2

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iiae

THiiniaa Aaeaioeia Ieaenaiae??aia

OAeE 808.3 — 55

AA??AIOI?NOUe A?AeI?IEIAEO CAE?I*AIUe ?IAIIEE?A O NO*ANI?E OE?A?INUeE?E
E?OA?AOO?I?E IIA?

10.02.01. — oe?a?inueea iiaa

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii o a?aeae?e? ?noi??? oa a?aiaoeee oe?a?inueei? iiae
?inoeoooo oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AI?IAeAINUeEA EAOA?EIA A?EAI??AIA,

?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

NIEIAOA IAAe?ss IEEIEA?AIA,

?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

NOEOIA IEAENAIAe? AIAOIE?EIAE*,

Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao,

aeieoi?aio

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — eaoaae?a oe?a?inueei? iiae Iaoe?iiaeueiiai

iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «__21_» n?/iy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.173.01 a ?inoeooo? oe?a?inueei? iiae
IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001, Ee?a-1, aoe. A?ooaanueeiai, 4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie (252001, Ee?a-1, aoe. A?ooaanueeiai, 4).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «__11_» a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe AAEITHE E.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aa??aioi?noue iiaieo cania?a — iaeia c
aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai no/aniiai iiaiciaanoaa. Iaai? ci?ie a onoaeai? ii?ie
aiinyoueny caeaa?eueoiai /a?ac aa??aioi? i?ioeane, ui caaacia/o? oiiae
aacia?a?aii? aaiethoe?? iiae i?e caa?aaeaii? ?? caaaeueii? oe?e?niino?
oa ?aeiino?. Aa??aioi?noue ia?aaeaa/a? ni?a?nioaaiiy a iia? iaaii?
iaeeieoe? i?eiaeii? a aeaio iiaeeo?eaoe?yo, ia iia’ycaieo ?c ci?iith ??
naiaioe/ii? ooieoe??. Niaoeeo?ea aa??thaaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei
caeiiii??iinoae o??? /e ?ioi? iiaii? i?aenenoaie iio?aao? iiaeeaeaiiai
aea/aiiy eiai caaaeueieo ? ie?aieo aeanoeainoae. Aa??thaaiiy i?iieco?
an? noa?e iiaieo a?aeiioaiue o an?o ?o iniiaieo aeyaao. I?e?iaeii, ui a
eiaei?e noa?? aa??thaaiiy ia? naith niaoeeo?eo, iniaeeaeie ? ye nai?
aa??aioe, oae ? ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy. Oea aeyaey?oueny ia an?o ??aiyo
?aae?caoe?? iiaieo iaeeieoeue, o neioaene/ieo eiino?oeoe?yo, niieo/aiiyo
ne?a oa a naiaioe/i?e no?oeoo?? ie?aieo eaenai.

Caeaaeii a?ae nenoaiiiai ??aiy, aei yeiai iaeaaeeoue iaaia a?oia
aa??aioieo ooai?aiue, ?o iiae?eythoue ia oiiieia?/i?, aeoeaiooaoe?ei?,
neiaioa??i?, neioaene/i? oa ii?oieia?/i?. Ii?oieia?/ieie aa??aioaie
cae/aeii iaceaathoue oae? aeaeici?ie ne?a /e oi?i neiaa, ye? i?e
naiaioe/i?e oioiaeiino? an?o /eai?a aa??aioii? ia?e /e ?yaeo iathoue
a?aei?iiino? o a?aiaoe/iiio ioi?ieaii?.

Aa??aioi?noue o a?aiaoeoe?, iniaeeai yeui ?? iaiaaeeoe iaeiei ?c
i?ae??ai?a a?aiaoe/ii? no?oeoo?e iiae, aeecueei noeea?oueny c i?iaeaiith
a?aiaoe/ieo neiii?i?a. ssaeua a?aiaoe/ii? neiii?i?? inoaoi/ii ua ia
aea/aia, oi/ aiii caeaaia i?eaa?oa? oaaao aeine?aeiee?a. O ?in?enueeiio
iiaiciaanoa? iei aaciina?aaeiuei caeiaany I.I.I?oeianueeee. A?i oia?oa
aaeea nai oa?i?i «a?aiaoe/i? neiii?ie», yeei iacaaa «cia/aiiy ne?a ?
neiainiieo/aiue, ui aeecuee? ca a?aiaoe/iei ci?noii»11 Iaoeianueeee A.I.
Aii?inu iaoiaeeee ?iaeiiai ycuea, eeiaaenoeee e noeeenoeee. — I.; E.,
1930. — N.152.. I.I.I?oeianueeee iiae?eea neiii?ie ia ii?oieia?/i? ?
neioaene/i?. Ii?oieia?/ieie neiii?iaie a?i aaaaeaa ??ci? aa??aioe o???
naii? a?aiaoe/ii? oi?ie.

Aea/aiiy i?iaeaie a?aiaoe/ii? neiii?i?? o caaaeueiioai?aoe/iiio ieai?
i?ney I.I.I?oeianueeiai aoei i?iaeiaaeaia o i?aoeyo A.A.Aeiia?aaeiaa,
A.?.Nie?ieoeueeiai, I.N.Aoiaiiai?, O.I.O?e?ia oa ?i.

A oe?a?inueeiio iiaiciaanoa? oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie aa??aioiino?
niaoe?aeueii ia aeine?aeaeoaaeeny. Ia’?eoii caoe?eaaeaiiy a/aieo aoee
ia?aaaaeii eiie?aoi? yaeua aa??aioiino? a nenoai? neiaici?ie oa
neiaioai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae. Iaeaeeneon?ei?oei aeyaeeiny ieoaiiy
aa??thaaiiy a?aei?ieiaeo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a. Oea coiiaeaii oei, ui ia
eiaeiiio iiaiio aoai? ooaa?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae niinoa??aaeiny
i?aaiaiiy ia’?eoeaii, nie?ath/enue ia aeaai? o?aaeeoe?? ?noi?e/iiai oea,
a?aeoai?eoe neeaaei? i?ioeane aca?iiae?? aa??aioieo a?aei?ieiaeo
cae?i/aiue ? noaiiaeaiiy ii?oieia?/ieo ii?i o nenoai? neiaici?ie. I?ioa
iaeiicia/ii ?ica’ycaoe ieoaiiy aeai?o iaeiiai c aeaio aa??aioieo
cae?i/aiue, ye na?ae/aoue a?aiaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia aaeaaaeiny
ia?aaeon?i oiio, ui aaaeei aoei noeeoaaoe i?ioeane aa??thaaiiy
a?aei?ieiaeo cae?i/aiue, ye? a?aeaoaaeeny a cao?aeii- oa
no?aeiioe?a?inuee?e iiai?e i?aeoeoe?. Caeioaa/aiiy a iaia’?eoeaiino?
anoaiiaeaieo oaiaeaioe?e uiaei aaeeaaiiy oiai /e ?ioiai a?aei?ieiaiai
cae?i/aiiy aacoaaeeny ia oiio, ui oe?a?inueea iiaa oi?iaeiaae aaaaoueio
?ie?a iaea ooieoe?iiaeueii-noeeueia? iaiaaeaiiy, a ia aaeeaaii? aeayeeo
aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a iicia/eany anei?eyoeaiee aieea
?in?enueei? iiae.

Iayai? a oe?a?i?noeoe? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii?oieia?/ii? aa??aioiino?
aeeiiai? ia?aaaaeii ia ?noi?e/iiio iaoa??ae? (i?aoe? N.I.Nai?eeaiea,
?.I.Ea?ieoeueeiai, A.A.Iinoaaiiai).

Iaei??th c ia?oeo i?aoeue, aaciina?aaeiuei i?enay/aieo aiae?co
aca?iiae?? aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue i?noeaaiai a?aei?iea ?iaiiee?a o
no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia?, aoea eaiaeeaeaonueea aeena?oaoe?y
I.I.Nieiaoa «Aa??aioi? oeaen?? i?noeaaiai a?aei?iea ?iaiiee?a o no/ani?e
oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?i?e iia?» (1975). Iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo
aa??aioiino? ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea aeieeaaeii aeine?aeea
?.?.Aeoiaaiaoeue.

Oe?eeii c?icoi?ei, ui oe? i?aoe? ia ae/a?iothoue iiai?noth i?iaeaio
aa??aioiino? cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a. Aiia aino?i iinoaea a oe?a?i?noeoe?
ca?ac, ui coiiaeaii aeaaeae? oe?oei aeei?enoaiiyi oe?a?inueei? iiae o
ca’yceo c ?? aea?aeaaiei noaoonii o ??cieo noa?ao noni?eueiiai,
ae?iaie/iai, iaoeiaiai oa eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy. sse cana?ae/o? iiaia
i?aeoeea, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? i?aaeea, aeeeaaeai? a /eiiiio i?aaiien? 1993
?ieo aeaeaiiy, ia??aeei ii?ooothoueny. C aieo iaeieo aeine?aeiee?a
niinoa??aa?oueny iaiaaaiiy a?aeiiaeoe a aeayeeo a?aei?ieiaeo oi?iao
?iaiiee?a nooi iaoe?iiaeuei?, aeaai? aa??aioi? cae?i/aiiy. ?aeaoueny,
cie?aia, i?i a?aeiiaeaiiy cae?i/aiiy -e a ?iaeiaiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie
?iaiiee?a ae?i.?iaeo ??? a?aei?ie, i?i ?icoe?aiiy noa?e aaeeaaiiy
cae?i/aiiy -a o eee/iiio a?aei?ieo ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo — caaaeueieo ?
aeanieo iaca oa cae?i/aiiy -o a ?iaeiaiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie ?iaiiee?a ??
a?aei?ie oiui. C ?ioiai aieo, a?ae/ooia iaaaaeaiiy ci?ithaaoe a?aiaoe/i?
ii?ie, cao?eniaai? o i?aaiienao i?ney 1928-1929 ?ieo. Oea i?ioeai?noai
aeoiie na?ae/eoue i?i aeiyoeiao aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie
aa??aioiino? a?aei?ieiaeo cae?i/aiue o no/anieo oiiaao, aaeaea aiii
ni?ey? oii?ioaaiith i?ioean?a neiaici?ie a no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia?.
Naia oeei coiiaeaiee aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee aa??aioi? cae?i/aiiy ?iaeiaiai,
aeaaaeueiiai, ciao?aeiiai, i?oaeiiai oa eee/iiai a?aei?ie?a ?iaiiee?a
??cieo no?oeoo?ieo oei?a. Aei aiae?co ia caeo/aeeny aa??aioi? cae?i/aiiy
i?noeaaiai a?aei?iea, ine?eueee caeiiii??iino? ?o aaeeaaiiy, ye oaea
cacia/aeiny, aoee ia’?eoii niaoe?aeueiiai aea/aiiy.

Iaoa aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe — aeine?aeeoe ?icaeoie aa??aioiino?
a?aei?ieiaeo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a, anoaiiaeoe iaeiia?o? oaiaeaioe?? ?o
aeei?enoaiiy a no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?i?e iia?.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? oe??? iaoe ?ica’ycaii oae? iniiai? caaaeaiiy:

1) i?iaiae?ciaaii ?icaeoie aa??aioiino? cae?i/aiue ?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea
iaeieie ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie, c’yniaaii i?e/eie
iaiine?aeiaiiai aaeeaaiiy aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue -a(-y) oa -o(-th) a oeeo
?iaiieeao o 90-o ?ieao iaoiai noie?ooy;

2) ia??oioiaaii iaiine?aeiai?noue ia?a?iciiae?eo cae?i/aiue -a(-y) oa
-o(-th) a iio?aeieo ?iaiieeao /ie.?iaeo, cai?iiiiiaaiiai a iaeiia?oeo
eaeneeia?ao?/ieo oa i?aaiienieo aeaeaiiyo;

3) aeyaeaii oiiae iioe?aiiy aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue -ia?, -aa?(-?a?) a
aeaaaeueiiio a?aei?ieo ia iacae ia?noio /ie. oa na?aaei.?iaeo;

4) anoaiiaeaii eaeneei-naiaioe/io aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th cae?i/aiue
ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea ?iaiiee?a;

5) aecia/aii iia? oaiaeaioe?? o aaeeaaii? oi?i eee/iiai a?aei?iea
?iaiiee?a — caaaeueieo ? aeanieo iaca o no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e
e?oa?aoo?i?e iia?;

6) aeacaii ia niaoeeo?eo aa??thaaiiy oi?i i?oaeiiai a?aei?iea iiiaeeie
?iaiiee?a;

7) iiaeaii i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? i?i aeioe?euei?noue aaeeaaiiy
aeayeeo aa??aioieo a?aei?ieiaeo oi?i.

Aeaea?aeaie oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo iineoaeeee oae? a?aiaoeee oa i?aaiieni?
aeaeaiiy ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no.: Niaeue-Noioeueeee N., Ya?o- ia? O.
A?aiaoeea ?onueei? iiae. O?ao? aeae-iy. — A?aeaiue, 1914; Oei/aiei ?.
Oe?a?inueea a?aiaoeea. — E., 1917; A?oineee I.E. Oe?aeineay a?aiiaoeea.
Aoi?ia ecae-ea — E., 1918; Eo?eei I. Eo?n oe?a?inueeiai i?aaiieno. — E.,
1919; Eaaeoeueeee I. Oe?a?inueea a?aiaoeea. Aeae. 3. — Eaoa?eiineaa;
Eyeioe??, 1923; Ia??iei ?. Ia?ene c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? iiae: nenoaia
oe?a?inueeiai i?aaiieno (Iiioey?ii-iaoeiaee eo?n c ?noi?e/iei
ina?oeaiiyi). — Aa?oaaa, 1927; Iaeiia/iee I.Oe?a?inueea iiaa. I?ia?aia-
eiiniaeo c aeiaeaoeii i?i iiaee i?aaiien oe?a?inueeee. — O., 1928;
Aeaae- eee I. Iiaee oe?a?inueeee i?aaiien. — E., 1929; Neiyanueeee I.
Iaeaieiai?o? i?aaeea oe?a?inueei? iiae (Ca iiaei i?aaiienii). Aeae. 3. —
O.; E.,1930, a oaeiae on? aeaeaiiy «Oe?a?inueeiai i?aaiieno», iaoa??aee
a?aiaoe/ieo i?aoeue no/anii? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae inoaii?o
aeanyoe??/. O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii oe?eee ?yae eaeneeia?ao?/ieo i?aoeue,
cie?aia: «Neiaa?ue oe?a?inueei? iiae» ca ?aae. A.A??i/aiea. — E.,
1907-1909. — O.1-4; «I?aaiieniee neiaiee» A.Aieineaae/a. — O., 1929;
«Oe?a?inueea e?oa?aoo?ia aeiiaa ? iaaiein»: Neiaiee-aeia?aeiee. — E.,
1973; «I?oiai?/iee neiaiee» I.Iia??aiiai. — E., 1984; «I?oia?ao?/iee
neiaiee oe?a?inueei? iiae». — E., 1976; 1994; «Neiaiee oe?a?inueei?
iiae». — E., 1970-1980. — O.?-O?; «Aeani? ?iaia ethaeae» E.A.Ne?eiiee,
I.I.Aecyoe?anueei?. — E., 1986; «I?aaiieniee neiaiee ?iai ?
iaeiioe?ai?oeo i??caeu» A.A.Ao?y/ea. — E., 1996 oa ?i. Iaoa??aeii aeey
aiae?co iineoaeeea oaeiae no/ania oe?a?inueea i?ica ? iiac?y (oai?e
I.Aii/a?a, I.Caa?aaaeueiiai, TH.Iooeaoeea, E.Einoaiei, ?.Ae?a/a,
Ae.Iaaee/ea, I.A?ia?aiianueeiai, A.Ie?eieea oa ?i.), ioae?oeenoeea
(i?aoe? ?.Aecthae, N.Eieanieea oa ?i.), no/ani? /aniiene, cie?aia
«Oe?a?inueeee can?a» — /aniien iaoe?iiaeueii? ?ioae?aaioe??; «Aa?aaeiy»
— Anaoe?a?inueeee ia?iaeiciaa/ee /aniien; «No/ani?noue» — uii?ny/iee
/aniien iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aeoiee; aeo?iaee «A?o/ecia» e
«Aa?ac?eue» — e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaei? oa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/i? aeo?iaee
Ni?eee ienueiaiiee?a Oe?a?ie; «Ia?iaeia oai?/?noue oa aoiia?ao?y» —
aeo?iae ?inoeoooo ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee oa aoiieia?? ?i.
I.O.?eeuenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie; «Neiai ? /an» — aeo?iae ?inoeoooo
e?oa?aoo?e IAI Oe?a?ie; «Ee?anueea noa?iaeia» — ?noi?e/iee
iaoeiai-iiioey?iee aeo?iae; ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy «Oe?a?inueea neiai»,
«Neiai», «Ia?iaeia aacaoa» oiui. Aeey ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co yaeu
aa??thaaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeeny oaeiae ooaeiaei? oai?e iaeaeaeaoi?oeo
ienueiaiiee?a ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.: O.Oaa/aiea, Ean?
Oe?a?iee, Iaiana Ie?iiai, I.Eioethaeinueeiai, A.Aeiie/aiea oa ?i. Aeey
c?noaaeaiiy aeayeeo aa??aioieo yaeu o ??ci? /ane ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo
ii?oieia?/ii? nenoaie oe?a?inueei? iiae a?aoiaoaaeeny aeai? ?noi?e/ieo
iai’yoie, a oaeiae iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiue ii?oieia?/iiai eaaeo
oe?a?inueeeo ae?aeaeo?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeeiiaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a
i?e oia?oa ia iniia? an?o aeinooiieo oaia? eaeneeia?ao?/ieo i?aoeue ?
a?aiaoe/ieo aeaeaiue, ?ai?oa i?aeoe/ii ia aeei?enoiaoaaieo, ia’?eoeaii
a?aeoai?aii neeaaeiee i?ioean aca?iiae?? aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a
o ??ci? ia??iaee ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae. Cie?aia aei aiae?co
oe?iei caeo/aii iaoa??aee «Neiaa?y oe?a?inueei? iiae» ca ?aaeaeoe??th
A.A??i/aiea ? «I?aaiieniiai neiaieea» A.Aieineaae/a, a oaeiae
niinoa?aaeaiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy iiaiciaaoe?a 20-30-o ??.

Anoaiiaeaii iia? caeiiii??iino? e oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo aa??aioiino?
a?aei?ieiaeo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a, ui ii/aee i?inoaaeoaaoeny aai aaea
/?oei noi?ioaaeeny a 90-o ?ieao iaoiai noie?ooy. Aiie iia?o? ia aeani?
niinoa?aaeaiiy aeena?oaioee ca ienaiiei ? oniei oe?a?inueeei iiaeaiiyi,
i?aaenoaaeaiei o iaeiia?oeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo ??cii? i???ioaoe??, o
?aae?i- ? oaeaia?aaea/ao, a oaeiae ia ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaiiai
aieaooaaiiy.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii iaoiae niinoa?aaeaiiy, a
oaeiae iieniaee ? c?noaaiee iaoiaee. Ii?oieia?/i? aa??aioe a?aei?ieiaeo
cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a aeine?aeaeaii a ?noi?e/iiio oa
ii?iaoeaii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiio aniaeoao. Ca?? oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo
i?iaaaeaii oaeiae ca aeiiiiiaith nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iiai aieaooaaiiy. O
i?ioean? ii?aoethaaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aieaooaaiiy aeei?enoaii aeaiaioe
noaoenoe/iiai iaoiaeo.

Nioe?ie?iaa?noe/iee ieoaeueiee neeaaeaany c aeaio /anoei. Aei ia?oi?
/anoeie oa?eoei 8 caieoaiue, ui noinoaaeeny nioe?aeueiiai noaio
iieooaaieo, aei ae?oai? — 4 nooi iiaieo caaaeaiiy. Oe? aieaoe aoei
cai?iiiiiaaii nooaeaioai Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa (i. Ee?a) oa Aa?aeyinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
?inoeoooo ?i. I.Ae.Ineiaiei Caii??cueei? iaeano?.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Oai?aoe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy e aeniiaee iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey
noai?aiiy iiaeo ii?iaoeaieo eo?n?a c ii?oieia?? no/anii? oe?a?inueei?
iiae oa iiaiai aeaeaiiy «Oe?a?inueeiai i?aaiieno». Iaoa??aeaie e
i?aeoe/ieie ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yie uiaei aaeeaaiiy aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue
?iaiiee?a iiaeia nei?enoaoeny a eaeneeia?ao?/i?e i?aeoeoe?, cie?aia aeey
oeeaaeaiiy i?oia?ao?/ieo neiaiee?a, a oaeiae o eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo
caoiaeao, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeianaiiy eoeueoo?e oniiai e ienaiiiai
iiaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? a iia?aeiieaiiyo «A?aiaoe/i? oi?ie ?iaiiee?a o
i?aoe? «Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a» ?.Ia??iea» ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aaeaoaiue iaoee», i?enay/ai?e
115-??//th a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy ?aaia Ia??iea (Ee?a, 1997. — Aei.2) oa
«C?noaaii-oeiieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea cania?a ae?aaeaiiy i?ecia/aiiy a
oe?a?inuee?e ? ?in?enuee?e iiaao» ia ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie c?noaaii? naiaioeee» (Ee?a — *a?eane, 1992), a
oaeiae o aeiiia?aeyo «I?iaeaie aa??aioiino? o ii?oieia??» oa «I?i
neeaaei? aeiaaeee neiaici?ie ?iaiiee?a /ieia?/iai ?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie»,
aeaieioaieo ia i?aenoieiaeo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo Aa?aeyinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?i. I.Ae.Ineiaiei
(Aa?aeyinuee, 1993, 1995).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o anoaiiaeaii? iiaeo oaiaeaioe?e o
aaeeaaii? aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a, ye? iae?aneeeeny a inoaii?
aeanyoee?ooy a no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?i?e iia?, cie?aia
oaiaeaioe?e aei ia?aaaaeiiai, oi/ ? ia caaaeaee iine?aeiaiiai, aaeeaaiiy
cae?i/aiiy -o(-th) a ?iaeiaiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo ??
a?aei?ie, iioe?aiiy cae?i/aiue -ia?, -aa?(-?a?) a aeaaaeueiiio a?aei?ieo
?iaiiee?a /ie. oa na?aaei.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie ia iacae ia?noio,
aeoeai?oiai aaeeaaiiy oi?i ?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea o ooieoe?? ciao?aeiiai
?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie oa ae?i.?iaeo iiiaeeie ? a?aei?ie,
cae?i/aiiy -a o eee/iiio a?aei?ieo a?eueoino? ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo ??
a?aei?ie oa ??cieo no?oeoo?ieo oei?a /ieia?/eo i??caeu, ?noioiiai
ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? ?iaiiee?a, caeaoieo iaoe a i?oaeiiio a?aei?ieo
iiiaeeie aa??aioi? cae?i/aiiy oiui.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e oa aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? — 193 noi??iee. O nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e
iae?/o?oueny 192 aeaea?aea.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, i?iaiae?ciaaii
?? oai?aoe/i? canaaee, aecia/aii ia’?eo, iaoo, caaaeaiiy oa iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie?aneaii aeaea?aea oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, aeacaii ia
iiaecio ?iaioe e iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «Aa??aioi?noue cae?i/aiue ?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea a
no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia?» cae?eniaii ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c cae?i/aiue
?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea iaeieie ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie,
ia??oioiaaii iaiine?aeiai?noue ia?a?iciiae?eo aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue
?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea iio?aeieo ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo o i?ioeanao
neiaioai?aiiy, a oaeiae aeacaii ia aeieeiaiiy aa??aioieo oi?i a
?iaiieeao ae?i.?iaeo ??? a?aei?ie.

O ?iaeiaiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie ?iaiieee /ie.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie iiaeooue
iaoe cae?i/aiy -a(-y) aai -o(-th) caeaaeii a?ae ?oi?o naiaioe/ieo oa
no?oeoo?ii-neiaioa??ieo iciae. O ??ci? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
iiae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae oeeie cae?i/aiiyie iino?eii ci?ithaaeiny.
sseui a iai’yoeao aeaaiuei?onueei? iiae iniiaiei cae?i/aiiyi ?iaeiaiai
a?aei?iea aoei -a(-y), oi ca?ac a oe?a?inuee?e iia? i?inoaaeo?oueny
oaiaeaioe?y aei ana a?eueoiai ?icoe?aiiy eiea ?iaiiee?a ?c cae?i/aiiyi
-o(-th).

O e?ioe? O?O- ia ii/aoeo OO no. a oe?a?inuee?e iia? /anoi niinoa??aaeiny
a?eueia aa??thaaiiy oeaen?e -a(-y) oa -o(-th) a ?iaeiaiio a?aei?ieo
iaeieie ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo. Aeyaeoe /?oe? e?eoa??? ?o ?iciaaeoaaiiy ia
oie /an aoei i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai /a?ac a?aenooi?noue
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai i?aaiieno. Caiaeii aoei aecia/aii i?aaeea
aaeeaaiiy oeeo a?aei?ieiaeo cae?i/aiue: ?iaiieee — iacae aeeaeo ?noio oa
oi/ii ie?aneaieo i?aaeiao?a, yaeu iaee caeaa?eueoiai cae?i/aiiy -a(-y),
?iaiieee, ui icia/aee ca??i?noue, ?a/iaeio, iano, aano?aeoi? iiiyooy
oiui, — cae?i/aiiy -o(-th). I?ioa a iia? iino?eii a?aeaoaaany i?ioean
aca?iiae?? aa??aioieo ?aae?caoe?e. O ca’yceo c oeei iaei? neiaioi?ie
aeeoee c oaeeoeo (ca??o, i?aii?o, i?iaoeeo, nia, ni?iia), ?io? iaaoee
a?aei?iieo cia/aiue, i?iaeiaaeoth/e ooieoe?iioaaoe ye aeecueeicia/i?,
aea ia oioiaei? (aoeao, -o (noaeue), -a (ca?iy); eenoiiaae, -a
(i?nyoeue), -o (iiaaeaiiy eenoy); /aaoi, -a (iinoae), -o (iaoae), o?ao?
noaee iin?yie yeinoae, ye? «a?ae??aaee» ?o a?ae oiai aa??aioiiai ?yaeo,
aei yeiai aiie aoiaeeee, ? ia?aoai?eeeny ia ??ci? ca cia/aiiyi
neiaa-iiii?ie, ui ?ic??ciythoueny eeoa cae?i/aiiyie o ?iaeiaiio
a?aei?ieo iaeieie (aae1, -a (aeaoaeue iaoeie); aae2, -o (ianei; ieoee);
ia?ac1, -a (?eiia); ia?ac2, -o (iaee//y, iinoaoue, ooaeiaei?e can?a);
y/i?iue1, -iaith (ceae); y/i?iue2, -iaiy (oai?iaa).

Caaaeueia ?iciaaeoaaiiy eiie?aoiiai, iaeeie/iiai e ca??iiai, /?oei
ie?aneaiiai e aano?aeoiiai, ia/?oei ie?aneaiiai, iayai?noue ua a
aeaaiueioe?a?inueeeo iai’yoeao oeaen?e -a(-y) oa -o(-th) a iaaieo
naiaioe/ieo a?oiao ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo, iayai?noue ia?aeaeueieo oeaen?e
a?ae oiai naiiai eaene/iiai ?ic?yaeo ?iaiiee?a ? iaa?oue a?ae oeo naieo
ne?a — ana oea ia o?eueee cana?ae/oaaei ?oeioaaiiy noa?i? e iaeii/ania
aeoai?aiiy iiai? nenoaie a?aei?ithaaiiy, a e a?aee?eaaei iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo c iioiaeaeaiiy oeaen?e aeey ae?aaeaiiy a?aeo?ie?a
cia/aiue ne?a, a oi e aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ?o cia/aiue, coiiaethaaei, ia
aeoieo N.I.Nai?eeaiea, aeaye? nai???aeiino? neiaioai?aiiy (ii?., iai?.,
aa?oo, aea aa?oea, naaeo, aea naaeea)11 Nai?eeaiei N.I. Ia?ene c
?noi?e/ii? ii?oieia?? oe?a?inueei? iiae: A 2 /. — E.: ?aae. oeiea,
1964. — *.1. — N.116..

O no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia? niinoa??aa?oueny ?icoe?aiiy eiea iio?aeieo
?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo, ui iathoue o ?iaeiaiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie cae?i/aiiy
-o(-th). Oea, cie?aia, i?ao?enaeuei?, noo?enaeuei? oa aacao?eni?
?iaiieee. Oi?ie ia -a(-y) aeanoea? caeaa?eueoiai
i?ao?enaeueii-noo?enaeueiei ?iaiieeiaei ooai?aiiyi.

Oa?aeoa?ii, ui /anoeia noo?enaeueieo ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie a
?iaeiaiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie ia? cae?i/aiiy -a(-y), oi/ caeeoa?oueny
cia/ia e?euee?noue neiaioa??ii iaeiioeiieo ?iaiiee?a ?c cae?i/aiiyi
-o(-th), ii?.: a?oa?aoeue — a?oa?oeth, ni?aeie — ni?aeeo, aeiuee —
aeiueeo, aeiue/ie — aeiue/ea, aeeii/ie — aeeii/ea, ai?uee — ai?ueeo,
aoeueeii/ee — aoeueeii/eea, /anie/ie — /anie/eo, ia?/ee — ia?/eea,
aeoaiy/ie — aeoaiy/eo, aeoiy/ie — aeoiy/ea oiui.

Aaeeaaiiy cae?i/aiue -a oa -o a oeeo neiaao i?aeiaaea? i?ae ae?th
i?ioeeaaeieo oaiaeaioe?e: ye noo?enaeuei? ooai?aiiy, aiie iathoue
aaeeaaoeny ?c cae?i/aiiyi -a(-y), i?ioa aaaaoi c ieo icia/athoue
ca??i?noue, ?a/iaeio, oiio a?aeiia?aeii aei caaaeueieo oaiaeaioe?e, ui
ae?thoue o iia?, iiaeii? iaaoaaoe cae?i/aiiy -o(-th). A «I?oia?ao?/iiio
neiaieeo oe?a?inueei? iiae» 1994 ?. aeaeaiiy e?euee?noue noo?enaeueieo
?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo, ye? a ?iaeiaiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie i?eeiyee
cae?i/aiiy -o(-th), ca?eueoeeany. I/aaeaeii, aa??aioi?noue oi?i
?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea oeeo ?iaiiee?a — oaeo ia a?aiaoe/iiai, a
eaeneei-a?aiaoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o. Aiia iaiaeiaeiai ioiieth? iaa?oue
naiaioe/ii iaeiioeii? ?ic?yaee ?iaiiee?a.

O 90-o ?ieao o ca’yceo c? ci?iith oiia ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae
(?icaeoie cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, ca?eueoaiiy oe?aae?a oa
iiioey?ecaoe?y aacaoii-ioae?oeenoe/ieo aeaeaiue), ye? iieaaoeee oiiae
ooieoe?iiaeueii-noee?noe/ii? «i?a?aoe??» ne?a ? ?icoe?eee «iaae?»
e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, o i?e ciiao aeoea?coaaeeny /eneaii? aa??aioi? oi?ie
?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea iaeieie ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo, ye? ia ?aaeaiaioiaai?
/eiiei i?aaiienii (aa?noaoa — aa?noaoo, aeooo — aeooa, i?oo — i?oa,
oaao?o — oaao?a, ia??iaeo — ia??iaea, oiioaia— oiioaio, oeaiaa —
oeaiao).

Inoaii?i /anii iiaa aeayeeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, ?aae?i ? oaeaaa/aiiy
cana?ae/o? aa??aioi? oi?ie ?iaiiee?a ae?i.?iaeo ??? a?aei?ie, ye? a
?iaeiaiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie ii/aee iaaoaaoe ia?aeaeueii c ii?iaoeaiei -?
nai? aeaai? cae?i/aiiy -e. Cae?i/aiiy -? oa -e aaeeaathoueny aeoaea
iaiine?aeiaii, oaioe/ii, cian?i iaaiioeaiaaii. Aiie iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a iaei?e ioae?eaoe??, ia iaei?e noi??ioe? ? iaa?oue a
oiio naiiio ?a/aii?. Iai?.: ? ieoea iai’yoe nayoa C aeeaei a?aeeoue a
iaeaooi?…; ? ui aac iai’yo? aeeooy, Aac ae?aai?o caiia?o?a
(«Oe?a?inueeee can?a»); Aei 130-??//y a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy Ethaiae
Ooeuea?ii?; Iiae?ai? caaaeee i?i ia?ee Ethaia? Oaaei??aie ? o ?a?no??
iieno («Oe?a?inueea neiai»); ?iiai A?eothe ia? ca aieiaio oaio ethaia?;
Eaeaoueny a ii?o aenoaaao i?i nooi?noue ii/oooy ethaiae («No/ani?noue»).
Iiae?aieo i?eeeaae?a iiaeia iaaanoe aaaaoi, ai a aeiaeiiio c aeaeaiue,
ye? aeei?enoiaothoue iaeaeaa cae?i/aiiy, iaia? nenoaiiino? a ?oiueiio
aaeeoeo. No/ania cae?i/aiiy -? a ?iaeiaiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie ?iaiiee?a
ae?i.?iaeo ??? a?aei?ie ? ii??aiyii iiaei. Noa?ioe?a?inuee? iai’yoee
iine?aeiaii cana?ae/othoue o oeeo ?iaiieeao oeaen?th -e (c??aeea
a?ao?/ii -u). Oeaen?y -? ( -Ue), ui aeieeea aiane?aeie aieeao
?iaiiee?a c iniiaith ia -ja, o?eno?oueny eeoa iiiaeeiieeie i?eeeaaeaie a
iai’yoeao c XV-XV? no. ? /ano?oa — c ae?oai? iieiaeie OV?? no. I?ioean
cai?ie oeaen?? -e ia -? cae?enithaaany i?ioyaii noie?oue, iaiaeiaeiai
a?aeaoaaany a?i o ??cieo ae?aeaeoao oe?a?inueei? iiae. A oe?a?inueeeo
a?aiaoeeao ii/aoeo OO no. a?aecia/aeiny, ui ?iaiieee ae?i.?iaeo ???
a?aei?ie ye o ae?aeaeoao, oae ? a e?oa?aoo?i?e iia? iathoue ia?aaaaeii
cae?i/aiiy -e, iniaeeai ?iaiieee ia -oue c iiia?aaei?i i?eaieiniei.
Aea a ?iaiieeao ia oeiey/ee oa i’yeee i?eaieiniee o no?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
aiai?ao aaeeaaeiny cae?i/aiiy -?. Oe? caeiiii??iino? aaeeaaiiy
cae?i/aiue -? oa -e ?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea iaeieie ?iaiiee?a ae?i.?iaeo ???
a?aei?ie aoei caoaa?aeaeaii a «Oe?a?inueeiio i?aaiien?» 1929 ?. I?ioean
oi?o?eaoe?? cae?i/aiue -? oa -e a e?oa?aoo?i?e iia? a?aeaoaaany oaeaeoa,
i?ae a ae?aeaeoao. Ianooii? aeaeaiiy «Oe?a?inueeiai i?aaiieno» aecia/aee
aaea ye ii?iaoeaio o?eueee oeaen?th -?.

Inoaii?i /anii niinoa??aa?oueny iaiaaaiiy ia?aaeyiooe i?aaiienio ii?io
i?i aaeeaaiiy cae?i/aiue -?/-e ?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea ?iaiiee?a ae?i.?iaeo
??? a?aei?ie. I?oia?ao?/ia eii?n?y, aeciath/e iio?aao ae?iaeaiiy
?aeeiiai i?aaiieno aeey an?o oe?a?ioe?a, ui i?iaeeaathoue ye a Oe?a?i?,
oae ? ca ?? iaaeaie, aaaaea?, ui a?i ia? aacoaaoeny ia anueiio
?noi?e/iiio aeina?ae? eiai oai?aiiy ? aiineoue i?iiiceoe?th iiaa?iooe
?iaiieeai ??? a?aei?ie ia -oue o ?iaeiaiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie
o?aaeeoe?eia cae?i/aiiy -e: a?noe, iia?noe, ?aaeinoe, a oaeiae oaeei
?iaiieeai, ye e?ia, ethaia, in?iue, n?eue, ?onue11 Ao?y/ie A.A. I?i
eiioeaioe?th iiai? (inoaoi/ii?) ?aaeaeoe?? oe?a?inueeiai i?aaiieno //
Oe?. neiai. — 1995. — 8 /a?aiy. — N.15..

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «Iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? o ?icaeoeo aa??aioieo
cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a o aeaaaeueiiio a?aei?ieo» aena?oeaii ?noi??th
oi?ioaaiiy cae?i/aiue aeaaaeueiiai a?aei?iea iaeieie ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo
?? a?aei?ie, i?inoaaeaii ca ?icaeoeii aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue aeaaaeueiiai
a?aei?iea a ?iaiieeao na?aaei.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie, c’yniaaii
i?aaii??i?noue aaeeaaiiy aa??aioiiai cae?i/aiiy aeaaaeueiiai a?aei?iea a
?iaiieeao ae?i.?iaeo ??? a?aei?ie.

O aeaaaeueiiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie ?iaiieee /ie.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie iathoue
cae?i/aiiy -ia?, -aa?(-?a?) oa -o(-th), ui ?noi?e/ii iioiaeyoue a?ae
ie?aieo a?oi ?iaiiee?a, ye? iaeaaeaee aei ??cieo iniia. Aeiaaeee
ci?ooaaiiy, aca?iicai?ie cae?i/aiue o ??cieo a?oiao a?aei?ithaaiiy
cana?ae/ai? aaea caeaaia. O noa?ioe?a?inueeeo iai’yoeao O?V no.
iaeiioe?ai?oith oeaen??th aeaaaeueiiai a?aei?iea iaeieie ?iaiiee?a
/ie.?iaeo aoea oeaen?y -o(-th), iaio iioe?aieie (ia?aaaaeii a ?iaiieeao
— iacaao ?noio) — oeaen?? -ia?, -aa? (-?a?). I?iaeoeoeai?noue
aa??thaaiiy oi?i aeaaaeueiiai a?aei?iea c ieeiii /ano caciaaaea ci?i.
Iinooiiai cae?i/aiiy -ia?, -aa?(-?a?) iioe?thaaeeny ia ana a?eueoo
e?euee?noue ?iaiiee?a, aeo?niyth/e cae?i/aiiy -o(-th). O e?ioe? O?O- ia
ii/aoeo OO no. cae?i/aiiy -ia?, -aa?(-?a?) iaaoee aaeeeiai iioe?aiiy.
?iciiae?e aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue aeaaaeueiiai a?aei?iea ia caeaaeaa a?ae
naiaioeee ne?a: ?iaiieee — iacae ia?noio iaa?oue iine?aeiai?oa iaaoaaee
cae?i/aiiy -ia?, -aa?(-?a?), i?ae ?iaiieee — iacae ?noio.

«Oe?a?inueeee i?aaiien» 1929 ?. aecia? cae?i/aiiy -ia?, -aa?(-?a?) ye
ii?iaoeai? aeey an?o ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie. Cae?i/aiiy -o(-th)
aaeeaa?oueny a ieo i?e ca?aia? oeeo oi?i, a oaeiae a ?iaiieeao ia -?a,
-ia, -aa ? iiae. «Oe?a?inueeee i?aaiien» 1933, 1946, 1960 ??. aeae?ey?
ye iniiai? cae?i/aiiy -ia?, -aa?(-?a?) aeey an?o ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo, a
oaeiae aeiionea? aaeeaaiiy a ?iaiieeao — iacaao ia?noio cae?i/aiiy
-o(-th) aac aoaeue-yeeo iaiaaeaiue ? eiiaioa??a, ui iiaeia iiynieoe,
i/aaeaeii, aieeaii ?in?enueei? iiae, a ye?e on? ?iaiieee /ie.?iaeo
iathoue o aeaaaeueiiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie cae?i/aiiy -o(-th). Caiaeii o
a?aiaoeeao ii/aee aeacoaaoe ia oa, ui cae?i/aiiy -ia?, -aa?(-?a?)
oa?aeoa?i?o? aeey ?iaiiee?a — iaca ethaeae ? acaaae? ?noio, a oi?ie ia
-o(-th) iathoue ?iaiieee — iacae ia?noio. Oea i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui
o?eaaeee /an a oe?a?inuee?e iia? ia?aeaeueii ?c cae?i/aiiyie -ia?,
-aa?(-?a?) ye iniiaieie aeoeaii aaeeaaeiny cae?i/aiiy -o(-th), yea
oaeiae aoei ii?iaoeaiei.

A inoaii? ?iee niinoa??aa?oueny ae?acia oaiaeaioe?y aei aeoea?caoe??
oeaen?e -ia?, -aa?(-?a?), ye? a io?oe?eii-ae?eiaiio, ooaeiaeiueiio,
ioae?oeenoe/iiio oa aeayeeo aeaeao iaoeiaiai noeeth aeo?niythoue
oeaen?th -o(-th). Cae?i/aiiy -ia? iaaoaathoue oaeiae ?iaiieee ?c
noo?enii -?ci, ye? aeiaaee /an aaeeaaeeny ia?aaaaeii ?c cae?i/aiiyi
-o(-th), iai?.: iaoe?iiae?ciia?, iioei?ciia?, oioae?oa?eciia?,
iinoiiaea?i?ciia? oiui.

O iao /an oaiaeaioe?y aei iiaa?iaiiy cae?i/aiue -ia?, -aa?(-?a?) an?i
?iaiieeai /ie.?iaeo ? iano?eueee neeueiith, ui ioiieea e ?iaiieee
na?aaei.?iaeo, yeei caeaaia aoea i?eoaiaiia eeoa oeaen?y -o(-th). Oi?ie
ia -ia?, -aa? ?iaiiee?a na?aaei.?iaeo c??aeea ii/aee cana?ae/oaaoeny
a oe?a?inuee?e iia? c O?O no. I?aaiieni? aeaeaiiy aeiioneaee aaeeaaiiy
cae?i/aiue -ia?, -aa? eeoa a aeayeeo ?iaiieeao (eeoia?, na?aoeaa?).
Inoaii?i /anii cae?i/aiiy -ia?, -aa? iii?oii ?icoe?eee
eaeneei-naiaioe/io noa?o ?iaiiee?a na?aaei.?iaeo, ye? i?ioyaii aaaaoueio
noie?oue ia iaee aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue (aeca?eaeia?, eieania?, e?oia?,
ieia?, naeia?).

?icaeioaoenue o aeaaieio c iaei/enaeueii? a?oie ne?a, cae?i/aiiy -ia?,
-aa?(-?a?) a no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia? iaaoee cia/iiai iioe?aiiy,
aeo?niyth/e cae?i/aiiy -o(-th).

Iniaeea?noth ooieoe?iioaaiiy a?aei?ieiaeo cae?i/aiue a inoaii? ?iee ?
aeieeiaiiy aa??aio?a o aeaaaeueiiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie ?iaiiee?a
ae?i.?iaeo ??? a?aei?ie. Ca /eiiei i?aaiienii oe? ?iaiieee ia iathoue o
aeaaaeueiiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie aa??aioieo oi?i, aaeeaath/enue o?eueee ?c
cae?i/aiiyi -?: ioae?ino?, ii/?, inai?, oai?/ino?, nie?. Aea inoaii?i
/anii ia noi??ieao aeayeeo oe?a?inueeeo aeaeaiue c’yaeythoueny i?eeeaaee
aeei?enoaiiy a oeeo ?iaiieeao ia?aeaeueii c ii?iaoeaiei -? cae?i/aiiy
-e, iai?.: ioae?inoe, a?/iinoe, iai’yoe.

?iaiieee no/anii? ??? a?aei?ie o noa?ioe?a?inuee?e iia? a aeaaaeueiiio
a?aei?ieo iaeieie aeineoue aeiaai aaeeaaeeny ?c cae?i/aiiyi -e. Iaa?oue
o a?aiioao O?V-XVI no. aenooia? o?eueee oea cae?i/aiiy. *anoi
aaeeaa?oueny aiii ? a aeaea?aeao OVII no. Aea aaea c ae?oai? iieiaeie
OVII no. a aeayeeo iai’yoeao niinoa??aa?oueny cai?ia oeaen?? -e
oeaen??th -Ue( ?). Oey cai?ia noaea iiaeeeaith aiane?aeie oaiaeaioe??
aei oi?o?eaoe?? a aeaaaeueiiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie oeaen?? -? a on?o
?iaiieeao ae?i.?iaeo. Cae?i/aiiy -? iinooiiai iaaoaaei iioe?aiiy. Ia
e?iaoeue O?O- ii/aoie OO no. o aaeeaaii? cae?i/aiue -e/-? a ?iaiieeao
??? a?aei?ie iii?/aeanue iaonoaeai?noue, yea aoea coiiaeaia aaeeeith
i??ith oei, ui oe? cae?i/aiiy ii-??ciiio aeyaeyeeny a oa?eoi??aeueieo
ae?aeaeoao oe?a?inueei? iiae: o a?eueoino? i?aaeaiii-cao?aeieo aiai??a o
aeaaaeueiiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie ia?aaaaeaei -e, o i?aaeaiii-no?aeieo —
-?. Eieaeuei? ?ene /anoi a?aeaeaaeeny ia iiai?e i?aeoeoe? ienueiaiiee?a,
aieeaaee ia oi?ioaaiiy ii?i ienaiii? iiae. Ia ii/aoeo OO no. oe?a?inueea
iiaa ia iaea ua caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo i?aaee i?aaiieno, oiio ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie ?noi?e/ii neeaeeny aeaa iniiai? oeie i?aaiieno — i?aaiien
Cao?aeii? ? i?aaiien No?aeii? Oe?a?ie, ye? i?e cia/i?e ni?eueiino? iaee
e oa?eoi??aeuei? a?aei?iiino?. Oae, aaeeoeuee? e aoeiaeinuee?
ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy, i???iooth/enue ia oiae?oi? cao?aeiioe?a?inuee?
a?aiaoeee, ui ?aeiiaiaeoaaee a ?iaiieeao ??? a?aei?ie ca i?noeaaith
aeiiaith ienaoe -e a on?o a?aei?ieao, iaeaea cian?i ia aaeeaaee ooo
cae?i/aiiy -?. O no?aeiioe?a?inueeeo aeaeaiiyo cae?i/aiiy -? aaeeaaeiny
iaaaaaoi /ano?oa, i?ae -e.

Iiaeeeai, /eneaiia ia?aaaaa no?aeiioe?a?inueei? ienaiii? o?aaeeoe??, a
oaeiae ?io? oaeoi?e aieeioee ia ioi?ieaiiy ye i?oia?ao?/ii? ii?ie
aeaaaeueiiai a?aei?iea iaeieie ?iaiiee?a ??? a?aei?ie cae?i/aiiy -?, ai
an? i?aaiiene, ye? aoee aeaeai? a Oe?a?i? a ??ci? ia??iaee (1929, 1946,
1960 ??.), o oiio /ene? e inoaii? aeaeaiiy «Oe?a?inueeiai i?aaiieno»
(1993 ?.), iiaeathoue ye ii?iaoeaia a oeeo ?iaiieeao o?eueee cae?i/aiiy
-?.

Ioaea, cae?i/aiiy -?, yea o?eaaeee /an aoei ii?iaoeaiei, nueiaiaei?
aeyaeeiny ia ?aeeiei cae?i/aiiyi aeaaaeueiiai a?aei?iea iaeieie
?iaiiee?a ??? a?aei?ie. ?acoeueoaoe aca?iiae?? cae?i/aiue -?/-e
aeaaaeueiiai a?aei?iea ?iaiiee?a ae?i.?iaeo ni?iaiicoaaoe iiee ui
iaiiaeeeai.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? «Aa??aioe ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea ?iaiiee?a no/anii?
oe?a?inueei? iiae» aeine?aeaeaii ?icaeoie aa??aioieo oi?i ciao?aeiiai
a?aei?iea ?iaiiee?a on?o o?ueio ?iae?a — iaca ?noio ? ia?noio a iaeiei?
oa iiiaeei?, aeyaeaii iia? oaiaeaioe?? o aeei?enoaii? oeeo oi?i o
i?eeiaiieeiaeo oa caia?a/ieo eiino?oeoe?yo, a ?iaiieeao ae?i.?iaeo ???
a?aei?ie oiui.

O ciao?aeiiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie ?iaiieee /ie.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie iathoue
oi?ie iaceaiiai aai ?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea. Oi?ie ?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea
aeanoea? ia?aaaaeii ?iaiieeai /ie.?iaeo, ui icia/athoue ?noio; ?aooa
?iaiiee?a iaaoaa? o ciao?aeiiio a?aei?ieo iaeieie oo naio oi?io, ui e o
iaceaiiio. I?ioa a no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia? ? iaaia eiei iaca
i?aaeiao?a, ui iiaeooue oaeiae iaoe o ciao?aeiiio a?aei?ieo oi?ie
?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea: iaienaa eenoa, acya iiaea. I?e/eie oeueiai yaeua
coiiaeai? ?noi?e/iei ?icaeoeii cae?i/aiue ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea iaeieie
?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie. Oi?ie ciao?aeiiai, ui ca?aathoueny c
oi?iaie iaceaiiai a?aei?iea, ia?a?ni?. Cai?ia noa?eo oi?i ciao?aeiiai
oi?iaie ?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea ii/aeeny a ?iaiieeao — iacaao ?noio, iio?i
oe? oi?ie c’yaeeeny ? a ?iaiieeao ia iicia/aiiy ia?noio. sse
cana?ae/othoue /eneaii? i?eeeaaee, cia/aiiy ne?a iaeaea ia aieeaaei ia
aea?? o??? /e ?ioi? oi?ie ?iaiieea.

Oi?ie ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea, ?aeaioe/i? ?iaeiaiio, iaaoee cia/iiai
iioe?aiiy a oe?a?inuee?e iia? a ia?o?e iieiaei? OO no. O no/ani?e
oe?a?inuee?e iia? ?icoe?th?oueny eiei ?iaiiee?a c iia?oith oi?iith
ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea. Cie?aia, oi?ie aeaaiueiai ciao?aeiiai
aeo?niythoueny oi?iaie ?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea i?e ae??neiaao aeieiiaiiai
aeaeo (cii?uea eiaa; i?ea?c ainoeioey (I.Aii/a?); caiaeea n??ieea,
e?ooioa ?oey (I.Caa?aaaeueiee); ?ica’ycaa iioocea; i?aeiaeeee aeoaa
(«No/ani?noue»), o i?eeiaiieeiaeo eiino?oeoe?yo, iniaeeai c
i?eeiaiieeaie a(o), ca, ia (iia?aee a oooaiea (A.Neiiiaiei); eooaany a
oiiaiueeiai ieaueea (TH.Iooeaoee); aeoyaea ca /oaa (I.Aii/a?); aeyeoth
Aai ca eenoa («No/ani?noue»); iiaeyaeaa ia aiaeeiieea; nei/ea ia
aaeineiaaea; iae?a ia ?oey (TH.Iooeaoee); n?a ia o?aeoi?a (I.Aii/a?).
I?iaeiaaeo?oueny i?ioean aeo?niaiiy ?iaeiaei oiai ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea
?iaiiee?a, yeee iia’yco?oueny c ?io?i?oeaii: ssceea a?i iaa ae i?eeoneoe
(E.Einoaiei); Oio?a aoiieoe eeth/a, aea ?? ?oea oaeaeoa i?aeianeany
aai?o («Aa?ac?eue»); Iaiaaaeeny ciaeoe eeth/a aei a?ia?ao?? caaaaeeiai?
iinoao? aaoi?ee («Aa?aaeiy»); Ua coi?? iaienaoe yeiainue ianea?ey
(«Oe?a?inueeee can?a»).

Aaeeaaiiy oeeo oi?i ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea aeeoa?aioe?th?oueny caeaaeii
a?ae ?iciiae?eo ?o ca ooieoe?iiaeueieie noeeyie. Iniiaia oi?ia
ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea noee?noe/ii iaeo?aeueia, aeei?enoiao?oueny a on?o
ooieoe?iiaeueieo noeeyo no/anii? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae. O
iaoeiaiio oa io?oe?eii-ae?eiaiio noeeyo ?iaeiaee o ooieoe?? ciao?aeiiai
ia aaeeaa?oueny. O ?iciiaiiio iiaeaii? oa a ??cieo aeai?ao ooaeiaeiuei?
e?oa?aoo?e iaeaea? oi?ie cae/i?.

O no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia? aa??aioi?noue oi?i ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea
niinoa??aa?oueny oaeiae a ?iaiieeao — iacaao oaa?ei on?o o?ueio ?iae?a o
iiiaeei?. Ia?a?nieie ? oi?ie ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea, ui ca?aathoueny c
iaceaiei: iano eii?, ei?iae. Ia no/aniiio aoai? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
iiae aeineoue /?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei aaeeaaiiy oeeo
?iaiiee?a o iia?o?e oi?i? ciao?aeiiai, ?aeaioe/i?e oi?i? ?iaeiaiai
a?aei?iea: iano eiiae, ei??a. I?ioa aeaai? oi?ie ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea
ia ? a?oa?/ieie ? oaeiae aeei?enoiaothoueny, oi/ cia/ii ??aeoa, a
e?oa?aoo?i?e iia?.

Aeei?enoaiiy aeaaiuei? oi?ie ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea ?iaiiee?a ae?oe,
aeeciyoa (ii?.: iathoue ae?oe, aeeieeno? aeeciyoa) nueiaiaei? ? aaea
canoa??eei.

O e?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no. iii?oiei aoei aa??thaaiiy oi?i
ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea iiiaeeie ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo — iaca ia?noio oa
iiiaeeiieo ?iaiiee?a (eoio? iaaeyiee?a, aeie?ieee ie?ia?a, n?iae caaoea
caieiooue), a oaeiae ?iaiiee?a ae?i. ? na?aaei.?iaeo a iaeiei? oa
iiiaeei? (neooaea oiai iiia?aeaiiy, oiaeeea ni?i/ie i?aoe, aa?aaee nai??
aeoo?). O no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia? i?e aeayeeo ae??neiaao (iai?.,
neooaoe, ni?aaoe, ooeaoe) aeey iicia/aiiy ia’?eoa iiaeooue
aeei?enoiaoaaoeny ciao?aeiee ? ?iaeiaee a?aei?iee. Iai?.: neooaea
i?naiue («A?o/ecia»); neooa? ioceeo (I.Aii/a?); ooeaea aanei
(TH.Iooeaoee); ooeaoe oao?a (I.Aii/a?). I?ioa eiei oaeeo ae??ne?a
iaiaaeaia, oiio ii?iaoeaieie caeeoathoueny oi?ie ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea
oeeo ?iaiiee?a, oioiaei? oi?iai iaceaiiai.

Aeooaeueiith aeey no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa ? i?iaeaia
?iciaaeoaaiiy ?iaeiaiai-ciao?aeiiai a?aei?ie?a o caia?a/ieo
eiino?oeoe?yo. O iia? ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e oa ioae?oeenoeee ae?oai?
iieiaeie OO no. i?inoaaeo?oueny oaiaeaioe?y aei ia?aaaaeiiai aaeeaaiiy
oi?i ?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea eeoa ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo, iai?.: Iaeueoey a ?io
y oia? ia eeanoeio; Aia?aoa oaae ia caaoaeue (I.Caa?aaaeueiee); Ae a ia
iieaaiaeeee iiai aaeineiaaea (TH.Iooeaoee); Ia ae?a?inueeeo nayoeiaeo
noieao aei aeaeaeee iiaea ia iiaeathoue («Aa?ac?eue»); Iaeiae oaeiai
eenoa aei oi?aae ia iaae?eoei («Oe?a?inueea neiai»). ?iaiieee ae?i.?iaeo
aenooiathoue caeaa?eueoiai o oi?i? ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea, ii?.: Ua
niioea e ?ino ia nieei; Ia ia?aaeuoeoa oaeaee?noue (I.Aii/a?); Ia caaoee
??aeio iiao; Ia caeeoaeii a?aoith iauaaeeai («Oe?a?inueea neiai»).
Ciao?aeiee a?aei?iie aeoeai?oa aaeeaa?oueny a iaoeiaiio oa ?iciiaiiio
noeeyo. Oi?ie ?iaeiaiai a?aei?iea an?o o?ueio ?iae?a ia?aaaaeathoue o
eiino?oeoe?yo, aea ?iaeiaee ? ciao?aeiee caeaaeaoue a?ae ?io?i?oeaa,
yeiio ia?aaeothoue ae??neiaa, i?aaeeeaoeai? i?ene?aieee aai i?enoaeeia?
neiaa ?c caia?a/iith /anoeith ia, iai?.: Ia iiaeaii ?icaieaeoaaoe /iaia;
ia aeaea ?icooeeoe ?ioa (I.Caa?aaaeueiee); ia iaaaaeeany caaeoe oeayoa
(«A?o/ecia»); ia oi/a a?aeaeaaaoe e?oiiena («No/ani?noue»). Aea??
iaei??? c aa??aioieo oi?i ciao?aeiiai a?aei?iea a caia?a/ieo
eiino?oeoe?yo /anoi caeaaeeoue a?ae noa’?eoeaiiai oaeoi?a.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e «Ooieoe?iioaaiiy oi?i eee/iiai a?aei?iea a no/ani?e
oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?i?e iia?» i?enay/aii aiae?co aa??aioieo oi?i
?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie — caaaeueieo ? aeanieo iaca a ??cieo
noeeyo oe?a?inueei? iiae.

Eee/iee a?aei?iie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaeeeith iaonoaeai?noth o aaeeaaii?
aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo ?? a?aei?ie. Oe?a?inueea iiaa
iaeaea iiai?noth oniaaeeoaaea nenoaio oeaen?e eee/iiai a?aei?iea
aeaaiuei?onueei? iiae. I?ioa o i?ioean? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo iiae
a?aeaoaaany aca?iiaieea cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a ??cieo iniia, ui coiiaeei
aaeeaaiiy /anoeie ?iaiiee?a c aeaiia aa??aioieie cae?i/aiiyie — -a oa
-o(-th). O no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia? ?iaiieee /ie.?iaeo ??cieo
no?oeoo?ieo a?oi aeyaeythoue iaaio oaiaeaioe?th aei aaeeaaiiy oiai /e
?ioiai cae?i/aiiy o eee/iiio a?aei?ieo. Aeey a?eueoino? c ieo oa?aeoa?ia
ae?acia oaiaeaioe?y aei ia?aaaaeiiai aaeeaaiiy cae?i/aiiy -a. Oae,
cae?i/aiiy -a aeanoeaa ?iaiieeai /ie.?iaeo c iniiaith ia a, e, o: ae?oa
— ae?oaea, /ieia?e — /ieia?/a, ianooo — ianoooa; ?iaiieeai ia -ae(-ye):
aiye — aiy/a, ai?aeye — ai?aey/a, a?ae — a?a/a; /anoei? ?iaiiee?a ia
-oe(-the) oa -iee: ai?noe — ai?no/a, a?nethe — a?neth/a, naethe —
naeth/a, aeo?aiee — aeo?aie/a (? aeo?aieeo), ?ia?oiee — ?ia?oie/a (?
?ia?oieeo) oiui. Cae?i/aiiy -o(-th) iathoue ia?aaaaeii ?iaiieee
/ie.?iaeo ?c noo?enii -a/: aaaa/ — aaaa/o, ao?ea/ — ao?ea/o, aeiaeyaea/
— aeiaeyaea/o; a oaeiae ?iaiieee ?c noo?enii -aoeue(-?oeue): ai?oeue —
a?eoeth, aae?aaoeue — aae?aoeth, aeaeaaaoeue — aeaeaaoeth, eoiaoeue —
eoioeth oa ?i. «Oe?a?inueeee i?aaiien» 1993 ?. aeaeaiiy ?aaeaiaioo? aeey
?iaiiee?a /ie.?iaeo ?c noo?enii -aoeue(-?oeue) o eee/iiio a?aei?ieo
cae?i/aiiy -a (ii?.: aeai/a, e?aa/a, iieiae/a, oeii/a, oaa/a), oi/ ?
iiaea? aeiyoee: a?eoeth, ciaaoeth11 Oe?a?inueeee i?aaiien. E.: Iaoe.
aeoiea, 1993. — Aeae.4. — N.74.. I?ioa iaoa??aee «I?oia?ao?/iiai
neiaieea oe?a?inueei? iiae» 1994 ?. aeaeaiiy ia?aeiiothoue o oiio, ui
aeey ?iaiiee?a ?c noo?enii -aoeue(-?oeue) iniiaiei o
eee/iiio a?aei?ieo ? cae?i/aiiy -th. Cae?i/aiiy -a oeae neiaiee iiaea?
eeoa aeey oaeeo ?iaiiee?a, ye aiaiiieaoeue, a?aoiaaeaaoeue, ai?iaaoeue,
aeiaoeue, ae?aoeue, e?aaaoeue, eiaaoeue, iieiaeaoeue, iaiioaoeue,
i?niaoai?aoeue, noa?aoeue, oeiiaoeue, /oaeioai?aoeue oiui. Aeey ?aooe
?iaiiee?a cae?i/aiiy eee/iiai a?aei?iea ia aecia/aii. Iaaaaeaia a
ia?aaeiia? aei neiaieea canoa?aaeaiiy, ui i?e ooai?aii? oi?ie eee/iiai
a?aei?iea a?ae oeeo ?iaiiee?a ia a?aeaoaa?oueny /a?aoaaiiy i?eaieinieo
caoe?a, aea? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui aiia ia? cae?i/aiiy -th. Oaeeo
?iaiiee?a ?c noo?enii -aoeue(-?oeue) ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue, ii?.:
aano???oeue, aia?eeaiaoeue, aiae??oeue, a?aiaoeue, aeaiaiaoeue,
aeai?aoeue, aiiaoeue, ai?aoeue, aea?aeaaaoeue, ?aeeiiai?aoeue,
?aeeiia??aoeue, ?iicaiaoeue, ioae?aoeue, ?aaieaaoeue, naiaoeue,
no?eaoiaoeue oa ?i.

O 90-o ?ieao iaoiai noie?ooy a oniiio e ienaiiiio e?oa?aoo?iiio iiaeaii?
o caa?oaiiyo ii/aa aeoeai?oa aeei?enoiaoaaoeny eee/iee a?aei?iie
cai?noue iaii?iaoeaiiai iaceaiiai.

Aa??aioi?noue oi?i eee/iiai a?aei?iea ? oeiiaei yaeuai aeey i??caeu
?iaiieeiaiai oeio. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue -a oa -o
caeaaeeoue a?ae no?oeoo?iiai oeio i??caeu. O i??caeuao ia -/oe,
-oe(-the), oeiey/ee oa ia a, o o eee/iiio a?aei?ieo oi?ie ?c cae?i/aiiyi
-a ia?aaaaeathoue iaae oi?iaie ?c cae?i/aiiyi -o: Aie/oe — Aie/o/a,
Aicithe — Aicith/a, ?ya/oe — ?ya/o/a, Aa?aaao — Aa?aaaoa, Ae?a/ —
Ae?a/a, Eyo — Eyoa. Ia iaoo aeoieo, oi?ia eee/iiai a?aei?iea ia -a a?ae
i??caeu ia -/oe ia aeoaea c?o/ia aeey aeiiae aiane?aeie iiaoi?aiiy
i?eaieiniiai caoea / o non?aei?o neeaaeao. Ieeicao/i?oith aeaea?oueny
oi?ia eee/iiai a?aei?iea i??caeu ?c cae?i/aiiyi -o, ii?.: Aie/oeo,
?ya/oeo, Naa/oeo oiui. Naia oe? oi?ie iiee ui ia?aaaaeathoue o no/aniiio
ienaiiiio oa oniiio oe?a?inueeiio iiaeaii?. Aeey i??caeu ia -aoeue
iniiaiei ? cae?i/aiiy -th a eee/iiio a?aei?ieo, cae?i/aiiy -a aenooia? a
iiiaeeiieeo, /?oei ia ie?aneaieo i? no?oeoo?ii, i? oaiaoe/ii i??caeuao,
ii?.: Eai?aaoeue — Eai?aoeth, Ethaa?aoeue — Ethaa?oeth, Ia?oeiaoeue —
Ia?oeioeth, aea Aaeaiaoeue — Aaeai/a, Aoaiaiaoeue — Aoaiai/a oiuiAo?y/ie
A.A. I?aaiieniee neiaiee ?iai ? iaeiioe?ai?oeo i??caeu. — E.:
Iaione?eio, 1996..

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? «Aa??aioi? oi?ie i?oaeiiai a?aei?iea iiiaeeie
?iaiiee?a a no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia?» aeyaeaii iniaeeaino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aa??aioieo oi?i ?iaiiee?a a i?oaeiiio a?aei?ieo,
cae?eniaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?oiueiai aaeeaaiiy a ??ci? ia??iaee
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iiae.

A «I?oia?ao?/iiio neiaieeo oe?a?inueei? iiae» 1994 ?. aeaeaiiy
cao?eniaaii oae? aa??aioi? oi?ie i?oaeiiai a?aei?iea iiiaeeie ?iaiiee?a,
ye ai??oueie ? ai?ioaie, aioaie ? aioeia, aooaie ? ooeia, a??oie ?
a?ioeia,

aeaa?ie ? aeaa?eia, e?iueie ? eiiyie, e?noueie ? einoyie, eieanaie ?
eie?nueie, eie?iaie ? eie?iueie, e?eeaie ? (o ioao?a) e?eeueie, naiueie
? naiyie, ne?cueie ? neueicaie, /ia?oueie ? /iaioaie (/iaioyie),
ooaiueie ? ooaiaie (ooaiyie) oiui. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth oeeo
aa??aioieo oi?i ? oa, ui aiie aeanoea? eeoa aeayeei ?iaiieeai, ye?
iaeaaeaoue aei ??cieo a?aei?i. Iaeaea? oi?ie ii?iaoeai?, i?ioa iniiaiith
? oi?ia c oeaen??th -aie(-yie). Iacaaaeath/e ia ii?iaoeai?noue iaio
aa??aioieo oi?i, aeaye? c ieo aeyaeythoue iaiaeiaeiao aeoeai?noue. O
ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO no. oe? oi?ie caciaee ooieoe?iiaeueiiai iaiaaeaiiy.
Aeey iaeieo oea aeyaeeiny a aeii?ioaaii? iaaii? oi?ie (e?iueie,
eieanaie), ?io? noaee iaaeeeoeiaeie ? aeeoee c oaeeoeo (eiycueie,
oneia), ?aooa ooieoe?iio? eeoa a i?noeaaeo aiai?ao (ainoyie, eo?yie) oa
o neeaae? o?acaieia?ci?a (iaoaoe a?na? ia?aae naeiyie (naeiueie) oiui.

Cae?eniaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a o no/ani?e
oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?i?e iia? aea? i?aenoaae c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee.
A?aei?ieiao ia?aaeeaio ?iaiiee?a no/anii? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae
oe?iei ioiieei aaeeaaiiy aa??aioieo oi?i. O ??ci? ia??iaee ?icaeoeo iiae
ci?ithaaeiny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae ieie. Iniaeeaino? aa??thaaiiy
a?aei?ieiaeo cae?i/aiue o ae?oa?e iieiaei? OO no. aeyaeythoueny a
aeoea?caoe?? iaei??? c aa??aioieo oi?i, cie?aia cae?i/aiue -ia?,
-aa?(-?a?) aeaaaeueiiai a?aei?iea iaeieie ?iaiiee?a /ie. ?
na?aaei.?iaeo, aaeeaaiiy oi?i ciao?aeiiai, ?aeaioe/ieo ?iaeiaiio
a?aei?ieo oiui, cieeiaii? canoa??eeo aa??aioieo oi?i i?oaeiiai a?aei?iea
iiiaeeie, o ?icoe?aii? eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai eiea ?iaiiee?a, ui
iaaoaathoue aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue o ?iaeiaiio a?aei?ieo, a oaeiae o
a?aeiiaeaii? aeaai?o aa??aioieo ?aae?caoe?e ?iaiiee?a ae?i.?iaeo ???
a?aei?ie, ye? aeiaaee /an o no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?i?e iia?
aaaaeaeeny iaii?iaoeaieie.

Iniiaiith i?e/eiith aa??thaaiiy a?aei?ieiaeo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a ?
ci?ooaaiiy oa aiaeia?eiee aieea oniaaeeiaaieo a?ae noa?i? aoaeiae iiae
ia?aaeeaiaoe/ieo a?aei?iiinoae o oeiao a?aei?ithaaiiy. Iniaeeaino?
i?noeaaeo aiai??a oaeiae ? ?noioiith ia?aaeoiiaith aa??aioiino? a iia? ?
i?iaeiaaeothoue ii?iaeaeoaaoe oeoaiiy o aeai?? oi?i. Iaaaeyeo ?ieue o
caa?aaeaii? e niaoe?ae?caoe?? aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a
a?ae?a?athoue oaeoi?e nioe?aeueiiai oa?aeoa?o: ci?ia nioe?aeueii?
no?oeoo?e ? eoeueoo?iiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy, ?ica?aeiino? a /anoio? aeai?o
i?iaeoeoeaieo aa??aio?a o ??cieo nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eieo a?oiao oiui.
E??i oeueiai, ?ioaineai?noue ii?oieia?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue caeaaeeoue a?ae
aaaaoueio naiaioeei-noee?noe/ieo, oiiaoeei-aeoeaiooaoe?eieo oa
no?oeoo?ii-neiaioa??ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ie?aii? eaenaie. Oey ??ciiieaiiaa
coiiaeai?noue ? ? i?e/eiith ia??aiii??iino? ooai?aiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aa??aio?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. A?aiaoe/i? oi?ie ?iaiiee?a o i?aoe? «Oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?a» ?.Ia??iea
// Aaeaoaiue iaoee: Iaoeiaee ca??iee. — E.,1997. — Aei.2. — N.45-47.

2. Iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? o ?icaeoeo aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a
/ieia?/iai ?iaeo a aeaaaeueiiio a?aei?ieo // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
a?aiaoeee: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — E??iaia?aae, 1997. — Aei.2. —
N.76-80.

3. Aa??aioi? oi?ie i?oaeiiai a?aei?iea iiiaeeie ?iaiiee?a o no/ani?e
oe?a?inuee?e iia? // Iiaa oa ?noi??y: Ia??iaee/iee ca??iee iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue. — E., 1998. — Aei.38. — N.8-11.

4. I?i neeaaei? aeiaaeee neiaici?ie ?iaiiee?a /ieia?/iai ?iaeo ??
a?aei?ie // I?i aeaye? aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae ? iaoiaeeee
?? aeeeaaeaiiy a iaaeaoc?: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo noaoae. — Aa?aeyinuee, 1995.
— N.86-96.

5. C?noaaii-oeiieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea cania?a ae?aaeaiiy ooieoe??
i?ecia/aiiy a oe?a?inuee?e ? ?in?enuee?e iiaao // I?iaeaie c?noaaii?
naiaioeee: Iaoa??aee ?anioae?eainueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — Ee?a;
*a?eane, 1992. — N.167-169.

6. I?iaeaia aa??aioiino? o ii?oieia?? // E?iaaiaeeaeaeoe/i? nooae?? ?
i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe: Ca??iee oac. *anoeia ?. — Aa?aeyinuee,
1993. — N.15-16.

THiiniaa A.I. Aa??aioi?noue a?aei?ieiaeo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a o no/ani?e
oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?i?e iia?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.01 — oe?a?inueea iiaa. — ?inoeooo
oe?a?inueei? iiae IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi aa??aioiino? a?aei?ieiaeo cae?i/aiue
?iaiiee?a o no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e iia?. O ?iaio? a?aeoai?aii neeaaeiee
i?ioean aca?iiae?? aa??aioieo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a o ??ci? ia??iaee
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae, anoaiiaeaii iia? caeiiii??iino? e
oaiaeaioe?? a ?icaeoeo aa??aioiino? a?aei?ieiaeo cae?i/aiue ?iaiiee?a,
ui ii/aee i?inoaaeoaaoeny aai aaea /?oei noi?ioaaeeny a 90-o ?ieao
iaoiai noie?ooy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aa??aioi?noue, ii?oieia?/i? aa??aioe, aa??aioe ne?a,
aa??aioe oi?i, a?aei?ieiaa cae?i/aiiy, aa??aioi? a?aei?ieia? cae?i/aiiy
?iaiiee?a, ?iaiieee — iacae ?noio oa ia?noio.

THiiniaa A.I. Aa?eaioiinoue iaaeaaeiuo ieii/aiee eiai nouanoaeoaeueiuo a
nia?aiaiiii oe?aeineii eeoa?aoo?iii ycuea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.01 — oe?aeineee ycue. — Einoeooo
oe?aeineiai ycuea IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai aa?eaioiinoe iaaeaaeiuo ieii/aiee eiai
nouanoaeoaeueiuo a nia?aiaiiii oe?aeineii ycuea. A ?iaioa io?aaeai
neiaeiue i?ioeann acaeiiaeaenoaey aa?eaioiuo ieii/aiee eiai
nouanoaeoaeueiuo a ?acee/iua ia?eiaeu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey oe?aeineiai
ycuea, ii?aaeaeaiu iiaua caeiiiia?iinoe e oaiaeaioeee a ?acaeoee
aa?eaioiinoe iaaeaaeiuo ieii/aiee eiai nouanoaeoaeueiuo, eioi?ua ia/aee
i?iyaeyoueny eee oaea /aoei ioi?ieeenue a 90-a aiaeu iaoaai aaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aa?eaioiinoue, ii?oieiae/aneea aa?eaiou, aa?eaiou neia,
aa?eaiou oi?i, iaaeaaeiia ieii/aiea, aa?eaioiua iaaeaaeiua ieii/aiey
eiai nouanoaeoaeueiuo, iaeooaaeaiiua e iaiaeooaaeaiiua eiaia
nouanoaeoaeueiua.

Yunosova V.A. Alternativeness of case’s endings of nouns in modern
Ukrainian literary language. — Manuscript.

The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree of the candidate
of philological sciences on a speciality 10.02.01 — Ukrainian language.
— Institute of the Ukrainian language NAS of Ukraine, Kiev, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to a question of alternativeness of case’s
endings of nouns in modern Ukrainian language. The complex process of
interaction of the alternative case’s endings of nouns in the different
periods of functioning of the Ukrainian language is reflected, the new
laws and tendencies in development of alternativeness of case’s endings
of nouns which have begun to be shown or already were precisely issued
per 90 years of our century are ascertained.

Key words: alternativeness, morphological variants, variants of words,
variants of the forms, case’s endings, alternative case’s endings of
nouns, names of animate and inanimate essences.

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