeoe iaoiai, cao?eoe
eiai ?inoeieoe, caiaeeoe ia ?oei?aio noeo?th.

Cia/ia i?noea a iaoeia?e niaaeuei? A.Eo/aanueeiai iin?aea?
i?iaeaiaoeea , iia’ycaia c ?noi???th noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo n?/iaiai
no??eaoeoaa – ca?ieieo nee Oe?a?ie. Ii aa?y/eo ne?aeao ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e
a/aiee a?aeoai?thaaa neeaaeiee i?ioean i?aai?caoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
a?enueea, ui aoei aaaeeeaei /eiieeii iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, ?aea?
naiino?eiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. No??eaoeoai, ia eiai aeoieo,
oiniaethaaei iaee?au? ?ene oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo: iao??ioe/iee
?aeaae?ci, aenieo ina?/ai?noue, a?enueeiao iiooao ? aeaiie?aoe/iee
ono??e. C eiai iiyaith o/aiee iia’ycoaaa ca?iaeaeaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai ieneaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ? iinooiiaa
aeo?niaiiy c oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? aeoiee aaoiiii?nonueeeo iiaeyae?a,
nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aea? “aecaieaiiy ethaeeie”. Ia?oa na?oiaa a?eia ni?eyea
caaa?ooaaiith no??eaoeueeeo caaii?a, oi?ioaaiith a ieo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
na?oiaeyaeo, iiaeieaiith aa?iaiio?euenueei? i???ioaoe??. Iniiaieie
i?e/eiaie, ye? i?ecaaee aei ?icaaeo oe?a?inueei? a?i??, A.Eo/aanueeee
aaaaeaa ?? iai?aeaioiaeai?noue aei a?eie, ianoa/o iao??ioe/ii
iaeaooiaaieo io?oea?nueeeo eaae??a, aoiieai?noue a?eoe?a a?eiith,
a?eueoiaeoeueeo i?iiaaaiaeo. Aeei?enoaaoe aaeeeo e?euee?noue
aeieoiaioaeueiiai iaoa??aeo,niiaaaee o/aniee?a aecaieueieo ciaaaiue,
aeani? niinoa?aaeaiiy, A.Eo/aanueeee ia o?eueee caeeaa i?oeiee
ooiaeaiaio ?noi??ia?ao?? n?/iaiai no??eaoeoaa, a e noai?ea oai?aoe/i?
i?aeaaeeie aoae?aieoeoaa oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i??, iieacaa ??
i?noea ? ?ieue o i?ioean? oai?aiiy naiino?eii? aea?aeaae.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaai?noue 1917-1921 ??.
I?aeoeea oa ?noi?e/i? i?aenoiee” ?icaeyaea?oueny ?ieue A.Eo/aanueeiai,
ye aeoeaiiai o/anieea iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue, a ?o
aeine?aeaeaii?. Ca neiaaie ?.Eenyea-?oaeieoeueeiai, a?i ia i?iieioa i?
na?oiai? a?eie, i? Ia?ecueei? eiioa?aioe??, i? ?in?enueei? ?aaiethoe??,
aaaaeath/e, ui a?ae ieo caeaaeaea aeiey Oe?a?ie. Oa?aeoa?ecoth/e
oe?a?inueeo ?ioae?aaioe?th, ui oai?eea iniiai? eaae?e oae caaiiai
na?aeiiiai oe?a?inoaa, a/aiee cacia/aa, ui a ?ie? aoae?aie/iai
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae aiia naaa oyaeoe ia iiaea. Neiaa oi?aa?naeo “a?ae
iei? nai? aoaeaii oai?eoe iaoa aeeooy” ia a?aeiia?aeaee ?aaeueiei
iiaeeeainoyi oe?a?inoaa. Aiie oaeaeoa icia/aee ao/ia aanei, iacae/aeiee
ii?ea aiooc?acio oe?a?inueei? a?iiaaenueeino?, yea ia ia?oeo ii?ao
aaccanoa?aaeii aeciaaaea Oeaio?aeueio ?aaeo iaoe?iiaeueiei o?yaeii .
Oai?eoe nai? aeeooy aeanieie neeaie, nie?ath/enue ia eeoa ia ii?aeueiee
aaoi?eoao, noi?iiaaiee i?oeiaiaeie iano?iyie, a e ia aaoi?eoao
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee — oea aoa ?aeeii i?aaeeueiee oeyo aeey Oeaio?aeueii?
?aaee. Iniiaieie i?e/eiaie ii?acee iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae o oi?i?
ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee A.Eo/aanueeee aaaaeaa aeii?ioaaiiy o iie?oe/i?e
aeoioe? Oe?a?ie (iniaeeai Iaaeaei?i?yinueei?) ?aea? oe?a?inueei?
aaoiiii?? o neeaae? aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?in?? oa ?aea? nioe?ae?noe/ii?
?aaiethoe??. Naia caaaeyee aeii?ioaaiith oeeo ?aeae o na?aeiiino?
oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? ?ioae?aaioe??, ui aeeiioaaea ?ieue iie?oe/iiai
ea??aieea o Oeaio?aeuei?e ?aae?, ia aaeaeiny i?aai?coaaoe a?i?th,
aea?aeaaiee aia?ao, i?iaanoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie,
neiinie?aeoaaoe nioe?aeuei? aa?oe ? nioe?aeuei? iece iaaeiei
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?.

Aaoueiaiao I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai, ia aeoieo A.Eo/aanueeiai, aeiee
ia?aae/anii, aeey iueiai ia aoei ua a?aeiia?aeiiai
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai i?aea?oioy, oe?iea a?iiaaenuee?noue ua ia aoea
aioiaa ineoieia?/ii ni?eeiyoe aeaiie?aoe/i? o?aaeeoe??. Aei oiai ae
nai? aeaiie?aoe cia/ii iinooieeeny ia?aae ?onio?euenueeeie iie?oe/ieie
neeaie iie?oe/iei aeina?aeii. Ii/oooy aeaniiai aaccneeey, aiyciue
iiaoi?ii? ?oneo?eaoe?? Oe?a?ie cioooaaee ?o ooeeeoeny a?ae aei?noei?
ai?ioueae, yea ana ae oaee aoea iaieio/ith. Naia oiio ?aaiethoe?ei?
iiaeyaee oiai/aniiai no?aeiioe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiae?cio ia aoee aeyaii
neee, ui niiioeaea aei caoiieaiiy aeaaee, a iaaiaee, aeyaeyee aioo??oith
? ciai?oith neaae?noue, yea ?aeeiei nai?i ii?yooieii a?ae e?aoo aaaaeaea
?aaiethoe?eiee ia?aai?io.

Ca ioe?ieith A.Eo/aanueeiai, I.Nei?iiaaenueeee ia aoa oei
aoae?aie/ei aea?aeaae, yeee ?icoi?a oa ethaea na?e ia?iae. On? eiai
iiienee ni?yiiaoaaeeny ia ia oai?aiiy aaeeei? iaoe??, ia ia iie?oe/io ?
a?enueeiao ae?yeuei?noue caaeey ?icaoaeiae aea?aeaae, a ia cae??ieaiiy
iniaenoi? iinaaee. Aaoueiaiao ia aoa i?oeiith oi?iith oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai ?nioaaiiy, a?i eeoa aoa a?aiith nooe/ee aeaio i?ioeeaaeieo
nee — ana?in?enueei? ?aaeoe?? oa no?aeiioe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?eii?
aeaiie?ao??. I?ii?aei? iiceoe?? caeiaee iaaecae/aeii neaae?
eiina?aaoi?e, ye? iaee oe?a?inuee? ia?aeiiaiiy, ? iii??eiaai?
aeaiie?aoe. Aiie /anii i?aeo?eioaaee aaoueiainueeee eaae ? aoee aioia?
ca?aaee iueiai eoe ia aea?oae, i?ioa aeinoaoi?i iie?oe/iei aieeaii ia
aieiae?ee. Ni?aaaei?i ainiiaea?ai neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i? aoei i?iaoeueea
a?enueeiaa eiiaiaeoaaiiy. Aaoueiai nai?i oaaea?aoeaiei aeoii iicaaaea
iiaeeeaino? oe?a?inuee? nioe?aeueii-eiio??aaiethoe?ei? aeaiaioe i/ieeoe
oe?a?inuee? iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaai? ciaaaiiy. Aiane?aeie oeueiai
?i?oe?aoeaa a i?iaaaeaii? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee ciiao
ia?aeoea aei oe?a?inueeiai nioe?aeueii-?aaiethoe?eiiai oaai?o, ui cia/ii
oneeaaeieei aioo??oi? i?ioe??//y a aioeaaoueiainueeiio aeioe?. Oea
i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui iianoaiiy, yea iiaeiii aoei ae a?yooaaoe
no?aeiioe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao /a?ac na?e nioe?aeueii-?aaiethoe?eiee
oa?aeoa? noaei eeoa ii/aoeii iaaaee a?eueoiaecio ia No?aeio Oe?a?io.

Cia/ia i?noea a iaoeia?e niaaeuei? A.Eo/aanueeiai iin?aea? aiae?c
ai?ioueae iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ieo nee ca oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaai?noue o
ia??iae Aee?aeoi???. A/aiee cacia/aa, ui naia a oie /an eiee o Eueaia?
niaeaoioea iieuenueei-cao?aeiioe?a?inueea a?eia, ia Noiae? Oe?a?ie
ia?o?? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii? i???ioaoe?? i?e i?aeo?eioe? N?/iaeo
no??eueoe?a ae??oeee iiaaeeoe o?yae I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai. Iaea?eueoa
noia?a/i?noue oe??? iiae?? iieyaaea a oiio, ui a o??oioaeueiiio iioiae?
ii Nio??anuee?e ieiu? ia /anoue ia?aiiae Aee?aeoi??? e?ieoaaee ia
o?eueee a?enueeia? /anoeie Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee, ye? o
ia??ai?e ai?i? c /anoth caoeuaee iacaeaaeio Oe?a?io, ia o?eueee caaiie
N?/iaeo no??eueoe?a, ui aeyaeee c?acee niai?ieoeueeiai eeoea?noaa, a e
Oa?auainueea aeea?c?y — i?aai?ciaaia ao?eaiiy oea?aieioe, ui iacaaa?ii
ciia oa?eaea a Ee?a, aea aaea i?ae /a?aiiei i?aii?ii ieoiaioa. A i?aoeyo
A.Eo/aanueeiai iieacaii, ui no?aeiioe?a?inuee? naeyie a?eueoa aeoiaee
i?i caaeiaieaiiy nioe?aeueieo aeiia, i?ae i?i naiino?eio Oe?a?io. Oe?
iano?i? iaiaaaeeny aeei?enoaoe no?aeiioe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??, ye?
i?aaenoaaeyee iaeaooith Oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao ye nioe?aeueio
aeaaiaeaoue, ia?oeyee cieueoe aaeeeeo caieaaeaniee?a e eai?oae?no?a.
Aeayeee /an aaoi?eoao Aee?aeoi??? o?eiaany ia oiio, ui aiia i/iethaaea
ai?ioueao i?ioe ?in?enueei? eiio??aaiethoe??, aea oea o?eaaei iaaeiaai.
Aee?aeoi??y aeyaeeany iani?iiiaeiith oi?aaeyoe oe?a?inueeei
noni?euenoaii: ia coi?ea i?aai?coaaoe aoaeoeaiiai aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo,
ia caaiocaeaea ioaiaiueio, ia noai?eea ai?caeaoii? a?i??, ia ?ica’ycaea
aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy. Aea?aeaaia aeaaea ia iaea oaa?aei? iiceoe?? uiaei
ae??oaiiy aoaeue-yeeo aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo i?iaeai.
Ao?aoeaoe nioe?aeueio aaco, aiia aaeainoaaea i?ae naeyinueeeie ianaie,
a?eueoiaeeaie e Aioaioith, aeei?enoiaoth/e i?e oeueiio iiioe?nonuee?
aanea.

Na?aae aaaaoueio i?iaeai, ye? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaoeia?e
niaaeuei? A.Eo/aanueeiai, aaaeeeaa i?noea iin?aea? i?iaeaia noaiiaeaiiy
cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? a 1918-1919 ??. Nie?ath/enue ia
nie?aeio aeaea?aeiciaa/o aaco, a?i ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui aei
eenoiiaaeiaiai /eio oe?a?ioe? Aaee/eie ii/aee aiooaaoeny ua a na?ii?
1918 ?. Oe?a?inueeee ia?aai?io a i?/ c 31 aeiaoiy ia 1 eenoiiaaea 1918
?. ye o Eueaia?, oae ? a i?ia?ioe?eieo i?noao No?aeii? Aaee/eie
caaa?oeany iiaiei oni?oii. Ca /?oei i?eaeoiaiei ieaiii oe?a?ioeyi
aaeaeiny aeieoaaoe ai?iae? a?enueeia? /anoeie ? caaieiae?oe Eueaiaii
aeineoue oaeaeei ? aac e?iaii?ieeooy. Ia?ao?ae a?ae
aano??enueei-iieuenueei? aei oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? a?aeaoany, ca
ioe?ieith a/aiiai, caaaeii niie?eii ? aac iniaeeaeo oneeaaeiaiue.
Iianthaee noai?thaaeeny iia?oia? i?aaie aeaaee, iie?oe?ei? i?ae?icae?ee.
Iacaaaeath/e ia ia aeoaea aenieo aeenoeeie?io a oeeo i?ae?icae?eao, aiie
ana ae aeoeaii caoeuaee aeeooy oa aeani?noue ethaeae. Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia
uiaei a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaiino? aeia?aaeaeaea non?aei? e?a?ie. Aiia,
ia aeoieo A.Eo/aanueeiai, iaeaaeaea aei i?ia?aeieo e?a?i Oeaio?aeueii?
oa No?aeii? ?a?iie, ye? i?aei?iaeeny c ?ic?ooe aei i?aai?ciaaiiai ?
i?oeiiai eaaeo. Ia?iae cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue oe?eeii aoa caeaoiee
ia iaaaeee?e no?aeiiaaeeoeuee?e oa?eoi??? ?icai?iooe neeo, yea ia
o?eueee aoea a ae??oaeueiith aeey ?icaeoeo an??? Oe?a?ie, a e iiaea a
neeueii aieeaaoe ia aeieth oiai/anii? No?aeii? ?a?iie. I?ioa
a?iiaaenueeino? a?aeoaaei ye aeooiaieo yeinoae, oae ? iie?oe/iiai
aeina?aeo, uia aeia?a ona?aeiieoe, ui ? a?eueoei aeaaii aeey aeanii?
Aaouee?aueie — oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia aea?aeaaa, /e cieuaiiy Iieueu?
oa ia’?aeiaiiy on?o oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue i?ae aeaaeith iineianueeiai
a?eueoiaecio. Ia aoei yniino? oaeiae a oiio, ui e?aua — i???iooaaoeny ia
Aioaioo /e ia a?eueoiaeci, uia ca iaaiiai ca?ao ianoaaei iaea?aeaoe o
iiaea?oiie oe?a?inueeo iaoe?iiaeueio aea?aeaao. A.Eo/aanueeee ia
iieeaaeaa aaeeeeo iaae?e ia Cao?aeiioe?a?inueeo Ia?iaeio ?anioae?eo,
iaceaaa ?? ei?ioei/aniei aea?aeaaiei ooai?aiiyi. I?noeaaa ?ioae?aaioe?y,
ia eiai aeoieo, aoea iai?aeaioiaeaia aei aeeiiaiiy neeaaeiiai caaaeaiiy
oai?aiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae. A?i aeineoue ??cei e?eoeeoaaa
iie?oe/iee i?ia?ae oe?a?ioe?a Aaee/eie, cie?aia ?.Iao?ooaae/a, ca
iaiaaeai?noue aeoiee, neaae?noue aie?, a?aenooi?noue oaaae e ii/oooy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ca aiao?th oa ?ia?oi?noue o ae?yo.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e “I?iaeaie iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie ?
oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie. ?noi?e/ia ieioea oa ia?niaeoeae ia
iaeaooi?” ?icaeyaea? aianie A.Eo/aanueeiai a iaoeiao ?ic?iaeo i?iaeai
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo noinoie?a, iniaeeai c iaeyaeo ia oa, ui naia
a?ae ieo aaeeeith i??ith caeaaeaei — aooe /e ia aooe oe?a?inuee?e
aea?aeaa?. Iaeiiai?oa oeth i?iaeaio aena?oeaii a eiai i?aoe? «Ioaa?oa
a?aeiia?aeue iieuenueeiio eiina?aaoenoia?». A/aiee eaoaai?e/ii
caia?a/oaaa oaa?aeaeaiiy iieuenueeeo iie?oee?a i?i ia?ic?eaio ?aei?noue
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo ? niieiia?/ieo iieuenueeeo caiaeue, aeacoaaa ia
nooo?ao ??cieoeth i?ae «aaaeaiiyi» iaoe o? /e ?io? ei?aeiie ?
?aae?caoe??th oeueiai aaaeaiiy. Eeth/ai aei ?ica’ycaiiy neeaaeieo
i?iaeai oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo a?aeiinei a?i aaaaeaa ?icoi?iiy iieyeaie
o??? iaae?, yea aecia/a? ?o noaoon — ia?aiiaeoe?a Oe?a?ie aai
ia?aiiaeaieo «oe?a?inueeeie aia?a?yie». E?eoeeoth/e ?aeath «noaa?aiiiai
ia?iaeo» ?.Aeiianueeiai, A.Eo/aanueeee caoaaaeoaaa, ui
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeee eiioe?eo ia iiaea cae?i/eoeny ie?ii. Caaaeueiee
aeoo o??? ?noi?e/ii? aiioe, i?i yeo eaeaoueny, aenoaaa ia ia?oee ieai
aeooaeuei?noue iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai, ui aoei na?eiciei neiioiiii
?iciaaeo iaoe?iiaeueieo aeooiaii-iie?oe/ieo aa?oinoae o ?a?ii?. O/aiee
aei??eaa iie?oeeai ca aee?eaeaia ieneaiiy, a iniia? yeiai eaaeaei
iiiaieuenueea ei/iaa aanei «aeniain?y aeey aeniain??», ui ia ia?oee
ieai aeaiaeeei ciai?oith iie?oeeo, ?aii?oth/e iie?oeeo aioo??oith.
?aeayie ? i?aeoe/ieie caoiaeaie uiaei cieuaiiy Oe?a?ie iieii?caoe??th ia
caoiae? oa ?oneo?eaoe??th ia noiae? ?.Aeiianueeee ia?anooiea caeiie
?a?iiaenueei? ii?ae?, aiane?aeie /iai iieuenueei-oe?a?inueea ai?ioueaa
ia?a?inea a aii?aeueia aeieuaiiy ethaeae. Iie?oeea iaeaieeaia?oi? a
e?a?i? iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o??, yea aacoaaeany ia
yaaeeiinuee?e ?aea? ooaa?aeaeaiiy iieuenueei? aea?aeaae a ei?aeiiao ?a/?
Iiniieeoi? oa ?aii?oaaea i?aai oe?a?ioe?a iaoe ia nai?o aoi?/ieo
caieyo aeanio aea?aeaao, aeyaeeany, ia aeoieo ?noi?eea,
aacia?niaeoeaiith, ine?eueee iineethaaea na?aae ieo i?i?in?enuee?
iano?i?, ui iaiaei?iii i?ae?eaaei noaa?euei?noue Iieueu?. A.Eo/aanueeee
aino?i e?eoeeoaaa ? oaaea?ae?noe/io eiioeaioe?th TH.I?enoaenueeiai,
nooue yei? caiaeeeany aei oiai, ui aiane?aeie ?iciaaeo a?eueoiaeoeueei?
?in?? aoaea ooai?aia Aaeeea Oe?a?ia (aac Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie), yea oa?eaea
aei iieuenueei? oaaea?aoe??. Aa?oaanueeee aeiaia?? 1920 ?. i?ae
N.Iaoeth?ith ? TH. I?enoaenueeei ?ice?ea ni?aaaei? iai??e oaei?
iie?oeee: i?ney i?iaaeo iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai ianooio Iieueua
iaeiinoi?iii?i ??oaiiyi ?ic??aaea aeiaia?? ? a?aeaeaea Iaaeaei?i?yiueio
ia iioaeo a?eueoiaeeai.

O/aiee iaaaci?aenoaaii aaaaeaa iiaeeeaith ii?iae?caoe?th a?aeiinei
i?ae oe?a?inueeei oa iieuenueeei ia?iaeaie eeoa ia canaaeao
eiina?aaoecio, oiaoi ?aeaieia??, ui a?eueia a?ae iaoe?iiae?cio ?
a?oioo?oueny ia oi?aa?naeueieo ethaenueeeo oe?iiinoyo: aeciaii? i?aaa
iaoe?e ia naiiaecia/aiiy, a?aeiia? a?ae a?enueeiai? aeniain?? i?ioe
?ioeo ia?iae?a. I?ioa ?ica’ycaoe oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy ie?iei oeyoii
iaeaeeae/ei /anii, ia eiai aeoieo, ia aaeanoueny ia?aaeo?ni /a?ac oa, ui
o Iieuenuee?e aea?aeaa? i?e aeaae? ia?aaoaaee «iaioi?ieai? i?yeeie
noeioethth/eie ii?aeueieie caeiiaie iiaea?i? «iaoe?iiae?noe»,
«ath?ie?aoe/ia aai caeaeeaniaaia, naaoi a?ae neoaeae oai?/ei ni?eueiei
eeanai «oa?eueiaia» ?ioae?aaioe?y». Oe? «iia?oi? aa?, aaaaaeo?e ? oaie»
(ca oa?i?iieia??th A.Eo/aanueeiai) ea?oaaeeny ia
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieie, a eeoa iniaenoeie ?ioa?anaie, ia iaee ?aeeii?
iiceoe??, ?aeeieo na?oiaeyaeieo iniia ? ae?yee eeoa aeoiaey/e c iioea?a
i?aaiaiiy aei aeaaee.

Oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeei a?aeiineiai o eiioaeno? i?aeia?iaeii?
iie?oeee A.Eo/aanueeee i?enayoea i?aoe? «Ciai?oiuei-iie?oe/ia iieiaeaiiy
ia’?aeiaieo oe?a?inueeeo a?i?e o «*ioe?eeooieeo Nia?oe» a eeii?-na?ii?
1915″ (1931), «Iieuenueea aeeieiiao?y ? «no?aeii-aaeeoeueea» ieoaiiy ia
ia?enuee?e ie?ia?e eiioa?aioe?? a 1919-io ?ioe?» (1931), «Oe?a?inueea
aeeieiiao?y ? aea?aeaae Aioaioe a ?ioe? 1919″(1931), «Aaaa ? caaaeaiiy
Cao?aeii-oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae na?aae nee No?aeii? ?a?iie ia ia?aeii?
1918/1919-ai ?ieo» (1932-1933). Ia?oeo o?e eieaeee caiaeii noaee
neeaaeiaeie ooiaeaiaioaeueii? iaoeiai? iiiia?ao?? “Die Westukraine im
Kampfe mit Polen und dem Bolchewismus in den Jahren 1918-1923” (Aa?e?i,
1934), yea c’yaeeany ye io?oe?eia aeaeaiiy ai?iii-?noi?e/iiai nai?ia?o
Aa?e?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. O ia?aaeiia? aei eieae A.Eo/aanueeee
cacia/aa, ui aiia aena?oeth? aioo??oi? noaiiaeua Oe?a?ie, cie?aia ??
iie?oe/i? oa a?enueeia? iiceoe?? e iaeii/anii ?ice?eaa? ??ciia?/i?
i?aeia?iaei? ca’ycee, ye? iaee aecia/aeueiee aieea ia aeieth
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: «Iieueua ? ?in?y, a?eueoiaeci ?
eiio??aaiethoe?y, oaiaeaioe?y aei iiaiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ?in?enueei?
?iia??? ? oaiaeaioe?y aei ?? ?iciaaeo, neooaoe?y o oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii?
oa aaaeeeaa ??oaiiy i?eeiyoe aai a?aeoeeeoe Aa?naeuenueeee aeiaia??
I?iaoeueeith ?iia???th, na?oiaee eai?oae?ci ? na?oiaee i?iieneiaee
ia?aai?io, Ia?enueea ie?ia eiioa?aioe?y ? no?aeii-?a?iiaenueea iie?oeea
ie?aieo cao?aeieo aea?aeaa — iiaooiy oaeey nee ? i?ioean?a, a?aiith yeeo
noaea ?a?iia a oeae /an — ana oea i?noeoue o nia? aeaia i?aoey».
A.Eo/aanueeee aino?i e a?aoiaioiaaii e?eoeeoaaa noaio ?icaoaeiae
Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae, i?ia?aia yei? ia a?aecia/aeany i? i?iieeeea?noth,
i? oiieei aiae?cii i?aeia?iaeieo iiae?e, i? aea?aeaaiei ?icoiii, i?
iii??eiaai?noth, a aoea i?iaeoeoii aeiaiaoe/iiai ieneaiiy.

Iieuenueea oia?i?noe/ia i?iiaaaiaea eyeaea na?o «aei?noie?noth»
cao?aeieo oe?a?ioe?a, ye? i?aeoi ae?yee caiaeii c iineianueeeie
a?eueoiaeeaie. Canoiniaoth/e oaeee iaa?aeiee i?eeii, iieyee
?ic?aoiaoaaee ia oa, ui aiane?aeie ?cieueiaaiino? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie
na?oiaa a?iiaaenuee?noue ia ciaoeia ni?aaaeiueiai noaio ni?aa ? ia
ciiaea i?i iueiai aeia?aeaoeny. A iieuenueeeo aeiiaaaiiyo No?aeii?
Aaee/eie eoeiny i?i iiaia cieuaiiy oe?a?inueeeo aea?aeaaieoeueeeo
ciaaaiue, caia?a/oaaeany iaa?oue iaeiaioa iiaeeea?noue aeieeiaiiy
aoaeue-yeiai aea?aeaaiiai ooai?aiiy oe?a?ioe?a. Ia Ia?ecuee?e ie?i?e
eiioa?aioe?? iieuenueea noi?iia aeiaaaea oaeiae i?eeo/aiiy a?eueoi?
/anoeie Aieei? e Cao?aeiiai Iiae?eey c I?ineo?iaei ?
Eai’yioeai-Iiae?euenueeei. Acaaae? ae iieuenuee? iiceoe?? ia Ia?ecuee?e
ie?i?e eiioa?aioe??, ca ioe?ieith A.Eo/aanueeiai, aeaeyaeaee aeineoue
i?oeieie. Iieyee aoee nithciith aioaionueeith iaoe??th, c io?oe?eii
aeciaiith aea?aeaaith, iiaia a?aeiiaeaiiy yei? ?icaeyaeaeiny ye iaeia c
aieiaieo caaaeaiue Aioaioe. Iieuenueea aeeieiiao?y ? i?iiaaaiaea iaea
ia?aaeo i?aai?caoe?e, ye? ioiiethaaee ia o?eueee Cao?aeio ?a?iio, a e
Aia?eeo. Iieuenuee? ?ioa?ane ia eiioa?aioe?? aaccanoa?aaeii
i?aeo?eioaaea O?aioe?y, a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a NOA oa ?io? e?a?ie
Aioaioe.

Iaaaea/? oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiao?? o/aiee iiynithaaa oaeeie
i?e/eiaie: noai?aiiy iieuenueeith i?iiaaaiaeith na?aae iie?oee?a e?a?i
Aioaioe i?oo i?i iacaeaoi?noue oe?a?ioe?a iaoe aeanio aea?aeaao ? i?i
oa, ui iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo ia oa?aiao Aaee/eie ?ini??iaaiee
Aano???th oa I?ia//eiith, aei oiai ae i?ae oeae ?oo ca oa?aeoa?ii
aeecueeee aei a?eueoiaecio; ?aii?oaaiiy iie?oe/ieie eieaie Aioaioe
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy i?e ?ica’ycaii? aeiaaeueieo i?iaeai iiai?iii?
?a?iie, cie?aia, iaeaooiueiai ?in?? oa Iieueu?; aioeoe?a?inueea
ae?yeuei?noue ?in?enueei? aeeieiiao??; i?i?in?enueea iiceoe?y uiaei
?ica’ycaiiy i?aeia?iaeieo i?iaeai aaeeoeueei? ia?o?? – ?onio?e?a;
iaocaiaeaeai?noue uiaei ?ica’ycaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy na?aae
oe?a?inueei? aeeieiiao??.

I’yoee ?icae?e “A?eueoiaeci ye ?aeaeii-iie?oe/ia oa/?y”
i?enay/aiee aiae?co niaaeueie A.Eo/aanueeiai uiaei aeieo?eie
a?eueoiaeoeueei? ia?o?? a iaoe?iiaeueiiio ieoaii?, ?? noia?a/eeaiai
oa?aeoa?o, caeaaeiino? a?ae iie?oe/ii? eii’thieoo?e. Aeei?enoaiiy ?aea?
i?aaa iaoe?e ia iie?oe/ia naiiaecia/aiiy aae aei a?aeie?aieaiiy oa ?ioeo
i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy i??i?eoao?a aoiiiie?oeee aoei coiiaeaii, ia
aeoieo a/aiiai, iaiaaaiiyi a?eueoiaee?a ?icoe?eoe nioe?aeueio aaco
ia?o?? e aeei?enoaoe a ai?iouea? ca aeaaeo iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieuei?
?ooe. A?i ?icaeyaeaa noni?eueii-iie?oe/iee ono??e ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie a
eiioaeno? a?eueoiaeoeueeeo iaiaaaiue iiiaaieeoe oe?a?inueeo iaoe?th,
aoyaiooe ?? o iineianueei-iiiaieuenueeee na?o. C oe??? oi/ee ci?o,
iioe?aiiy a?eueoiaecio na?aae oe?a?ioe?a A.Eo/aanueeee ni?eeiaa ye
aoi?/io ?oneo?eaoe?th /e iieii?caoe?th. Aeine?aeiee /?oei aecia/ea
??cieoeth i?ae oe?a?inueeei iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeueeei ?
oe?a?inueeei a?eueoiaeoeueeei oaai?ii. Oey ??cieoey iieyaaea a oiio, ui
ia?oee oaa?? i???iooaaany ia iaoe?iiaeueio aea?aeaao, a ae?oaee i?n c
niaith ia eeoa /oae? oe?a?ioeyi ia?aeiiaiiy i?i iie?oe/iee /e
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/iee ono??e, aea e ?ioee, i?ae oe?a?inueeee,
na?oiaeyae iaoe??.

Iiooaeiei aeaea?aeii iioe?aiiy a iaoe?iiaeuei?e na?aeiiino?
aioeiineianueeeo iano?i?a noaea Aaee/eia. Oeueiai, i?aaaea, aoei
iaaeinoaoiuei, ? A.Eo/aanueeee ni?aaaaeeeai ia?aaeaa/aa, ui a?eueoiaeci
ua i?i?nio? aeineoue aeiaai ? anoeaia ca oeae /an cieueoe i?ia?aei? neee
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Naia c oeeo i??eoaaiue ?ecueeee ie?iee aeiaia??
1921 ?. aoa uaneeaith aeiaaeeia?noth, ine?eueee aeaiaeea /anoeio
iaaea?aeaaiiai oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo c eiai iaaecae/aeii ua eaieei
ii/oooyi iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? c i?ae iaaoaiiai, i?aaethth/iai
aieeao a?eueoiaee?a. Oea aeaei ciiao iaoe?iiae?ciia? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie
i?iieeaoe /a?ac a?eueoiaeoeueeee ei?aeii ia no?ae, aeiiiiaaath/e e ia
?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i? iiaeaeueo?e e?enoae?caoe?? ii/oooy oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?.

O ?icae?e? iieacaii, ui A.Eo/aanueeee aaa/aa «aeeoo?aee niene»
a?eueoiaecio ia a ye?enue iaai?e nenoai? aeiiii?/ii? i?aai?caoe??, a a
oiio, ui aoa i?oeii i?aai?ciaaiee «?ae?a??th» cea. Oeae oaeoi? iio??aii
aoei a?aoiaoaaoe an?i oei, ooi niiae?aaany ia oaeaeeee caiaiaae
a?eueoiaecio, ooi aei??thaaa a?eueoiaeci eai?oae?noe/ieie i??eaie. sse ?
A.Eeieinueeee, a?i aei??eaa oei iie?oeeai, ye? ia?aii aaaaeaee, ui
nai?ie ia?aiiaaie a?eueoiaeee caaaey/othoue aeio?eiaiith aeanieo
i?eioeei?a, a?aeiia? a?ae eiii?ii?n?a. Iani?aaae? aiie caaaeaee
canoiniaoaaee o? caniae, ye? aoee iaee?au? a iaaiee eiie?aoiee /an,
a??ooicii ii?aeioth/e a?enueeia? ae?? c aeeieiiaoe/ieie, ?ieiee iaa?oue
ciaithaaee i?ioeaieea ia?aaiai?aie, anoaiiaeaiiyi ie?o, a oi e
oeeaaeaiiyi nithco. Aea, eiee ianooiaa neooiee /an, a?eueoiaeee
a?aeeeaeaee anye? eiii?ii?ne, a?aeiiaeyeeny a?ae ia?aaiai??a ? ??oo/a
aeiiaaaeeny nai?? iaoe.

A?eueoiaeoeueeee ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?ci A.Eo/aanueeee ?icaeyaeaa c
iiceoe?? aeciaiiy iiiaeeiiino? ? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaiiaoi?iino?
ethaenueeeo eoeueoo?, ia ye ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiee na?oiaeyae, a ia?aaeon?i
ye na?oiaeyae iaoe?iiaeueiee – ?in?enueeee, ei?ai? yeiai ne?ae ooeaoe o
?in?enueeiio aeaniioeci?, ui a naith /a?ao a?oioo?oueny ia
iiiaiei-a?caio?enueeeo aeaniioe/ieo o?aaeeoe?yo. A?i aoa ia?oei, ooi
coi?a aeeaiei ? i?iieeeeai ?ice?eoe nooue eeoeai??iiai aanea i?i “i?aai
iaoe?e ia naiiaecia/aiiy”, yea aeei?enoiaoaaeiny a?eueoiaeoeueeei
?aaeeiii aeey i?ee?eooy a?oai? oia?i?noe/ii? iie?oeee. O/aiee
i?iaiae?coaaa iiaeyaee a?eueoiaee?a ia aea?aeaao acaaae? e ia
noaa?aii?noue iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa cie?aia. Iaeyaeath/e i?aoeth
A.Eai?ia “Aea?aeaaa ? ?aaiethoe?y”, i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c? noaiiaeaiiyi
aea?aeaae aeeeoaoo?e i?ieaoa??aoo, a?i ae?eoia aeniiaeo, ui a?eueoiaeee
? ai?iaii noaa?aiiino? anyei? iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae. Aiie
caia?a/oaaee aoaeue-ye? iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/i? ?ioa?ane, ine?eueee
?a/ieeaie, ?oo?yie iie?oeee aaaaeaeeny eeane, a ia ia?iaee. Oiio e
aea?aeaaa, ye noaa?aeaeoaaee a?eueoiaeee, iio??aia ia ia?iaeai, a
eeanai. O oaeiio aeiaaeeo aanei “iaoe?iiaeueia aea?aeaai?noue” icia/aei
ai?ioueao eeano ca aeani? aocueei-eeania?, a ia iaoe?iiaeuei? /e
aeiiii?/i? ?ioa?ane. Aeey A.Eo/aanueeiai ia aoei nae?aoii, ui
«aeeeoaoo?a i?ieaoa??aoo” ia iiaea aooe aeeeoaoo?ith aeaiie?aoe/ii?
a?eueoino? «o?oaeiaiai ia?iaeo», a eeoa aeaaeith a?eueoiaeoeueei?
ia?o??.

A?eueoiaeee, cacia/aa A.Eo/aanueeee i?eiee ia cayaeyee, ui
aenooiathoue i?ioe a?aeie?aieaiiy Oe?a?ie, a eeoa noai?thaaee a?aaeaiiy,
i?ae aiie a’thoue ia naio oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaaio noaa?aii?noue, a eeoa
«?aaeoe?ei?noue» oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a. Oaeei /eiii, «naiino?ei?noue»
a?eueoiaeoeueei? Oe?a?ie c ?? «naiino?eieie caei?aeiiieie
i?aaenoaaieeaie» ? i?iiiaaiaeith «?aaeyinueei? aea?aeaaiino?» aoea, ia
aeoieo A.Eo/aanueeiai, iaoaaiith i?iaieaoe??th. Aeiiiaoeny nai?? iaoe
a?eueoiaeeai aeiiiiaaaee oeoaiiy oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a i?ae
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiith ?aaiethoe?ei?noth ? iaoe?iiaeueiei
aea?aeaaieoeoaii, aacnenoaii?noue oa iaia?aaeaa/eea?noue aea?aeaaii?
i?aai?caoe?? ? iie?oeee.

O i?aoe? «Aieueoaaeci ? no/ania caaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
Caoiaeo”(1925) A.Eo/aanueeee aeni?ya iaiaaaiiy iaaieo iie?oe/ieo nee o
Aaee/ei? ia?aeiiaoe na?o o oiio, ui eieeoiuei? ?in?? aaea iaia?, a ?
aea?aeaaa Oe?a?ia, ui ai?iooy aei «iaae?eeii?» iaiiaeeeaa, a oiio ne?ae
i?ea/aoe na?oiao a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo aei iiaeo iie?oe/ieo ?aae?e. O
a/aiiai ia aoei noii?ao a oiio, ui Iineaa, yea ia aaaath/enue ooiieea a
a e?ia? anth ?in?th ? oaeei /eiii cieueea a iiiceoe?th, iaiaaii, ia
aiyeany oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? ? oae naii ia
aaaath/enue ?icno??eyea a noi /e aea?no? oeny/ oe?a?ioe?a, yeae ia aoea
aiaaiaia a oiio, ui ?e aaeanoueny oea c?iaeoe ie?iei oeyoii
«oe?a?i?caoe??». Iaoa a?eueoiaecio, ia aeoieo A.Eo/aanueeiai, iieyaaea a
oiio, uia ia aeaoe ciiae ia?iaeai aee?enoae?coaaoeny a iaoe??. A iicaye
iaoe?? oai?youeny o ai?iouea?, oi o?aaa aoei aoaeue-yeith oe?iith
iaeo?ae?coaaoe anyea ciaaaiiy ca iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane. Ioaea,
aieiaiith iaoith a?eueoiaeoeueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee aoei i?eniaoe
iaoe?iiaeuei? ii/oooy ia?iae?a ?in??, ia aeaoe ?i aeei?enoaoe ai?ioueao
ca iiao aeey oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?. Ae?oaa iaoa
a?eueoiaee?a caiaeeeany aei oiai, uia aeaoe a?aeiinii a?eueiee o?ae
«aoiia?ao?/ii-iaoe?iiaeueiei» ii/oooyi o iaoe?aeeeaiio aeey aea?aeaaii?
?aeiino? aiie?oe/iiio eoeueoo?ieoeoa?, yea a aeai?e iie?oe/i?e nenoai?
iiaeiii oaeoe/ii caanoeny aei iiioey?ecaoe?? a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?aeaieia??
??aeiith iiaith. Ioaea, iaoa a?eueoiaeoeueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee,
cie?aia, «oe?a?i?caoe??» iieyaaea a oiio, uia ia aeiionoeoe oi?ioaaiiy
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?? ye iie?oe/iiai /eiieea ? coieieoe ?? ia ??ai?
«eoeueoo?ieo iaoe?e».

Oinoee ?icae?e “Iaieiina?aaoeci ye iie?oe/ia oa/?y a Oe?a?i? o
ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO no.” aena?oeth? iiai?iiee ia??iae ?noi??? iie?oe/ii?
aeoiee, yeee ia ni?eya ?icaeoeia? eiina?aaoeaio ?aeae. Nai oa?i?i
“eiina?aaoeci” iaa o ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i? iaaaoeaia caaa?aeaiiy. I?ioa
a?aenooi?noue iacae ia caia?a/oaaea naiiai yaeua. I?i ?nioaaiiy
eiina?aaoeaiiai aeaiaioo a ?ioaeaeooaeueiiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie na?ae/eee
ae?acia /oooy o?aaeeoe?e ? oyaeino?, a oaeiae noeeuei?noue aei caeiiieo
? caaaeaieo niinia?a ae?yeueiino?. Iiaa iieie?iiy ?ioae?aaioe??, e??i
aeui? ina?/aiino? oa ii?ioi?iiaaiino?, i?aaioei aea/aoe aioo??oi?e na?o
ethaeeie, aaaeaei iiaecie e iiaeieaiiy i?ia?ioe?eiino? nai??
eoeueoo?e. A aeiao o?ouianueei? a?aeeeae ca?iaeeany ?oo o?noaeanyoiee?a,
aeeneaeaio?a, a caiaeii e i?aaicaoeniee?a, na?aae o/aniee?a yeiai aoei
iaiaei i?eoeeueiee?a eiina?aaoecio. Aiie aenooiaee ia caoeno
oe?a?ineuei? iiae ? aeiaaaee i?aeaeuaiiy ?? noni?eueiiai noaoono;
?icooeoaaee i?noey ianiaeo iioiaaiue noae?inueeeo aea?oa; oeeaaeaee
?a?no?e iai’yoie, ui ia?aaoaaee i?ae caa?icith cieuaiiy.
Noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y /anoeiai iaaaaeoaaea “oe?a?i?caoe?th”
e?ioey 20-o ?ie?a. A?aei?ii?noue iieyaaea o?aa ui a oiio, ui oaia? aei
neeaaeo Oe?a?ineuei? ?N? aoiaeeee cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? iaeano?, ye?
/eieee ii?? ?oneo?eaoe?? ? aoee iiooaeiei i?enei?thaa/ai
“oe?a?i?caoe??” no?aeieo oa?ai?a.

Ia iei?oiueiio aoai? aea?aeaaioai?aiiy a Oe?a?i? eiina?aaoeaio
?aeaieia?th ?icaeiooi a i?ia?aiao iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy. Eaeaoueny ia?aaeon?i i?i
?aea? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ? iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, i??i?eoaoo i?eaaoii? aeaniino?, aeieiia/ii? iio?aae
aa?iii?eiiai ii?aeiaiiy i?aa iniae oa ?ioa?an?a noni?euenoaa, i?eioeei?a
nie?aea?iino?, noaneaea?iino?, ?ioaa?aoe?? c aeaiie?aoe/iei Caoiaeii,
ooaa?aeaeaiiy o?enoeyinueei? ii?ae?. Ca ?aeaieia?/iei ci?noii no/ania
oe?a?inueea eiina?aaoeaia aeoiea aeeaeoe/ia ? ii?aeio? ?aea?
iaie?aa?ae?cio (o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ieoaiiyo oa ieoaiiyo i?aa
ethaeeie) ? iaieiina?aaoecio (o ieoaiiyo aea?aeaaioai?aiiy). Oai?aoeee
oe?a?inueeiai eiina?aaoecio a?eueoa oaaae i?eae?eythoue i?iaeaiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, i?ae i?iaeaiai oi?ioaaiiy
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, a?aeaeathoue ia?aaaao iaoe?iiaeueiiio
i?aei?e?iieoeoao iaae ?iicaiiei, /anoi oyae?thoue aei noa?aioei?a
iaoa?iae?cio a nioe?aeuei?e iie?oeoe?. A?aenooi?noue nioe?aeueii?
no?oeoo?iaaiino? noni?euenoaa iiee oi ia aea? ciiae iiai?oa canai?oe
iniiai? aa?oino? ?a?iiaenueeiai eiina?aaoecio ? ia??aeei i?ecaiaeeoue
aei eiina?aaoe?? a?aeaeeeeo no?oeoo? ? niinia?a aca?iiae??.
Noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? ci?ie, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a e?a?i?, iiaeia
ii??aiyoe c ie?iith eiina?aaoeaiith ?aaiethoe??th, iaoa yei? — ia eeoa
caeiaoooy aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino?, a e noai?aiiy eiinoeoooe?eii?,
i?aaenoaaieoeueei? ? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae oa a?aeiiaeaiiy i?eaaoii?
aeaniino?.

Eiina?aaoeci a Oe?a?i?, ye ? caaaeii o na?o?, aenoaa? iaoo
caa?aaoe ? i?aeo?eiaoe o? oi?ie aea?aeaaiiai oa a?iiaaenueeiai aeeooy,
oi neeaeeny ?noi?e/ii, ia?aaeon?i eiai ii?aeueii-i?aaia? canaaee, ?
a?oioo?oueny ia noa?aioeiao ianiai? na?aeiiino? oa
o?aaeeoe?iiae?nonueeeo oyaeaiiyo, ye? noai?ththoue nioe?aeueio iniiao
aeey iioe?aiiy eiai na?aae ??cieo i?ioa?e?a ianaeaiiy.

Aeey Oe?a?ie aieiaiei o?ieii ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai aeina?aeo
iaieiina?aaoi??a iathoue noaoe i?eioeeie i??i?eoaoo iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a, ni?aae?oaeiino? ? i?aeo?eiee oeo aea?aeaa ? ia?iae?a,
iie?oe/ia no?aoaa?y yeeo a?oioo?oueny ia caaaeueiiethaenueeeo
iaaeaaiiyo o aaeoc? eoeueoo?e, aeaiie?aoe/ieo ? aoiai?noe/ieo aa?oinoyo,
a oaeiae i?eioeei canoa?aaeaiiy a?ae «i?ieaoa?ecaoe??” ia?iaeo, eiai
iaoa??aeueiiai oa aeooiaiiai coaiae?iiy. I?ioa Oe?a?ia ia? aeanio
?noi??th, o?aaeeoe??, iniaeeaino? eoeueoo?e, aeanoeaa eeoa oe?a?inueeiio
ia?iaeia? ni?eeiyooy ae?eniino?. Oiio aei iaieiina?aaoeaieo i?eioeei?a,
aei?iaoaaieo a ?ioeo e?a?iao, caeiaooeo ia ?ioeo ?aeaeii-iie?oe/ieo
canaaeao ? a ?ioeo ?noi?e/ieo oiiaao iio??aii a?aeiineoenue e?eoe/ii, ia
?aii?oth/e aeaniee aeina?ae.

I?iaiae?coaaaoe a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe oa iioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee,
i?aoe? A.Eo/aanueeiai oa ?ioeo oai?aoee?a eiina?aaoeaiiai ?ooo, ?o
ai?noiey?io niaaeueio, i?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo iiaeia
c?iaeoe ianooii? aeniiaee:

1. Oe?a?inueeee eiina?aaoeci XIX no.o?nii iia’ycaiee c ?icaeoeii
?noi?e/ii? iaoee. Na?aae eiai ?aeaieia?a aoee i?ia?aei? oe?a?inuee?
?noi?eee. A?i a?oiooaaany ia canaaeao oe?a?i- nueeiai ?noi?e/iiai
eaa?oei?cio, iai?aii? ?ie? aea?aeaae a iaoe?iiaeueiiio ? nioe?aeueiiio
?icaeoeo, iiia?o?/ii? oi?ie aea?aeaaiiai i?aae?iiy, oa?eoi??aeueiiai
iao??ioecio, i??i?eoaoo i?eaaoii? aeaniino?, i?ia?aeii? ?ie?
a?enoie?ao?? a aea?aeaaioai?/iio i?ioean?, e?eoe/iiai noaaeaiiy aei
aeaiie?aoe/ii-ia?iaeieoeueei? ?noi?e/ii? o?aaeeoe?? ?
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai noni?eueiiai eaaeo, aeieiia/ii? iio?aae
oi?ioaaiiy a oe?a?inueeiio ia?iae? oaeeo eiina?aaoeaieo ?en, ye
ae?oa?i?noue, ?ae?a?ei?noue, ii?aeuei?noue, ii?yaeie oa
i?aai?ciaai?noue.Iaeaaaeeea?oeie aoaiaie ?icaeoeo eiina?aaoeaii? oa/??
a oe?a?inueeiio iie?oe/iiio ?on? aoee i?ioieiina?aaoeci «?noi??? ?on?a»
oa iie?oe/i? iiaeyaee I.Eoe?oa, aaeeoeueeee a?aei-eaoieeoeueeee
eiina?aaoeci ? ni?iaa I.I?oiianueeiai a?ae?iaeeoe ?noi?eei-th?eaee/io
i?ia?aio “?noi??th ?on?a», oe?e?nia iaoeiaa eiioeaioe?y
?noi?ee?a-aea?aeaaiee?a A.Eeieinueeiai, N.Oiiao?anueeiai oa
A.Eo/aanueeiai.

2. Iaoeiaa eiiiaioe?y ?noi???, oai??? ? i?aeoeee
aea?aeaaioai?aiiy A.Eo/aanueeiai noi?ioaaeany i?ae aieeaii
?a?iiaenueei? ae?oa?ii? oeiee A.Ia?aoi, O.Iinee, ?.I?oaeuena,
iieuenueei? ?noi?e/ii? oeiee oa aea?aeaaieoeueei? oeiee A.Eeieinueeiai.
Iaoe?th a/aiee o?aeooaaa ye ia’?aeiaiiy a?iiaaeyi ??cieo aoi?/ieo a?oi o
iaaeao iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae, ye ineo?/iee noai ia?iaeo, oi
ona?aeiieth? nai? i?noea a ?noi??? ? i?aaioa caeiaooe iacaeaaei?noue. O
iiaeyaeao ia aea?aeaao ?noi?ee aeio?eioaaany aaiiie?oe/ii? eiioeaioe??,
ca?aeii c yeith eiaeia aea?aeaaa ? iaiiaoi?iei ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei
i?aai?ciii, ui oi?io?oueny ca iaaieo ?noi?e/ieo ianoaaei ia iaai?e
oa?eoi???. Iaoe?iiaeueia ?aaiethoe?y, ca A Eo/aanueeei, — oea oai?/ee
i?ioean, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? i?aai?/ia ii?aeiaiiy aeooiaiino? ? i?e?oa?ii?
neee ia?iaeo, ia a?aei?io a?ae nioe?aeueii-eeaniai? ?aaiethoe??, oi
a?oioo?oueny ia ?oei?ai?e noeo??. Iie?oe/io eoeueoo?o a/aiee ioe?ithaaa
aeoiaey/e c eiioeaioe?? A.Eeieinueeiai, nooue yei? caiaeeeany aei
i?aai?/iiai ii?aeiaiiy iie?oe/ii? iaoee ? iie?oe/iiai aeina?aeo. Ae?oith
aaaaeaa a?enoie?aoe/iee i?ioa?ie ia?iaeo, caeaoiee ?ica’ycaoe
iaeneeaaei?o? i?iaeaie noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy e?a?ie. Iie?oe/io
aa?o?aeo aeiae aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917-1921 ??. ioa?aeoa?ecoaaa ye
oaeo, oi ia iaea aeinoaoi?o aea?aeaaioai?/eo iaae/ie, noeeyeany aei
aia?o?cio, aoea a?ae/oaeaia a?ae ia?iaeo. I?iaeaio e?aea?noaa ?icaeyaeaa
o eiioaeno? eiie?aoii? ?noi?e/ii? neooaoe?? ? ineoieia?/iiai noaio
iaoe??, a naieo e?aea??a iiae?eya ia o?e oeie: i?i?i/?, Aiaii iaooiaii?
iinoao?, ?aoi?iaoi?nuee? iniaenoino? oa ioeie?aoe, oi aiaeththoue aei
?inoeieo?a ia?iaeo.

3. Ocaaaeueieaoe aeina?ae oe?a?inueeiai N?/iaiai No??eaoeoaa, yea
oiniaethaaei iaee?ao? ?ene oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo — iao??ioe/iee
?aeaae?ci, aenieo ina?/ai?noue, a?enueeiao iiooao, i?aaiaiiy anoaiiaeoe
aeaiie?aoe/iee ono??e, A.Eo/aanueeee caeeaa oai?aoe/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo ca?ieieo nee. Aieiaiith i?e/eiith ii?acee oe?a?inueeeo
aecaieueieo ciaaaiue aaaaeaa aeii?ioaaiiy a iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? Oe?a?ie
(iniaeeai Iaaeaei?i?yinueei?) ?aea? oe?a?inueei? aaoiiii?? a neeaae?
aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?in??. Naia /a?ac oaeo iiceoe?th /anoeie oe?a?inueei?
?ioae?aaioe??, i?aaenoaaieeai yei? iaeaaeaea i?ia?aeia ?ieue o
Oeaio?aeuei?e ?aae?, OI? ia aaeaeiny i?aai?coaaoe iaeaaeiei /eiii
a?i?th, aea?aeaaiee aia?ao, cae?enieoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie,
neiinie?aeoaaoe ??ci? i?ioa?ee ia?iaeo aeiaeiea iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?,
caoenoeoe aea?aeaao. Aaoueiainueea aea?aeaaa, oi/ ? iaea aeaye? ia?aaaae
ia?aae OI? a i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaaiiai aeeooy, ana-oaee ia noaea
i?aai?/iei aeaiaioii iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. Iaa’ycaiee cciai?
i?iaoeueeee ieoiaoe?eiee ?aaeei ia aeaa ciiae ia’?aeiaoe
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieuei? ? ?in?enuee? eiio??aaiethoe?ei? neee a
ai?iouea? c a?eueoiaeciii. C?iaeaoe noaaeo ia ?in?enueeo
eiio??aaiethoe?th ? ni?iaieoaaaoe oei naiei iiiceoe?th
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee, aaoueiainueea aea?aeaaa ia ae?noaea
i?aeo?eiee a ia?iae?. Iaae?iiy Aaoueiaiaoo A.Eo/aanueeee ?icoe?iea ye
ao?aoo aoaeue-yei? ia?niaeoeae caa?aaoe oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaai?noue ?
noai?eoe oiiae aeey ia?aiiae iaae a?eueoiaeciii. Aee?aeoi??th, yea
iaiaa?oaaea i?ae a?eueoiaeeaie, naeyinoaii oa Aioaioith, A.Eo/aanueeee
aecia/ea ye oaeo, oi aeyaeeany iani?iiiaeiith ea?oaaoe oe?a?inueeei
noni?euenoaii, oiaoi i?aai?coaaoe aoaeoeaiee aea?aeaaiee aia?ao,
i?eai?eaoe ioaiaioeio, noai?eoe ai?caeaoio a?i?th, ae??oeoe aa?a?ia
ieoaiiy. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui Aee?aeoi??y, ii??aiyii c Oeaio?aeueiith
?aaeith, /?oe?oa a?aenoithaaea iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeuee? iiceoe??,
?? ea??aieoeoai ia iaei ai? aea?aeaaioai?/iai, ai? a?enueeiaiai
aeina?aeo aeey oiai, oia ?ica’ycaoe neeaaei? noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?
i?iaeaie oiai/anii? Oe?a?ie. 0a’?aeiaiiy OI? ? COI? A.Eo/aanueeee
aaaaeaa aacia?niaeoeaiei c iaeyaeo ia aeeaie? aaiiie?oe/i? i?ioe??/yy
i?ae No?aeiith oa Cao?aeiith Oe?a?iith, ??ciee ??aaiue iie?oe/ii?
na?aeiiino? ia?iaeo. Ioaea, ia aeoieo A.Eo/aanueeiai, oe?a?inueea
aea?aeaai?noue o aeiao aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1917- 1921 ??. ia iaa?aea
ai? oi?ie aeaiie?aoe/ii? ?anioae?ee, ai? oi?ie eiina?aaoeaii? iiia?o??,
ai? oi?ie aeeeoaoo?e, ai? oi?ie ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, ine?eueee ia eeoa
ie?ai? ?noi?e/i? iinoao?, a e ia?iaei? iane ia aoee aioia? aei
aea?aeaaieoeueeiai aeeooy. O?eueee ia’?aeiaiiy eiina?aaoeaieo
(a?enoie?aoe/ieo) oa iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo (aeo?aeoe?a c
ia?iaeii? ?ioae?aaioe??) nee iiaei caaacia/eoe oe?a?inueeiio ia?iaeia?
caeiaoooy iacaeaaeiino?.

4. ?icaeyaeath/e i?iaeaio oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo aca?iei,
A.Eo/aanueeee aeyaea iaaecae/aeio ?noi?e/io a?oaeeoe?th oa oe?ioo
iie?oe/iiai ieneaiiy. Eiai ioe?iee a?oiooaaeeny ia iiceoe?yo
aea?aeaaieoeueeiai na?oiaeyaeo, oi a?aeaeca?eaethaaa iniiai? i?eioeeie
oe?a?inueeiai eiina?aaoecio. Iacaaaoe iie?oeeo
Iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o?? Iieueu? aacia?niaeoeaiith /a?ac
oe?eeiaeoa ?aii?oaaiiy caeiiiiai i?aaa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia
aea?aeaai?noue, A.Eo/aanueeee oaeiae a?aeeeioa oaaea?ae?noe/io
eiioeaioe?th TH.I?enoaenueeiai, nooue yei? caiaeeeany aei ocaeiiaiiy
?ic/eaiiaaiino? Oe?a?ie ? i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ?? Iieueu?. A?aeiineie i?ae
oe?a?inueeei ? iieuenueeei ia?iaeaie, ia aeoieo a/aiiai, iiaee
ii?iae?coaaoeny eeoa ca oiiae aeciaiiy Iieueuath i?aaa oe?a?ioe?a ia
naiiaecia/aiiy, a?aeiiae a?ae a?enueeiai? aeniain??, caa?aaeaiiy
aioo??oiuei? iie?oe/ii? noaa?eueiino?.

5. A.Eo/aanueeee noaa oaeiae iaeiei c ia?oeo aeeaieeo ?
iine?aeiaieo e?eoee?a a?eueoiaeoeueei? ?aeaieia??. O eiai aiae?c? —
iaoeiaa oa iie?oe/ia oe?ii?noue aeniiae?a uiaei ia?niaeoea
aea?aeaaieoeueeeo ciaaaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a eiioaeno? ai?ioueae c
?in?enueeei oia?i?ciii o oi?i? a?eueoiaecio. Aeoiaeyaee c aeciaiiy
iiiaeeiiino? ? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaiiaoi?iino? eoeueoo?, A.Eo/aanueeee
?icaeyaeaa a?eueoiaeci ia ye ?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueia, a ia?aaeon?i ye
iaoe?iiaeueia, ?in?enueea yaeua, ui a?oiooaaeiny ia
iiiaiei-a?caio?enueeeo o?aaeeoe?yo. A?eueoiaeoeueeo
?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe?th Oe?a?ie ?noi?ee o?aeooaaa ye nooe?eueio
?oneo?eaoe?th oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia ??ai? ia eeoa
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy, a e nioe?aeueii-eeaniai? no?oeoo?e
noni?euenoaa. Aieiaio iciaeo oeea?e?ciaaii? aea?aeaae a/aiee aaa/aa ia a
iia? e o?aaeeoe?yo, a a caeaoiino? iaoe?? ?aae?coaaoe naaa a on?o
ae?eyieao noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Aeei?enoaiiy aanea “i?i i?aai iaoe?e ia
naiiaecia/aiiy” caaeey i?iiaaaiaee, a?i iacaaa aai?aeueiei aeiaoiaeii
a?eueoiaee?a o ?aae?caoe?? ?in?enueei? aaeeeiaea?aeaaieoeueei? ?aea?.
??i?oe?eiaaia caoiaeaie a?eueoiaee?a oe?a?i?caoe?y, ia aeoieo
A.Eo/aanueeiai, iaea ia iao?, ii-ia?oa, i?eniaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? ii/oooy
oe?a?ioe?a, ia aeaoe ?i ciiae ia?aoai?eoe ai?ioueao ca iiao ia can?a
aeiiaaaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae; ii-ae?oaa, ?iceieioe
iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/i? neee ? a cao?aei?e, ? a ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i?,
iineeeoe i?i?yaeyinuee? iano?i?, i?eaa?iooe ia na?e a?e iaoe?iiaeueio
ae?oo; ii-o?ao?, aeei?enoaoe oe?a?i?caoe?th aeey i?aeianaiiy aeaniiai
i?anoeaeo a i/ao na?oiai? a?iiaaenueeino?, uia ?ini??oaaoe
aioeeieii?aeueio ai?ioueao i?ioe oiai/anii? e?aa?aeueii? nenoaie
Caoiaeo.

6. A oiiaao ooaa?aeaeaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie o?aaeeoe??
iaieiina?aaoecio a?ae?iaeaeothoueny a eii? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaiie?ao??,
yea i??i?eoaoieie aecia? ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae, i?eaaoii?
aeaniino?, iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? ?iaeaioe/iino? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, i?aa ethaeeie oiui. Na?aae no/anieo oa/?e iaieiina?aaoecio a
Oe?a?i? iiaeia aeae?eeoe oae?: o?aaeeoe?iiae?nonueea /OIEI/,
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia /O?I, ?oo/, o?enoeyinueei-aeaiie?aoe/ia
/OAeIO,OOAeI, OAeN, ?OI/, iaoe?iiaeueii-?aaeeeaeueia /EOI, IOI/a/O,
OE?I/ oa ?aoi?i?nonueea /I?I/. Iaieiina?aaoeai? ?aea? canai?ee oaeiae
ia?o?? oeaio?enonueeiai /IAeI, AIO, AeaiIO, EIO, II/ oa
e?aioeaio?enonueeiai, nioe?ae-e?aa?aeueiiai /NAeIO, NAeIO/i/,
«A?iiaaea»/ niaeo??a.

Caaaeii iaieiinaa?aoeci, ye oe?e?nia ?aeaieia?/ia nenoaia, o
oeea?e?ciaaiiio aeaeyae? a Oe?a?i? ua ia noi?ioaaany. Ooo ua ia neeaeeny
nioe?aeueii-eeaniaa no?oeoo?a noni?euenoaa, aeiiii?/i? e iie?oe/i?
ia?aaeoiiae oa eoeueoo?i? oe?iiino?, ci???ioiaai? ia oeth nenoaio.
Iaeaaaeeea?oa i?iaeaia oe?a?inueeiai iaieiina?aaoecio, ye ? ?ioeo oa/?e
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee — neioac iaie?aa?aeueieo,
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ieo oa iaieiina?aaoeaieo ?aeaieia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e,
noi?iiaaieo o oeea?e?ciaaieo e?a?iao. A?aenooi?noue oaeiai neioaco aoea
aieiaiith i?e/eiith ao?aoe Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? a 1917-1921 ??.
Oey ianoaaeia iiaea noaoe iaea?eueoith caa?icith aeey ?nioaaiiy
iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie ? a iao /an.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieeei noi?ioethaaoe ?yae
i?iiiceoe?e ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e:

1.Aeoiaey/e ?c caaaeaiue oe?a?inueei? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee,
iaiao?aeii /?oei aeae?eyoe a i?e eiina?aaoeaio oa/?th, aecia/aoe ??
iniiai? ia?aiao?e c oi/ee ci?o o?einio?? ?noi??? oa caaacia/eoe
a?aeiia?aeia i?noea a ?noi??ia?ao?? aeey iaoeiai? oai?/ino?
A.Eo/aanueeiai;

2. C iaoiaeieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o o?aaa u?euei?oa iia’ycoaaoe
aea/aiiy iaoiaeeee iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ie?aieo ?noi?ee?a c aiae?cii
?oi?o ?aeaieia?/ieo iiceoe?e; aiie oaeei /e ?ioei /eiii a?aeaeeeny a
?oi?o iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, ye oea iaei i?noea, cie?aia a aeine?aeaeaiiyo
A.Eo/aanueeiai. Eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aea/aiiy iaoeiai? niaaeueie
?noi?ee?a aeyaey?oueny ?acoeueoaoeaiei;

3. Aeioe?eueii i?iaeiaaeeoe aea/aiiy aeeoo?aiai ? oai?/iai oeyoo
A.Eo/aanueeiai, caa?ioaoe oaaao ia i?iaeaie aieeao oe?a?inueei?
eiina?aaoeaii? o?aaeeoe?? ia oi?ioaaiiy iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e
noni?euenoaa, inieneaiiy no/aniiai eoeueoo?iiai ? iie?oe/iiai aeeooy
/a?ac i?ecio ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo, iia’ycaiiai c iinoaooth aecia/iiai
a/aiiai. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii ia’?aeiaoe coneeey ?noi?ee?a,
iie?oieia?a, o?einio?a, i?aaiee?a ye a Oe?a?i? oae ? a ae?anii??;

4. Iac??ea iio?aaa aeaeaoe c?a?aiiy oai??a A.Eo/aanueeiai, a
oiio /ene? a ia?aeeaae? oeo, ui iaienai? i?iaoeueeith iiaith, eiai
ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie. Oeth aaaeeeao ?iaioo iiaeia aoei a aeeiiaoe i?ae
aa?aeith ?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i.
I.A?ooaanueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie oa ?inoeoooo no?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie;

5. I?ioan?eii-ina?oi?i eii?n?yi I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie ne?ae
?icaeyiooe ieoaiiy i?i oe?oa aea/aiiy iaoeiai? niaaeueie A.Eo/aanueeiai
a eo?nao ?noi??ia?ao??, iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie, iie?oieia??,
nioe?ieia??, ?noi??? o?einionueei? aeoiee, aeeth/aiiy iniiaieo i?aoeue
a/aiiai o ia?ae?e iaia’yceiai? aeey aea/aiiy e?oa?aoo?e c oeeo eo?n?a;

6. Iie?oe/iei ia?o?yi oa ?ooai eiina?aaoeaiiai ni?yioaaiiy
iiai?oa iie?aoeny a ?ic?iaoe? i?ia?ai oa ?o ?aae?caoe?? ia iaoe?iiaeuei?
o?aaeeoe?? eiina?aaoecio, iaoeiaee aei?iaie eiai ?aeaeieo i?ia?aeiee?a.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

?. Iiiia?ao??:

1.1. Eiina?aaoeaia oa/?y a noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? Oe?a?ie
XIX no. — Euea?a: ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie ?i.
?.E?ei’yeaae/a, 1996. – 122 n.

1.2. Eiina?aaoeaii-iie?oieia?/ia eiioeaioe?y aea?aeaaioai?aiiy.
Aaneeue Eo/aanueeee. — Euea?a: ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie
?i.?.E?ei’yeaae/a, 1997.- 160 n.

1.3. Aaneeue Eo/aanueeee: a?ae iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? aei
aea?aeaaiino? (Oe?a?inueea eiina?aaoeaia iie?oe/ia aeoiea ia?oi?
iieiaeie XX no. oa ?? aeeaae a ?noi?e/io iaoeo). — Euea?a: ?inoeooo
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie ?i.
I.A?ooaanueeiai, 1998.- 532 n.

?aoe.: Iaeee ss., Eiiae?aothe E. ?aoeaic?y ia eieao N.Aaeay
“Aaneeue Eo/aanueeee: a?ae iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? aei aea?aeaaiino?” //
Oe?a?inuee? aa??aioe. – 1998, *. 3-4, N. 157-159; A.Eecai/oe. “Aea?aeaao
Oe?a?inueeo iiaea cae?enieoe ethaia aei ia?…” Aeoiee c i?eaiaeo aeoiaeo
a na?o iiiia?ao?? Noaiaia Aaeay “Aaneeue Eo/aanueeee: a?ae
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? aei aea?aeaaiino?” // Iieiaea Aaee/eia, 1999, — 16
aa?aciy. – *. 21.

??. I?ae?o/ieee, iin?aieee:

2.1. ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
//Oai??y oa ?noi??y na?oiai? ? a?o/eciyii? eoeueoo?e. I?ae?o/iee. —
Euea?a: «Eaiaiy?», 1992.- N. 93-101.

2.2. Anooi aei eo?no oe?a?inueei? ?noi???. Iaoiaee/iee
iin?aiee.- Euea?a: EOA?, 1993. — 54 n.

2.3. Aea?aeaaieoeueeee na?oiaeyae A’y/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai.
Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee. — Euea?a: EOA?, 1994. – 76 n.

2.4. Oe?a?inueea iie?oieia?y. Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee (Ni?aaao.:
Ianoooaiei ?.ss., ?ooa? N.I.). — Euea?a: Eiia?oe?eia aeaaeai?y, 1995. —
*.1.- 180 n.

2.5. ?noi??y eiiia?aoeaiiai ?ooo (ea??aiee aaoi?nueeiai
eieaeoeao oa aaoi? “Anooio”, ?icae. ???. /. ? (N.102-133), ?icae. ???.
/. ?? (N.281-326). – Euea?a; ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a
IAI Oe?a?ie, 1995. – 412 n.

2.6. Oe?a?inueea iie?oieia?y. Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee. *anoeia
II (Ni?aaao.: Ianoooaiei ?.ss., ?ooa? N.I.). — Euea?a: Eiia?oe?eia
aeaaeai?y, 1996. — 182 n.

2.7. ?noi??y niiaeea/i? eiiia?aoe?? Oe?a?ie (ea??aiee
aaoi?nueeiai eieaeoeao oa aaoi? “Anooio” (N. 3-5), ?icae. V (
N.188-267). – Euea?a: ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI
Oe?a?ie, 1996. – 384 n.

2.8. Iniiae iie?oieia??. Eaeoe?? aeey nooaeaio?a
iaaoiai?oa?ieo aoc?a. (Ni?aaao.: ?ooa? N.I.). — Euea?a: ?inoeooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i.?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie, 1996. — 200 n.

2.9. Iniiae iie?oieia??. Eaeoe?? aeey nooaeaio?a
iaaoiai?oa?ieo aoc?a. (Aeaeaiiy ae?oaa, ia?a?iaeaia ? aeiiiaiaia).
(Ni?aaao.: ?ooa? N.I.). – Euea?a: ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i.
?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie, 1997. — 278 n.

2.10. Iie?oieia?y: Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee aeey nooaeaio?a.
(Ni?aaao.: ?ooa? N.I.). – Ee?a: Oiaa?enoai “Ciaiiy”, 1998. – 424 n.

2.11. ?noi??y eiiia?aoeaiiai ?ooo ? eiiia?aoeaiiai i?aaa a
Oe?a?i? // Eiiia?aoeaia i?aai. I?ae?o/iee. – Ee?a: ?ith?a, 1998. – N.
38-64.

???. Noaoo?:

3.1. Aaneeue Eo/aanueeee — aeaeaoiee i?aaenoaaiee
aea?aeaaieoeueei-eiina?aaoeaii? oa/?? a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oieia?? //
Aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa ? i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.
Iaoa??aee i?aeaoc?anueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? o Eueaia? 21-22 aa?aciy
1994 ?. — Euea?a: EOA?, 1994. — N.91 — 99.

3.2. Aaneeue Eo/aanueeee ? eiai iiaeyaee ia ?ieue oe?a?inueeiai
eiina?aaoecio a iiaoaeia? iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae // ?anioae?eaiaoeue. —
Ee?a; Euea?a, 1994. — *. 3-4. — N. 40-48.

3.3. ?aeay oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? a ?noi?e/ieo i?aoeyo
A’y/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai // Oe?a?inueeee /an.- Euea?a, 1994.- *. ? (13).
— N. 40-50.

3.4. «?noi??y ?on?a» — iaeaecia/i?oee oa?? oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee e?ioey OV??? — ii/aoeo XIX no. //
Aoiai?oa?ia ina?oa ? i?iaeaie aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
(Iaoa??aee i?aeaoc?anueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? o Eueaia? 21-22
aa?aciy 1994 ?.) — Euea?a, 1994. — N.87-91.

3.5. ?noi?e/ia aeiey oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? a eiioaeno?
?in?enueei? iie?oeee // Oe?a?inueeee e?n.(Ni?aaao.: Ai?aa/ I.ss.).-
Euea?a, 1994.- *.1.- N. 16-21.

3.6. Iacaeaaeia Oe?a?ia: eieani ?noi??? iiaa?iooe iaiiaeeeai //
Oi?aa?noi.- Euea?a; Ee?a; Ia?eae, 1994. — *.3-4 (4-5). — N.13-16.

3.7. Noaiai Oiiao?anueeee i?i ?aea?, aa?i?a ? iie?oeeo //
Oe?a?inueeee /an.- Euea?a, 1994. — *.? (?C).- N.54-59.

3.8. *iio caeaaeia Oe?a?ia a?ae ?in??? // E?oiien
*a?aiii? Eaeeie. (Ni?aaao.: Ai?aa/ I.ss.). – Euea?a, 1994. — *. 10-12
(40-42). — N.32- 36.

3.9. Aaeeoeueeee eiina?aaoeci a ioe?ieao I.A?ooaanueeiai //.
Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee ? Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia. Aeiiia?ae? e iia?aeiieaiiy
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? (i.Euea?a, 26-28 aeiaoiy 1994 ?.). Aei 100-??//y
a?ae ii/aoeo ae?yeueiino? I.A?ooaanueeiai o Euea?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?.
— Euea?a: «Na?o», 1995.- N.283-286.

3.10. ?aea? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? a ai?noiey?i?e niaaeuei?
Aaneey Eo/aanueeiai // Nooae?? iie?oieia?/iiai oeaio?o» Aaiaca”. —
Euea?a, 1995.- *.6.- N.390-394.

3.11. Eiina?aaoeai? canaaee oai?/ino? Ineia Iaca?oea //
Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ?
ani??aio?a Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai??.- Euea?a, 1995. —
N.210-216.

3.12. Iaioaeaeiii Eoe?o: /a?ac eoeueoo?o aei aea?aeaaiino?
//Oe?a?ia: eoeueoo?ia niaaeueia, iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue,
aea?aeaai?noue. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Aei.2.- Euea?a: ?inoeooo
oe?a?iiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie ?i.?.E?ei’yeaae/a, 1995 — N.91 – 111.

3.13. ?iaaoeiueia a eiioaeno? oe?a?inueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a
Aaee/ei? // ?iaaoeinueea caiey: ?noi??y oa no/ani?noue: Iaoa??aee ia?oi?
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. ?iaaoei, 24-25 aa?aciy 1995 ?. — Euea?a; ?iaaoei:
?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i.?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie, 1995. — N.30-38.

3.14. Noaiai Ea/aea — aeaeaoiee aaeeoeueeee iie?oee ?
a?iiaaenueeee ae?y/. Iaoa??aee iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? ani??aio?a Euea?anueei?
eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai??. — Euea?a, 1995. — N.207-209.

3.15. Noaiai Ea/aea — aeaeaoiee ae?y/ oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Aaee/ei? (Aei 180-??//y a?ae aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy) // Nooae?? iie?oieia?/iiai oeaio?o «Aaiaca».- Euea?a,
1995. — *.3. — N.194-197.

3.16. Oea?eaa ye naiiaeinoaoi?e aaoi?eoao a oe?a?inueeiio
aea?aeaaioai?ai? // ?noi??y ?ae?a?? a Oe?a?i?. Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeiiai
V e?oaeiai noieo (Euea?a, 3-5 o?aaiy 1995 ?ieo). (Ni?aaao.: Ea?aeao
A.TH). — Ee?a; Euea?a, 1995.-N.104-107.

3.17. Aaneeue Eo/aanueeee i?i a?eueoiaeoeueeo «oe?a?i?caoe?th»
oa ?? iane?aeee // Nooae?? iie?oieia?/iiai oeaio?o «Aaiaca». — Euea?a,
1996.- *.1.- N.80-88.

3.18. A’y/aneaa Eeieinueeee a ioe?ieao Aaneey Eo/aanueeiai //
Ia?o? oa ae?oa? /eoaiiy iai’yo? A’y/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai. Oe?a?inueea
iaoe?iiaeueia ae?oa. I?iaeaie aeaaee a Oe?a?i?. AEeooy ? oai?/?noue
A.Eeieinueeiai.- Eooeuee- Caoo?oe?, 21-23 ea?oiy 1994 ?. oa 27-28 ea?oiy
1995 ?.- Eooeuee; Euea?a, 1996.- N. 78-80.

3.19. Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeueeee ye oai?aoeue oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? a ?noi?e/ieo i?aoeyo A’y/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai // Oe?a?ia:
eoeueoo?ia niaaeueia, iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue, aea?aeaai?noue. —
Euea?a: ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie, 1997.-
Aei. 3-4.- N. 32-58.

3.20. Aaneeue Eo/aanueeee i?i oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie
a eiioaeno? i?aeia?iaeii? iie?oeee // A?niee Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii?
aeaaeai?? .- Euea?a: Eiiiina?oa, 1997. – O.1. — N.297-323.

3.21. Oe?a?inueea Ia?iaeia ?anioae?ea a ioe?ieao ?aeaieia?a
oe?a?inueeiai eiina?aaoecio — A’y/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai oa Aaneey
Eo/aanueeiai // A?niee Euea?anueei? eiia?oe?eii? aeaaeai??. – Euea?a:
Eiiiina?oa, 1998.- O.2.- N. 250-271. .

3.22. Oe?a?inueea eiina?aaoeaia iie?oe/ia aeoiea i?i Aaoueiaiao
Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai // Aaoueiaiao Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai oa
Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa 1918 ?ieo. Iaoeiaee ca??iee, i?enay/aiee 125 —
??//th a?ae ia?iaeaeaiiy Aaoueiaia Iaaea Nei?iiaaenueeiai oa 80-??//th
i?iaieioaiiy Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae 1918 ?ieo.- Ee?a, 1998.- N. 88-94.

3.23. Aaneeue Eo/aanueeee ? i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiino? ia noi??ieao
oeaeiaaeea “Iaoa” o 1931-1939 ??. // Oe?a?inueea ia??iaeeea: ?noi??y ?
no/ani?noue. Aeii. oa iia?ae. i’yoi? Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? 26-27 eenoiiaaea 1998 ?. Ca ?aae. I.?iiaithea. – Euea?a,
1999. – N. 112-133.

Aiioaoe??

Aaeae N.Ae. Aaneeue Eo/aanueeee: a?ae iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? aei
aea?aeaaiino?. Oe?a?inueea eiina?aaoeaia iie?oe/ia aeoiea ia?oi?
iieiaeie XX no. oa ?? aeeaae a ?noi?e/io iaoeo. – Euea?a, 1998. – 532
noi?.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a
?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.06. – ?noi??ia?ao?y,
aeaea?aeiciaanoai oa niaoe?aeuei? ?noi?e/i? aeenoeeie?ie. — ?inoeooo
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?i. I.N.A?ooaanueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeine?aeaeaii aianie A.Eo/aanueeiai a ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei?
?noi??ia?ao?? eiina?aaoeaii? oa/?? a noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?
Oe?a?ie. Aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? ?ice?eaa?oueny
eiina?aaoeaii-iie?oe/ia eiioeaioe?y aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, aiae?cothoueny
niaaeueia A.Eo/aanueeiai c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?
1917-1921 ??., oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo oa oe?a?inueei-?in?enueeeo
a?aeiinei; i?inoaaeo?oueny neeaaeiee ? noia?a/eeaee i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy
eiina?aaoeaii? ?aeaieia?? a eii? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaiie?ao??, yea a
oiiaao iacaeaaeiino? i??i?eoaoieie aecia? ?aea? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aea?aeaae, i?eaaoii? aeaniino?, iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ii? ?aeaioe/iino?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, i?aa ethaeeie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?noi??ia?ao?y, oe?a?inueeee eiina?aaoeci,
?noi?e/ia iaoea, aea?aeaai?noue, iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieuei? ciaaaiiy,
Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea, Aaoueiaiao, Aee?aeoi??y, COI?,
oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? oa oe?a?inueei-?in?enuee? aca?ieie,
iaieiina?aaoeci.

Aaeae N.Ae. Aaneeee Eo/aaneee: io iaoeeiiaeueiie eaeae e
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe. Oe?aeineay eiina?aaoeaiay iieeoe/aneay iuneue ia?aie
iieiaeiu OO no. e aa aeeaae a enoi?e/aneoth iaoeo. – Eeaa, 1998. – 532
no?.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a enoi?e/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.06. – Enoi?eia?aoey, enoi/ieeiaaaeaiea e
niaoeeaeueiua enoi?e/aneea aeenoeeieeiu. Einoeooo oe?aeineie
enoi?eia?aoee e enoi/ieeiaaaeaiey ei.I.N.A?ooaaneiai IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa,
1999.

Enneaaeiaaii aeeaae A.Eo/aaneiai a ?acaeoea oe?aeineie
enoi?eia?aoee eiina?aaoeaiiai oa/aiey a iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneie iunee
Oe?aeiu. Aaaeiia ianoi a iiiia?aoee ioaaaeaii aiaeeco
eiina?aaoeaii-iieeoe/aneie eiioeaioeee nicaeaiey ainoaea?noaa a iao/iii
ianeaaeee A.Eo/aaneiai. Iiae/a?eiooi, /oi iao/iay eiioeaioeey
ainoaea?noaa noi?ie?iaaia A.Eo/aaneei iiae aeeyieai aa?iiaeneie
yeeoa?iie oeieu A.Ia?aoi, O.Iinee, ?.Ieoaeuena, iieueneie enoi?e/aneie
oeieu e eiina?aaoeaiie oeieu A.Eeieineiai. Iaoeeae o/aiue n/eoae
iauaaeeiaiea a?aaeaeai ?acee/iuo yoie/aneeo a?oii a ia?aeaeao aaeeiiai
ainoaea?noaa, eioi?ia iniciaaaei naia ianoi a enoi?ee e no?aieeinue
aeinoeaiooue iacaaeneiinoe. Enoi?ee i?eaea?aeeaaeny aaiiieeoe/aneie
eiioeaioeee, niaeanii eioi?ie ainoaea?noai – iaiiaoi?eiue
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue i?aaieci, eioi?ue, oi?ie?oaony a ii?aaeaeaiiuo
enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo ia ii?aaeaeaiiie oa?eoi?ee.

Ioaeaeueiue ?acaeae iiiia?aoee iinayuai aiaeeco acaeyaeia
A.Eo/aaneiai ia oe?aeineoth ainoaea?noaaiiinoue 1917-1921 aa. Aeaaiie
i?e/eiie ii?aaeaiey oe?aeineiai iniaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey o/aiue
n/eoae aeiieie?iaaiea a iieeoe/aneie iunee Oe?aeiu (iniaaiii
Iaaeaeiai?yineie) eaeae oe?aeineie aaoiiiiee a ninoaaa aeaiie?aoe/aneie
?innee, a oaeaea eaeae nioeeaeenoe/aneie ?aaiethoeee. Eiaiii ec-ca oaeie
iiceoeee oe?aeineie ia?iaeiie eioaeeeaaioeee, eioi?ay auiieiyea ?ieue
iieeoe/aneiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey a Oeaio?aeueiie ?aaea, ia oaeaeinue
i?aaieciaaoue a?ieth, ainoaea?noaaiiue aiia?ao, inouanoaeoue
nioeeaeueii-aeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu, neiinieeaee?iaaoue ?acee/iua neie
ia?iaea aie?oa iaoeeiiaeueiie eaeae. Enneaaeiaaa acaeyaeu enoi?eea ia
Oeaio?aeueioth ?aaeo, Aaoueiaiao I.Nei?iiaaeneiai, Aee?aeoi?eth,
Caiaaeiioe?aeineoth Ia?iaeioth ?anioaeeeo, aaoi? iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi
oe?aeineay ainoaea?noaaiiinoue ia ooaa?aeeeanue ie a oi?ia
aeaiie?aoe/aneie ?anioaeeee, ie a oi?ia aeeeoaoo?u, ie a oi?ia niaaoneie
aeanoe i?aaeaea anaai iioiio, /oi ia oieueei ioaeaeueiua enoi?e/aneea
aeayoaee, ii e aanue ia?iae ia aue aioia e naiinoiyoaeueiie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeecie.

Ia aieueoii oaeoe/aneii iaoa?eaea a eieaa iieacaii, /oi
?anniao?eaay i?iaeaio oe?aeinei-iieueneeo ioiioaiee, A.Eo/aaneee i?iyaee
eneeth/eoaeueioth y?oaeeoeeth enoi?eea e oe?ioo iieeoe/aneiai iuoeaiey.
Iacaaa iieeoeeo iaoeeiiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee Iieueoe
aacia?niaeoeaiie ec-ca iieiiai eaii?e?iaaiey caeiiiiai i?aaa oe?aeineiai
ia?iaea eiaoue naia ainoaea?noai, enoi?ee oaeaea ioa?inee
oaaea?aeenoe/aneoth eiioeaioeeth TH.Ieenoaeneiai, niune eioi?ie
naiaeeeny e ?acaeaeo Oe?aeiu e iiae/eiaiey aa Iieueoe.

A iiiia?aoee a?aoiaioe?iaaiii aeieacaii, /oi A.Eo/aaneee noae
oaeaea ia?aui aeoaieei e iineaaeiaaoaeueiui e?eoeeii aieueoaaenoneie
eaeaieiaee. Naiie aieueoie iianiinoueth aeey oe?aeineiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aic?iaeaeaiey o/aiue ni?aaaaeeeai n/eoae i?eniaaeeiaiea anae Oe?aeiu e
aieueoaaenoneie ?innee, aaieaeueii i?aaeaeaeaa, /oi oa /anoue Oe?aeiu,
eioi?ay ia aoaeao iaoiaeeony a aa ninoaaa, nio?aieo
iaoeeiiaeueii-ainoaea?noaaiiua eiioeuenu, eioi?ua iinea ?aniaaea
aieueoaaecia ?ani?ino?aiyony ia anth Oe?aeio.

Eae neaaeoao ec iiiia?aoee, a ia?eiae ooaa?aeaeaiey
iacaaeneiinoe Oe?aeiu eaeae iaieiina?aaoecia aic?iaeaeathony a noa?a
iaoeeiiaeueiie aeaiie?aoee, eioi?ay i?ei?eoaoiuie i?eciaao eaeae
iaoeeiiaeueiiai ainoaea?noaa, /anoiie nianoaaiiinoe,
iaoeeiiaeueii-eoeueoo?iie eaeaioe/iinoe oe?aeineiai ia?iaea, i?aa
/aeiaaea.

A ?aaioa iiae/a?eiooi, /oi eaeae A.Eo/aaneiai, e?oiiiai
o/aiiai-enoi?eea, oeeinioa, noi?iiieea eiina?aaoeaiiai
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneiai oa/aiey a oe?aeineie iieeoieiaee ia iioa?yee
aeooaeueiinoe e a iaoa a?aiy aeoeaiuo iieneia aa?iiaecaoeee Oe?aeiu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Enoi?eia?aoey, oe?aeineee eiina?aaoeci,
enoi?e/aneay iaoea, ainoaea?noaaiiinoue, iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiay
ai?ueaa, Oeaio?aeueiay ?aaea, Aaoueiaiao, Aee?aeoi?ey, COI?,
oe?aeinei-iieueneea e oe?aeinei-?inneeneea ioiioaiey, iaieiina?aaoeci.

Geley S.D. Vasyl Kuchabsky: from national idea to the state system.
Ukrainian conservative political thought of the first half of the XX
century and its contribution into the historical science. – Lviv, 1998.
– 532 p.

Thesis for gaining the scientific of the Doctor of Histories in
speciality 07.00.06 – Historiography, Source Study and special
historical disciplines. — The Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and
Source Study named by M.S.Grushevsky NSA Ukraine, Kiev, 1999.

Kuchabsky’s contribution into the development of the Ukrainian
histography of conservative movement in social political thought of
Ukraine is investigated. The conservative political concept of state
forming is pointed out for the first time, his inheritance in the
history of Ukrainian state system in 1917-1921 as well as
Ukrainian-Polish and Ukrainian-Russian relations is analyzed, the
complicated and contradicted process of conservative ideology formation
in the heart of national democracy, which acknowledges the ideas of
national power, privacy, national cultural identity of the Ukrainian
people, human rights in the conditions of independence is investigated.

Key words: Historiography, Ukrainian conservatism, historical
tradition, state system, national liberating movements, Central Council,
Directory, WUNR, Ukrainian-Polish relations, neoconservatism.

Iaca?oe I. ??e ia Aaeee?e Oe?a?i?. Eiiniaeo niiiei?a c oe?a?inueei?
?aaiethoe??. – A?aeaiue, 1920; Eiai ae . Niiieie i?i oa, ye? aoee ia?o?
e?iee aaoueiainueei? ?aea? o aeeaei? ia?iaeieo ian i?ney aaeeei?
eaoano?ioe iaoi? aea?aeaaiinoe. // Ca. “Ca aaee/ iaoe??”. — Euea?a,
1938; Aiae???anueeee A. C ieioeiai. O 2-o o., 4-o /. – Aa?e?i,
1921-1923; Aei?ioaiei Ae. Ii? niiieie i?i iaaeaai? ieioea (1914-1920). –
Euea?a, 1923-1924. – *. 1-4. Eiai ae. Ii? niiieie i?i aeaai? ieioea
(1901-1914). – Euea?a, 1949; Eiiiaaeaoeue ?. I?e/eiee aei ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??. – I?aaa, 1928; Oooaae/ N. Niiieie c
Oe?a?inueei-aaeeoeueei? a?i?? (1918-1920). – Euea?a, 1928-1929. – O.?;
Aaeaaai I. C ii?o niiiei?a. O 4-o /. – Euea?a, 1930; Iao??a A. Niiieie c
/an?a oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? (1917-1921). O 4-o /. – Euea?a,
1927-1931; Iiaeyiiae/-Iaaeaiei I. Ceiiaee iio?ae (6.XII.1919 –
5.V.1920). – Eae?o, 1934; Othothiiee TH. ?aaiethoe?eia noeo?y. – Euea?a,
1937; Eioioeueeee I. Niiieie ieioeiai. – Aa?oaaa, 1933. – O.II.

Ia?oeiaoeue A. Oe?a?inueea i?aei?eey – a?ae OAI aei IOI: niiaaaee e
iaoa??aee aei ia?aae?noi??? oa ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai i?aai?ciaaiiai
iaoe?iiae?cio. – A?ii?iaa, 1949; Eieo C. Aeoo, ui o?ei ?aa aei aith… —
A?ii?iaa, 1951; Ia?oin A. Caaithaaiiy Oe?a?ie aieueoaaeeaie //
Oe?a?inueeee ca??iee. – Ithioai, 1954. – Ei. I; Oaiiaae I. Aaoueiaiueia
? Aee?aeoi??y: niiaaaee. – Iueth-Ei?e, 1958; *a?iaoeueeee A. Niiieie c
iiai aeeooy. – Eiiaeii, 1964; Oe?eueiye I. Oe?a?ia a ai?iouea? ca
aea?aeaai?noue a 1917-1921 ?ieao: niiieie ? ?icaeoie. – Oi?iioi, 1971;
A?aoeueiia ?. Ii? cono??/? c Iieeiaieeii // ?aaai Eiiiaaeaoeue oa eiai
aeiaa. – Ithioai, 1974; Eaae?ei ?. AEeooy – iiae?? – ethaee: niiieie ?
eiiaioa??. – Iueth-Ei?e, 1976; Iaeno?aiei ?. ?noi??y iiai iieie?iiy:
niiaaaee o/anieea ?aaiethoe?eieo iiae?e a Oe?a?i?. – Aaeiiioii, 1985;
Eeeieoei I. A iioiae? aei aie?: niiieie. – Aeao?ieo, 1987. – O.I.

A?ooaanueeee I. Niiieie. — Ee?a, 1989. — *.8. – N. 102-154; *.9. –
N.108-149; *.10. – N. 122-158; *. 11. – N.113-155; Aooeoeye I. Ia?oee
eenoiiaae 1918 ?. ia cao?aeieo caieyo Oe?a?ie: c? niiaaaeaie ?
aeeoo?ienaie /eai?a Eii?oaoo aeeiiaaoe?a eenoiiaaeiaiai /eio. – Ee?a,
1993; Nei?iiaaenueeee I. Niiaaaee. E?iaoeue 1917 – a?oaeaiue 1918 (i?ae
?aae. ss.Iaeainueeiai). — Ee?a; O?eaaeaeueo?y, 1995.

Aeioeaiei I. E?oiien oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??. Aeieoiaioe e iaoa??aee.
– Euea?a, 1923-1924. – O.2. – Ei. 4-5; Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y.
Aeieoiaioe. 1919-1921. (Oii?yaeiee O. Aoi/ae). – Iueth-Ei?e, 1984;
O?enothe I. Cai?oee ? iaoa??aee aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??.
1917-1920 ??. O 4-o /. – A?aeaiue, 1921-1922; Eiceinueeee I. Aaee/eia
1918-1921 ??. Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?y. ?ica?aeee ? iaoa??aee. –
A?aeaiue, 1922.

Eenoe Aeieo?a Aei?ioaiea aei Ay/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai (?aae.
?.Ei?iaaoeueeee) // A’y/aneaa Eeieinueeee: a?o?a. – O?eaaeaeueo?y, 1973.
– O. 6; Eenoe Ineia Iaca?oea aei Ay/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai. (?aae.
?.Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee) // A’y/aneaa Eeieinueeee: a?o?a. – O?eaaeaeueo?y,
1976. – O.7.

Ay/aneaa Eeieinueeee. C ai?noiey?ii? niaaeueie. Eenoe aei Ae.Aei?ioaiea
?.E?aaaoeueeiai, ?.Iaoeea, I.Iaca?oea, N.Oaeoo?ia. (Oii?yaeieee O.
Inoaoei, TH.Oa?auaiei). – Ee?a, 1996.

Oe?a?inueea Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea: aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee: O 2-o o.
(Oii?yaeieee A.Aa?nothe (ea??aiee), I.Aieei, TH.Aai?aoeueeee oa ?i.) –
Ee?a, 1996-1997.

Eo/aanueeee A. Cia/?iiy ?aeae Ay/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai // Aecaiie. –
Euea?a, 1932. – *. 6. – N. 403-419.

Oaiao N. Aei ?noi??? Oe?a?inueei? aeaiie?aoe/ii-oe?ai?ianueei? ia?o??
// Oe?ai?ianueea Oe?a?ia. – A?aeaiue, 1920.- Ca. 1; Caaa?aanueeee A.
Ay/aneaa Eeieinueeee ? eiai aeoiee i?i oe?a?inueeo iaoe?th ? aea?aeaao.
– A?aeaiue, 1925.

Oiiao?anueeee N. *e ? oe?a?inueea ?aeay? // I?ae eieanaie ?noi???:
ia?ene ? noaoo?. – Aa?e?i, 1922; Eiai ae. Eoe?o ? oe?a?inueea
iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay. – Oai aea; Eiai ae. I?i ?aea?, aa?i?a ? iie?oeeo.
A?aee?eoee eeno aei A.Eeieinueeiai c aeiaeaoeaie. – Euea?a, 1929; Eiai
ae. Aeanyoue e?o oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy a Iieueu?: ia?aeeaae noaiia?aie
a?ae/eoo oeaaeaiiai “?inoeoooii aeine?ae?a iaoe?iiaeueieo ni?aa” o
Aa?oaa? 12 IV 1929 ?. — Euea?a, 1929 oa ?i.

Eenoe Ineia Iaca?oea aei A’y/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai. // A’y/aneaa
Eeieinueeee: a?o?a. — O.2. – O?eaaeaeueo?y; Iain?eueaai?y, 1976; Iaca?oe
I. Ay/aneaa Eeieinueeee. A?aeiiaeoaeue aea?aeaaii? ?aeaieia?? Oe?a?ie. –
*?eaai, 1926; Eiai ae. “??aia eae aiii?ia”. – Euea?a, 1938; Eiai ae. Aei
?noi??? ?aaiethoe?eiiai /ano ia Oe?a?i?: oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??,
?o nithce ? oai???. – A?ii?iaa, 1924; Eiai ae. Aaee/eia ? Aaeeea
Oe?a?ia. – Euea?a, 1936; Eiai ae. Iaoe?iiae?ci Aeiioeiaa e ?io?
ieooa?cie. – Euea?a, 1934; Eiai ae. Aaiaoe?y. – Euea?a. 1934; Eiai ae.
?aeaieia?/i? iniiae Oe?a?inueei? eaoieeoeueei? ia?iaeii? ia?o??. –
Euea?a,1931; Eiai ae. I?ia?aia aeia?iaeiaeaiiy oe?a?ioe?a ? a?ei?onei?a
o Iieueu?. – Euea?a, 1937; Eiai ae. A?aae?iiy c Aieei?. – Euea?a, 1938.

Aei?ioaiei Ae. Eeieinueeee ye ?noi?ee // Eeieinueeee ye ?aeaieia ?
iie?oee (Ca??ea noaoae). – Oaeai?iae, 1931; I??/oe ?. Ian?ai?ci
A.Eeieinueeiai. – Oai aea; Iiio?aci? A. Ay/aneaa Eeieinueeee. – Oai aea;
Nei?iien-Eieoooianueeee I. Iai’yo? A.Eeieinueeiai. – Oai aea; Oaiao N.
Eeieinueeee i?e a?iiaaenuee?e ?iaio?. – Oai aea;

Eicae I. C aeeooy ? ae?yeueiino? Ay/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai // Aecaiie. –
1932. – *. 1-2, *. 6; Aiae???anueeee A. I?aai-iie?oe/iee ? o?einionueeee
na?oiaeyae A.E.Eeieinueeiai // Aecaiie. – Euea?a, 1931. – *. 6; Ooae O.
Iiaeyaee A.Eeieinueeiai ia ?ae?a?th a aea?aeaai?i aoae?aieoeoa?. – Oai
aea; No?ooeinueea A. A?ae?ia?ao?/iee iieaae/ee aei ienaiue
A.Eeieinueeiai. – Oai aea; Ca?eei A. Ay/aneaa Eeieinueeee ye ?noi?ee. –
Oai aea.

Aeea.: Ca?eei A. Oai aea. – N. 490.

E?ei’yeaae/ ?. Noaoai Oiiao?anueeee // CIOO. – Euea?a, 1931. – O. 151;
E?aaaoeueeee ?. Ei?ie?anoai Aaee/eia ? Aieiaeeie??y 1772-1918 // Noa?a
Oe?a?ia. – 1925. – O. 1-2; ?oaeieoeueeee N. *iio ie oi/aii naiino?eii?
Oe?a?ie. – Euea?a, 1994; E?aeoeueeee A. Eeieinueeee – iinia?oiee niiaaae
// O?ecoa. – Ia?eae, 1931. – *. 25; I?ieiiiae/ A. Iai’yo?
A.Eeieinueeiai. – Oai aea; *aoiae/ E. Eeieinueeee ye ?noi?ee // EIA. –
1931. – Ei. O.; Aeaieiae/-Aeia?yinueeee I. A?ae Ee?anueei? ?one aei
Ay/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai. Ni?iaa ioe?iee aea?aeaaii? ?aea? Eeieinueeiai
// Aecaiie. – Euea?a, 1936. – *. 6-7.

16 E?oiienaoeue [Oiiao?anueeee N.]. E?eoeea aieueoaaecio A.Eo/aanueeei
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