19

IAOe?IIAEUeIEE IAAeAAIA?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?IAI? I.I. Ae?AAIIAIIAA

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Ei?oae Oaoyia ?aaai??aia

OAeE 371.3+372.854+372.857

OCAAAEUeIAIIss ? NENOAIAOECAOe?ss IAA*AEUeIIAI

IAOA??AEO O*IssIE IA O?IEAO

(ia i?eeeaae? aea/aiiy a?ieia?? oa o?i?? a iniiai?e oeie?)

13.00.01 oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IAI*AIEI A?eai??e Aeaieniae/,

Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

aeaaeai?e AII Oe?a?ie

AII*A?AIEI Naiai Onoeiiae/,

?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe,

i?ia?aeiee niaoe?ae?no;

eaiaeeaeao iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

AI?ENTHE Na?oeaia Ieaen??aia,

I?aeeinueeee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.A. Aiaiey, aeioeaio.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo

?i. A.A. Ei?ieaiea, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, I?i?noa?noai

ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Iieoaaa.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “11” eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 16 aiae. 30 oa. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.26.053.02 a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio
iaaeaaia?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (01601, Ee?a,
aoe. Ie?iaiaa, 9).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa (01601, Ee?a, aoe.
Ie?iaiaa, 9)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 8 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aeieeinueea E.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A aeeoo? eiaeii? aea?aeaae iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaith
ni?aaith ? iaa/aiiy, aeoiaaiiy ? ?icaeoie iieiaeeo a?iiaaeyi, ye? i?ney
caeiaoooy ina?oe a?cueiooue ia naaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue aoaeoaaoe oeth
aea?aeaao, i?eiiiaeoaaoe ?? neaao ? aaaaonoai. Oiio iniiaieie
caeiiiaeaa/eie aeieoiaioaie iaoi? aea?aeaae — Eiinoeoooe??th Oe?a?ie,
Caeiiii Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo”, Aea?aeaaiith iaoe?iiaeueiith i?ia?aiith
“Ina?oa” (Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy) ia?aaeaa/athoueny ae??, ni?yiiaai? ia
noai?aiiy oiia, ye? a aeiiiiaaaee oi?ioaaoeny iieiaeiio a?iiaaeyieio,
i?aeaeuoaaoe na?e ?ioaeaeooaeueiee iioaioe?ae, ?icaeaaoenue ye oai?/a
iniaeno?noue. Iaeaieiai?oa ?ieue o oeueiio i?ioean? a?aeaiaeeoueny n?i’?
oa oeie?, oiaoi aaoueeai ? a/eoaeyi.

O i?ioean? ni?eueii? iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino? o/eoaey oa o/i?a iiaeiii
aooe caaacia/aii:

1) ciaiiy o/iyie iniia iaoe (iaoeiaeo oaeo?a, iiiyoue, oai?aoe/ieo
iiaeaeae, i?eioeei?a, caeii?a, oai??e);

2) ?icaeoie eia?/iiai ieneaiiy o/i?a, oi?iiy ei?enooaaoenue
?iaeoeoeaiei ? aeaaeoeoeaiei iaoiaeaie i?ciaiiy, ocaaaeueithaaoe,
nenoaiaoecoaaoe iaaoo? ciaiiy ? ei?enooaaoenue ieie aeey iiyniaiue yaeu
aeiae?eey oa aeey i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino?;

3) iaieiae?iiy iiaith a?aeiia?aeii? iaoee, ?? oa?i?iieia??th ? ai?iiyi
ei?enooaaoeny ieie aeey aiae?co iaoeiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? aeeeaaeo iniiaieo
i?e?iaeie/i-iaoeiaeo a?aeiiinoae;

4) oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a oi?iue aanoe niinoa?aaeaiiy yaeu i?e?iaee,
oaoi?ee, oaoiieia?e, nenoaiaoecoaaoe ?acoeueoaoe niinoa?aaeaiue,
ieaioaaoe ? aanoe aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia?iaeyoe ?o
?acoeueoaoe ? aeei?enoiaoaaoe o iiaeaeueo?e i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? ?
iaa/aii?;

5) iaieiae?iiy oi?iiyie ei?enooaaoeny iaei?ino?oeie, o oiio /ene?
no/anieie, caniaaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue;

6) ?icaeoie oi?iue ? iaae/ie ?ica’ycoaaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caaea/ ??cieo
oei?a, o oiio /ene? i?ciaaaeueieo ? oai?/eo, aeei?enoiaoth/e no/ani?
iaoaiaoe/i? caniae, a?ao?ee, aeia?aeeiao e?oa?aoo?o;

7) oi?ioaaiiy iaoeiaiai na?oiaeyaeo o/i?a oa ?o ae?aeaeoe/iiai
ieneaiiy;

8) aeoiaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai ieneaiiy ? iiaaae?iee, i?aoeaethaiino? e
iaiieaaeeaino?, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iaeaooi? i?e?iaee ? ethaenoaa.

Aiae?c e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae oa i?aeoeee ae?yeueiino? no/anii? oeiee
aea? iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeie c
i?aeoe/iiai aieo ? ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c ?icaeoeii aeoeaiiai,
naiino?eiiai, oai?/iai ieneaiiy ae?oae.

Aeioe?eueii iaa/aoe o/i?a ia eeoa ci?noo i?aaeiaoo, a e ?icoiiaei
iia?aoe?yi. Oae? caaaeaiiy o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy iaaiith i??ith noaaeeenue
caaaeaee, aea iniaeeai aeooaeueieie aiie noathoue oaia?, eiee oeiea
ia?aoiaeeoue ia iiaee, aeuee nooi?iue ?icaeoeo. A oiiaao noai?aiiy ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy noaiaea?o?a caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe, iaei??th c
iniiaieo oe?eae ina?oe ? iaieiae?iiy o/iyie iniiaaie iaoiae?a
i?e?iaeie/i-iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaeei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yie?a ?
oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a oi?iiy nenoaiaoecoaaoe ?acoeueoaoe yaeu i?e?iaee ?
oaoi?ee, ?iaeoe ocaaaeueiaiiy oa ioe?ithaaoe ?o a??ia?aei?noue oa iaae?
canoinoaaiiy, ieaioaaoe oa i?iaiaeeoe aenia?eiaioe oiui.

?icaeoie ieneaiiy ae?oae ?icaeyaeaee a nai?o ?iaioao I.ss. Aaeueia??i,
Ae.?. Aaoeaae/, Ae.A. Aeueeii?i, E.A. Caieia, A.N. Einothe, I.I.
Eaiioue?a, N.E. ?oa?iooaei, I.A. Ne?ei/aiei, A.I. Oaieia, I.E. Oeoiie?ia
oa ?i.

I?iaeaio oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a ieneaii?aeo ae?e ?ica’ycoaaee A.A.
Aeaaeaeia, ?.I. Eaaaiiaa-Iaeea?, I.I. Iai/einueea, A.I Iieuoe, A.O.
Iaeaia?/oe, I.I. Iini?eia, ?.I. Iini?eia, A.A. Oniaa, I.O. Oaeec?ia oa
?i.

Iaoiaeeeo ?iaioe c oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ?
nenoaiaoecoaaoe iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae, ia iniia? ci?noo eiie?aoieo
i?aaeiao?a ?ic?iaeyee: A.?. Aa?ei, O.E. Aiaaeaiiaa, ?.O. A?iae?ia, ?.I.
A?oiiao, I.I. Ao?einueea, E.I. Aaee/ei, A.I. Aeaiooao, I.O. Aeia?ei?ia,
N.I. Aeoaianueeee, A.?. Eaiaoeeia, I.I. Eiaaeueiaa, E.A. Eeiiaa, I.?.
Eoeaoiaa, E.I. I?oaeeeia, ?.I. Iena/ei, A.I. ?icoiaiei, A.O. Noaea??aa,
E.ss. Oaae/aiei, ?.?. Oiaethe I.I. *ae/aiei, I.A. ss?ioaiei oa ?i.

Oae, I.I. *ae/aiei, A.O. Noaea??aa ?ic?iaeee ? aoaeoeaii canoiniaothoue
ia o?ieao o?i?? o 8-io eean? ocaaaeueithth/? noaie, iiyniththoue
iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae aeaaeoeoeaiei iaoiaeii. Oaei? ae oi/ee ci?o, uiaei
aeioe?eueiino? aeaaeoeoeaiiai iaoiaeo iaa/aiiy o?i?? a eeanao
o?i?ei-a?ieia?/iiai i?io?eth aeio?eio?oueny A.I. Aeaiooao, yea aaaaea?,
ui nooue i?eioeeio ci?noiaiiai ocaaaeueiaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aea/aiiy
aoaeue-yeiai ?icae?eo i?ia?aie iiaeiii ii/eiaoenue c iciaeiieaiiy o/i?a
c caaaeueieie iniiaaie ciaiue, ye ?o yae?ii. O i?ioean? ?icaeoeo yae?i
ana a?eueoa ioi/o?oueny eiie?aoiei ci?noii.

A.I. E?ea?/oe a ?iai/eo cioeoao c o?i?? i?iiiio? o/iyi caaaeaiiy c
aeei?enoaiiy aioiaeo noai ? oaaeeoeue.

Iaoiaeeeo iaa/aiiy oeiey??a ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? c aeei?enoaiiyi
aeai?eoi?a ?ic?iaeee ?.I. Iena/ei (o?ceea), Ae.I. ??ea?i, ?.I. Oeoe?i,
I.A. ss?ioaiei (o?i?y) oa ?io?.

N.A. Aeoaianueeee aeine?aeaeoaaa ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy ai?iiy
nenoaiaoecoaaoe ciaiiy o/iyie aeiiii?aeii? oeiee i?e aea/aii? aaia?ao??.

A.I. ??aeaaoeaaa oa E.ss. Oaae/aiei aea/aee ieoaiiy nenoaiaoecaoe?? ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy ciaiue o/i?a o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy iaoaiaoeee. Aiie
aeine?aeaeoaaee iinooiiaa oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a oi?iiy ocaaaeueithaaoe
i?ioyaii onueiai i?ioeano iaa/aiiy, i?e ia?aoiae? o/i?a c iaeiiai eeano
aei ianooiiiai.

?.I. A?oiiao oa ?.O. A?iae?ia aeine?aeaeoaaee oi?ioaaiiy i?eeii?a
?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a ia iaoa??ae? a?ieia??. I.ss. Naa/aiei
?ic?iaeea ai?aae aeey oi?ioaaiiy ai?iiy ocaaaeueithaaoe aeey o/i?a
ii/aoeiaeo eean?a. I.I. Iini?eia oa ?.I. Iini?eia aea/aee i?ioeane
oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ieneaii?aeo i?ioean?a o noa?oieeaniee?a ia ci?no?
aaiiao???, ?noi??? oa aeayeeo ?ioeo i?aaeiao?a.

Oaeei /eiii, aiae?c ineoieia?/ii?, iaaeaaia?/ii? oa iaoiaee/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e c ieoaiue oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a ieneaii?aeo iia?aoe?e iieacaa,
ui ?ic?iaeai? caaaeaiiy oa ai?aae c oi?ioaaiiy ieneaii?aeo iia?aoe?e a
o/i?a ii/aoeiai? oeiee, ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?icaeoeo ai?iiy
ocaaaeueithaaoe ia iaoa??ae? iaaieo oai eo?no aaiiao??? oa aeai?eoie
aeey ?ica’ycoaaiiy aeayeeo oei?a o?ce/ieo oa o?i?/ieo caaea/; a oaeiae
i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy c oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue cae?enithaaoe ieneaii?a?
iia?aoe?? ia ci?no? eo?n?a a?ieia?? oa aaia?ao??. I?ioa, ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aaoi?e iiaeathoue ocaaaeueiaiiy ?
nenoaie o aioiaiio aeaeyae?, ia a?aoiaoth/e, ui /anoeia o/i?a ia ai??
ieie ei?enooaaoeny, a oaeiae aoaeothoue naith ?iaioo c oeiey?aie
aeaaeoeoeaiei iaoiaeii. Iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaia nenoaia ?iaioe
a/eoaey ? o/i?a o i?ioean? canoinoaaiiy aeai?eoi?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/,
iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaiee iaoai?ci oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a oi?iue
ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, ia aeyaeaii
ineoieiai-aeeaeaeoe/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy ??cieo nenoai ia
iaoa??ae? i?e?iaeie/eo i?aaeiao?a aeey o/i?a iniiaii? oeiee, ye? iaaoee
inoaii?i /anii nooo?aeo ci?i. Ana aeua ia?a?aoiaaia ? iaoiiaeei aea??
oaie iaoiai aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?
nenoaiaoecaoe?y iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo o/iyie ia o?ieao (ia i?eeeaae?
aea/aiiy a?ieia?? oa o?i?? a iniiai?e oeie?)”. Oaia aeena?oaoe??
aoiaeeoue aei ieaio iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?iaioe eaoaae?e iaaeaaia?ee IIO
?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa. Caoaa?aeaeaia ?aaeith c eii?aeeiaoe?? iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc? iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? Aeaaeai??
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie (i?ioieie ? 5 a?ae 14.06.99 ?.).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy iaa/aeueia ae?yeuei?noue o/i?a na?aaeiuei?
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?iiy ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe
o/iyie iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae.

Iaoa ?iaioe ?ic?iaeoe aeeaeaeoe/io nenoaio ai?aa ? i?ciaaaeueieo
caaaeaiue c i?e?iaeie/eo aeenoeeie?i, ni?yiiaaio ia ?icaeoie a o/i?a
iniiaii? oeiee oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe ciaiiy oa
aeyaeoe ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae ?? aoaeoeaiino?.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. A iniiao iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei iieeaaeaii
i?eiouaiiy i?i oa, ui niaoe?aeueia nenoaia i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue ?
ai?aa, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?icaeoie oi?iue ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe??
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo oa i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy canai?iiy ciaiue ?
oni?oiino? o/i?a, aoaea aoaeoeaiith ca oiia:

iayaiino? o oeiey??a iiceoeaii? iaa/aeueii? iioeaaoe??;

iayaiino? iaiao?aeiiai ae??aiai aia?aoo, caeaoiino? o/i?a aei aiae?co
oa naiiaiae?co;

caaacia/aiiy iine?aeiaiino? o ?icaeoeo ai?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ?
nenoaiaoecoaaoe iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae;

ii?aeiaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ? oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a c iinooiiaei
ia?aoiaeii aei naiino?eii? ?iaioe.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ? ia?aa??ee a?iioace aoee iinoaaeai? oae?
caaaeaiiy:

1. C’ynoaaoe noai ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a oi?iue
ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? a ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?e oai??? oa
i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe no/anii? oeiee.

2. ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio caaaeaiue ? ai?aa aeey oi?ioaaiiy ocaaaeueiaiiy ?
nenoaiaoecaoe?? ciaiue oeiey??a o i?ioean? aea/aiiy i?aaeiao?a
i?e?iaeie/iai oeeeeo oa aenia?eiaioaeueii ?? ia?aa??eoe.

3. Aeyaeoe oa ai?iaoaaoe ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? oiiae aoaeoeaiino?
?ic?iaeaii? nenoaie c oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ?
nenoaiaoecoaaoe ciaiiy.

4. ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeey o/eoae?a c ieoaiue
oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe ciaiiy.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy
o?einio??, ineoieia??, iaaeaaia?ee c i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoino? ?,
cie?aia, iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy
?icoiiaeo ae?e ? i?eeii?a ?icoiiai? ae?yeueiino?, nenoaiiiai ieneaiiy;
i?eioeeie ?icaeaaeueiiai iaa/aiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oiooaaeiny ia
iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo Caeiio Oe?a?ie “I?i ina?oo”, Aea?aeaaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie “Ina?oa” (“Oe?a?ia XXI noie?ooy”) i?i ci?no ?
caaaeaiiy caaaeueiiina?oiuei? i?aeaioiaee o/i?a oa Eiioeaioe?? aaciai?
a?ieia?/ii? oa o?i?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.

?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeeny oeyoii
aeei?enoaiiy oaeeo iaoiae?a:

1) oai?aoe/ieo: aea/aiiy oa aiae?c o?einionueei?,
ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii?, iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aiae?c i?ia?ai, i?ae?o/iee?a, iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a c
a?ieia??, o?i?? oa ?yaeo ?ioeo i?aaeiao?a;

2) aii??e/ieo: aea/aiiy i?aeoeee ?iaioe a/eoae?a a?ieia?? oa o?i??
no/anii? oeiee c ia?aieo aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue; niinoa?aaeaiiy,
iieooaaiiy, iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio, noaoenoe/i? iaoiaee ia?iaee
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny a o?e aoaie.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1992-1995 ?.?.) cae?enithaaany oai?aoe/iee aiae?c
i?iaeaie, o i?ioean? yeiai inienethaaany ? eiie?aoecoaaany iiiyo?eiee
aia?ao, aecia/aeenue iaoiaeieia?/i? ? oai?aoe/i? iiceoe??
aeine?aeaeaiiy. A oeae ia??iae aaoi?ea i?aoethaaea ca o?aaeeoe?eiith
iaoiaeeeith aeeeaaeaiiy i?e?iaeie/eo i?aaeiao?a (cie?aia a?ieia?? ?
o?i??), niinoa??aaea ?iaioo ?ioeo a/eoae?a ia aac? na?aaeiuei? oeiee ?
182, ?onai?anueeiai e?oeath oa ?ioeo oe?e Aea?ieoeueeiai ?aeiio i?noa
Ee?aa. Naia a oeae ia??iae o aaoi?a aeieeea iio?aaa aeaoaeueii aea/eoe
ieoaiiy uiaei ?icaeoeo ?ioaeaeoo oeiey?a a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy eiai
i?e?iaeie/ei aeenoeeie?iai. Aoa cae?eniaiee eiinoaooth/ee
aenia?eiaio-eiio?ieue ciaiue c i?aaeiao?a ? oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ?
nenoaiaoecoaaoe iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aeoaa?aeeee
iaiao?aei?noue iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie oa ?ic?iaee iiai?
iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie ?iaioe a/eoaey uiaei ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe??
ciaiue ? ai?iue o/i?a o i?ioean? iaa/aiiy i?e?iaeie/ei aeenoeeie?iai.
Aoee aecia/ai? aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoa, a?iioaca
oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1995-1996 ?.?.) aecia/aeeny ?ieue ? i?noea
ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ci?noo, ciaiue ? oi?iue o/i?a i?e
aea/aii? i?e?iaeie/eo aeenoeeie?i, ?ic?iaeyeany iaoiaee/ia nenoaia
?iaioe a/eoaey uiaei iaa/aiiy o/i?a ocaaaeueiaiith ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ia
ci?no? i?aaeiao?a a?ieia?? ? o?i?? oa i?iaiaeeeany ai?iaaoe?y, aaeeny
iiooee iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a, i?eeii?a ? oi?i ocaaaeueiaiiy ?
nenoaiaoecaoe?? ciaiue ? oi?iue oeiey??a; c’yniaoaaeany i?aeoe/ia
cia/ou?noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aaoi?a, ?acoeueoaoeai?noue
?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ocaaaeueiaiiy ?
nenoaiaoecaoe?? iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, ciaiue ? oi?iue o/i?a c
a?ieia?? ? o?i??; i?iaiaeeany ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ??aiy ? yeino?
iia?aoe?e ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe??, ui cae?enithaaeeny o/iyie
aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? eiio?ieueieo eean?a.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1997-1998 ?.?.) ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
ai?iaaaeaeoaaeeny a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe a/eoae?a, i?iaiaeeeany
aenia?eiaioaeueia ia?aa??ea aoaeoeaiino? ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaee/ii? nenoaie
iaa/aiiy o/i?a ocaaaeueiaiith ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ia ci?no? i?e?iaeie/eo
i?aaeiao?a; eiie?aoecoaaeeny oa ocaaaeueithaaeeny ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy; cae?enithaaeany ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo oa
e?oa?aoo?ia ioi?ieaiiy aeena?oaoe??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?ic?iaeaii, oai?aoe/ii
iaa?oioiaaii ? ai?iaiaaii iiao iaoiaee/io nenoaio iaa/aiiy o/i?a
ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe ciaiiy, yea ia eeoa i?aeaeuo? ??aaiue
?oi?o ciaiue, a e ni?ey? ?icaeoeo oai?/eo cae?aiinoae o/i?a, noeioeth?
?o oai?/o aeoeai?noue, ieneaii?aa ni?eeiyooy e inieneaiiy nooiino?
neeaaeieo i?ioean?a, noeeuei?noue aei aeeaieeo ?icaeoi?a iaae
iaoa??aeii, ui aea/a?oueny, oi?iiy aeae?eyoe aieiaia, nooo?aa a
i?iaeai?, naiino?eii (/e c iaaiith iacia/iith aeiiiiiaith) ??
ae??ooaaoe; aeyaeaii oiiae ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? aoaeoeaiino?
?ic?iaeaii? nenoaie i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue ? ai?aa: iayai?noue o
oeiey??a iiceoeaii? iaa/aeueii? iioeaaoe??, iaiao?aeiiai ae??aiai
aia?aoo, caeaoi?noue aei aiae?co ? naiiaiae?co, caaacia/aiiy
iine?aeiaiino? o ?icaeoeo oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe
iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae, ii?aeiaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ? oai?/i? ae?yeueiino?
o/i?a c iinooiiaei ia?aoiaeii aei naiino?eii? ?iaioe; aecia/aii e?eoa???
ioe?ithaaiiy i?iyao ai?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe iaa/aeueiee
iaoa??ae o/iyie oa ??ai? noi?iiaaiino? oeeo oi?iue.

Oai?aoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui eiai ?acoeueoaoe
aeiiiaiththoue iieiaeaiiy ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee i?i nooi?noue ?
?ieue ocaaaeueiaiiy oa nenoaiaoecaoe?? a iaa/aii? oeiey??a,
eiie?aoecothoue oeyoe ?o oi?ioaaiiy ia o?ieao i?aaeiao?a i?e?iaeie/iai
oeeeeo (a?ieia?? oa o?i??), ?icoe?ththoue oyaeaiiy i?i iiaeeeaino?,
oiiae oa caniae oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a iniiaii? oeiee oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe
oa nenoaiaoecoaaoe ciaiiy, ?ice?eaathoue ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?
iniaeeaino? ?iaioe a/eoaey iaae oeeie oi?iiyie ye iaiao?aeiiio aoai?
?ioaeaeooaeueiiai noaiiaeaiiy iniaenoino? oeiey?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? oa
ai?iaaaeaeaii? a ?iaioo oe?e nenoaie iaa/aeueieo caaaeaiue, ni?yiiaaieo
ia oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a oi?iue cae?enithaaoe ?ioaeaeooaeuei? ae??
ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey
a/eoae?a uiaei aoaeoeaiiai oi?ioaaiiy oaeeo oi?iue o oeiey??a.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a neeaaea? eiiieaenia aea/aiiy iiiyoue
“ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?y”, a oaeiae o noai?aii? nenoaie
ae?yeueiino? a/eoaey c ?o ?icaeoeo a o/i?a ia aac? ci?noo i?aaeiao?a
i?e?iaeie/iai oeeeeo; a aecia/aii? oiia aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy oe???
nenoaie; a ?ic?iaoe? e?eoa???a ioe?ithaaiiy noi?iiaaiino? oi?iue
ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe oa o aecia/aii? ??ai?a noi?iiaaiino?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeany a na?aaei?e oeie?
? 182, ?onai?anueeiio e?oea? oa ?ioeo oeieao Aea?ieoeueeiai ?aeiio i?noa
Ee?aa. Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ia ca?oii-iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo eaoaae? iaaeaaia?ee oa iaoiaeeee aeeeaaeaiiy
i?e?iaeie/i-aaia?ao?/ieo aeenoeeie?i IIO ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa a 1998
oa 1999 ?ioe?, a oaeiae ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “Noaiaea?oe caaaeueii? na?aaeiuei? ina?oe. I?iaeaie,
iiooee, ia?niaeoeae” (Ee?a, 1996) oa ia eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e
ieoaiiyi i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey a?ieia??, ui a?aeaoeanue a OAeAIOe a 1998
?.

A??ia?aei?noue ? iaa?oioiaai?noue ?acoeueoao?a ? aeniiae?a, io?eiaieo a
i?ioean? aenia?eiaioo, caaacia/ai? iii?ith ia aeo?aei? iieiaeaiiy
no/anii? oai??? i?ciaiiy, ?aae?caoe??th nenoaiii-oe?e?niiai i?aeoiaeo
aei aenia?eiaioaeueieo iiooe?a, a?aeiia?aei?noth iaoiae?a iaaeaaia?/iiai
aenia?eiaioo iao? oa caaaeaiiyi aeine?aeaeaiiy, e?euee?niei ? ye?niei
aiae?cii oai?aoe/iiai oa aii??e/iiai iaoa??aeo, iiaiioith ?
noaoenoe/iith cia/ou?noth ?acoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo i?ae /an aenia?eiaioo.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

1. Iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? i?aeoiaee, ye?
aecia/athoue oni?oe oeiey??a o oi?ioaaii? oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ?
nenoaiaoecoaaoe ciaiiy, ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye neeaaeio aeeiai?/io nenoaio
?iaioe a/eoaey, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aioo??oiuei-ooieoe?iiaeueieie
ca’yceaie ae?yeueiino? a nenoai?: “o/eoaeue-o/aiue” ia iniia?
noa’?eo-noa’?eoieo a?aeiinei.

2. Nenoaia o?ie?a c a?ieia?? ? o?i??, ?ic?iaeaia c aeoeaioaoe??th ia
oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie a o/i?a oi?iue ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe??, ui
? a?eueo aoaeoeaiith o ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eiith ca oiia: iayaiino? o
oeiey??a iiceoeaii? iaa/aeueii? iioeaaoe??, iaiao?aeiiai ae??aiai
aia?aoo, caeaoiino? aei aiae?co ? naiiaiae?co, caaacia/aiiy
iine?aeiaiino? o ?icaeoeo oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe
iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae, ii?aeiaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ? oai?/i? ae?yeueiino?
o/i?a n iinooiiaei ia?aoiaeii aei naiino?eii? ?iaioe.

3. Aeeaeaeoe/ii-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue
ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe ciaiiy o/iyie ia o?ieao o?i?? oa
a?ieia??, ui iiaea aooe o?ainoi?iiaaia e ia ?io? i?e?iaeie/? i?aaeiaoe.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia eia?eith aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa nieneo 201
aeei?enoaiiai aeaea?aea. Ianya aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 189
noi??iee. O ?iaio? ? 23 oaaeeoe?, 18 noai, 2 iaethiee ia 2 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii ia’?eo,
i?aaeiao, iaoo, a?iioaco, caaaeaiiy, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi
iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iieiaeaiiy, ui
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaaaaeaii aeaii? i?i ai?iaaoe?th oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oai?aoe/i? iniiae ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe??
ciaiue, oi?iue ? iaae/ie o/i?a ia o?ioe?” c?iaeaii aiae?c caeiaooe?a
iaoeiaoe?a c oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy c iiceoe?? no/aniiai i?aeoiaeo aei
iiaoaeiae iaa/aeueiiai i?ioeano, ui ia?aaeaa/a? i???ioaoe?th noa’?eo?a
iaa/aiiy ia no?eueee ia iaaio noio iaoeiaeo ciaiue, ne?eueee ia ?o
ye?noue. Ine?eueee ia’?i ?ioi?iaoe??, ui i?iiiio? oe?eueia i?ia?aia,
aeoaea aaeeeee, ia ia?oa i?noea aenooia? i?iaeaia ?icaeoeo o oeiey??a
iia?aoe?e ieneaiiy. Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae ieneaii?aeo iia?aoe?e
caeiathoue ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?y ciaiue, oi?iue oa iaae/ie.

Ooiaeaiaioaeuei? ?iaioe a aaeoc? aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?ioaaiiy ieneaii?aeo
iia?aoe?e o ae?oae c?iaeai? A.A. Aeaaeaeiaei, ?.I. Eaaaiiaith-Iaeea?,
A.N. Einotheii, I.I. Eaiioue?aei, N.E. ?oa?iooaeiii, I.A. Ne?ei/aieii,.
A.A. Oniaith.

Ia aeoieo A.A. Aeaaeaeiaa ocaaaeueiaiiy ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye i?ioean ?
ye ?acoeueoao neeaaeii? ineo?/ii? ae?yeueiino?. A?i aeae?ey? aea?
iniiai? a?oie yaeu, c yeeie, cacae/ae, ca’ycai? oe? oa?i?ie. sseui
ia?oueny ia oaac? i?ioean ocaaaeueiaiiy, oi aeaco?oueny ia ia?ao?ae
aeeoeie a?ae iienoaaiiy aeanoeainoae ie?aiiai i?aaeiaoa aei
ciaoiaeaeaiiy ? aeae?eaiiy a oe?eiio eean? iiae?aieo i?aaeiao?a. Ooo
o/aiue ia? ciaoiaeeoe ? aeae?eeoe no?ee?, ui iiaoi?ththoueny,
aeanoeaino? oeeo i?aaeiao?a.

?acoeueoao oeueiai i?ioeano oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iayai?noth ai?iiy
oeiey?a aano?aaoaaoenue a?ae aeayeeo ie?aieo ? aa??thth/eo iciae
i?aaeiaoo. ?acoeueoaoii ocaaaeueiaiiy, ye i?aaeei, ? iiiyooy, ye
aeoiea, ui a?aeia?aaea? a ocaaaeueiai?e oi?i? i?aaeiaoe ? yaeua
ae?eniino?, ca’ycee i?ae ieie /a?ac o?enaoe?th caaaeueieo ? niaoeeo?/ieo
iciae, a yeino? yeeo aenooiathoue aeanoeaino? i?aaeiao?a ? yaeu oa
a?aeiineie i?ae ieie.

A.I. Iieuoe a?aecia/a?, ui ocaaaeueiaiiy o?nii iia’ycaia c
nenoaiaoecaoe??th, nooue yei? a ?iciiae?e? i?aaeiao?a oa yaeu ca a?oiaie
oa i?aea?oiaie a caeaaeiino? a?ae ?en noiaeino? ? a?aei?iiino?.
O?aaeeoe?eia aeeaeaeoeea aaaaea?, ui nenoaiaoecoaaoe iaa/aeueiee
iaoa??ae — icia/a? ?ici?uoaaoe eiai a iaaiiio ii?yaeeo,
iine?aeiaiino?. Ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?y ye aoaie i?ciaiiy
iathoue i?eaanoe aei aecia/aiiy iine?aeiaiino? ? i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy
aea/aieo ? canai?ieo ?ai?oa ?iaeiaeo iiiyoue ia iniia? anoaiiaeaieo i?ae
ieie nooo?aeo ca’yce?a /e noinoie?a, aecia/eoe i?noea iiiyooy, ui
aea/a?oueny, a nenoai? a?aeiia?aeieo ciaiue. A naith /a?ao i?ae
nenoaiith ciaiue ?icoi?thoue noeoii?noue, ia’?aeiaiiy aca?iica’ycaieo ?
?ici?uaieo iaaiei /eiii aeaiaio?a (/anoei) oe?eiai, noeoii?noue
i?eioeei?a, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a iniia? o??? /e ?ioi? oai???.

Ioaea, canai?oe iniiai? oai??? ? i?ia?aei? ?aea? iaoee — icia/a?
canai?oe a?aeiia?aei? nenoaie ciaiue (i?eioeei?a, iiiyoue, caeiiii??ieo
ca’yce?a ? aca?iicaeaaeiinoae i?ae yaeuaie oa i?ioeanaie ?aaeueii?
ae?eniino?). Iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo cania?a canai?iiy nenoaie ciaiue ?
? ocaaaeueiaiiy oa nenoaiaoecaoe?y, ye? canoiniaothoueny ye a i?ioean?
aea/aiiy iiaiai iaoa??aeo, oae ? ia ie?aieo aoaiao o?ieo aai ia
niaoe?aeueieo o?ieao ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe??. Nenoaiaoecaoe?y
a?aeia?aaea? ?a/?, i?aaeiaoe, yaeua a noaoeoe?, i?ecaiaeeoue aei
a?oioaaiiy i?aaeiao?a, aei eeaneo?eaoe?? ?o. Aea aiia cian?i
iaaeinoaoiy, ai ana a na?o? ciaoiaeeoueny a ?on? ? a ?icaeoeo, o
aca?iica’yceao ? aca?iicaeaaeiinoyo, ye? iathoue aooe a?aeia?aaeaieie a
nenoaiaoeciaaieo ciaiiyo. Oiio nenoaiaoecaoe?y ciaiue aeyaey?oueny
aieiaiei /eiii o a?aeia?aaeaii? no?oeoo?e — neeaaeo ? aca?iica’yce?a —
eiiiiiaio?a ia’?eo?a.

Aiae?c o?einionueeeo, ineoieia?/ieo oa iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoeue c i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaa, ui a/ai? aeae?eythoue aeaee ocaaaeueiaiiy a
caeaaeiino? a?ae iciaee, iieeaaeaii? a iniiao c?noaaeaiiy oa iiae?eo
oeeo ieneaii?aeo iia?aoe?e ia a?oie.

Oae, o?einionueeee aioeeeeiiaaee/iee neiaiee aea? aecia/aiiy ?
oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaio aeae?a ocaaaeueiaiiy — ?iaeoeoeaiiai ? eia?/iiai
(iiae?e c?iaeaii ca niiniaii cae?eniaiiy ocaaaeueiaiiy). Ca oeei aea
e?eoa???i Ae.A. Aeueeii?i ? A.A. Aeaaeaeia aeae?eythoue
oi?iaeueii-aii??e/ia oa ci?noiaia ocaaaeueiaiiy, a ?.I. Eaaaiiaa-Iaeea?
?ic??ciy? aeaiooacia oa ?cieueiaaia ocaaaeueiaiiy (c iii?ith ia iai/iee
iaoa??ae oa ocaaaeueiaiiy neiaanii-eia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o).

I.E Oeoiie?ia ia iniia? iciae aeiaaeeiaino? ? eiiieaeniino? ?ic??ciy?
neie?aoe/ia ? eiiieaenia ocaaaeueiaiiy.

A.I. Iieuoe aeae?ey? ua aea? iciaee ? aea? aea? eeaneo?eaoe?? aeae?a
ocaaaeueiaiiy: ca i?noeai a i?ioean? iaa/aiiy (ia?aeiia, eieaeueia,
iio?i/ia, oaiaoe/ia, i?aenoieiaa) oa ca ia’?iii (/anoeiaa,
/anoeiai-nenoaiia, aioo??oiuei-nenoaiia, nenoaiia, i?aei?aaeiaoia).

A ineoieia?/iiio aniaeo? oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie ieneaii?aeo iia?aoe?e ia
iniia? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aea/aeenue I.A. Ne?ei/aieii oa eiai oeieith
(?.N. Aoeao, A.I. Eenyinueea, I.I. Eeia, I.A. Iia??/aiei oa ?i.).

Aoaeue-yeee iaa/aeueiee i?aaeiao aea? cia/i? iiaeeeaino? aeey ai?aa c
ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ??cieo ia’?eo?a. Oea iiaea a?aeaoaaoeny
a oiae? noiooiuei? /e niaoe?aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, a a ?yae? aeiaaee?a
caeia? oeaio?aeueia i?noea a iaa/aeuei?e ?iaio? oeiey??a. Aaaeeeai, uia
a/eoaeue iiia?aaeiuei nieaioaaa ??, /?oei oi?ioethth/e iaeaeeae/o iaoo,
ca’ycaio ia eeoa c canai?iiyi ciaiue, aea e c aeinyaiaiiyi iaaiiai ??aiy
noi?iiaaiino? ai?iiy ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe??, a oaeiae
aeio?eioaaany iaaieo ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ieo oiia.

Iia?aoe?? ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe??, c iaeiiai aieo, aeiaaathoue
a?ae o/iy aeineoue aenieiai ??aiy ieneeoaeueieo cae?aiinoae ? aeeaieiai
ciaiiy iaoa??aeo, yeee ocaaaeueith?oueny ? nenoaiaoeco?oueny, a c ?ioiai
— iaieiae?iiy o/iai oeeie iia?aoe?yie ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith eiai eia?/ii?
a?aiioiino?, ?icaeoeo ieneaiiy ? i?oeiiio canai?iith iaa/aeueiiai
iaoa??aeo.

Oaei? oi/ee ci?o, ui o/i?a iio??aii iaa/eoe caaaeueiei iaoiaeai
ae?yeueiino?, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo aiie naiino?eii ? ona?aeiieaii
aecia/athoue iine?aeiai? ae??, i?eo?eiothoueny aaaaoi a/eoae?a oa
iaoeiaoe?a, iaaeaaia?a oa ineoieia?a.

Iaaaaeaii i?eeeaaee, ye i?aoeththoue aeaye? iaoeiaoe? c o/iyie i?e
?ica’ycoaai? ?ic?aooieiaeo caaea/.

Oae, A.?. Aa?ei i?iiiio? oaeo iine?aeiai?noue ae?e:

1. I?iaiae?coeoa caieoaiiy caaea/?, c’ynoeoa, ui aeaii ? ui iio??aii
caeoe.

2. Aecia/oa, ye? aeai? iaiao?aeii aeey a?aeiia?ae? ia caieoaiiy
caaea/?.

3. C’ynoeoa, /e an? iaiao?aei? aeai? iaaaaeai? a oiia? caaea/?, yeui
i?, aecia/oa niin?a ciaoiaeaeaiiy iaa?aeiieo aaee/ei.

4. Iai?oueoa iine?aeiai?noue iia?aoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia ciaoiaeaeaiiy
a?aeiia?ae? (aeai?eoi ?ica’ycaiiy).

5. ?aae?coeoa iai?/aiee niin?a ?ica’ycaiiy.

6. Ia?aa??oa ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/?.

I.A. ss?ioaiei i?iiiio? oaeee “Aeai?eoi ianeeaaeieo ?ic?aooie?a ca
o?i?/iei ??aiyiiyi e?eueeino?, iane oa ia’?io ?a/iaei”:

1. Neeaae?oue o?i?/ia ??aiyiiy ? i?aeaa??oue eiao?oe??ioe.

2. Ia/ene?oue cia/aiiy iieaeoey?ii? iane ?a/iaei, iana yeeo
aeaco?oueny, ? iana /e e?euee?noue ?a/iaeie yeeo caieoo?oueny a oiia?
caaea/?.

3. Ia/ene?oue e?euee?noue ?a/iaeie oiai ?aaaaioo aai i?iaeoeoo
?aaeoe??, iana /e ia’?i yeeo iia?aeiieythoueny a oiia? caaea/?.

4. Nei?enoaaoenue ?acoeueoaoii ia/eneaiiy 3, ciaeae?oue e?euee?noue
?a/iaeie aeey niieoee, i?i yeo caieoothoue a oiia? caaea/?.

5. Nei?enoaaoenue ?acoeueoaoii ia/eneaiiy 4, ciaeae?oue cia/aiiy
aaee/ei, i?i ye? caieoothoue a oiia? caaea/?.

I?ei?oea: a ia/eneaii? 2 iaia? iio?aae, yeui a oiia? caaea/?
caieoo?oueny i?i e?euee?noue ?a/iaeie, oi ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/?
cae?enith?oueny aac ia/eneaiiy 4.

Ae.I. ??ea?i oa ?.I. Oeoe?i, ?icaeyaeath/e nenoaio o?i?/ieo caaea/,
aeae?eythoue oae? no?oeoo?i? aeiee i?e ?iaio? c caaea/aie:

1. Oaaaeii i?i/eoaoe oaeno caaea/?, iaiaaaoenue c?icoi?oe ?? nooue.

2. Aeeiiaoe o?i?/io /anoeo ?ica’yceo: caienaoe oiiao caaea/?
aeei?enoiaoth/e caaaeueiii?eeiyo? iicia/aiiy aaee/ei; caienaoe
aeiiii?aei? aeai?; cae?enieoe aiae?c caaea/? ? iai?oeoe ieai ??
?ica’ycoaaiiy.

3. Aea?aoe iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiee niin?a ?ica’ycoaaiiy.

4. Cae?enieoe iaiao?aei? ?ic?aooiee.

5. Caienaoe a?aeiia?ae? caaea/?.

6. Ia?aa??eoe io?eiaiee ?acoeueoao (neeaaeaiiy ? ?ica’ycie cai?ioii?
caaea/? /e ?ioee niin?a).

I?e ?ica’ycoaaii? caaea/ c o?ceee aeae?eythoue aoaie ?ica’ycoaaiiy oae?
naii, ye ? i?e ?ica’ycoaaii? caaea/ c o?i??. Oae, N.TH. Aicithe oa ?io?
aaoi?e cacia/athoue, ui ?ica’ycoaaiiy o?ce/ii? caaea/? iiaea aooe oiiaii
iiae?eaia ia o?e aoaie:

1) o?ce/iee;

2) iaoaiaoe/iee;

3) aoai aiae?co.

Oe?eaao ia?iaeo c ocaaaeueiaiiy ciaiue ?ica’ycoaaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo
caaea/ iathoue Ae.I. ??ea?i oa ?.I. Oeoe?i. Aiie cacia/athoue, ui
?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/? neeaaea?oueny c aaaaoueio iia?aoe?e, ui ca’ycai?
i?ae niaith iaaiei /eiii ? canoiniaothoueny a iine?aeiaiino?, yea ia?
iaaio eia?eo. Aaaeeeaei oaeoi?ii iaa/aiiy o/i?a ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? c
o?i?? ? oi?ioaaiiy a ieo ocaaaeueiaii? nenoaie ?icoiiaeo ae?e. sseui a
o/iy ia ae?iaeoe caaaeueiee iaoiae i?aeoiaeo aei caaea/?, caaaeuei?
niiniae ?? aiae?co, oi a?i (o/aiue) naiino?eii ?ica’ycoaaoe caaea/? ia
iaa/eoueny. Inieneaiiy caaea/?, ?icoi?iiy iine?aeiaiino? ?ica’ycoaaiiy,
aeeth/aiiy ??cieo caaea/ a iaaio nenoaio aeicaiey? aano?aaoaaoe
iaea?eueo nooo?a?, aca?iica’ycai? iiiaioe. I?e oeueiio ?ica’ycoaaiiy
iaaoaa? ocaaaeueiaiiai cia/aiiy ? iiaea aooe ia?aianaia ia oe?eee eean
caaea/, caaacia/oth/e caaaeueiee oai?aoe/iee i?aeo?ae. Oiio aeieea?
iaiao?aei?noue ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe io?eiai? o/iyie ai?iiy
oa iaae/ee c ?ica’ycoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo o?i?/ieo caaea/.

Caaaeyee ocaaaeueiaiino? iiaeeeaa aeeth/aiiy ?ica’ycoaaiiy iiai? caaea/?
a nenoaio aaea noi?iiaaieo anioe?aoe?e, ooai?aiiy ca’yce?a i?ae
iaciaeiiith caaea/ath ? ciaiiyie oa iaae/eaie ?ica’ycoaaoe a?aeii?
caaea/?, ye? aaea ?, caeaoi?noue aa/eoe a iiaeo caaea/ao caaaeueia c
oeie, ye? aaea ?ica’ycoaaeenue, aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe a a?eueo neeaaei?e
caaea/? ciaeii? aeaiaioe ae?e, ui a?aeii? ii i?ino?oeo caaea/ao.

Aaoi?e ?aeiiaiaeothoue ii eiaeiiio oeio caaea/ ?iaeoe ocaaaeueiaiiy,
neeaaeath/e noaie, i?e /iio caaaeueio noaio ?ica’ycaiiy aea? a/eoaeue, a
oaeiae eiaeio iiao caaea/o ii??aithaaoe c aaciaith. Nenoaiaoecoaaoe
ciaiiy oa iaae/ee c ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/, a yeeo eaea iiaa i?i
e?euee?noue ?a/iaeie, iieue, iiey?io iano, /enei Aaiaaae?i, iiey?iee
ia’?i, oaieiaee aoaeo ?aaeoe?? iiaeia ca noaiith, yea a?aeia?aaea?
ca’ycie i?ae oeeie iiiyooyie.

Aeaye? iaoiaeenoe (I.A.ss?ioaiei, I.N.Ca?a/ithe, TH.?.Iia?eia oa ?i.) oa
a/eoae? ?aeiiaiaeothoue ei?enooaaoenue aeai?eoiii, aai neeaaeaoe iii?i?
noaie.

A ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo, cie?aia aeo?iae? “A?ieia?y oa o?i?y a oeie?”
oa ?ioeo ii/ano?oaee ioae?eaoe?? a/eoae?a, yee aeei?enoiaothoue a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? caaaeaiiy oa ?io? caniae, ni?yiiaai? ia oi?ioaaiiy
a o/i?a oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe oa nenoaiaoecoaaoe ciaiiy. Oae ?.?.
Noiiieoeueea oa I.?. Aiaieaanueea aeei?enoiaothoue ocaaaeueithth/?
noaie-eiiniaeoe c iii?ieie neaiaeaie. Noaie-i?ia?aie neeaaeathoue TH.A.
I?eee oa E.A. Iicieaanueea. Ocaaaeueiaiiy ciaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi
ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e canoiniao? a ?iaio? ?.A. ?iae?ia. ?.A. Aoi??ia,
A.A. Eeai?eiaa i?e aea/aii? oaie “Ocaaaeueiaiiy ciaiue i?i iniiai? eeane
iai?aai?/ieo niieoe” aeei?enoiaothoue ciaaaiiy, o?ai?ia, cae?e, ?ieueiao
a?o, ?iaioo c iii?ieie noaiaie.

A.?. Eoci?oeiaa, A.N. Eaeeiiaa, A.I. Iyaeiaa ?aeiiaiaeothoue i?e
aea/aii? a?ieia?? ?ineei canoiniaoaaoe ocaaaeueithth/o aan?aeo,
aeei?enoiaoaaoe aioia? oaaeeoe? ? noaie oa neeaaeaoe ?o, eaai?aoi?i?
?iaioe oa ie?ai? o?iee ocaaaeueiaiiy oa nenoaiaoecaoe?? ciaiue. A.I.
Iyaeiaa oa A.?. Neaiaeacia aeiiiaiththoue oe? iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie i?e
aea/aii? a?ieia?? oaa?ei oaeeie, ye ?iaioa c iaai?aie, eieaeoe?yie,
aieiaeie i?aia?aoaie, naiino?eia ?iaioa c i?ae?o/ieeii, aeaiiino?aoe?y
e?iio?euei?a c ianooiiith ocaaaeueithth/ith aan?aeith, i?iaeaii?
caaaeaiiy, nai?ia?e.

A.I. Ei?noinueea, A.I. Ie?iiaiei, C.I. Iiea?aa, I.I. Aa?c?e?i
cacia/athoue, ui a ?iaio? c noa?oieeanieeaie i?ae /an aea/aiiy
caaaeueii? a?ieia??, e??i aeua cacia/aieo aeae?a ?iaioe aeioe?eueii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ocaaaeueithth/o eaeoe?th.

I.I. ?o?iiaa, O.I. Eaca??aa aeei?enoiaothoue iocaeio aeneo?n?th ye o?ie
ocaaaeueiaiiy ciaiue. A.I. Ea??ia canoiniao? a?eoi?eie oa a?oiiao ?iaioo
o/i?a. I.Ae. Naeaea?nueea oa A.O. Oaaei?aoeue — ?ieueiao a?o.

I?e iaa/aii? ocaaaeueiaiith oa aano?aeoe?? ?.I. A?oiiao ? ?.O. A?iae?ia
canoiniaothoueny /ioe?e i?eeiie, iia’ycai? c ocaaaeueiaiei ?
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeie ca’yceaie:

1) aecia/aiiy iiiyoue (aeao?i?oe?y);

2) aeniiaee ye ei?ioea aeae?eaiiy nooo?aeo ?en ? i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo
ca’yce?a a?ieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a /e yaeu;

3) aeae?eaiiy iciae i?aai?a;

4) a?ieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?aai?cio.

Ioaea, aiae?c ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ii? oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ii? e?oa?aoo?e
c i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaea aeaa aeiaaeueieo oeyoe oi?ioaaiiy o
ae?oae ieneaii?aeo iia?aoe?e ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? —
?iaeoeoeaiee, yeee canoiniao?oueny ia ii/aoeiaeo aoaiao ?iaioe c o/iyie
oa aeaaeoeoeaiee, ui canoiniao?oueny oeiey?aie, ye? iathoue iaaiee
aeina?ae ?iaioe c ai?aaaie ia ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ciaiue. A
iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? iieno?oueny ?iaioa a/eoaey c o/iyie i?e oi?ioaaii?
oi?iue ? iaae/ie ia ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ciaiue ia ci?no?
iaa/aeueieo aeenoeeie?i ii/aoeiai? oeiee (I.A. Ne?ei/aiei, I.ss.
Naa/aiei), iaoaiaoeee (E.ss. Oaae/aiei), a?ieia?? (?.I. A?oiiao, ?.O.
A?iae?ia, O.E. Aiaaeaiiaa), o?i?? (I.A. ss?ioaiei, I.I. *ae/aiei, I.I.
Ao?einueea), o?ceee (N.O. Aii/a?aiei), aaia?ao?? (N.A. Eiaa?i?e). Aea a
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aaoi?e iiaeathoue aioia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaie ?
iaaeinoaoiuei iieacothoue iine?aeiai?noue ?iaioe a/eoaey c o/iyie i?e
aeei?enoaii? noai, aeai?eoi?a oiui. Oaeiae iaaeinoaoiuei aena?oeai?
ieoaiiy uiaei iaa/aiiy oeiey??a cae?enithaaoe oe? ieneaiii?a? iia?aoe??.

Oi?ioaaiiy oa ca’ycie iia?aoe?e ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ia
o?ieao, nooue yeeo a?aeia?aaeaii a oaaeeoe? 1, caaa?oo? ia?oee ?icae?e
iaoi? ?iaioe.

Ioaea, i?iaeaia ?icaeoeo ieneaiiy aeeoeie ? ? aoea iaei??th c iniiaieo,
ye? ?ica’yco? iaaeaaia?ea, i?i ui na?ae/eoue cia/ia e?euee?noue
ioae?eaoe?e c oeueiai iai?yieo. Aiae?c aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa
i?aeoeee ?iaioe oeiee iieaco?, ui ? cia/iee ?ic?ea i?ae oai?aoe/ieie
aeinyaiaiiyie o oe?e aaeoc? oa ?o i?aeoe/iith ?aae?caoe??th, iio?aaaie
no/anii? oeiee. C oeueiai aeieeaa?, ui ne?ae

Ca’ycie iia?aoe?e ocaaaeueiaiiy oa nenoaiaoecaoe??

i?e ?o oi?ioaaii? a o/i?a

Oaaeeoey 1.

Niin?a

oi?ioaaiiyIaoa??ae, ia yeiio

cae?enith?oueny

oi?ioaaiiy

Ae??

Iaoa

1Iaoa

2Iaoa

3

?iaeoeoeaiee

?aaeuei? ia’?eoe /e

?o cia?aaeaiiy

Aa?aaeuei? ia’?eoe (neiaa)1. Neeaaeaiiy noaie, iiaeae?.

2. Neeaaeaiiy aeai?eoio ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/?.

3. Aecia/aiiy iiiyoue.

4. Anoaiiaeaiiy i?aaeea.

5. Aeniiaee.

6. Aeaaaeaiiy oi?ioee.A

a

n

o

?

a

a

o

a

a

i

i

y

O

c

a

a

a

e

N

e

n

o

a

i

a

Aeaaeoeoeaiee

Aa?aaeuei? ia’?eoe

1. Aeei?enoaiiy noaie.

2. Aeei?enoaiiy aeai?eoio.

3. Aeei?enoaiiy i?aaeea.

E

i

i

e

?

a

o

e

c

a

oe

?

y

ue

i

a

i

i

y

o

e

c

a

oe

?

ycaa?iooe oaaao ia eeoa ia iiooee oeyo?a ?icaeoeo oai???, a e ia
?ic?iaeo, ai?iaaoe?th ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo eiie?aoieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano, ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino? o/eoae?a ? o/i?a o oeueiio i?ioean?.

A ?icae?e? 2 “Oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe
iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae ia o?ieao” ?ice?eoi iaoiaeeeo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe eiinoaooth/iai ? oi?ioth/iai
aenia?eiaio?a, iaaaaeaia nenoaia ai?aa ? i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue aeey
oi?ioaaiiy ai?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe iaa/aeueiee
iaoa??ae, iieacaia aeeiai?ea ?iaioe a/eoaey c o/iyie ia o?ieao a?ieia??
oa o?i??, iia’ycaia c aeei?enoaiiyi oe??? nenoaie a iaa/aeuei?e
ae?yeueiino? oeiey??a. I?e oeueiio a?aecia/a?ii, ui nenoaia ai?aa ?
caaaeaiue, yeo ie ?ic?iaeee ? ai?iaoaaee a i?ioean?
aenia?eiaioaeueii-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe aoea iiaoaeiaaia oaeei /eiii, ui ??
iniiao neeaaeathoue eeane/i? iieiaeaiiy aeeaeaeoeee oa ineoieia?? uiaei
oi?ioaaiiy a o/i?a ieneaii?aeo iia?aoe?e ocaaaeueiaiiy ?
nenoaiaoecaoe??. O/iyi i?iiiioaaeenue caaaeaiiy, ui ia?aaeaa/aee
?icai?oaiiy i?ciaaaeueiiai i?ioeano ca oaeeie no?oeoo?aie:

— a?ae ie?aiiai aei caaaeueiiai, a?ae aiae?co eiaeiiai aeaiaioo
?ioi?iaoe?? aei ?oiueiai ia’?aeiaiiy o aeaeyae? iaaiiai oiiaeniiaeo.
Oaeei oiiaeniiaeii aoee aecia/aiiy i?aaee, iiiyoue, caeii?a, eaoaai??e;

— a?ae caaaeueiiai, aano?aeoiiai aei eiie?aoiiai, ui /ooo?ai
ni?eeia?oueny, eiee eiaeia eiie?aoia aiae?co?oueny c iiceoe??
aoiaeaeaiiy /e ia aoiaeaeaiiy aei caaaeueiiai. I?e oeueiio caaaeueia
iaia’yceiai iaei aooe aeia?a ona?aeiieaiei ? inieneaiei oeyoii
i?aeaaaeaiiy i?ae iueiai iaaii? noeoiiino? iaeeie/ieo oaeo?a, yaeu,
i?ioean?a, eio?? canaiththoueny ye ie?ai? i?iyae caaaeueiiai.

Iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo cae?enithaaeanue ca
iaoiaeii ?aiaiai? ioe?iee caeaoiino? o/i?a naiino?eii cae?enithaaoe
iia?aoe?? c ocaaaeueiaiiy oa nenoaiaoecaoe??. A?aeiia?aeii iaie
?ic?iaeaia nenoaia e?eoa???a aeey ioe?ithaaiiy a?aeiia?aeae o/i?a:

Ioe?iea noi?iiaaiino? ai?iiy ocaaaeueithaaoe:

a) ?iaeoeoeaiei oeyoii aecia/aeany ca:

— i?aaeeuei?noth ?acoeueoaoo ocaaaeueiaiiy;

— iiaiioith oa eiie?aoeeith iiyniaiiy aeeiiaiiy i?ioeano ocaaaeueiaiiy:
aiae?c ia’?eo?a, ii??aiyiiy ?o, ciaoiaeaeaiiy ni?eueieo ? a?aei?iieo
?en, aeae?eaiiy iaea?eueo nooo?aeo iciae;

a) aeaaeoeoeaiei oeyoii aecia/aeany ca:

— /?oe?noth ?icoi?iiy caaaeueiiai i?aaeea, aea ? aeey yeeo ia’?eo?a
aiii iiaea aooe ?noeiiei, oiaoi aea?? naia oiai, a ia ?ioiai ia’?eoa
aeey ?ethno?aoe?? i?aaeea;

— i?aaeeuei?noth cae?eniaiiy c iei iia?aoe??, aecia/aii? i?aaeeii;

— aioiai?noth eiaeia i?aaeei i?aee??ieoe iaiao?aeiith e?euee?noth (2-3)
eiie?aoieo i?eeeaae?a.

Ioe?iea noi?iiaaiino? ai?iiy nenoaiaoecoaaoe aecia/aeiny ca oaeeie
ia?aiao?aie:

— i?aaeeueiee, inieneaiee aea?? iniia noai?aiiy nenoaie (/e
eeaneo?eaoe??), oiaoi iieacieea, ui iieeaaeaiee a iniiao;

— i?aaeeueia i?aeaaaeaiiy aeaeiaeo iiiyoue i?ae ?iaeiaa;

— aeeaiea iaa?oiooaaiiy ? /?oea a?aaeaoe?y iiiyoue, ye? aoiaeyoue a oie
/e ?ioee eean;

— ai?iiy e?eoe/ii aiae?coaaoe ?ioo (/anii iaaaeaeo) nenoaio (/e
eeaneo?eaoe?th) ? cai?ithaaoe ?? a?eueo ci?noiaiith.

Ca?aeii icia/aieo e?eoa???a ia iniia? aeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeae?eaii /ioe?e ??ai? noi?iiaaiino? ai?iue
ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe:

Aenieee (?) ??aaiue — oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiaiith a?aeiia?aei?noth
aeeiiaiiy caaaeaiiy aecia/aiei e?eoa??yi.

Aeinoaoi?e (??) ??aaiue — /anoeiaa a?aeiia?aei?noue. O/aiue i?aaeeueii
aeeiio? ocaaaeueiaiiy oa nenoaiaoecaoe?th, iiynith? ii?yaeie cae?eniaiiy
iia?aoe?e, aea ia iiaea /?oei aai iiai?noth iiynieoe iaeei /e aeaa
aoaie cae?eniaiiy oeeo i?ioean?a: i?aaeeueii — iaiiaii.

Na?aaei?e (???) ??aaiue — iaiiaia a?aeiia?aei?noue. Oeae ??aaiue
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cae?eniaiiyi ocaaaeueiaiiy, aea aac iiyniaiiy
aeeiiaiiy naii? iia?aoe??. Aeey aeaaeoeoeaiiai ocaaaeueiaiiy — iaai?iiy
ia?aeoe a?ae caaaeueiiai aei eiie?aoiiai. Iaiiaia nenoaiaoecaoe?y
iieyaa? a noai?aii? nenoaie aai eeaneo?eaoe??, a iniiao yei? iieeaaeaia
ianooo?aa iciaea, /e iayai?noue iiieeie i?e i?aeaaaeaii? aeaeiaeo
iiiyoue i?ae ?iaeiaa ? iaaiaee, a iayaiino? iino?eieo oo?oaeiaiue i?e
iiyniaii?, ye? iiiyooy ? /iio a?aeianai? aei oiai /e ?ioiai eeano:
/anoeiai — i?aaeeueii, /anoeiai — iiaii.

Iecueeee (?V) ??aaiue — oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia?icoi?iiyi iinoaaeaieo
ia?aae

o/iyie caaaeaiue ? a?aeiia?aeii ?o
iaiiaeeea?noth aeeiiaiiy.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo aaeeny niinoa?aaeaiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano c a?ieia?? oa o?i?? ia o?ieao a?aeiia?aeii
o oinoeo ? aeaa’yoeo eeanao, aan?aee c o/iyie oa a/eoaeyie. Iniiai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeeny iaie a na?aaei?e oeie? ? 182 Aea?ieoeueeiai
?aeiio i. Ee?aa oa ?onai?anueeiio e?oea?.

Eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio c a?ieia?? i?iaaaeaiee a /ioe?ueio oinoeo
eeanao (126 o/i?a). Iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi aenia?eiaioo aoei c’ynoaaiiy
??aiy noi?iiaaiino? oi?iue o/i?a ocaaaeueithaaoe ? nenoaiaoecoaaoe
iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae c a?ieia?? (o/i? iaa/aeenue ca o?aaeeoe?eiith
iaoiaeeeith). O/iyi aoee cai?iiiiiaai? caaaeaiiy ia aeyaeaiiy: oi?iiy
cae?enithaaoe ?iaeoeoeaia ocaaaeueithaaiiy c iii?ith ia aa?aaeuei? oa
iai/i? ia’?eoe, oi?iiy cae?enithaaoe nenoaiaoecaoe?th oeyoii
anoaiiaeaiiy aca?iica’yce?a oa eeaneo?eaoe?th aeeaeo i?aai?ci?a ca
??cieie nooo?aeie oa ia nooo?aeie iciaeaie.

Eiinoaooth/ee aenia?eiaio c o?i?? i?iaaaeaiee na?aae o/i?a (190) i’yoe
aeaa’yoeo eean?a. O i?ioean? aenia?eiaioo ia?aa??yeeny ai?iiy: neeaaeaoe
noaio (ieai), ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/?, ui ? iaeiei ?c i?iya?a
noi?iiaaiino? ieneaii?ai? iia?aoe?? nenoaiaoecaoe??; cae?enithaaoe
ocaaaeueithaaiiy aeaaeoeoeaiei oeyoii — iaienaoe eiie?aoi? ??aiyiiy
o?i?/ieo ?aaeoe?e, ei?enooth/enue caaaeueiith noaiith; eeaneo?eoaaoe
ia’?eoe ca ??cieie iciaeaie. Oaeiae o an?o caaaeaiiyo a o/i?a aeiaaaeiny
iiynieoe o?ae nai?o i??eoaaiue i?e ?o ?ica’ycoaaii?.

Aeai? eiinoaooth/iai aenia?eiaioo na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ??aaiue
noi?iiaaiino? i?aeoe/ieo oi?iue oa iaae/ie, iia’ycaieo c ocaaaeueiaiiyi
? nenoaiaoecaoe??th ciaiue, ieae/ee ca aeiiae, ui ia?aaeaa/athoueny
iaa/aeueieie i?ia?aiaie c a?ieia?? oa o?i??. Oae, e?euee?noue o/i?a,
ai?iiy yeeo a?aeiia?aea? iecueeiio oa na?aaeiueiio ??aith noi?iiaaiino?
aeine?aeaeoaaieo iia?aoe?e, a na?aaeiueiio noaiiaeoue 48%.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? iaaeaaia?/iiai aenia?eiaioo aecia/aeeny ia i?aeoeoe?
?ieue ? i?noea ai?aa, iia’ycaieo n ocaaaeueiaiiyi ? nenoaiaoecaoe??th
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo, ?o ci?no, nenoaia ae?yeueiino? o/eoaey c o/iai
i?e oi?ioaaii? ? ?icaeoeo oeeo oi?iue, a oaeiae ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i?
oiiae aoaeoeaiino? oe??? nenoaie.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? cae?enithaaany oi?ioth/ee aenia?eiaio.

Aeey ioe?iee ia?aa??ee aeinoia??iino? ?acoeueoao?a eiinoaooth/iai ?
oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo ie aeei?enoaee iaoiae iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee,
ui a?oioo?oueny ia ii?iaeueiiio ?iciiae?e? aeiaaeeiaeo aaee/ei. Ca
?iciiae?eii ioe?iie aeeiiaiiy eiaeiiai caaaeaiiy oai?aoe/ii ca oai???th
Aaonna ?ic?aoiaaii aeia??/ee ?ioa?aae ni?aaaeiueiai cia/aiiy na?aaeiuei?
ioe?iee. Oaeoe/ia na?aaeiy ioe?iea, io?eiaia a ?acoeueoao?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ciaoiaeeoueny a ?ioa?aae?,
ia?aaeaa/aiiio oai???th ? ?? cia/aiiy aeua a o/i?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo
eean?a, /ei a o/i?a eiio?ieueieo eean?a.

?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo oa ??aaiue noaoenoe/ii? cia/ouino?
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a a?aeia?aaeai? a oaaeeoeyo 2 ? 3.

sse aeaeii c oaaeeoe? 2, ai?iiy ocaaaeueithaaoe ?iaeoeoeaiei oeyoii, ui
i?iyaeeiny i?e aeeiiaii? o/iyie aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a ia?oiai,
ae?oaiai ? o?aoueiai caaaeaiue c a?ieia?? a iaaeao iioeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy c?inei ia 17% a ii??aiyii? c ??aiai ciaiue o/i?a
eiio?ieueieo eean?a (iiaia a?aeiia?aeue). E??i oiai, a iaaeao 10% c?inea
e?euee?noue i?aaeeueieo ieneaii?aeo ae?e o/i?a uiaei aeiia ae?oaiai
??aiy ciaiue. Ciaee “i?ion” a?ey oeeo? ??? ? IV eieiiie oaaeeoe? 2
icia/athoue, ui a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e a?oi? (ii??aiyii c eiio?ieueiith)
ciaioeeanue e?euee?noue o/i?a, ciaiiy yeeo a?aeiia?aeathoue ??? ? IV
??aiyi.

Ai?iiy i?iaiaeeoe eeaneo?eaoe?th ? nenoaiaoecaoe?th a?ieia?/ieo ia’?eo?a
c?inei a aenia?eiaioaeuei?e a?oi?, ii??aiyii c eiio?ieueiith
a?aeiia?aeii ia 18% ? 19%.

Oaaeeoey 2. ?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo c iaa/aiiy a?ieia??
a 6-o eeanaooa ??aaiue noaoenoe/ii? cia/ouino?? A?oiaeiio?ieueia
64 o/i? aenia?eiaioaeueia 62
o/i? ??aaiue noaoenoe/ii?

cia/ouino?c/i ??aaiue o a?aenioeao o a?aenioeao o a?aenioeao
CaaaeaiiyIIIIIIIVIIIIIIIVIIIIIIIV1Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?iaeoeoeaiei oeyoii a
nei-aanii-eia?/-iiio
ieai?20,532,53413384213,56,517,59,5-20,5-6,52Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?iaeoeoeaiei
oa aeaaeoeoeaiei oeyoii,
eeaneo?eaoe?y2432,528,515414510,53,51712,5-8-11,53?iaeoeoeaia
ocaaaeueiaiiy c iii?ith ia iai/iee
iaoa??ae3234,527,5649,541,56317,57-21,5-34Nenoaiaoeca-oe?y24283216424113
,53,51813-18,5-2,55Eeaneo?eaoe?y2123411540391391914-10-2,5 Oaaeeoey 3.
?acoeueoaoe oi?ioth/iai aenia?eiaioo c iaa/aiiy o?i?? a 9-o eeanaooa
??aaiue noaoenoe/ii? cia/ouino?? A?oiaeiio?ieueia
64 o/i? aenia?eiaioaeueia 91 o/i? ??aaiue
noaoenoe/ii?

cia/ouino?c/i ??aaiue o a?aenioeao o a?aenioeao o a?aenioeao
CaaaeaiiyIIIIIIIVIIIIIIIVIIIIIIIV1Ocaaaeueiaiiy ?iaeoeoeaiei oeyoii,
nenoaiaoecaoe?y2231351242441132011-24-92Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeaaeoeoeaiei
oeyoii2431311441451042114-21-103Nenoaiaoeca-oe?y28313294048841217-24-54E
eaneo?eaoe?y212736164443852316-28-11sse aeaeii c iaaaaeaieo aeaieo, o/i?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a, ui iaa/aeeny ca ?ic?iaeaiith iaoiaeeeith,
aeyaeee ??aaiue ciaiue aeuee o aeaa ?ace, i?ae o/i?, ui iaa/aeeny ca
o?aaeeoe?eiith iaoiaeeeith. Cia/ii cieceeany e?euee?noue o/i?a
aenia?eiaioaeueieo eean?a, ye? cian?i ia aeeiiaee caaaeaiiy,
ii??aithth/e c eiio?ieueieie eeanaie. Cie?aia, i?e aeeiiaii? /aoaa?oiai
caaaeaiiy c a?ieia?? (i?ae eiaeii “nenoaiaoecaoe?y” oaae. 2) e?euee?noue
o/i?a, ui ia aeeiiaee caaaeaiiy a aenia?eiaioaeueieo eeanao noaiiaeoue
3.5%, oiae? ye a eiio?ieueieo eeanao 16%.

A oaaeeoe? 3 i?aaenoaaeai? aeai? aeine?aeaeaiue, iaea?aeaieo ia
aenia?eiaioaeueiiio iaoa??ae? c eo?no o?i??. Ca ??aiai noaoenoe/ii?
cia/ouino? o/i? aenia?eiaioaeueii? a?oie iathoue cia/io ia?aaaao:
??aaiue ciaiue, ui a?aeiia?aea? I ? II aeiic? ca an?ia caaaeaiiyie ia
1223% e?auee, i?ae a o/i?a eiio?ieueieo eean?a. Cia/ii ciaioeeanue
(-28%; -21%) e?euee?noue o/i?a, ui a?aeiia?aea? ??? ??aith ciaiue.

Oaeei /eiii, aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aeeiiaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. Aiae?c i?aeoeee ?iaioe no/anii? oeiee na?ae/eoue a oe?eiio i?i
iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue noi?iiaaiino? a o/i?a oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ?
nenoaiaoecoaaoe ciaiiy, ye? aaciina?aaeiuei aieeaathoue ia
?acoeueoaoeai?noue ?oiuei? iaa/aeueii? ?iaioe: aenieee ??aaiue
noi?iiaaiino? oeeo oi?iue ii?iaeaeo? ona?aeiieaiiy o/iyie nooo?aeo
ca’yce?a a iaa/aeuei?e ?ioi?iaoe??, c?inoa? ?ioa?an ? a?aeiia?aeaeueia
noaaeaiiy aei iaa/aiiy.

2. Aaaeeeaith oiiaith oi?ioaaiiy oi?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ?
nenoaiaoecoaaoe ?ioi?iaoe?th ? iayai?noue oaei? aeeaeaeoe/ii? nenoaie,
yea caaacia/o? caaaeueiee ?icaeoie eiaeiiai o/iy ye iniaenoino? oa
oni?oii ?aae?co? iioeaaoe?eiee, ci?noiaii-i?ioeanoaeueiee ?
eiio?ieueii-ioe?iiee eiiiiiaioe eiai iaa/aeueii? ae?yeueiino?.

3. Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy aeeaeaeoe/ii? nenoaie ai?aa
caaacia/o?oueny ?aae?caoe??th iaaieo oiia, oaeeo ye: iayai?noue o
oeiey??a iiceoeaii? iaa/aeueii? iioeaaoe??; iayai?noue iaiao?aeiiai
ae??aiai aia?aoo, caeaoi?noue o/i?a aei aiae?co oa naiiaiae?co;
caaacia/aiiy iine?aeiaiino? o ?icaeoeo ai?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ?
nenoaiaoecoaaoe iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae; ii?aeiaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ?
oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a c iinooiiaei ia?aoiaeii aei naiino?eii?
?iaioe.

4. Nenoaia i?ciaaaeueieo caaaeaiue ia? iaia’yceiai aooe ni?yiiaaiith ia
?icaeoie oi?iiy aeae?eyoe aieiaia ia iniia? aiae?co ? neioaco; oi?iiy
ii??aithaaoe oa anoaiiaethaaoe i?e/eiii-iane?aeeia? ca’ycee; oi?iiy
o?ainoi?ioaaoe a?aeiiee iaoa??ae a iia? oiiae ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?;
caaacia/oaaoe ia o?ioe? eiaeiiio o/iaa? neooaoe?th oni?oo oa
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ?acoeueoaoe iaa/aiiy.

5. Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy o/i? cae?eniththoue iia?aoe??
nenoaiaoecaoe??, iaeiei c iniiaieo niinia?a yei? ? anoaiiaeaiiy
?iaei-aeaeiaeo a?aeiioaiue, aeae?eaiiy a iiiyooyo ?iaeo aeaeiai?
a?aei?iiino?. ?aae?coaaoe oea iiaeia eeoa o i?ioean?
i?ciaaaeueii-i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a i?ae ea??aieoeoaii o/eoaey.
Ana oea aeiaaa? ?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey
a/eoae?a, iniaeeai a oiiaao ?icaeoeo no/anii? oeiee.

6. Iacaeaaeii a?ae i?noey a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? oa ia’?io
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo i?e oi?ioaaii? a o/i?a iia?aoe?e ocaaaeueiaiiy oa
nenoaiaoecaoe?? aoaeoeaieie ? oae? i?eeiie:

a) ocaaaeueiaiiy: aeniiaee, aecia/aiiy iiiyoue, neeaaeaiiy noaie,
aecia/aiiy iaeaaeiino? aei a?oie;

a) nenoaiaoecaoe??: neeaaeaiiy aeai?eoio ?ica’ycoaaiiy caaea/?,
neeaaeaiiy eaioetha?a (aeeaeaiiy, aca?iiia?aoai?aiue oa ?i.),
eeaneo?eaoe?y ia’?eo?a.

7. Iaa/aiiy ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaieo ? iaaieo /eiii nenoaiaoeciaaieo
ciaiue ? niinia?a ae?e oa ?o ia?aianaiiy ia iiaee iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae
aea? iiceoeai? ?acoeueoaoe ca aeineoue ei?ioeee /an, oiae? ye
a?aenooi?noue niaoe?aeueii? ae?yeueiino? a oeueiio iai?yieo, iaaeinoaoiy
?iaioa iaae oi?ioaaiiyi ocaaaeueiaieo ciaiue ? niinia?a ae?yeueiino?, ye
yae?a nenoaie, i?eaiaeeoue ia o?eueee aei iaiio??aiiai oiioaiiy ia
i?noe?, aea e a?aenooiino? o oeiey??a ?icoi?iiy noo? eaoaai??aeueieo
a?aeiioaiue a iaoeia?e nenoai?, ui iaaaoeaii iicia/a?oueny ia i?ioeanao
oi?ioaaiiy iaoeiaeo ciaiue oa oi?iue c oiai /e ?ioiai i?aaeiaoo, oa ?o
caaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

8. Ocaaaeueiai? niiniae ae?e iiaeooue aooe noi?iiaai? eeoa oiae?, eiee
canaiththoueny ia nai? yaeua, a ?oiy nooi?noue, oa, ui ?o ia’?aeio? ? ui
a?ae??ciy?, oiaoi ni?euei? e a?aei?ii? iciaee. Iniaeea?noue oaeiai
i?aeoiaeo iieyaa? a oiio, ui oeiey? iaa/a?oueny ?icaeyaeaoe ie?ai?
yaeua, oaeo iaoee c iiceoe?? eiai a?aeiioaiiy aei oe?eiai, o c?noaaeaii?
c ?ioeie iaeeieoeyie oeueiai ??aiy. Oea, a naith /a?ao, ni?ey?
oi?ioaaiith a oeiey??a nenoaiieo ciaiue, ?icaeaa? ia o?eueee
aocueeiaeenoeeie?ia?ia, a e caaaeueia ieneaiiy o/i?a, ica?ith? ?o
ocaaaeueiaieie niiniaaie ?ica’ycoaaiiy oe?ei? iecee eiie?aoieo
iaa/aeueieo caaaeaiue, aeicaiey? aeiiiieoe /an, a?aeaaaeaiee ia aea/aiiy
oaie /e ?icae?eo.

Iaaeaaia?/iee aenia?eiaio iieacaa, ui iniiai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy
cia/iith i??ith aaeaeinue ?ica’ycaoe. I?ioa, i?aeiyoa i?iaeaia ?icaeoeo
ieneaiiy o/i?a, ?o oai?/iai iioaioe?aeo aeiaaa? iiaeaeueoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Ie aaa/a?ii oae? iai?yiee iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:
?icaeoie ieneaiiy o/i?a oa ?o oai?/eo cae?aiinoae i?e aea/aii?
i?e?iaeie/eo aeenoeeie?i; oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie aeeaeaeoe/ieo cania?a c
eiaeiiai i?aaeiaoo, ni?yiiaaii? ia ?icaeoie ?ioaeaeoo oeiey??a ca oiiae
caaacia/aiiy ?o iaeneiaeueii? naiino?eiino? a i?ciaii?; caaacia/aiiy
aoaeoeaieo i?aei?aaeiaoieo ca’yce?a, ye iaei??? c oiia oi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie ciaiue o/i?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Ei?oae O.?. Ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?y ciaiue o/i?a c oaie
“?ic/eie. Aeaeo?ie?oe/ia aeenioe?aoe?y” // A?ieia?y ? o?i?y a oeie? ? 1,
1998. — n. 15-18.

2. ss?ioaiei I.A., Ei?oae O.?. Ia?aa??, ye oe cia?o iai?aai?/io o?i?th.
— E.: Eo?n, 1997. — 52 n. / 50% aaoi?nuee?.

3. Ei?oae ?.A., Ei?oae I.I., Ei?oae O.?. Iniaeeaino? aea/aiiy
i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe a oiiaao noaiaea?oecaoe?? ina?oe. / Iaoa??aee
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Noaiaea?oe caaaeueii?
na?aaeiuei? ina?oe. I?iaeaie, iiooee, ia?niaeoeae”. — E.: A?iie, 1996.
— n. 13-14 / 30% aaoi?nuee?.

4. Ei?oae O.?. O?ceea ? o?i?y i?e ?ica’ycoaaii? caaea/. // O?ceea oa
ano?iiii?y a oeie? ? 2, 1996. — n. 28-29.

5. Iai/aiei A.Ae., Ei?oae O.?., Aaa?eeaiei I.A. Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/ia
i?aeaioiaea nooaeaio?a iaaeaoco — iniiaa ?oiuei? iaaeaaia?/ii?
oai?/ino?. / Oai?/a iniaeno?noue a/eoaey: i?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee.
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. — E., OAeIO, 1997. — 319 n., — n. 233-235 /
30% aaoi?nuee?.

6. Ei?oae O.?. ?ieue ciaiue i?i ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?th
iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo aeey i?aeaioiaee a/eoaey i?e?iaeie/i?
aeenoeeie?ie. / Aeieiai-iaoo?ae?noe/ia oai?/?noue. Iaoe. — iaoiae.
A?niee ? 3. — E.: OAeAIOe, 1999. — 114 n., n. 55-56.

Ei?oae O.?. “Ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?y iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo
o/iyie ia o?ieao (ia i?eeeaae? aea/aiiy a?ieia?? oa o?i?? a iniiai?e
oeie?)” ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe. 13.00.01 “Oai??y oa ?noi??y iaaeaaia?ee”. Iaoe?iiaeueiee
iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeai? ocaaaeueiththoueny ia?iaee iaoeiaoe?a c
ieoaiue oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo a oeiey??a i?aee?oeiaiai a?eo ieneaii?aeo
iia?aoe?e ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo ia
ci?no? i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe. ?ic?iaeaia niaoe?aeueia nenoaia i?ciaaaeueieo
caaaeaiue ? ai?aa, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?icaeoie oi?iue ocaaaeueiaiiy ?
nenoaiaoecaoe?? iaa/aeueiiai iaoa??aeo oa i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy canai?iiy
ciaiue ? oni?oiino? o/i?a a i?ioean? aea/aiiy i?e?iaeie/eo aeenoeeie?i.
Aeyaeai? oiiae, ca yeeo aeaia nenoaia caaaeaiue ? ai?aa ae??: iayai?noue
o oeiey??a iiceoeaii? iaa/aeueii? iioeaaoe??; iayai?noue iaiao?aeiiai
ae??aiai aia?aoo, caeaoi?noue o/i?a aei aiae?co oa naiiaiae?co;
caaacia/aiiy iine?aeiaiino? o ?icaeoeo ai?iue ocaaaeueithaaoe ?
nenoaiaoecoaaoe iaa/aeueiee iaoa??ae; ii?aeiaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaii? ?
oai?/i? ae?yeueiino? o/i?a c iinooiiaei ia?aoiaeii aei naiino?eii?
?iaioe. ?ic?iaeai? e?eoa??? ioe?ithaaiiy noi?iiaaiino? oi?iue
ocaaaeueiaiiy ? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ciaiue ? a?aeiia?aeii aei oeeo e?eoa???a
aeae?eai? ??ai? noi?iiaaiino?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ieneaiiy, ieneaii?a? iia?aoe??, ocaaaeueiaiiy,
nenoaiaoecaoe?y, oi?iiy, nenoaia ai?aa.

Ei?oae O. A. “Iaiauaiea e nenoaiaoecaoeey o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea o/aieeaie
ia o?ieao (ia i?eia?a eco/aiey aeieiaee e oeiee a iniiaiie oeiea)”.
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia iieo/aiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaiae/aneeo
iaoe. 13.00.01 “Oai?ey e enoi?ey iaaeaaiaeee”. Iaoeeiiaeueiue
iaaeaaiae/aneee oieaa?neoao ei. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee iaiauathony ia?aaioee o/aiuo ii
aii?inai oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey o oeieueieeia iiae?inoeiaiai aic?anoa
iia?aoeee iaiauaiey e nenoaiaoecaoeee. Aaaeouay eaeay ?aaiou — ?acaeoea
iuoeaiey o/aieeia /a?ac iao/aiea i?aaeiaoai anoanoaaiiiai oeeeea.

Aiaeec e iaiauaiea ?acoeueoaoia aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey
iieacaee, /oi i?iaeaia ?acaeoey iuoeaiey ?aaaiea yaeyaony iaeiie ec
aeaaiuo, eioi?ua ?aoao iaaeaaiaeea. Naaiaeiy iaaethaeaaony cia/eoaeueiue
?ac?ua a yoie io?anee iaaeaeo oai?aoe/aneeie aeinoeaeaieyie e eo
i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeeae a o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiii i?ioeanna. Iiyoiio
ia?auaaony iniaia aieiaiea enneaaeiaaoaeae e o/eoaeae ia oieueei ia
iiene iooae ?acaeoey oai?ee, ii e ia ?ac?aaioeo, ai?iaaoeeth e
aiaae?aiea a i?aeoeeo oeieu eiie?aoiuo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
?acaeoea o/aaii-ainieoaoaeueiiai i?ioeanna, iauae aeayoaeueiinoe
o/eoaeae e o/aieeia.

Aeaaiia ianoi a eioaeeaeooaeueiii ?acaeoee o/aieeia, eae ecaanoii,
caieiatho oiaiey inouanoaeyoue iaiauaiea e nenoaiaoecaoeeth iaoa?eaea,
/oi e yaeyaony i?aaeiaoii eco/aiey e oi?ie?iaaiey ia i?eia?a
anoanoaaiiuo aeenoeeieei. O/aieee aeieaeiu oiaoue inouanoaeyoue
eiaeoeoeaiia eee yiie?e/aneia iaiauaiea, oai?aoe/aneia iaiauaiea e
nenoaiaoece?iaaoue iaoa?eae. Iaeaaeaiea iaiauaieai aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
o/aieeai inouanoaeyoue iia?aoeeth nenoaiaoecaoeee, iaeiei ec iniiaiuo
niiniaia eioi?ie yaeyaony onoaiiaeaiea ?iaeiaeaeiauo ioiioaiee,
auaeaeaiea a iiiyoeyo ?iaea aeaeiaiai ioee/ey. ?aaeeciaaoue yoi iiaeii
oieueei a i?ioeanna iiciaaaoaeueii-i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aieeia
iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii o/eoaey. Iacaaeneii io ianoa a o/aaiii i?ioeanna e
iauaia o/aaiiai iaoa?eaea i?e oi?ie?iaaiee a o/aieeia iia?aoeee
iaiauaiey e nenoaiaoecaoeee auaeaeytho oaeea i?eaiu:

a) iaiauaiey: auaiaeu, ii?aaeaeaiea iiiyoee, ninoaaeaiea noai,
ii?aaeaeaiea i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e a?oiia;

a) nenoaiaoecaoeee: ninoaaeaiea aeai?eoia ?aoaiey caaea/e, ninoaaeaiea
oeaeae (ieoaiey, acaeiii?aa?auaiee e ae?.), nenoaiaoecaoeey iauaeoia.

Niaeanii niaea?aeaieth o/aaiuo i?aaeiaoia anoanoaaiiiai oeeeea n?aaeiae
iauaia?aciaaoaeueiie oeieu ?ac?aaioaia nenoaia caaeaiee e oi?aaeiaiee,
iicaieythuay niaa?oainoaiaaoue oiaiey o/aieeia iaiauaoue e
nenoaiaoece?iaaoue ciaiey e auaeaeaiu oneiaey iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiiai aa
i?eiaiaiey. Iniaia ianoi a yoie nenoaia caaeaiee caieiatho oi?aaeiaiey,
a eioi?uo eniieuecotho e ninoaaeytho noaiu e oaaeeoeu iaiauathuaai
niaea?aeaiey..

Iao/aiea ia iniiaaiee iaiauaiiuo e ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
nenoaiaoece?iaaiiuo ciaiee e niiniaia aeaenoaee e eo ia?aiin ia iiaue
o/aaiue iaoa?eae aeaao iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou ia aeinoaoi/ii
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy, oiaaea eae ionoonoaea niaoeeaeueiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a yoii iai?aaeaiee, iaaeinoaoi/iay ?aaioa iaae
oi?ie?iaaieai iaiauaiiuo ciaiee e niiniaia aeayoaeueiinoe, eae yae?a
nenoaiu, i?eaiaeeo ia oieueei e iaioaeiiio oiioaieth ia ianoa, ii e
ionoonoaeth o oeieueieeia iiieiaiey nooe eaoaai?eaeueiuo ioiioaiee a
iao/iie nenoaia, /oi io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia i?ioeannao
oi?ie?iaaiey iao/iuo ciaiee ii oiio eee eiiio i?aaeiaoo, oiaiee
o/aieeia, e eo ?acaeoey.

Iaiauaiiua niiniau aeaenoaee iiaoo auoue noi?ie?iaaiu oieueei oiaaea,
eiaaea onaiyony ia naie yaeaiey, a eo nooue, oi, /oi eo iauaaeeiyao e
/oi ?acee/aao, oi anoue iauea e ?acee/iua i?eciaee, a oaeaea i?e
niaethaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiuo ineoieiai-iaaeaaiae/aneeo oneiaee.
Iniaaiiinoue oaeiai iiaeoiaea ninoieo a oii, /oi oeieueiee iao/aaony
?anniao?eaaoue ioaeaeueiua yaeaiey, oaeou iaoee n iiceoeee aai ioiioaiey
e oeaeiio, a ninoaaeaiee n ae?oaeie aaeeieoeaie yoiai o?iaiy. Yoi, a
naith i/a?aaeue, aeaaii?eyonoaoao oi?ie?iaaieth o oeieueieeia nenoaiiuo
ciaiee, ?acaeaaao ia oieueei oceiaeenoeeieeia?iia, ii e iauaa iuoeaiea
o/aieeia, aii?oaeaao eo iaiauaiiuie niiniaaie ?aoaiey oeaeiai iaai?a
eiie?aoiuo o/aaiuo caaeaiee, iicaieyao yeiiiieoue a?aiy, auaeaeaiiia ia
eco/aiea oaiu eee ?acaeaea.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee oaeaea auaeaeaiu oneiaey, i?e
niaethaeaiee eioi?uo aeaiiay nenoaia yooaeoeaia. Yoi: iaee/ea o
oeieueieeia iieiaeeoaeueiie o/aaiie iioeaaoeee, iaiaoiaeeiiai
iia?aoeeiiaeueiiai aiia?aoa, ?acaeoey niiniaiinoe o/aueony e aiaeeco e
naiiaiaeeco, iaania/aiea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe a ?acaeoee oiaiee
iaiauaoue e nenoaiaoece?iaaoue o/aaiue iaoa?eae, iauaaeeiaiea
?ai?iaeoeoeaiie e oai?/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe o/aueony n iineaaeothuei
ia?aoiaeii e naiinoiyoaeueiie ?aaioa. Oaeaea ?ac?aaioaiu e?eoa?ee aeey
ioeaiee o?iaiy noi?ie?iaaiiinoe oiaiee oeieueieeia iaiauaoue e
nenoaiaoece?iaaoue o/aaiue iaoa?eae; auaeaeaiu /aou?a o?iaiy. Aiaeec
?acoeueoaoia yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee iieacae oaaee/aiea
eiee/anoaa ioaaoia aunieiai o?iaiy noi?ie?iaaiiinoe oiaiee iaiauaoue e
nenoaiaoece?iaaoue o/aaiue iaoa?eae aeaoueie, eioi?ua iao/aeenue ii
?ac?aaioaiiie nenoaia caaeaiee e oi?aaeiaiee. Oiaiueoeeinue eiee/anoai
ioaaoia n?aaeiaai e ieceiai o?iaiy..

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iuoeaiea, iia?aoeee iuoeaiey, iaiauaiea,
nenoaiaoecaoeey, oiaiey, nenoaia caaeaiee.

Korshak T.Y. “Generalization and systematization of educational material
by the students on lessons (on example of study of chemistry and biology
in general school)”. Manuscript.

Thesis for degree of Pedagogical Science Candidate 13.00.01 Theory and
History of Pedagogy. Dragomanov National Pedagogical University, Kiev,
1999.

In this thesis the investigations of scientists in the field of the
formation and the development of mental operations among teenagers
generalization and systematization of learning material on the examples
of the study of the natural science are generalized. The special system
of cognitive tasks and exercises, directed on the development of ability
generalization and systematization of the studying material and the rise
of mastering of the learning material and making success of pupils on
the contents of natural subjects are generalized. The conditions are
found according which the system of tasks and exercises works. As the
pupils have positive studying motivation, the necessary working
apparatus, the possibility of pupils to the analysis and self-analysis,
the providing of consistence in the development of these conceptions,
unification of reproductive and creative activity of pupils with gradual
passing to the independent work. The criteria’s of estimation of forming
of ability; the generalization and systematization of knowledge are
worked out and according to these criteria’s equal formations are picked
out.

Key words: mentality, mental operations, generalization,
systematization, ability, system of exercises.

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