OE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OA?*IAEO OAOIIEIA?E

?OAeAIEI A??A IEEIEA?AIA

OAeE 664.1.039

OOAI?AIIss CAAA?AEAIEO ?A*IAEI O OeOE?IAIIO AE?IAIEOeOA? OA ?IC?IAEA
IAOIAe?A EIAI ?IA?AOAAIIss

05.18.05 – oaoiieia?y oeoe?enoeo ?a/iaei

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

Aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Aia??aiee Eaii?ae Aeai’yiiae/,
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e i?aai?/ii? o?i??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ie?eiee ?aai Aeaeoeiiiae/, Oe?a?inueea
Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, ia/aeueiee
a?aeae?eo aoanoaoe?? ? ?iciiae?eo eaae??a;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee *a?iyanueea
Ethaeieea ?aai?aia, Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo oeoe?iai?
i?iieneiaino?, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ne?iaeie, eiio?ieth oa iae?eo
ae?iaieoeoaa;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? E?i?oe Aioii Aaeaiiae/, Oe?a?inueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
oeoe?enoeo ?a/iaei.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

?inoeooo i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? ? ia?ai?aeaioiaee ea??aieo
i?aoe?aiee?a ? niaoe?ae?no?a oa?/iai? oa ia?a?iaii? i?iieneiaino?
I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a oaoiieia??
oeoe?enoeo ?a/iaei, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 6 ” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.058.04 Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e ca aae?anith: 252033,
i.Ee?a-17, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 68, ei?ion A, aoaeeoi??y A-311.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e ca aae?anith:

252033, i.Ee?a-17, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 68.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 6 ” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, e.o.i., n.i.n.
E.I.Oaaei?ai/aiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?e?iaei? niieoee ? /eneaii? no?oeoo?i? aeaiaioe
a?ieia?/ieo nenoai iathoue ii??aiyii iaaaeeeee iaa?? ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo
ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi, ye a?ae?ieneeueia (II), ai?ii (NH2),
ea?aieneeueia (NIII) ? ea?aii?eueia (N=I). Na?aae ?aaeoe?e, ye? iiaeeea?
i?ae oeeie a?oiaie, ai?iiea?aii?eueia ?aaeoe?y — oi?eaeueia ?
?icaeyaea?oueny ye ooiaeaiaioaeueia a aaee/aciiio ??ciiiai?oo?
i?e?iaeieo yaeu, a?eueo?noue c yeeo a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue o
a?ieia?/ieo oa ae?iaie/eo i?ioeanao. I?e?iaea iaaeaea aeiyoeiai
?aaeoe?eio nenoaio, o ye?e naoa?e ? ai?iieeneioe aai ?io? acioiai?ni?
niieoee aeoaea eaaei, aac o/ano? a?ieaoae?caoi??a, caciathoue aeeaieeo
ia?aoai?aiue, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei ci?ie caaa?aeaiiy, a?iiaoo,
?ic/eiiino? oa aaaaoueio ?ioeo aeanoeainoae i?e?iaeieo niieoe

Ai?iiea?aii?eueia ?aaeoe?y ? na?oeai oa?/iai? o?i??, ine?eueee naia oey
?aaeoe?y aecia/a? e?ioeaaee ?acoeueoao oa?i?/ii ia?iaeaieo i?iaeoeo?a:
?oi?e niae, eie??, a?iiao. Oiio aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iiea?aii?eueii?
?aaeoe?? a ia?oo /a?ao iia’ycaii c ae??oaiiyi aaaaoueio i?aeoe/ieo
caaaeaiue – ye e?aua ? iaae?eii caa?aaoe iiaeeaio oe?ii?noue oa?/iaeo
i?iaeoeo?a, iie?ioeoe ?oi? i?aaiieaioe/i? iieacieee aai caanoe aei
i?i?ioio iaaaaeai? iane?aeee oe??? ?aaeoe??.

Ai?iiea?aii?eueia ?aaeoe?y ? iaaecae/aeii neeaaeiei i?ioeanii
ia?aoai?aiue naoa??a, ui i?noeoue aeinoaoiuei aaeeeo e?euee?noue
?aaeoe?e, ia?aa?a yeeo a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny oiiaaie
a?aeiia?aeieo oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa.

O ae?iaieoeoa? oeoe?o ?c oeoe?iaiai ao?yea oa oeoe?iai? o?inoeie
ai?iiea?aii?eueia ?aaeoe?y i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo
?a/iaei, ui cieaeo? ye?noue oeoe?o ? aeiaaa? aeiaeaoeiaeo cia/ieo aeo?ao
ia iaea?aeaiiy oeoe?o a?aeiia?aeii? yeino? . A aeey oiai, uia
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaii eiio?iethaaoe i?ioean ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo
?a/iaei oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaiao?aeii iaoe aeinoaoi? ciaiiy i?i
oa?aeoa? o?i?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue naoa??a a oiiaao oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa
? iniaeeai oeo ?? noaae?e, ye? ?i?oe?ththoue iiao??iiy.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe?? ia? iaaiee i?ia?an, i?ioa
i?iaeaia ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaiiy ana ae caeeoa?oueny ua ia aei e?ioey
c’yniaaiith. Noaaeyoueny i?ae noii?a eeane/i? oyaeaiiy i?i o?i?ci
i?ioeano iiao??iiy, ia aecia/aiee aianie ?aaeoe?? iooa?ioaoe?? a
caaaeueio noaio ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??, ia ia? ?aeeiiai iiaeyaeo ia
neeaae caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ia aea/aiee a iiai?e
i??? aoaeo ?ia?aoth/eo ?aaaaio?a a ?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo iiiinaoa?eae?a.

Ae??oaiiy oaeeo i?iaeai ? noaei i?aaeiaoii aeaiiai iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiioaaeeny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c oaiaoeeith iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
OAeOOO, ca?aeii:

i??i?eoaoiiai iaoeiaiai iai?yieo “?ic?iaea iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a
oa aenieiaoaeoeaiiai iaeaaeiaiiy oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa”;

i?ia?aie “Oaeineiiaeaiiy ?nioth/eo ? noai?aiiy iiaeo
?ano?nicaiuaaeaeoth/eo oaoiieia?e aeey ia?a?iaieo aaeocae AIE”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? anoaiiaeaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae ia?aa?ao ?aaeoe?? iiao??iiy, yea i?ecaiaeeoue aei
ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei a oaoiieia?/ieo oiiaao oeoe?iaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ? aecia/aiiy i?e?iaee aieeao ??cieo ?aaeoaio?a
(ioeeaio?e?a, ieeniee?a) ia i?ioean ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaiiy. Aeey
?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie ia?aaeaa/aeiny:

aecia/eoe i?noea oaooiia?ieo ia?aoai?aiue iiiinaoa?eae?a a caaaeueiiio
ia?aa?ao ?aaeoe?? iiao??iiy ? c’ynoaaoe aieea oiia ? ?aaaaio?a ?aaeoe??
ia e?euee?niee ai?no aoeeee?/ieo oi?i D-aetheice oa D-o?oeoice o aiaeieo
?ic/eiao;

aea/eoe aieea ciai?oi?o ia?aiao??a (?I, oaiia?aoo?e) ia ia?aa?a
?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice ? ciaeoe caeiiii??iino? i?ae ooai?aiiyi
iniiaieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a ? caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei;

ioe?ieoe ?ieue ?aaaaio?a ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??, ?oiuei? i?e?iaee ?
aoaeiae a ooai?aii? iniiaieo i?ii?aeieo niieoe ? caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei;

ciiaeaethaaoe i?ioean ooai?aiiy ??cieo oei?a caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei
oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? aecia/eoe ?oi?e ye?niee neeaae;

ciaeoe o? noaae?? a caaaeueiiio ia?aa?ao ?aaeoe?? iiao??iiy, ia ye?
iaeaeioe?euei?oa aieeaaoe aeey caiia?aaiiy ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo
?a/iaei;

c’ynoaaoe ae?th ieeniee?a ia ??cieo noaae?yo ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??
a iiaeaeueieo nenoaiao ? ia caaiaenueeeo ?ic/eiao iai?ai?iaeoeo?a
oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa;

?ic?iaeoe aoaeoeai? iaoiaee ?ia?aoaaiiy ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaiiy oa eiai
ciaaa?aeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A eiiieaen? ?ica’yco?oueny
aaaeeeaa aeey oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeaia anoaiiaeaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae ia?aa?ao ?aaeoe?? ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei, ui
caaacia/o? ?ic?iaeo aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a eiai ?ia?aoaaiiy.

?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo E?-niaeo?ineii?? c’yniaaiee aieea a?ae?ieneae-
? aiaeiaaeo ?ii?a oa oaiia?aoo?e ia ai?no aoeeee?/ieo (aiieueieo ?
ea?aii?eueieo) oi?i D-aetheice ? D-o?oeoice oa ia/eneai? ?oi? a?aeiini?
eiioeaio?aoe??.

Io?eiai? aeai? i?i oaiia?aoo?i? ciie ii an?e oeae? cia/aiue ?I, a iaaeao
yeeo cae?eniththoueny ??ci? ca oa?aeoa?ii ia?aoai?aiiy ia ?aii?o
noaae?yo ?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice. Aecia/aia ?oiy iine?aeiai?noue ?
iieacaii, ui ii/aoeii oaeeo ia?aoai?aiue ? ?aaeoe?y iooa?ioaoe??.

Aecia/ai? caeiiii??iino? aieeao i?e?iaee ? aoaeiae ai?iieiiiiiaioe ia
ooai?aiiy iniiaieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a ?aii?o noaae?e ? caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei
e?ioeaai? noaae?? ? iieacaii, ui ioeeaio?euei?noue ai?iieiiiiiaioe ia?
aecia/aeueiee aieea ia ia?aa?a ?aii?o noaae?e ai?iiea?aii?eueii?
?aaeoe??.

C’yniaaia ae?y n??eiai?nieo niieoe ye eiieo?aio?a ai?iieeneioe a
?aaeoe?yo ioeeaio?eueiiai i?e?aeiaiiy aei ea?aii?eueii? a?oie D-aetheice
ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe?? ? aeyaeaiee ?ia?aoth/ee
aoaeo o?iae?eieaai? eeneioe a i?ioean? iiao??iiy.

Aeeiiaii nenoaiaoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?o aieeao a?ae?ieneae- oa
aiaeiaaeo ?ii?a ia ia?aa?a ?aii?o ? e?ioeaai? noaae?e ?aaeoe??
iiao??iiy, ui aeicaieeei aeae?eeoe ciie cia/aiue ?I, a iaaeao yeeo
a?aeaoaathoueny iaai? i?ioeane ia?aoai?aiue D-aetheice.

Aeieacaii, ui ai?iiai?ni? niieoee caeaoi? ?aaaoaaoe ?c noi?iiaaieie
caaa?aeaieie ?a/iaeiaie (i?iaeoeoaie eoaeiiai ?iceeaaeo ?aaeoeoth/eo
naoa??a, ea?aiaeyie), ui ia o?eueee iinoaaeei i?ae noii?a ?nioaaiiy
a?oie aacacioieo caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, aea e
iieacaei iiieeeia?noue eeane/ieo iieiaeaiue eeaneo?eaoe?? caaa?aeaieo
?a/iaei oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Niaeo?ineii?/iei oa o?iiaoia?ao?/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyie aeiaaaeaii, ui
ieenieee aieeaathoue ia an? noaae?? ?aaeoe?? eoaeiiai ?iceeaaeo
D-aetheice ? ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??. Aiie ?oeiothoue iiaea?ei?
ca’ycee, ii/eiath/e aaea ?c noa?oiai? aiae?ieueii? oi?ie ? cae?i/oth/e
o?iiioi?ieie o?aaiaioaie e?ioeaaeo caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei, ui ? aea?
neeueiee aoaeo ciaaa?aeaiiy. Naia oe? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy noaee
iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee aeaio niinia?a (?ia?aoaaiiy oa ciaaa?aeaiiy) ye o
ao?yeioeoe?iaiio, oae ? a o?inoeiiioeoe?iaiio ae?iaieoeoaao.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? oa
oai?aoe/i? aeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aa?ao ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??
iathoue caaaeueia cia/aiiy aeey o?i?? ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??
cie?aia ? oa?/iai? o?i?? a oe?eiio. Aiie iia’ycai? c ae??oaiiyi
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?iaeai oa?/iai? o?i?? – aca?iica’yceo noaio
?aaeoe?eii? nenoaie (ciai?oiueiio ? aioo??oiueiio) ? ?? ?aaeoe?eii?
caeaoiino? aeey iiyniaiiy oa caaaa/aiiy iane?aee?a a?aeiia?aeieo
ia?aoai?aiue, ye? oi?iothoue oa?/ia? yeino? i?iaeoeo?a.

Iiaeai? a ?iaio? aeai? aieeao ioeeaio?eueiino? ? aoaeiae eiiiiiaio?a
ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe?? ia ooai?aiiy i?ii?aeieo niieoe ?aii?o
noaae?e ?aaeoe??, ye? ?i?oe?ththoue ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaiiy, ? e?ioeaaeo
caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei aeicaieyoue ae??ooaaoe i?iaeaio ?aoe?iiaeueiiai
i?aeai?o ?aaaaio?a (a?aeiia?aeii aeiiaai) ye aeey ?ia?aoaaiiy i?ioeano
iiao??iiy, oae ? aeey eiai ?ioaineo?eaoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano ieeniaiiy (a iaaeao ?aaeoe?? eoaeiiai ?iceeaaeo
D-aetheice ? ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??) aeyaeei neeueiee
ciaaa?aethth/ee aoaeo noi?o? oei?iiai aaiia ? iia?o?y, ui noaei iniiaith
aeey ?ic?iaee niiniao ?ia?aoaaiiy i?ioeano ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei
i?ae /an ia?iaee nieo ia aeaoaeaoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy oa?iino?eeino?
nie?a. Aoaeoeai?noue cai?iiiiiaaiiai niiniao aoea ia?aa??aia ia
iai?ai?iaeoeoao ssaioeinueeiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai caaiaeo (1994 ?.) oa
Oeueyi?anueeiai oeoe?iaiai caaiaeo (1995 ?.). Niin?a aoa ai?iaaaeaeaiee
ia Ciei/?anueeiio oeoe?iaiio caaiae? (1995 ?.).

Caeaoi?noue ieeniee?a ?icuaiethaaoe iiaea?ei? ca’ycee noi?iiaaieo
o?iiioi??a caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei aoea iieeaaeaia a iniiao iaoiaeo
ciaioaiiy caaa?aeaiiy iai?ai?iaeoeo?a ia?a?iaee oeoe?o-ne?oeth. Iaoiae
aoa ia?aa??aiee ia iai?ai?iaeoeoao Nae?aiie?anueeiai oeoe?iaiai caaiaeo
(1996 ?.).

Aeinoia??i?noue ?iaioe. Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e caaacia/aia aeei?enoaiiyi
no/anieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiue ? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aaeaeaaoi?noth
?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo ? aeine?aeii-i?iieneiaeo aei?iaoaaiue.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?ii iniaenoi c?iaeaia iinoaiiaea
aenia?eiaioo, i?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao ciai?oi?o oa aioo??oi?o
ia?aiao??a ia ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaiiy a ?aaeoe?yo ?iceeaaeo ?aaeoeoth/eo
naoa??a; ia?iaeai? oa ocaaaeueiai? /enaeuei? aeai? niaeo?ineii?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy; ?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? eiioeaioe?? aieeao ?aaaaio?a oa
ieeniee?a ia no?oeoo?o i?ii?aeieo niieoe oa caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei a
?aaeoe?yo ?iceeaaeo ?aaeoeoth/eo naoa??a; i?iaaaeaii aeine?aeaeaiiy
niiniao ?ia?aoaaiiy i?ioeano ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei c
aeei?enoaiiyi eiia?iiaaiiai ieenieea (noi?o? oei?iiai aaiia c iia?o?yi)
ia aa?y/?e aeaoaeaoe?? ? niiniao ciaaa?aeaiiy aaea noi?iiaaieo
caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei i?ae /an ia?a?iaee o?inoeiiiai oeoe?o-ne?oeth.
Iinoaiiaeo ?yaeo caaea/, aiae?c oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaaaeaii ni?eueii c iaoeiaei eiinoeueoaioii ae.o.i.
Aia??aieeii E.Ae., aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiaeii E?-niaeo?ineii?? – c e.o.i.
Ee?iiae/ai A.I. ?yae aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiiaii a i?ioean? ea?oaaiiy
iaoeiaith ?iaioith ani??aioa Niaa?oaiii? ?.I.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeaaaeeny ?
iaaiai?thaaeeny ia I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e nan?? “Iao/ieoa ecneaaeaaiey
e oaoiieiae/ieyo o?ainoa?-oaeoi?e ca iaiiaeaiea ia OAI” (Ieiaaeea,
aeiaoaiue, 1988 ?.), 20-e Aaia?aeuei?e anaiaea? C.I.T.S. (Ithioai,
/a?aaiue, 1995 ?.), eiioa?aioe?? C.I.T.S. (I?aaa, o?aaaiue, 1997 ?.),
25-e Aaia?aeuei?e anaiaea? C.I.T.S. (Aioaa?iai, o?aaaiue, 1999 ?.),
I?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? “I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ao?yeioeoe?iaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa oa i?iaeaie aeieia?? ? a?aeoiae?a“ (Ee?a, eenoiiaae, 1994
?.), ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eioaineoeeaoeey
oaoiieiaee e niaa?oainoaiaaiea iai?oaeiaaiey ia?a?aaaouaathueo io?aneae
AIE“ (Ee?a, 1989 ?.), ?anioae?eainuee?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea aunieiyooaeoeaiuo ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo
oaoiieiaee, iai?oaeiaaiey e iiauo aeaeia ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia a ieuaaoth e
ia?a?aaaouaathuoth io?anee AIE“ (Ee?a, 1991 ?.), Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “?ic?iaea oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo
oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy o oa?/iao oa ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue“ (Ee?a,
1995 ?.), iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo OAeOOO (1992 ?., 1996 ?.), nai?ia??
aieiaieo niaoe?ae?no?a oeoe?iaeo caaiae?a, anioe?aoe?e oa a?oiiaeo
eaai?aoi??e “I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ao?yeioeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa”
(Ee?a, ea?oaiue, 1999 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaiee a 32 noaooyo o
oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, 12 oacao
aeiiia?aeae ia i?aeia?iaeieo ? ?anioae?eainueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo oa
nai?ia?ao. Iaea?aeaii 1 iaoaio Oe?a?ie oa 1 cayaea ia iaoaio Oe?a?ie
ciaoiaeeoueny ia ?icaeyae? Eii?oaoo.

Ia’?i aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, 7 ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c 327 iaeiaioaaiue ? aeiaeaoe?a.
?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 261 noi??ioe? iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo (aac a?aooaaiiy
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a), ia? 113 ?enoie?a oa 36
oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Anooi. Iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe,
aecia/aii iaoo ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iaoeiao oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue
?iaioe.

?icae?e 1. “?aaeoe?y iiao??iiy: o?i?/i? aniaeoe, ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo
?a/iaei oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?oiy oa?aeoa?enoeea”.

?icaeyiooi o?i?/i? iniiae ?aaeoe?e ia?aoai?aiue iiiinaoa?eae?a,
aeaoaeueii iienai? caeiiii??iino? ia?aa?ao ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??,
ye iniiaii? a ooai?aii? caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
Aeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ?
?ethno?othoueny iaoai?cie ?oiueiai ooai?aiiy. Iienai? aeaea?aea
aeieeiaiiy ??cieo a?oi caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei ia ??cieo ae?eyieao
oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa oeoe?o ? iaaaaeaia ?oiy
oa?aeoa?enoeea. ?icaeyiooi aieea aeayeeo aeiiii?aeieo ?aaaaio?a
(oi?iaeueaeaa?ae, SO2 ? noeueo?oe, I2I2 ? I2) ye ?ia?a?oi??a ?aaeoe??
iiao??iiy a oeoe?iaiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

?icae?e 2. “Ia’?eoe oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue”.

?aaeoe?y iiao??iiy, yea aaaaea?oueny iniiaiith a ooai?aii? caaa?aeaieo
?a/iaei oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? neeaaeiei i?ioeanii ia?aoai?aiue
?aaeoeoth/eo naoa??a. ? oea iaeiicia/ii aecia/eei aea?? iiiina?eae?a ye
ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy a iiaeaeueieo nenoaiao: aiaei? ?ic/eie
iiiinaoa?eaeo (D-aetheica, D-o?oeoica); iiiinaoa?eae/ai?ii-niieoea.
Iiaeaeueia aea/aiiy ?aaeoe?? — iaeei c iaec?o/i?oeo iaoiae?a
niinoa?aaeaiiy i?e?iaeieo nenoai, ine?eueee aeicaiey? aeine?aeaeoaaoe
ie?ai? i?ioeane ia?aoai?aiue ?cieueiaaii a?ae aaaaoueio ?ioeo, ye?
caaaeaee iathoue i?noea a ?aaeueieo oiiaao ?aaeoe??.

A i?ioean? ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaiiy a?aeaoaathoueny neeaaei? o?i?/i?
?aaeoe??, i?ae /an yeeo a ?aaeoe?ei?e nenoai? aeieeathoue ? cieeathoue
??ciiiai?oi? i?ii?aei? niieoee. *a?ac ianoaa?euei?noue ? iao?eaaeee /an
?nioaaiiy ?o ia iiaeia aeae?eeoe aai aeyaeoe cae/aeieie o?i?/ieie
iaoiaeaie.

Aeey ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oaeeo i?ii?aeieo niieoe c iaoith anoaiiaeaiiy
caeiiii??iinoae a ia?aa?ao iniiaieo noaae?e ?aaeoe??, ye? i?ecaiaeyoue
aei caaa?aeaiiy, aeei?enoiaoaaeeny caaaeueiii?eeiyo? niaeo?aeuei?
iaoiaee (OO-, ?*-, E?-niaeo?ineii?y, ssI?-niaeo?iiao??y) ?
o?iiaoia?ao?/i? iaoiaee aiae?co (HPLC-?icae?eaiiy, aaeueo?iiaoia?ao?/ia
?icae?eaiiy, GC-MS-niaeo?iiao??y).

sse iniiai? aoee aeei?enoai? iaoiaee OO- ? E?-niaeo?ineii?? aeey
aea/aiiy ae?? ieeniee?a ia ?aii?o noaae?e ?aaeoe?? iiao??iiy, ui
aeicaieeei ciaeoe o? ?? noaae??, ia ye? iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii aieeaaoe
a ia?aa?ao i?ioeano ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei.

?icae?e 3. “?aaeoe?y iiao??iiy a iiaeaeuei?e nenoai? ea?aii?eueia
niieoea/ai?iieeneioa”.

Uia iaiaaeeoe, aei iaaii? i??e, eiei neeaaeiaeo iaaecae/aeii neeaaeiiai
i?ioeano ia?aoai?aiue naoa??a a ai?iiea?aii?euei?e ?aaeoe?? ? ie?aneeoe
eiai ?aaeuei? oeyoe ia ia?oiio aoai? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aea?ai?
iiaeaeuei? nenoaie, ui neeaaeaeeny c i?inoeo ea?aii?eueieo niieoe
(aoeaoaeueaeaa?ae, ae?oea?aeueaeaa?ae, aeea?ae?ien?aoeaoii) ? aeey
ii??aiyiiy ?c D-aetheice ca iayaiino? aai o a?aenooiino? ai?iieeneioe.

Iaoiaeaie OO-niaeo?ineii?? aeiaaaeaii, ui i?ii?aei? ea?aii?eai?ni?
niieoee ?aii?o noaae?e ?aaeoe?? aeine?aeaeoaaieo nenoai ooai?eeeny a?ae
iiae?aieo /anoeiie ? caciaee noiaeeo ia?aoai?aiue: aoeaoaeueaeaa?ae,
o??ice — ?aaeoe?e aeueaeie?caoe??, a aaenica — ?aaeoe?e
aeaaeueaeie?caoe?? (o?aaiaioaoe??) c ianooiiith aeueaeie?caoe??th.

Aeai? ?*-niaeo?ineii?? ? aeaiaioiiai aiae?co caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei,
aeae?eaieo ?c aeine?aeaeoaaieo iiaeaeueieo nenoai, oaeiae na?ae/aoue i?i
noiae?noue ia?aoai?aiue aoeaoaeueaeaa?aeo, o??ic ? D-aetheice (a oea
iiaea aooe, yeui i?eionoeoe aeaaeueaeie?caoe?th inoaiiuei?) ? iaai?
a?aei?iiino? a?ae ia?aoai?aiue aoeaoaeueaeaa?aeo.

O?iiaoia?ao?/ia ?icae?eaiiy ia Sephadex G-15 i?ii?aeieo i?iaeoeo?a
ia?aoai?aiiyo aeea?ae?ien?aoeaoiio ? iiaeaeueoee aiae?c
(GC-MS-niaeo?iiao??y ? ?*-niaeo?ineii?y) aieiaieo o?aeoe?e
i?eioneathoue aeueaeieueio eiiaeainaoe?th ? aeathoue ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
iiaeeeao no?oeoo?o a?aeiia?aeieo i?ii?aeieo niieoe.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ia?aoai?aiiyie ea?aii?eai?nieo niieoe na?ae/aoue i?i
oa, ui i?ioean iiao??iiy a iaeo?aeueiiio oa eoaeieo na?aaeiaeuao
i?ioiaeeoue, a iniiaiiio, /a?ac aeaaeueaeie?caoe?th (o?aaiaioaoe?th)
naoa??a c ianooiiith aeueaeicaoe?th, a ai?iiniieoee ia oeueiio aoai? ?
aeoeaieie eaoae?caoi?aie oaeeo ?aaeoe?e.

?icae?e 4 “Ia?aoai?aiiy iiiinaoa?eae?a o aiaeieo ?ic/eiao” neeaaea?oueny
c i’yoe i?ae?icae?e?a.

I?ae?icae?e 4.1. “Oaooiia?i? ia?aoai?aiiy ?aaeoeoth/eo naoa??a”.

Iaoiaeii E?-niaeo?ineii?? cao?eniaaii o?e ea?aii?euei? nioae iiaeeiaiiy
D-aetheice ((1718, 1726 ? 1733 ni-1) ? D-o?oeoice ((1716, 1728 ? 1733
ni(1), eiaeia c yeeo a?aeiia?aea? ?nioaaiith o?ueio oaooiia?ieo oi?i:
3-eaoi, 2-eaoi, aeueaeaa?aei. O?e nioae iiaeeiaiiy D-aetheice ?
D-o?oeoice iaaecae/aeii /ooeea? aei ?I, ui aeicaieeei eiio?iethaaoe
ai?no a?aee?eoeo oi?i a ?ic/eiao a?ae?a?aieo naoa??a ye ooieoe?? ?I.

Ia iniia? ?ioaa?aeueieo ?ioaineaiinoae ea?aii?eueieo nioa D-aetheice
? D-o?oeoice aeey eiaeiiai naoa?o aoee ia/eneai? a?aeiini?
eiioeaio?aoe?? aoeeee?/ieo oi?i (a %). Aeey ?ic?aooieo, ye ?aia?, aoea
acyoa eiioeaio?aoe?y aoeeee?/ii? oi?ie D-aetheice 0,04% (a
iaeo?aeueiiio ?ic/ei?) ? eiioeaio?aoe?y aoeeee?/ii? oi?ie D-o?oeoice
0,7% (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1

Aieea eiioeaio?aoe?e I+ ? II( ia ai?no ea?aii?eueieo

oaooiia??a a ?aaeoe?? iooa?ioaoe?? aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a D-aetheice

Aeo?aei? cia/aiiy ?I 2,0 4,0 6,0 7,0 8,0 9,0

Ai?no ea?aii?eueieo oi?i

D-aetheice, % 0,05 0,040 0,039 0,04 0,057 0,058

Ai?no ea?aii?eueieo oi?i

D-o?oeoice, % 0,83 0,58 0,5 0,7 0,81 0,95

D-aetheica ? D-o?oeoica, aeyaeyth/e i?a?aoe?th ea?aii?eueii? a?oie, yea
a?aeaoaa?oueny eeoa /a?ac aiae?ieueia ooai?aiiy, iieacoaaee nioao
iiaeeiaiiy i?e (1650 ni-1 (iaeanoue iiaeeiaiiy aiie?a). Cana?ae/aii, ui
aiae?ieueia nioaa a oae?e nai?e i???, ye ? ea?aii?eueia nioaa, /ooeeaa
aei eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae?ieneae-?ii?a.

Oaaeeoey 2

Aieea oaiia?aoo?e ia a?aeiinio eiioeaio?aoe?th aoeeee?/ieo

oi?i D-aetheice ? D-o?oeoice

Ai?no

ea?aii?eueieo oi?i Oaiia?.

t, (N Aeo?aeia cia/aiiy ?I

2,0 4,0 6,0 7,0 8,0 9,0

D-aetheice, % 20 0,046 0,040 0,039 0,04 0,057 0,058

40 0,13 0,11 0,10 0,12 0,17 0,175

60 0,26 0,22 0,20 0,28

D-o?oeoice, % 20 0,83 0,58 0,50 0,7 0,81 0,95

40 3,0 2,1 1,87 2,9 3,24 3,68

60 7,3 5,1 4,4 7,2

Nioae ea?aii?eueiiai ? aiae?ieueiiai iiaeeiaiiy D-aetheice ? D-o?oeoice
iaaecae/aeii /ooeea? aei oaiia?aoo?e, ui aoei cao?eniaaii ca ci?iaiiyi
?oi?o ?ioaa?aeueieo ?ioaineaiinoae a oaiia?aoo?iiio ae?aiacii? 20-95(N
a ?ac? cia/aiue ?I 2,0-9,0 (oaae.2), ? aei oiai ae oaiia?aoo?a iaea
cia/ii a?eueoee aieea ia oaooiia?ia ia?aoai?aiiy D-aetheice ?
D-o?oeoice, i?ae ?I.

?ioaineai?noue nioa ea?aii?eueiiai ((1710-1740 ni-1) ? aiieueiiai
((1650 ni-1) iiaeeiaiiy ?ic/eio D-aetheice (?I 7,0) iii?oii
ca?eueoo?oueny ca iayaiino? ae?oeeio, ii??aiyii c a?aeiia?aeieie
nioaaie iiaeeiaiiy /enoeo ?ic/ei?a D-aetheice ? ae?oeeio (?en.1), ui
aeaco? ia eaoae?oe/io ae?th ai?iieeneioe a ?aaeoe?? iooa?ioaoe??.

Ioaea aeiaaaeaii, ui ?aaeoe?y iooa?ioaoe?? ? e?i?ooth/ith neeaaeiaith
ii/aoeiai? noaae?? ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe?? ? ?? iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe a caaaeuei?e noai? ia?aoai?aiue, ine?eueee ciai?oi?
ia?aiao?e ?aaeoe?? Iaey?a (?I, oaiia?aoo?a) aaea aieeaathoue ia ia?aa?a
oaooiia?ieo ia?aoai?aiue ?aaeoeoth/eo naoa??a.

I?ae?icae?e 4.2. “Aoaeo eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae?ieneae-?ii?a ia ooai?aiiy
i?ii?aeieo niieoe ? caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei a ?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo
D-aetheice”.

Iaoiaeii OO-niaeo?ineii?? aeine?aeaeaii ooai?aiiy ?ioa?iaae?ao?a ?
caaa?aeaieo i?iaeoeo?a eoaeiiai ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice (a ae?aiacii? ?I
9,0-13,0 ? oaiia?aoo?e 20-95(N). Aeiaaaeaii, ui eiioeaio?aoe?y II(-?ii?a
ia? aecia/aeueiee aieea ia iai?yiie ia?aoai?aiue aeeea?aii?eueieo
niieoe i?ae /an iaa??aaiiy ?ic/ei?a D-aetheice.

A ?ac? iecueeeo eiioeaio?aoe?yo II(-?ii?a (?I 8,0-9,0): (1) a cia/i?e
i??? eaea eeneioiooai?aiiy, iaiaaii, /a?ac aaiceeieeneioia
ia?aa?oioaaiiy aeeea?aii?eueieo niieoe ? (-aeeea?aii?eueia
?icuaieaiiy; (2) ?iceeaae D-aetheice a?aeaoaa?oueny c ooai?aiiyi
i?ii?aeieo niieoe, ye? iiaeeiathoue a OO-iaeano? i?e (max225 ii ?
(max280 ii ? ii-??ciiio a?aeiinyoueny aei eiioeaio?aoe?? II(-?ii?a; (3)
?ioa?iaae?aoe c (max225 ii (iaiane/ai? ea?aii?eai?ni? niieoee)
iaaecae/aeii /ooeea? aei eiioeaio?aoe?? II(-?ii?a, oiio caa??aathoueny ?
i?iaeiaaeothoue ia?aoai?aiiy eeoa a iaeo?aeueieo oa eeneeo
na?aaeiaeuao; (4) i?ii?aei? niieoee c (max280 ii [(aee)ea?aii?euei?
niieoee] ?niothoue ? aeoeaii ia?aoai?ththoueny a eoaeieo ?ic/eiao.

C i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? II(-?ii?a (?I(9,0) eeneioiooai?aiiy
cieaeo?oueny, ii/eiathoue ana a?eueoa ia?aaaaeaoe ?aaeoe?? ?icuaieaiiy
aeeea?aii?eueieo niieoe ? iaa?oue aiae?ieueieo no?oeoo? c ooai?aiiyi
?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo ea?aii?eai?nieo niieoe ((max265 ii), na?aaeiaeua
caeeoa?oueny eoaeiei ? noai?ththoueny iaaecae/aeii ni?eyoeea? oiiae
aeey iiaeaeueoeo ?aaeoe?e eiiaeainaoe?e, ye? cae?i/othoueny
iie?ia?ecaoe?eiei i?ioeanii ? aeoeaiei ooai?aiiyi caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei.

C aeei?enoaiiyi o?iiaoia?ao?/ieo iaoiae?a aiae?co (GC-MS-niaeo?iiao??y)
aeine?aeaeoaaany neeaae iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo i?iaeoeo?a ?iceeaaeo
D-aetheice (?I 11,0), na?aae yeeo ?aeaioeo?eiaai? ia iienai? a
e?oa?aoo?? iio?aei? oo?aio, eeneioe oa ea?aii?eai?ni? niieoee.

I?ae?icae?e 4.3. “Aoaeo oaiia?aoo?e ia ooai?aiiy i?ii?aeieo niieoe ?
caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei a ?aaeoe?? eoaeiiai ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice”.

Niaeo?aeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy (iaoiaeaie E?- ? OO-niaeo?i-neii??) eoaeieo
?ic/ei?a D-aeth-eice a ae?aiacii? ?I 8,0-10,0 ? a ?ioa?aae? oaiia?aoo?
20-95(N oeaco? ia ?nioaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ieo cii, a iaaeao yeeo
a?aeaoaathoueny ??ci? i?ioeane ia?aoai-?aiue (?en.2):

?ioa?aae 20-40(N — ciia oaooiia?ieo ia?aoai?aiue D-aetheice, a ye?e c
i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e oaeaeei c?inoa? ?ioaineai?noue ea?aii?eueiiai
iiaeeiaiiy;

?ioa?aae 40-60(N — ciia ?aii?o noaae?e ?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice,
aea niinoa??aathoueny aeoeai? ia?aoai?aiiy ea?aii?eueieo oi?i
D-aetheice, eiioeaio?aoe?y yeeo c i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e i?e ?I 8,0
aaea ia ci?ith?oueny ? iaa?oue ciaioo?oueny i?e ?I 9,0-10,0;

?ioa?aae 60-95(N — ciia iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue ?aii?o noaae?e ?aaeoe??
?iceeaaeo D-aetheice, eiee ia? i?noea aeoeaia ooai?aiiy
(aee)ea?aii?eai?nieo i?ii?aeieo niieoe. C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e
?ioaineai?noue ea?aii?eueiiai iiaeeiaiiy ii/eia? ciiao c?inoaoe ? /ei
aeua eiioeaio?aoe?y II(-?ii?a, oei oaeaeoa ca?eueoo?oueny
eiioeaio?aoe?y ea?aii?eai?nieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a, iniaeeai i?e t>80(C.

I?ae?icae?e 4.4. “Aoaeo eiioeaio?aoe?? aiaeiaaeo ?ii?a ia ooai?aiiy
i?ii?aeieo niieoe a ?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice”.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ci?iaiiyi aeo?aeiiai ?I ? OO-iiaeeiaiiy i?ae /an
iaa??aaiiy aeine?aeaeoaaieo eeneeo ?ic/ei?a D-aetheice (?en.3)
aeicaieeee iinooethaaoe, ui a neaaeieeneeo ?ic/eiao ?aae?cothoueny aeaa
iai?yiee ia?aoai?aiue aeeea?aii?eueieo niieoe: (1) aeaa?ae?aoaoe?y c
ooai?aiiyi ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo iaiane/aieo ea?aii?eai?nieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a
(?ciia??a 3,4-aeeaeaciene-D-aetheiciio), ye? iiaeeiathoue a iaeano? (
225 ii oa 5-AIO c iiaeeiaiiyi a ea?aii?euei?e iaeano? (( 285 ii);
(2) ia?aa?oioaaiiy oa ?icuaieaiiy aei eeneeo niieoe. Ca?eueoaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? I+-?ii?a i?enei?th? aeaa?ae?aoaoe?th ? niia?eueith?
eeneioiooai?aiiy. Aiaeiaa? ?iie eaoae?cothoue ooai?aiiy aiae?ieueii?
no?oeoo?e ? ianooii? ?aaeoe?? aeaa?ae?aoaoe??, aea caiaeyoue aei
i?i?ioio iiaeeea? ?aaeoe?? aeueaeie?caoe?y (aee)ea?aii?eueieo niieoe,
inue /iio a eeneeo ?ic/eiao iiaeia cao?enoaaoe oae? ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoi?
?ioa?iaae?aoe, ye iaiane/ai? iciie, ui iiaeeiathoue a aeaeuei?e
OO-iaeano? (( 225 ii) ? 5-AIO.

Ooai?aiiy ea?aii?eai?nieo niieoe, a oiio /ene? ? 5-AIO, a iaeiaio?e i???
niinoa??aa?oueny a ?ic/eiao D-aetheice c ?I 3,0. Oea icia/a?, ui naia
oaea eiioeaio?aoe?y aiaeiaaeo ?ii?a caaacia/o? noaa?euei?noue
D-aetheice ? ia ni?ey? oaeaeeiio ooai?aiith aiae?ieueii? no?oeoo?e, ye
noa?oiaiai ?ioa?iaae?aoa aeey iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue. Oae? aeai?
ei?eni? aeey ae??oaiiy ieoaiue ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaiiy
e?ioiaei-iaoieiaiai oa aetheiciiai ae?iaieoeoa.

I?ae?icae?e 4.5. “Aoaeo oaiia?aoo?e ia ooai?aiiy i?ii?aeieo niieoe a
?aaeoe?? eeneioiiai ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice”.

Iaoiaeaie E?- ? OO-niaeo?ineii?? anoaiiaeaia iine?aeiai?noue, ii iaio?e
i???, o?ueio i?ioean?a ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ?aaeoe?? eeneioiiai ?iceeaaeo
D-aetheice (?en.4):

t 20-60(N — ciia oaooiia?ieo ia-?aoai?aiue D-aetheice;

t 60-80(C – ii/aoie ia?aoai?aiiy aoeeee?/ieo oi?i (ea?aii?eueieo ?
aiae?ieueieo) D-aetheice;

t 80-95(C – aeoeaia ooai?aiiy (aee)ea?aii?eueieo i?ii?aeieo niieoe a
oaeaeeeo ia?aoai?aiiyo ianoaa?eueieo ? ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo
?ioa?iaae?ao?a iiia?aaei?o noaae?e.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ci?iaie i?ae /an iaa??aaiiy aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a
D-aetheice a ae?aiacii? an??? oeaee cia/aiue ?I (1,0-13,0) aeicaieeee
aeyaeoe iiae?ai?noue ? a?aei?ii?noue a ia?aa?ao ?aii?o noaae?e ?aaeoe??
?iceeaaeo D-aetheice. Iiaeia iinooeth-aaoe, ui ia?aoai?aiiy ?aaeoeoth/eo
naoa??a iathoue caaaeueio iine?aeiai?noue, yea ?aae?co?oueny a oaeeo
iniiaieo aoaiao:

? aoai — ia?aoai?aiiy D-aetheice ii/eiathoueny c ?aaeoe?? iooa?ioaoe??,
yea caaacia/o? ?nioaaiiy ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo aoeeee?/ieo oi?i
(ea?aii?eueieo ? aiae?ieueieo);

?? aoai neeaaea?oueny c iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue, a yeeo aeii?iothoue
?aaeoe?? eeneioiooai?aiiy, iniaeeai a eoaeieo ?ic/eiao;

??? aoai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?ioaineaiei ooai?aiiyi iaiane/aieo
ea?aii?eai?nieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a (iiaeeeai iaiane/aieo icii?a) c (max225
ii ? (aee)ea?aii?eueieo i?ii?aeieo niieoe, ui iiaeeiathoue a iaeano? (
265-285 ii. ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoi? iaiane/ai? ea?aii?eai?ni? ?ioa?iaae?aoe a
eoaeieo ?ic/eiao eaaei caciathoue iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue, oiio
o?enothoueny eeoa a ?ac? neaaeieoaeieo ? eeneeo cia/aiue ?I ? ?oiy
noaa?euei?noue ca?eueoo?oueny ?c cieaeaiiyi ?I.

Iiaeaeueo? ia?aoai?aiiy, a ia?oo /a?ao ?ioa?iaae?ao?a iiia?aaei?o
aoai?a, a iiai?e i??? caeaaeaoue a?ae eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae?ieneae- ?
aiaeiaaeo ?ii?a:

a eoaeieo ?ic/eiao a?ae?ieneae-?iie eaoae?cothoue ?aaeoe?? eiiaeainaoe??
ea?aii?eai?nieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a, ui oaeaeei i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy
iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo ? aenieiiieaeoey?ieo caaa?aeaieo niieoe;

a eeneeo ?ic/eiao aiaeiaa? ?iie eaoae?cothoue ?aaeoe?? aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? ?
aei oiai ae caiaeyoue aei i?i?ioio ?aaeoe?? eiiaeainaoe?? ? aiie ae
ni?eythoue oaeaeeiio ia?aoai?aiith iaiane/aieo icii?a a 5-AIO, inue /iio
a eeneeo ?ic/eiao niinoa??aathoueny aenie? eiioeaio?aoe?? 5-AIO.

?icae?e 5 “Ia?aoai?aiiy iiiinaoa?eae?a a ai?iiea?aii?euei?e ?aaeoe??”
neeaaea?oueny c 7 i?ae?icae?e?a.

I?ae?icae?e 5.1. “Aieea aiiieeneio ia ia?aa?a ?aii?o noaae?e ?aaeoe??
?iceeaaeo ?aaeoeoth/eo naoa??a”

C iiaeyaeo ia oa, ui a caaaeueiiio ia?aa?ao i?ioeano iiao??iiy
iniiaiith ?aaeoe??th ? ia?aoai?aiiy iiiinaoa?eae?a aeine?aeaeoaaany
oa?aeoa? aieeao ai?iieiiiiiaioe ia ia?aa?a ?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo
?aaeoeoth/eo naoa??a a ai?iiea?aii?euei?e ?aaeoe?? a oaiia?aoo?iiio
?ioa?aae? t 5-95(C.

Iaoiaeii OO-niaeo?ineii?? iieacaii, ui aaea ca iecueeeo oaiia?aoo?
ai?iiai?ni? niieoee eaaei anooiathoue a ?aaeoe?th ioeeaio?eueiiai
i?e?aeiaiiy aei iiaea?eiiai ca’yceo iaiane/aieo icii?a ? oiio a
?aaeoe?ei?e nenoai? D-aetheica/ae?oeei ia niinoa??aa?oueny iiaeeiaiiy a
aeaeuei?e OO-iaeano? i?e ( 225 ii (?en.5).

Ooai?aiiy eeneeo i?iaeoeo?a a i?ioean? ia?aoai?aiiy D-aetheice eaea
??cieie oeyoaie a ?? /enoeo eoaeieo ?ic/eiao ? a ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o? c
ae?oeeiii. A?ae?ieneae-?iie a eoaeieo ?ic/eiao D-aetheice ?acii c
eaoae?cii aiae?ieueieo ia?aoai?aiue ? ?aaeoe?e aeueaeie?caoe??
eaoae?cothoue ? eiieo?oth/? ?aaeoe?? aaiceeieeneioiiai ia?aa?oioaaiiy ?
(-aeeea?aii?eueiiai ?icuaieaiiy (ooai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeieo eeneio).
Ai?iieeneioa a a?eueo?e i???, i?ae II(-?iie, ni?ey? ?aaeoe?yi
aeueaeie?caoe?? (aee)ea?aii?eueieo niieoe, a cieaeaiiy ?I, ui
niinoa??aa?oueny, iaiaaii, ni?e/eiy?oueny ooai?aiiyi iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo
eeneeo i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?e aeueaeie?caoe??. Ai?iieeneioa i?iaeiaaeo?
aeoea?coaaoe ia?aoai?aiiy noaa?euei?oeo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a c ( 285 ii ia
i?ii?aei?e noaae?? ?aaeoe?? iiao??iiy.

Iieacaii, ui ca iayaiino? ae?oeeio ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo iie?ia??a
aeeth/a? ia o?eueee iie?ia?ecaoe?eiee i?ioean, aea ?, iiaeeeai, ?aaeoe??
i?e?aeiaiiy, ae?i?ioaaiiy, a oie /an, ye a eoaeiiio ?ic/ei? D-aetheice
ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei yaey? niaith aeiaie? iino?eiee ?
iaeii??aeiee i?ioean, aeoaea noiaeee ia i?inoo iie?ia?ecaoe?eio
?aaeoe?th (?en.6).

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c E?-niaeo??a aeine?aeaeoaaieo nenoai
D-aetheica/II( ? D-aetheica/ae?oeei/II( aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c
aeaieie OO-niaeo?ineii?? i?i aca?iiae?th ae?oeeio c i?ii?aeieie
niieoeaie ?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice (iaiane/aieie iciiaie,
(aee)ea?aii?eueieie niieoeaie).

I?ae?icae?e 5.2. “Aieea acioiai?nieo niieoe ia ooai?aiiy i?ii?aeieo ?
caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei”.

Aeine?aeaeoaaeanue ae?y ??cieo acioiai?nieo niieoe (ai?i?a: i-aooeeai?i,
aeeaooeeai?i, o?eaoeeai?i; ai?iieeneio: e?cei, (-oai?e- (-aeai?i,
(-oai?e-(-aeai?i, ae?oeei, aeooai?iiaa eeneioa, eaeoeei, o?eioioai,
ania?aa?iiaa eeneioa, aae?i, ania?aa?i, (-aeai?i, (-aea-i?i, i?ie?i,
oeenoa?i; ai?ae?a: aoeaoai?ae, ea?aai?ae; o?iai?ae?a: o?iea?aai?ae,
o?iaoeaoai?ae) a iiaeaeuei?e ?aaeoe?ei?e nenoai? D-aeth-eica/acioiai?nia
niieoea.

Iaoiaeii OO-niaeo?ineii?? iieacaii, ui ai?iiniieoee caeaaeii a?ae nai??
aoaeiae ? i?e?iaee caeaoi? (aai ia caeaoi?) ooai?thaaoe c
?ioa?iaae?aoaie i?ii?aei? no?oeoo?e, ye?: (1) eaaei caciathoue
iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue aei caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei, aai (2) aiane?aeie
nai?? noaa?eueiinoe ? iacia/ii? aeoeaiino? a iaai?e i??? aeeo/athoueny c
iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue ? eiioeaio?othoueny a ?aaeoe?ei?e noi?o?, ui
niia?eueith? i?ioean ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei.

I?ae?icae?e 5.3. “Ioeeaio?euei?noue ?aaaaio?a ye aaaeeeaee /eiiee a
ooai?aii? i?ii?aeieo niieoe ? caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei”.

Aeine?aeaeoaaeany ae?y n??eiai?nieo niieoe (i-aooaio?ie, o?iae?eieue,
o?iaoeaoai?ae, o?iea?aai?ae, o?iae?eieaaa eeneioa), II(-?ii?a oa
ae?oeeio ia ia?aa?a ia?aoai?aiue a ?aaeoe?eieo nenoaiao
D-aetheica/II(/o?iniieoea oa D-aetheica/ae?oeei/o?iniieoea.

Aeeiiai? aeine?aee iieacaee, ui i?e?iaea ?aaaaioo, a naia eiai
ioeeaio?eueia caeaoi?noue, aacoiiaii, aecia/athoue ia?aa?a ii/aoeiai?
noaae?? ?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice, i?ioa ianooii? ia?aoai?aiiy aaea
caeaaeaoue: (1) a?ae ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino? ?ioa?iaae?ao?a, ui
ooai?eeeny, (2) a?ae i?e?iaee neeaaeiaeo aeo?aeii? ?aaeoe?eii? nenoaie.
Oae, o?iae?eieaaa eeneioa c neeueiith ioeeaio?eueiith HS(- a?oiith,
cai?noue i/?eoaaiiai cieaeaiiy caaa?aeaiiy, ae?? n?ia?a?oe/ii c
II(-?iiaie, ui i?ecaiaeeoue, iaaiaee, aei ca?eueoaiiy caaa?aeaiiy a
nenoai? D-aetheica /II(/o?iniieoea. Oaea ae naia o?iae?eieaaa eeneioa
a ?aaeoe?ei?e nenoaie D-aetheica/ae?oeei/o?iniieoea aeeiio? aaea ?ieue
?ia?a?oi?o ?aaeoe?? iiao??iiy (oaae.3), ui ? eeane/iei i?eeeaaeii
eiieo?aioe?? neeuei?oiai ?aaaaioo ca i?aai a?aoe o/anoue a iiaeaeueoeo
ia?aoai?aiiyo ea?aii?eueii? a?oie D-aetheice.

Oaaeeoey 3

Iiaeeiaiiy o aeaeei?e iaeano? ?ic/ei?a aeine?aeaeoaaieo

?aaeoe?eieo nenoai i?ney 5 aiae. iaa??aaiiy

?aaeoe?eia iiaeaeueia nenoaia ?I Iiaeei.o aeae. iae.

D(460 ii

D-aetheica/ae?oeei (?I 9,0) 6,95 1,3

D-aetheica/ae?oeei/

o?iae?eieaaa

eeneioa 5,9 0,2

Iaiaaii, o?iae?eieaaa eeneioa ia caeaoia ooai?thaaoe noaa?euei?
ia?ao?aei? no?oeoo?e c naiith ea?aii?eueiith a?oiith D-aetheice ?
?aaao? c i?ii?aeieie no?oeoo?aie ?aaeoe?eii? nenoaie
D-aetheica/ae?oeeiii c ooai?aiiyi o?acie?aeeiiai? no?oeoo?e ?. A oea
icia/a?, ui ca iayaiino? o?iae?eieaai? eeneioe aeoeai? ?ioa?iaae?aoe
aeeo/athoueny c iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue ? a oaeiio ?ac?
niinoa??aa?oueny ciaioaiiy caaa?aeaiiy.

Iaoiaeaie OO-, E?-niaeo?ineii?? oa o?iiaoia?ao?/iei aiae?cii
(HPLC-?icae?eaiiy) i?aeoaa?aeaeaii oaea i?eiouaiiy.

I?ae?icae?e 5.4. “Aieea a?ae?ieneae-?ii?a oa ae?oeeio ia ia?aa?a
ia?aoai?aiue i?ii?aeieo niieoe ?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice”.

Iaoiaeaie OO-, E?-niaeo?ineii?? iieacaii, ui ae?oeei, ii??aiyii c
a?ae?ieneae-?iiaie, aeoeai?oee aei ea?aii?eai?nieo i?ii?aeieo niieoe ((
265-285 ii) ? icii?a (( 215-225 ii), i?ioa a?ae?ieneae-?iie, a a?eueo?e
i???, i?ae ae?oeei, ni?eythoue ia?aoai?aiith ?o o ea?aieneeai?ni?
niieoee.

C iaiane/aieie i?iaeoeoaie eeneioiiai ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice (( 225 ii)
ae?oeei ?aaao? aaea ca e?iiaoii? oaiia?aoo?e, aea a oeueiio ?ac? ia
aeyaey? aieeao ia ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei ? ea?aieneeai?nieo
niieoe. Ea?aii?eai?ni? i?ii?aei? niieoee eeneioiiai ?iceeaaeo (( 280
ii) aeinoaoiuei no?ee? a eeneiio na?aaeiaeu? ? ae?oeei ia aeoeao? ?o aei
iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue a caaa?aeai? iie?ia?e.

I?ae?icae?e 5.5. “Aoaeo eiioeaio?aoe?? aiaeiaaeo oa a?ae?ieneae-?ii?a ia
ia?aa?a ia?aoai?aiue ?aii?o ? e?ioeaai? noaae?e a ?aaeoe?ei?e nenoai?
D-aetheica/ae?oeei”.

Niaeo?aeueieie iaoiaeaie aeiaaaeaii, ui ca aieeaii II(- oa I(-?ii?a ia
ooai?aiiy (aee)ea?aii?eai?nieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a ?aii?o noaae?e
ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe?? oeaeo cia/aiue ?I iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia
aeae?eueea cii (oaae.4), a iaaeao yeeo a?aeaoaathoueny iaai? i?ioeane
ia?aoai?aiue D-aetheice:

a iaeano? ?I 1,0-2,0 aenie? eiioeaio?aoe?? I(-?ii?a ni?eythoue
aeinoaoiuei oaeaeeei ?aaeoe?yi aeaa?ae?aoaoe?? D-aetheice c ia?aaaaeiei
ooai?aiiyi (aee)ea?aii?eueieo niieoe (a oiio /ene? 5-AIO);

iaeanoue ?I 3,0-6,0 oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iecueeeie oaeaeeinoyie ooai?aiiy
(aee)ea?aii?eueieo oa ea?aieneeai?nieo niieoe ? iaeiaio? oaeaeeino?
niinoa??aathoueny i?e ?I 3,0-4,0;

Oaaeeoey 4

A?aeiini? oaeaeeino? ( ooai?aiiy i?ii?aeieo

niieoe a ?aaeoe?ei?e nenoai? D-aetheica/ae?oeei

(0,05 iieue/e D-aetheice ? ae?oeeio, I2I, 95(N, 4 aiae.)

0,0012 0,0040 0,0233 0,1638 0,3250 0,3555 0,2833

a iaeano? ?I 7,0-9,0 c i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? II(-?ii?a
ca?eueoothoueny oaeaeeino? ?aii?o noaae?e caaaeueii? noaie
ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??;

a iaeano? ?I 10,0-12,0 c i?aeaeuaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe?? II(-?ii?a ua
niinoa??aa?oueny c?inoaiiy oaeaeeinoae ?aii?o noaae?e ?aaeoe??, aea aaea
a iaio?e i???;

i?e ?I 13,0 ia?aoai?aiiy ?aii?o noaae?e niia?eueiththoueny aiane?aeie
?oeioaaiiy a?ae?ieneae-?iiaie ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a.

Oaaeeoey 5

A?aeiini? oaeaeeino? ( ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo

?a/iaei a ?aaeoe?ei?e nenoai? D-aetheica/ae?oeei

(0,5 iieue/e D-aetheice ? ae?oeeio, I2I, 95(N, 4 aiae.)

0,0127 0,0369 0,1000 0,3638 0,5000 0,6238 0,4584

Ea?oeia ci?iaiiy oaeaeeinoae ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei a ae?aiacii?
?I 1,0-13,0 ia? aeaye? a?aei?iiino? (oaae.5): oae, c? c?inoaiiyi
eiioeaio?aoe?? aiaeiaaeo ?ii?a a?ae ?I 7,0 aei 1,0 oaeaeeino?
ciaioothoueny ??aiii??ii. A cii? eeneeo cia/aiue aaea ia ?nio? iaeano?
iaeiaioeo oaeaeeinoae, a aenie? eiioeaio?aoe?? (aee)ea?aii?eueieo niieoe
(?I 1,0-2,0) ia ?aae?cothoueny a ia?aoai?aiiyo aei caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei.
I?ioa caa??aa?oueny caaaeueia caeiiii??i?noue ca?eueoaiiy oaeaeeinoae
ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo i?iaeoeo?a i?ae /an c?inoaiiy eiioeaio?aoe??
a?ae?ieneae-?ii?a.

I?ae?icae?e 5.6. “Aoaeo eiioeaio?aoe?? ?aaaaio?a ia ia?aa?a
ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??”.

E?iaoe/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe?? ia iniia?
niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co iieacaei, ui aieea eiioeaio?aoe?? D-aetheice ia
ia?aa?a ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe?? a iiaeaeuei?e nenoai?
D-aetheica/ae?oeei aecia/a?oueny ?? ciai?oi?ie /eiieeaie, ianaiia?aae,
eiioeaio?aoe??th a?ae?ieneae- ? aiaeiaaeo ?ii?a ? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?
i?eiouaiiy i?i ?nioaaiiy iaaieo cii oeaee cia/aiue ?I, a iaaeao yeeo
a?aeaoaathoueny aeaui ??ci? ca oa?aeoa?ii ia?aoai?aiiy D-aetheice i?ae
/an ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??.

O/anoue ae?oeeio o ia?aoai?aiiyo D-aetheice ca an?o eoaeieo cia/aiue ?I
(e??i ?I 13,0) i?ecaiaeeoue aei neeuei?oiai iiaeeiaiiy a OO-iaeano?
(O.D.(280ii) ? aeaeei?e iaeano?, i?ioa aoaeo eiioeaio?aoe?? ae?oeeio ia
ooai?aiiy ea?aii?eai?nieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a ? caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei a iiai?e
i??? aecia/a?oueny eiioeaio?aoe??th a?ae?ieneae-?ii?a, yea a?aeiia?aea?
iaaiei iaeanoyi oeaee eoaeieo cia/aiue ?I (?en.7). I?e ?I 13,0
ia?aoai?aiiy D-aetheice ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ?aaeoe?? a?aeaoaathoueny aac
o/ano? ae?oeeio, ine?eueee eiai iayai?noue ? iaa?oue ca?eueoaiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? (aei ni?aa?aeiioaiiy 1:5) ia aieeaathoue ia ia?aa?a
ia?aoai?aiue, eeoa aenie? eiioeaio?aoe?? ae?oeeio (aeua ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
1:5) aeaui niia?eueiththoue ?aaeoe?? ooai?aiiy ea?aii?eai?nieo
?ioa?iaae?ao?a, ui ni?e/eiy? iiaeaeueoa ciaioaiiy aa?aiooai?aiiy.

I?ae?icae?e 5.7. “ E?iaoeea ?aaeoe?e ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice ”.

Aeaia e?euee?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?aaeoe?? eoaeiiai ?iceeaaeo
D-aetheice. Ca oi?iith e?iaoe/ii? e?eai? ?aaeoe?y ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice a
eoaeiiio ?ic/ei? (nenoaia D-aetheica/II() iieno?oueny e?iaoe/iei
??aiyiiyi iai?ioii? ?aaeoe?? ia?oiai ii?yaeeo:

aea ? – i?iaeoeo ?aaeoe??

Ia/eneai? eiinoaioe oaeaeeino? k1 ? k2 e?iaoe/iiai ??aiyiiy iai?ioii?
?aaeoe?? ia?oiai ii?yaeeo:

) ( 0,434 (k1 ( k2) . (

Ca eiioeaio?aoe??th D-aetheice ? ae?oeeio aecia/ai? ii?yaeee ?aaeoe??,
ui a?aeaoaa?oueny a iiaeaeuei?e nenoai? D-aetheica/ae?oeei ? aeaii
caaaeueia ??aiyiiy aeey iieno oeueiai neeaaeiiai i?ioeano:

3/2.

?icae?e 6 “Ae?y ieeniee?a ye ?ia?a?oi??a ooai?aiiy i?ii?aeieo niieoe ?
caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei a ?aaeoe?yo ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice” neeaaea?oueny c
aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a.

I?ae?icae?e 6.1. “Iiaeaeueia nenoaia D-aetheica/II(.

Aea/aany aoaeo ??cieo ieeniee?a (?icaaaeaiiai ?ic/eio ia?iaiaaiaoo
eae?th KMnO4, ?ic/eio a?iio o aiae? HBrO, eenith I2, oei?iiai aaiia
CaOCl2) ia ooai?aiiy ?ioa?iaae?ao?a ?aii?o noaae?e ia?aoai?aiue
D-aetheice a eoaeieo ?ic/eiao.

Ae?y ieenieea ii/eia?oueny aaea c ?aaeoe?? iooa?ioaoe??:
E?-niaeo? ?ic/eio D-aetheice c ieenieeii (eenaiue iia?o?y ca iayaiino?
oei?iiai aaiia) iieacaa cia/ia cieaeaiiy ?ioaa?aeueii? ?ioaineaiino?
nioae 1650 ni-1, ui aeaco? ia ?oeioaaiiy iaiane/aiiy a aiae?ieueieo
?ioa?iaae?aoao ?aaeoe?? iooa?ioaoe?? D-aetheice (?en.8), ui aaea
i?ecaiaeeoue aei caaaeueiiai niia?eueiaiiy iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue
D-aetheice.

Aaaaeaiiy ieenieea iiai?noth ci?ieei OO-iiaeeiaiiy ?ic/eio D-aetheice
(?en.9): cieeea nioaa iiaeeiaiiy iaiane/aiiai iciio ((max225 ii), a
nioaa ea?aii?eueiiai iiaeeiaiiy ((max280 ii) a?inio?iiii ci?noeeany
((max260 ii) ? ?? ?ioaineai?noue cia/ii ciaioeeanue. Ioaea, ae?y
ieenieea ni?yiiaaia ia ?oeioaaiiy iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a iniiaieo
i?ii?aeieo niieoe — iaiane/aieo icii?a ? aiieueieo oi?i
(aee)ea?aii?eueieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a.

A E?-niaeo?ao aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?ic/ei?a c ieenieeaie (KMnO4, HBrO) iaei
i?noea iii?oia cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiinoae a iaeano? oa?aeoa?enoe/ieo
/anoio iiaeeiaiiy ea?aii?eueii? a?oie (1740-1720 ni(1) ? iiaea?eieo N=N
ca’yce?a (?en.10), ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo? ?oeioaaiiy i?ae ae??th ieeniee?a
i?ii?aeieo niieoe ?aii?o noaae?e ?aaeoe?? eoaeiiai ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice.

Aiae?c OO-iiaeeiaiiy ?ic/ei?a ?aaeoe?eii? nenoaie D-aetheica/II( c
ieenieeaie iieaco?, ui eenaiue ? iaa?oue iia?o?y aeyaeythoue iii?oio
ieenithaaeueith ae?th uiaei i?ii?aeieo niieoe ?aii?o noaae?e
ia?aoai?aiue D-aetheice: iaiane/aieo icii?a (( 225 ii) ?
[aee]ea?aii?eueieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a (( 280 ii).

Aieea eenith iia?o?y ia ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei caeaaeeoue a?ae
aeo?aeiiai cia/aiiy ?I ? /ano iaa??aaiiy: i?e ?I 11,0-12,0
ciaaa?aethth/ee aoaeo eenith iia?o?y ca?eueoo?oueny i?ney 2 aiae.
iaa??aaiiy, oiae? ye i?e ?I 13,0 i?ney 2 aiae. iaa??aaiiy oaeiai aoaeoo
ia niinoa??aa?oueny (?en.11).

Aenie? eiioeaio?aoe?? a?ae?ieneae-?ii?a nai? aaea ni?e/eiythoue
?oeioaaiiy o?iiioi?ieo no?oeoo?ieo o?aaiaio?a caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei ? oiio
aieea ieenieea ca oaeeo oiia ciaioo?oueny.

Aeine?aeaeoaaeany ?aaeoe?y eoaeiiai ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice a aoiinoa??
acioo ? aeiaaaeaiee ieenithaaeueiee aieea eenith iia?o?y ia ooai?aiiy
i?ii?aeieo niieoe, ye? iiaeeiathoue a iaeano? (max225 ii ? (max280 ii
oa caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei.

I?ae?icae?e 6.2. “Iiaeaeueia nenoaia D-aetheica/ae?oeei”.

Aoaeo eenith iia?o?y ia ooai?aiiy i?ii?aeieo niieoe ?aii?o noaae?e ?
caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei e?ioeaai? noaae?? ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??
aecia/a?oueny iayai?noth aiaeiaaeo oa a?ae?ieneae-?ii?a oa ?oiuei?
eiioeaio?aoe??th ? caeaaeeoue a?ae ia?aa?ao ?aii?o noaae?e
ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe?? a iaaeao iaaieo cii oeaee cia/aiue ?I.

A eeneeo ?ic/eiao nenoaie D-aetheica/ae?oeei eenaiue iia?o?y
iacaeaoiee ?oeioaaoe i?ii?aei? niieoee eeneioiiai ?iceeaaeo
D-aetheice ? ni?ey? ?oi?i iiaeaeueoei ia?aoai?aiiyi aei ea?aii?e- ?
ea?aieneeai?nieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a (?en.12). C? ciaioaiiyi eiioeaio?aoe??
aiaeiaaeo ?ii?a (?I 4,0 ( 6,0) aieea eenith ia ooai?aiiy ea?aii?eai?nieo
?ioa?iaae?ao?a ciaioo?oueny ? a oeueiio ?ac? ca?eueoo?oueny ooai?aiiy
ea?aieneeai?nieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a, ine?eueee c iaaeeaeaiiyi aei eoaeii?
iaeano? ci?ith?oueny ? ia?aa?a ii/aoeiaeo noaae?e ?aaeoe??. A iaeano?
?I 3,0 eenaiue iia?o?y aeyaey? iacia/iee aieea ia ooai?aiiy
(aee)ea?aii?eueieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a.

A eoaeieo ?ic/eiao nenoaie D-aetheica/ae?oeei eenaiue iia?o?y, /a?ac
?oeioaaiiy noa?oiaiai aiae?ieueiiai ?ioa?iaae?aoa, niia?eueith?
ooai?aiiy ea?aii?eai?nieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a ? iiaeeeai, iaa?oue /anoeiai
ieenith? inoaii?, aiane?aeie /iai i?enei?ththoueny i?ioeane ooai?aiiy
ea?aieneeai?nieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a ? ciaioo?oueny caaa?aeaiiy. Ia
aoaeoeai?noue ?ia?aoth/i? ae?? eenith iia?o?y aieeaa? eiioeaio?aoe?y
a?ae?ieneae-?ii?a: aenie? eiioeaio?aoe?? II(-?ii?a (?I 12,0-13,0)
?oeiothoue noa?oia? aiae?ieuei? ?ioa?iaae?aoe, ? a oaeiio ?ac? aieea
eenith iia?o?y cieaeo?oueny, a c /anii iaa??aaiiy a?i iaa?oue ia aeyaey?
?ia?aoth/i? ae?? ia ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaiiy (?en.13).

Niaeo?ineii?/ia ? o?iiaoia?ao?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy (HPLC-?icae?eaiiy)
iiaaae?iee i?ii?aeieo niieoe, ye? ooai?eeeny a nenoai?
D-aetheica/ae?oeei c CaOCl2 (1:1) iieacaei, ui ca cacia/aieo oiia
aenia?eiaioo ieeniee ?oeio? iiaea?ei? ca’ycee ?ioa?iaae?ao?a.

?icae?e 7 “Caaa?aeai? ?a/iaeie i?iaeoeo?a ao?yeioeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa”
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a.

I?ae?icae?e 7.1. “Ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei ca oiia ao?yeioeoe?iaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa”.

Aeine?aeaeoaaeanue iiaeeea?noue aca?iiae?? i?iaeoeo?a eoaeiiai
?iceeaaeo ?aaeoeoth/eo naoa??a IE??N ? ea?aiae?a c ai?iieeneioaie.
IE??N ? ea?aiae? (ea?aiaeai, ea?aiaeai, ea?aiae?i), ui aoee aeae?eai?
?c iiaeaeueieo nenoai ca eeane/iith iaoiaeeeith, iaa??aaee eiaeiee (10
aiae.) c aeooai?iiaith eeneioith aiaeia?/ii ooai?aiith iaeaii?aeei?a.

Aeaiaioiee aiae?c caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei ia iniia? IE??N ? ea?aiaeae c
aeooai?iiaith eeneioith, aeae?eaieo ? i/euaieo ca caaaeueiith
iaoiaeeeith, anoaiiaea iayai?noue acioo.

Aiae?c ? ii??aiyiiy ?*-niaeo??a IE??N, ea?aiaeae oa caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei
ia ?oi?e iniia? (?en.14), aeicaieea cana?ae/eoe ? iiynieoe ci?ie, ye?
aeieeee a aoaeia? IE??N, ea?aiaeae aiane?aeie aca?iiae?? inoaii?o c
aeooai?iiaith eeneioith.

A ?*-niaeo?? caaa?aeaiiai i?iaeoeoo aca?iiae?? IE??N c aeooai?iiaith
eeneioith a iaeano? 3000-2500 ni(1 c’yaeeany a?oia neaaeeo nioa, oeiiaeo
aeey iiaeeiaiiy aiii?eieo a?oi NH3+, iiaeeiaiiy N=N (1585 ni(1 )
cai?iaii iiaeeiaiiyi ai?iia?oie ( NH2 (NH, NH3+) 1625 ni(1, c’yaeeany
nioaa iiaeeiaiiy a?ey 1380 ni(1, iaoiiaeaia, iiaeeeai, aaeaioieie
eieeaaiiyie ca’yceo N(N .

Ioaea, ia?ii iaai? aeieace aaciina?aaeiuei? aca?iiae?? aeooai?iiai?
eeneioe c iie?ia?ieie o?aaiaioaie i?iaeoeo?a eoaeiiai ?iceeaaeo
D-aetheice. Iayai?noue a oaeeo IE??N iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a, aeoeaiaaieo
ea?aii?eueiith a?oiith, caeaoieo a?aeiinii eaaei i?e?aeioaaoe
ai?iiooieoe?th ?iaeoue oaeo aca?iiae?th oe?eeii ?aaeueiith.

Ea?aiae?, ye? ooai?ththoueny aiane?aeie aeeaiei? aeaa?ae?aoaoe??
naoa?ice, ? iie?ia?aie c eaeoiiiith no?oeoo?ith ? aaeeeith e?euee?noth
a?ae?ieneeueieo ? ea?aieneeueieo a?oi.

A ?*-niaeo?ao i?iaeoeo?a, ui ooai?eeeny i?ney iaa??aaiiy ea?aiaeae c
aeooai?iiaith eeneioith, cieea? nioaa aaeaioieo eieeaaiue ( N=I eaeoiio
(1750 ni(1), a cai?noue ia? c’yaey?oueny nioaa aeaoi?iaoe?eieo eieeaaiue
( NH2 (NH, NH3+) a?ey 1650 ni(1.

Ioaea, aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui ea?aiae?, ca
iayaiino? ai?iieeneioe, ?aaaothoue c inoaiiueith, ? oe?eeii iiaeeeai, ui
oaea aca?iiae?y i?ecaiaeeoue aei a?ae?ie?co eaeoiiii? no?oeoo?e
ea?aiae?a.

Oaeei /eiii, iaeieiia??ii, ui ca oiia oeoe?iaeo ae?iaieoeoa iiaeeeaa
ooai?aiiy aacacioieo caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei (IE??N ? ea?aiaeae).
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui ai?iiai?ni? niieoee
(ai?iieeneioe, iaioeaee, ai?ae) caeaoi? ?aaaoaaoe c e?ioeaaeie
iie?ia?ieie no?oeoo?aie, oi/a oaea aca?iiae?y iiaea ?aae?coaaoeny ? ia
i?ii?aeieo noaae?yo ia?aoai?aiue ?aaeoeoth/eo naoa??a. Oae?
niinoa?aaeaiiy i?eaiaeyoue aei aeniiaeo, ui an? caaa?aeai? ?a/iaeie
i?iaeoeo?a oeoe?iaeo ae?iaieoeoa ? acioiai?nieie, a ooai?aii? yeeo,
iacaeaaeii a?ae ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a, cie?aia ?I, aa?ooue o/anoue
ai?iiai?ni? niieoee, ui caaaeaee i?enooi? a aoaeue-yeiio ae?iaie/iio
?ic/ei? ia aa?noao? oeoe?iaiai caaiaeo.

I?ae?icae?e 7.2. “Aeae?eaiiy oa aeine?aeaeaiiy”.

Aeine?aeaeoaaeeny caaa?aeai? ?a/iaeie: nieo ?? naoo?aoe??, ne?iio,
caeaii? iaoiee ? i?iaeoeoo oa iaeyne. Aea?? ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa
aecia/aiee iinoaaeaiith i?iaeaiith: i?inoaaeeoe, ye ci?iththoueny
oa?aeoa?enoeee caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei, ye? noi?ioaaeeny ca ??cieo oiia ia
i?ioyc? oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ao?yeioeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Ne?ii
i?noeoue caaa?aeai? ?a/iaeie, ui ooai?eeeny i?ae /an aeaoaeinaoo?aoe?? o
neeueiieoaeiiio na?aaeiaeu? ? i?ae /an oia?thaaiiy nie?a ca aenieeo
oaiia?aoo?, ui aeicaiey? aaaaeaoe ?o i?iaeoeoaie ia?aoai?aiue
iiiinaoa?eae?a. Iaeyna i?noeoue e??i caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei, ui ia?aeoee
?c ne?iio, ? iia?, ui noi?ioaaeeny i?ae /an e?enoae?caoe?? oeoe?o a
neaaeieoaeieo ? iaeaea iaeo?aeueieo oiiaao i?iaeoeoiaiai a?aeae?eaiiy ?
ye? ? i?iaeoeoaie ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe??.

C eiaeiiai i?iaeoeoo aoee aeae?eai? ii aea? o?aeoe?? caaa?aeaieo
?a/iaei, ye? ??cieeeny ca iieaeoey?iith ianith: ? o?aeoe?y –
aenieiiieaeoey?ia, oaiiia?oiaoiiai eieuei?o ? ?? o?aeoe?y –
iecueeiiieaeoey?ia na?oeiaeiaoiai eieuei?o. Caaa?aeai? ?a/iaeie
ia?ae?enoae?ciaoaaee ?c aoeeiaiai nie?oo ? aeey niieoe, aeae?eaieo ?c
ne?iio ? iaeyne aecia/aee aeaiaioiee neeaae (oaae.6).

Oaaeeoey 6

Aeaiaioiee neeaae caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei,

aeae?eaieo ?c ne?iio ? iaeyne

N H N O

Ne?iio ? o?aeoe?y 40,63 6,13 4,46 48,78 0,1

?? o?aeoe?y 39,79 6,07 2,48 51,66 0,06

Iaeyne ? o?aeoe?y 42,67 5,74 4,75 46,84 0,11

?? o?aeoe?y 38,57 7,82 1,7 51,91 0,04

) ? iieaeoey?ii? iane i?ae /an oi?ioaaiiy aenieiiieaeoey?ieo o?aeoe?e
aeae?eaieo caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei /?oei aeaco? ia oa, ui ca aecia/aieo oiia
ae?iaie/iai i?ioeano cae?eniththoueny ?aaeoe?? i?e?aeiaiiy
ai?iiooieoe?? acioiai?nieo niieoe aei no?oeoo?ieo o?aaiaio?a
caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei, aei oiai ae a iaeyn? ?aaeoe?? i?e?aeiaiiy
cae?eniththoueny aeoeai?oa.

?*-Niaeo?e aeine?aeaeoaaieo caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei noiae?. Aiie i?noyoue
iaaaaaoi oa?aeoa?enoe/ieo nioa iiaeeiaiiy, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iayai?noue
iaeiaeiaeo ooieoe?e ? iie?ia?ii? no?oeoo?e caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei (oaae.7).

Iayai?noue acioo o an?o o?aeoe?yo caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei ne?iio oa iaeyne ?
no?oeoo?ieo o?aaiaio?a, a yeeo iiaea?eiee ca’ycie N=N, aeoeaiaaiee
non?aeiueith ea?aii?eueiith a?oiith N=I, ?aaeueii aeiionea? iiaeeea?noue
i?e?aeiaiiy ai?iiai?nieo niieoe aei N=N ca’yce?a cacia/aieo no?oeoo?ieo
o?aaiaio?a.

Oaaeeoey 7

A?aeianaiiy iniiaieo nioa iiaeeiaiiy a

?*-niaeo?ao aeae?eaieo caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei

Caaa?aeai? ?a/iaeie Iiaeeeaa

?ioa?i?aoaoe?y

iniiaieo nioa iiaeeiaiiy

nieo

?? naoo?aoe?? ne?iio caeaii? iaoiee ? i?iaeoeoo iaeyne

3300-3420 3350 3300-3400 3280-3420 Aaeaioi? eieeaaiiy (II, (N-H
ai?ii-a?oi

2920 2910 2960 2960 ( CH a iane/aieo niieoeao

1610-1650 1610 1630 1600-1620 Aaeaioi? eieeaaiiy (N=N, (N=N, (C=O…H.
A?oia N=I eii’thaiaaia c N=N

1400 1400 1400 Aeaoi?iaoe?ei? ei- eeaaiiy (N-I aeey NI2

1140

Aaeaioi? eieeaai-iy o?aoeiii? II

1010-1050 1040 1030-1070 1030-1040 Aeaoi?iaoe?ei? eiee-aaiiy (N-I,
aaeai-oi? (N-I, (N-I-N, (N-N e?eueoeaaeo no?oeoo?

Aiae?c 13N ssI? ? 1I ssI? niaeo??a caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei ne?iio ? iaeyne
oeaco? ia iaaecae/aeii neeaaeio iie?ia?io no?oeoo?o caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei,
yea neeaaea?oueny c ae?oaoeee, a?iiaoeee, a?oi INI3, INI2, NI3(NI2(,
N=I, N=N, N(H.

Iaoiaeii aaeue-o?iiaoia?ao?? aeae?eaii o?e o?aeoe?? caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei
iaeyne, eiaeia c yeeo ioa?aeoa?eciaaia iiaeeiaiiyi a OO-iaeano?.
Ciaioaiiy iieaeoey?ii? iane ? ?ioaineaiino? iiaeeiaiiy o aeaeei?e
iaeano? neeaaeiaeo eiiiiiaio?a caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei iaeyne aeicaiey?
i?eionoeoe, ui ?? caaa?aeaiiy, a iniiaiiio, aecia/a?oueny
aenieiiieaeoey?ieie niieoeaie, ye? i?noyoue, iaiaaii, o?aaiaioe c
iaaaeeeei ca ?ici??ii eaioethaii eii’thaiaaieo iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a.
Eiiiiiaioe c iaioith iieaeoey?iith ianith aiinyoue cia/ii iaioee aeeaae
a caaaeueio noi?o. ?oi? ?ioaineaia OO-iiaeeiaiiy aeaco? ia iayai?noue
a?aeiia?aeieo ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?oi, ua caeaoieo, a iaaieo oiiaao, aei
iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue.

I?ae?icae?e 7.3. “?ia?aoaaiiy i?ioeano ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei
i?ae /an i/enoee nieo”.

Ia iiaeaeueieo nenoaiao ii??aithaaany ?ia?aoth/ee aoaeo oei?iiai aaiia,
iia?o?y c noia?iith ae??th ?oiueiai eiia?iiaaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?
aeiaaaeaii, ui na?aae aeine?aeaeoaaieo ieeniee?a iaea?eueoo ?ia?aoth/o
ae?th ia ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaiiy aeyaey? noi?o eenith iia?o?y c oei?iei
aaiiii (oaae.8).

Oaaeeoey 8

Aieea ieeniee?a ia caaa?aeaiiy ?ic/ei?a

aeine?aeaeoaaieo nenoai

?aaeoe?eia nenoaia O.D.( 525 ii Cieaeaiiy caaa?-aeaiiy i?ae ae??th
ieenieea, %

D-aetheica/aeooai?iiaa e-oa

(1) 0,83 (

D-aetheica/aeooai?iiaa e-oa

c i?iaeoaaiiy iia?o?y (2) 0,57 32

D-aetheica/aeooai?iiaa e-oa

c aeiaeaaaiiyi CaOCl2 (3) 0,53 36

D-aetheica/aeooai?iiaa e-oa

c i?iaeoaaiiyi iia?o?y ?

aeiaeaaaiiyi CaOCl2 (4) 0,38 54

Aeine?aeaeoaaeany ae?y oei?iiai aaiia ? eenith iia?o?y ia eaai?aoi?iiio
ao?yeiaiio nieo ? ia nieao ssaioeinueeiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai caaiaeo
(oaae.9) ? iieacaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy noi?o? ieeniee?a (oei?iiai aaiia oa
iia?o?y) aea? iaea?eueoee aoaeo ciaaa?aeaiiy ? iaeaea iiaiee ?iceeaae
?aaeoeoth/eo ?a/iaei, ui ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith oa?iino?eeino? nie?a ?
ne?iio.

Ia oe?e iniia? ?ic?iaeaiee aoaeoeaiee niin?a ?ia?aoaaiiy ooai?aiiy
caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei i?ae /an ia?iaee nieo ia aeaoaeaoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy
oa?iino?eeino? nie?a. Niin?a i?ieoia aei?iaoaaiiy o ae?iaie/eo oiiaao ia
Ciei/?anueeiio oeoe?iaiio caaiae?.

Oaaeeoey 9

Oaoiieia?/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea aeine?aeaeoaaieo

i?ia i/euaiiai oaoiieia?/iiai nieo

Iieacieee

i/euaiiai nieo Iaia?ia-eaiee

n?e N?e, ia?iaeaiee ieenieeaie

CaOCl2 I2

iia?o?y CaOCl2+O2

iia?o?y

Aeia?iye?ni?noue, % 90,2 90,2 90,6 90,4

Caaa?aeaiiy,

O.D. (( 540 ii) 0,57 0,48 0,35 0,28

% NaI (nie? Na) 0,115 0,115 0,200 0,200

Ia caaiae? aeei?enoiao?oueny aia?aoo?ii-oaoiieia?/ia noaia i/enoee
aeeooc?eiiai nieo c oieiaeiith i?ia?aneaiith i?aaeaeaoaeaoe??th ?
eiia?iiaaiith oieiaeii-aa?y/ith aeaoaeaoe??th. Aei?iaoaaiiy aoee
i?iaaaeai? ia onoaiiaoe? (?en.15). Aeo?aoe iia?o?y noaiiaeee 0,8 i3/i3
nieo, e?euee?noue ?aoee?eoeueiaaiiai nieo aoea 120% aei iane ao?yea.

Oaaeeoey 10

Aeai? ae?iaie/eo aei?iaoaaiue niiniao ?c canoinoaaiiyi ieenithaaeueii?
noi?o? (CaOCl2 + iia?o?y)

Oaoiieia?/i? iieacieee Aeaoaeaoe?y

oeiiaa c aeei?enoai.

CaOCl2+ iia?o?.

Aeeooc?eiee n?e

Aeia?iy?ni?noue, % 86,8 86,8

Ai?no ai?aei-ai?a/iiai

436 385

Iaaeeeoie ai?ii?a eeneio,

195 180

Oaeaee?noue naaeeiaioaoe??

186 160

?I 9,4 9,4

Ai?no ai?aei-ai?a/iiai

0,139 0,131

Ne?ii c aeia?ii?

7,8 6,2

Oeoei? ?? e?enoae.

709 295

Aeai? caaiaenueeiai aei?iaoaaiiy (oaae.10) na?ae/aoue i?i aaaeeeao, c
oaoiieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o, iniaeea?noue ?ic?iaeaiiai iaoiaeo: iiceoeaiee
aieea ?ia?aoaaiiy aa?aiooai?aiiy ae?acii a?aeaoeo?oueny ia e?ioeaaeo
noaae?yo ae?iaie/iai oeeeeo, a naia a i?iaeoeoiaiio (e?enoae?caoe?eiiio)
a?aeae?eaii? oeoe?iaiai caaiaeo.

sse anoaiiaeea eii?n?y, ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a c aeei?enoaiiyi ia
aeaoaeaoe?? ieenithaaeueii? noi?o? (NaOCl2 + iia?o?y), ii??aiyii c
oeiiaith noaiith, aea? a?eueoee aoaeo ciaaa?aeaiiy an?o iai?ai?iaeoeo?a
? caaacia/o? cia/ia iie?ioaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo iieaciee?a.

Aeine?aeaeoaaeany ae?y ??cieo ieeniee?a ia caaa?aeai? ?a/iaeie iaeyne.
Aaeue-o?iiaoia?ao?/ia ?icae?eaiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei iaia?iaeaii?
iaeyne ? ia?iaeaii? noi?ooth NaOCl2 c iia?o?yi iieacaei cieaeaiiy
?ioaineaiinoae iiaeeiaiiy a OO- ? aeaeei?e iaeanoyo niaeo?o on?o o?ueio
o?aeoe?e caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei iaeyne, ia?iaeaii? ieenithaaeueiith
noi?ooth (?en.16), ui na?ae/eoue i?i aieea ieenieea ia an? a?oie
caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei iaeyne.

Iaoiaeaie OO- oa E?-niaeo?ineii?? aeiaaaeaii, ui ieenieee caeaoi?
aca?iiae?yoe, a ia?oo /a?ao, c iaiane/aieie no?oeoo?ieie o?aaiaioaie ye
i?ii?aeieo iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe, oae ? noi?iiaaieo o?iiioi??a
caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei iaeyne. Aiane?aeie ae?? ieenieea a?aeaoaa?oueny
?oeioaaiiy iie?ia?ieo eaioetha?a ? ooai?ththoueny i?iaeoeoe c iaioith
e?euee?noth ?cieueiaaieo ? eii’thaiaaieo iiaea?eieo ca’yce?a, ui
i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy caaa?aeaiiy.

Caeaoi?noue ieeniee?a ?icuaiethaaoe iiaea?ei? ca’ycee noi?iiaaieo
o?iiioi??a caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei aoea aeei?enoaia aeey ?ic?iaee iaoiaeo
ciaioaiiy ciaaa?aeaiiy iai?ai?iaeoeo?a ia?a?iaee oeoe?o-ne?oeth.
Ciaaa?aeaiiy aeinyaa?oueny ia?iaeith eea?iaee noi?ooth iia?o?y ?
oei?iiai aaiia (0,1-0,2% aei iane eea?iaee), yea aacia?a?aii
iiaea?oueny ia i?ioyc? 10-15 oa. aeaoaeaoe??.

AENIIAEE

1. E?-Niaeo?ineii?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeoe?? iooa?ioaoe?? cana?ae/eei,
ui: (1) a?ae?ieneae-?iie eaoae?cothoue ?aaeoe?th iooa?ioaoe??
D-aetheice, aea a ?ac? aenieeo eiioeaio?aoe?e (?I>9) aaea
ni?e/eiythoue iiaeaeueo? ia?aoai?aiiy ?nioth/eo oaooiia??a; (2)
oaiia?aoo?a ia? a?eueoee aieea i?ae ?I ia oaooiia?ia ia?aoai?aiiy
?aaeoeoth/eo naoa??a, iniaeeai ia ea?aii?euei? oi?ie; (3) ai?iieeneioe
i?aeaeuothoue eiioeaio?aoe?th aoeeee?/ieo oi?i.

2. Iaoiaeii E?-niaeo?ineii?? ia iniia? ?ioaa?aeueieo ?ioaineaiinoae
ea?aii?eueieo nioa D-aetheice ? D-o?oeoice aia?oa aoee ia/eneai?
a?aeiini? eiioeaio?aoe?? aoeeee?/ieo oi?i aeey eiaeiiai naoa?o.

3. Iaoiaeaie E?- ? OO-niaeo?ineii?? aecia/ai? oaiia?aoo?i? ciie, a
iaaeao yeeo a?aeaoaathoueny iaai? i?ioeane ia?aoai?aiue D-aetheice a
eoaeieo ? eeneeo ?ic/eiao.

4. Ia?aoai?aiiy D-aetheice ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo a
ae?aiacii? an??? oeaee cia/aiue ?I (1,0-13,0) iathoue caaaeueio
iine?aeiai?noue, yea ?aae?co?oueny a o?ueio iniiaieo aoaiao:

? aoai — ia?aoai?aiiy D-aetheice ii/eiathoueny c ?aaeoe?? iooa?ioaoe??,
yea caaacia/o? ?nioaaiiy ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoieo aoeeee?/ieo oi?i
(ea?aii?eueieo ? aiae?ieueieo);

?? aoai neeaaea?oueny c iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue, a yeeo aeii?iothoue
?aaeoe?? eeneioiooai?aiiy, iniaeeai a eoaeieo ?ic/eiao;

??? aoai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?ioaineaiei ooai?aiiyi iaiane/aieo
ea?aii?eai?nieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a (iiaeeeai iaiane/aieo icii?a) c (max225
ii ? (aee)ea?aii?eueieo i?ii?aeieo niieoe, ui iiaeeiathoue a iaeano? (
265-285 ii. ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoi? iaiane/ai? ea?aii?eai?ni? ?ioa?iaae?aoe a
eoaeieo ?ic/eiao eaaei caciathoue iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue, oiio
o?enothoueny eeoa a ?ac? neaaeieoaeieo ? eeneeo cia/aiue ?I ? ?oiy
noaa?euei?noue ca?eueoo?oueny ?c cieaeaiiyi ?I.

5. Niaeo?aeueieie iaoiaeaie aeiaaaeaii, ui a ai?iiea?aii?euei?e ?aaeoe??
ai?iiooieoe?y eaaei i?e?aeio?oueny aei iiaea?eiiai ca’yceo iaiane/aieo
icii?a (( 215-225 ii) ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ? aa?a o/anoue a ?aaeoe?yo
i?e?aeiaiiy e?ioeaai? noaae??.

6. Iieacaii, ui i?e?iaea ?aaaaioo, a naia eiai ioeeaio?eueia
caeaoi?noue, aecia/athoue ia?aa?a ii/aoeiai? noaae?? ?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo
D-aetheice. I?ioa ianooii? ia?aoai?aiiy aei caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei aaea
caeaaeaoue: (1) a?ae ?aaeoe?eii? caeaoiino? ?ioa?iaae?ao?a, ui
ooai?eeeny, (2) a?ae i?e?iaee neeaaeiaeo aeo?aeii? ?aaeoe?eii? nenoaie.

7. Ca aieeaii II(- oa I(-?ii?a ia ooai?aiiy (aee)ea?aii?eai?nieo
?ioa?iaae?ao?a ?aii?o noaae?e ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe?? oeaeo cia/aiue
?I iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aeae?eueea cii, a iaaeao yeeo a?aeaoaathoueny
iaai? i?ioeane ia?aoai?aiue D-aetheice.

8. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aieea eiioeaio?aoe?? D-aetheice ? ae?oeeio ia ia?aa?a
ai?iiea?aii?eueii? ?aaeoe?? aecia/a?oueny eiioeaio?aoe??th a?ae?ieneae-
? aiaeiaaeo ?ii?a.

9. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ai?iiai?ni? niieoee caeaoi? ?aaaoaaoe c e?ioeaaeie
iie?ia?ieie no?oeoo?aie, oiio caaa?aeai? ?a/iaeie i?iaeoeo?a oeoe?iaeo
ae?iaieoeoa, ca?aeii i?eeiyoi? eeaneo?eaoe??, ia iiaeia iiae?eyoe ia
acioiai?ni? oa aacacioi?. Aeiaaaeaii, ui an? aiie ? acioiai?nieie, a
ooai?aii? yeeo aa?ooue o/anoue ai?iiai?ni? niieoee, ye? caaaeaee
i?enooi? a aoaeue-yeiio ae?iaie/iio ?ic/ei? ia aa?noao? oeoe?iaiai
caaiaeo. Oiio aeioe?euei?oith ia? aooe eeaneo?eaoe?y caaa?aeaieo
?a/iaei ca iieaeoey?iith ianith, yea aecia/a? ?oith oaoiieia?/io
iiaaae?ieo.

10. Iaoiaeaie OO- ? E?-niaeo?ineii?? aeiaaaeaii, ui ae?y ieenieea a
nenoai? D-aetheica/II( ii/eia?oueny a ?aaeoe?? iooa?ioaoe?? c ?oeioaaiiy
noa?oiai? ?aaeoe?eiicaeaoii? aiae?ieueii? oi?ie, ui aaea i?ecaiaeeoue
aei caaaeueiiai niia?eueiaiiy iiaeaeueoeo ia?aoai?aiue D-aetheice.
Ia ?aii?o noaae?yo ?aaeoe?? eoaeiiai ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice ieeniee ?oeio?
iiaea?ei? ca’ycee iniiaieo i?ii?aeieo niieoe — iaiane/aieo icii?a ?
aiieueieo oi?i (aee)ea?aii?eueieo ?ioa?iaae?ao?a, ui noaei iniiaith aeey
?ic?iaee aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a ?ia?aoaaiiy i?ioeano aa?aiooai?aiiy oa
ciaaa?aeaiiy.

11. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aieea ieenieea ia ooai?aiiy i?ii?aeieo niieoe ?aii?o
noaae?e ? caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei e?ioeaai? noaae?? ai?iiea?aii?eueii?
?aaeoe?? aecia/a?oueny iayai?noth aiaeiaaeo oa a?ae?ieneae-?ii?a oa
?oiuei? eiioeaio?aoe??th.

12. Iieacaii, ui noi?o oei?iiai aaiia oa iia?o?y aeyaey? neeueiee
ieenithaaeueiee aoaeo ? ia oe?e iniia? ?ic?iaeaiee aoaeoeaiee niin?a
?ia?aoaaiiy i?ioeano ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei i?ae /an ia?iaee nieo
ia aeaoaeaoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy oa?iino?eeino? nie?a.

13. Iaoiaeaie OO- oa E?-niaeo?ineii?? ? aaeue-o?iiaoia?ao?/iiai
?icae?eaiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei iaeyne aeiaaaeaii, ui ieenieee caeaoi?
aca?iiae?yoe c iaiane/aieie no?oeoo?ieie o?aaiaioaie ye i?ii?aeieo
iecueeiiieaeoey?ieo niieoe, oae ? noi?iiaaieo o?iiioi??a caaa?aeaieo
?a/iaei iaeyne, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy caaa?aeaiiy. Ia oe?e
iniia? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae ciaioaiiy ciaaa?aeaiiy eea?iaie oeoe?o-ne?oeth.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Noaoo? o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao

iaoeiaeo i?aoeue

Aia?iaiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I., Iaie A.A., Eoi/ee I.I.
Yeae-o?ioaea?aeeaaiea e?anyueo aauanoa naoa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa //
Naoa?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. -1985. -? 7. -N.29-31.

Aia?iaiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I., Aaeeaa?iaa I.A. Ea?aiieeniaea?aeauea
niaaeeiaiey a ia?aciaaiee iaeaiieaeeiia a oneiaeyo naoa?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa // Naoa?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. -1987. -? 12. -N.25-27.

Aia?iaiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I. Iiaia i e?anyueo aauanoaao
naaeeinaoa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa // Ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. -1988. -?
2. -N.47-49.

Aia?iaiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I. Acioniaea?aeauea e?anyuea aauanoaa
naaeeinaoa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa // Naoa?iay naaeea: i?iecaiaenoai e
ia?a?aaioea. -1988. -? 6. -N.46-48.

Aia?iaiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I., ?aianei I.A., Aiaeoi I.I. Ia?aciaaiea
e?anyueo aauanoa a naoa?iii i?iecaiaenoaa // Ecaanoey aocia. Ieuaaay
oaoiieiaey. -1990. -? 4. -N.20-23.

Aia?iaiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I. Ea?aiaee e eo ioiioaiea e aieiieeneioai
// Ecaanoey aocia. Ieuaaay oaoiieiaey. –1990. -?1. –N.54-55.

Aia?iaiee E.Ae., Aieioaiaiei A.I., ?aianei I.A., ?oaeaiei A.I. Aeeyiea
ioeeaeiiauo eeneio e i?iaeoeoia eo i?aa?auaiey ia nei?inoue ?aceiaeaiey
eiaa?oiiai naoa?a // Ecaanoey aocia. Ieuaaay oaoiieiaey. –1990. -? 4.
–N.14-15.

Aieioaiaiei A.I., ?aianei I.A., ?oaeaiei A.I. ?ieue ioeeaeiiauo eeneio e
i?iaeoeoia eo i?aa?auaiey a ia?aciaaiee e?anyueo aauanoa naoa?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa // Ecaanoey aocia. Ieuaaay oaoiieiaey. –1990. -? 4.
–N.15-17.

Aia?iaiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I., Aiaeoi I.I. Uaei/iie aeae?ieec
iaeoeiiauo aauanoa naaeeu // Naoa?iay naaeea: i?iecaiaenoai e
ia?a?aaioea. –1991. -? 2. –N.48-50.

Aia??aiee E.Ae., Aieioaiaiei A.I., ?aianei I.A., ?oaeaiei A.I. Aieea
ioeea?iiaeo eeneio ? i?iaeoeo?a ?o ia?aoai?aiiy ia oa?iino?ee?noue nie?a
// Oa?/iaa i?iieneia?noue. –1995. -? 41. –N.3-6.

Bobrovnik, L.D., Rudenko V.N. The participation of amino acids in the
formation of colorants during sugar production // Zuckerindustrie.
–1993. -? 7. -?.528-530.

Aia?iaiee E.Ae., Eeeiiae/ A.I., ?oaeaiei A.I., Niaa?oaiiay E.A.
Niaeo?ineiie/aneia enneaaeiaaiea oaooiia?iuo i?aa?aua-iee a aiaeiuo
?anoai?ao D-aetheicu a oe?ieii eioa?aaea ?I // Ecaanoey aocia. Ieuaaay
oaoiieiaey. –1993. -? 3-4. –N.18-20.

?oaeaiei A.I., Aia?iaiee E.Ae., Oaaei?/aiei N.N. Ia?aciaaiea e?anyueo
aauanoa i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee iiiinaoa?eaeia n aieiieeneioaie // Ecaanoey
aocia. Ieuaaay oaoiieiaey. –1994. -? 5-6. –N.16-19.

?oaeaiei A.I., Aia?iaiee E.Ae., Niaa?oaiiay E.A. I?aa?auaiey
iiiinaoa?eaeia a uaei/iuo aiaeiuo ?anoai?ao // Naoa?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue.
–1995. -? 1. –N.23-25.

?oaeaiei A.I., Aia?iaiee E.Ae., Niaa?oaiia ?.I. Ia?aoai?aiiy D-aetheice
o eeneiio na?aaeiaeu? // Oa?/iaa i?iieneia?noue -1995. -? 41.
–N.6-10.

Oaaei?/aiei N.N., Aia?iaiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I., ?aianei I.A.,
Oaaei?ai/aiei E.A. Ia?aciaaiea e?anyueo aauanoa i?e ?aceiaeaiee o?oeoicu
a neaaieeneuo n?aaeao // Ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. –1995. -? 40.
–N.50-54.

Bobrovnik, L.D., Rudenko V.N. The formation of the coloured compounds
in the sugar degradation reaction. General Assembly of the CITS, Munich,
1995 // Abstr. in: Zuckerindustria. –1995. -? 6. -?.537 and
Inter.Sugar J. –1995. -? 97. -?. 334.

Niaa?oaiiay E.A., ?oaeaiei A.I., Aia?iaiee E.Ae. I?aa?auaiey D-aetheicu
a uaei/iuo aiaeiuo ?anoai?ao: aeeyiea eiioeaio?aoeee D-aetheicu ia
ia?aciaaiea e?anyueo aauanoa // Naoa?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. –1996. -? 5.
–N.18-20.

Niaa?oaiia ?.I., ?oaeaiei A.I., Aia?iaiee E.Ae. Ia?aoai?aiiy
D-aetheice a eeneeo aiaeieo ?ic/eiao: aieea eiioeaio?aoe??
D-aetheice ia ooai?aiiy aa?aieo ?a/iaei // Oa?/iaa i?iieneia?noue.
–1998. -? 43. –N.3-6.

?oaeaiei A.I., Aia?iaiee E.Ae. Aieiiea?aiieeueiay ?aaeoeey a uaei/iuo
?anoai?ao: aeeyiea eiioeaio?aoeee aeeoeeia ia ia?aciaaiea e?anyueo
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?oaeaiei A.I., Aia?iaiee E.Ae. Aieiiea?aiieeueiay ?aaeoeey a eeneuo
?anoai?ao: aeeyiea eiioeaio?aoeee aeeoeeia ia ia?aciaaiea e?anyueo
aauanoa // Ecaanoey aocia. Ieuaaay oaoiieiaey. –1996. -? 3-4.
–N.26-28.

?oaeaiei A.I., Aia?iaiee E.Ae. Aieiiea?aiieeueiay ?aaeoeey a eeneuo
?anoai?ao: aeeyiea eiioeaio?aoeee D-aetheicu ia ia?aciaaiea e?anyueo
aauanoa // Naoa?iay i?iiuoeaiiinoue. –1996. -? 3. –N.13-14.

?oaeaiei A.I., Aia?iaiee E.Ae. Aieiiea?aiieeueiay ?aaeoeey a uaei/iuo
?anoai?ao: aeeyiea eiioeaio?aoeee D-aetheicu ia ia?aciaaiea e?anyueo
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?oaeaiei A.I., Aia?iaiee E.Ae. Aeeyiea acioniaea?aeaueo niaaeeiaiee ia
ia?aciaaiea e?anyueo aauanoa a iiaeaeueiie nenoaia
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-? 5-6. –N.23-25.

Aia??aiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I., Niaa?oaiia ?.I., Ee?iiae/ A.I.
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iaoiae?a ?ia?aoaaiiy oeueiai i?ioeano // Ca??iee aeiiia?aeae
I?aeia?iaeiiai nai?ia?o (I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ao?yeioeoe?iaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa oa i?iaeaie aeieia??? ? a?aeoiae?a(, Ee?a.
-1994. –N.60-67.

?oaeaiei A.I. Oeiaeeeieaaay eeneioa eae eiaeaeoi? iiei?e/ia-aaiey a
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?oaeaiei A.I. Aeeyiea na?iniaea?aeaueo niiaaeeiaiee ia i?aa?auaiey
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?oaeaiei A.I. Aeeyiea aeeoeeia ia i?aa?auaiey D-aetheicu a aiaeiuo
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?oaeaiei A.I. Aeeyiea aeae?ienee-eiiia e aieiieeneiou ia i?aa?auaiey
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?oaeaiei A.I. Aeeyiea aieiieeneiou ia i?aa?auaiea i?iaeoeoia ?aniaaea
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?oaeaiei A.I. Ae?y eenith iia?o?y ye ieenieea a iiaeaeuei?e nenoai?
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?oaeaiei A.I. ?ia?aoth/ee aoaeo o?iae?eieaai? eeneioe a ooai?aii?
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Iaoaioe:

Iao. 10263A Oe?a?ia, 5 N13D3/08. Niin?a ciaaa?aeaiiy iai?ai?iaeoeo?a
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4. –4 n.

??oaiiy i?i anoaiiaeaiiy aeaoe iiaeaiiy cayaee ? 99020623. Niin?a
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Oace aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo oa nai?ia?ao:

Aia?iaiee E., ?oaeaiei A. O/anoea ia aieiieenaeeie a ia?acoaaiaoi ia
aaa?eeie aauanoaa a caoa?iioi i?iecaiaenoai // Iao/ia naney “Iao/ieoa
ecneaaeaaiey e oaoiieiae/ieyo o?ainoa?-oaeoi?e ca iaiiaeaiea ia OAI”.
–Ieiaaeea. –1988. –N.185.

Aia?iaiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I. Ia?aciaaiea e?anyueo aauanoa naoa?iiai
i?iecaiaenoaa // ?anioaeeeaineay iao/ii-oaoie/aneay eiioa?aioeey
“Eioaineoeeaoeey oaoiieiaee e niaa?oainoaiaaiea iai?oaeiaaiey
ia?a?aaaouaathueo io?aneae AIE”. –Eeaa. -1989. –N.46.

?oaeaiei A.I., Aia?iaiee E.Ae., Niaa?oaiiay E.A. Ia?aciaaiea e?anyueo
aauanoa i?e uaei/iii ?aceiaeaiee iiiinaoa?eaeia // ?anioaeeeaineay
iao/ii-oaoie/aneay eiioa?aioeey “?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea
aunieiyooaeoeaiuo ?ano?ninaa?aaathueo oaoiieiaee, iiai?oaeiaaiey e iiauo
aeaeia ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia a ieuaaoth e ia?a?aaaouaathuea io?anee AIE”
–Eeaa. –1991. –N.-64.

Aia??aiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I., Niaa?oaiia ?.I., Ee?iiae/ A.I.
Ooai?aiiy aa?aieeiaeo ?a/iaei o oeoe?iaiio ae?iaieoeoa? ? ?ic?iaea
iaoiae?a ?ia?aoaaiiy oeueiai i?ioeano // I?aeia?iaeiee nai?ia?
“I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ao?yeioeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa i?iaeaie
aeieia?? ? a?aeoiae?a”. –Ee?a. -1994. –N.60-67.

Bobrovnik L.D., Rudenko V.N. The formation of the coloured compounds in
sugar degradation reaction // 20th General Assembly of International
Commission for Sugar Technology. –Munich. –1995.

Niaa?oaiia ?.I., Aia??aiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ae??
ieenethaa/?a ? aioeieenethaa/?a ia i?ioean aa?aiooai?aiiy o oeoe?iaiio
ae?iaieoeoa? // Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y “?ic?iaea
oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?e oa iaeaaeiaiiy o oa?/iao oa
ia?a?iaio i?iieneia?noue”. -Ee?a. –1995. –N.16.

Niaa?oaiia ?.I., ?oaeaiei A.I., Aia??aiee E.Ae. Ooai?aiiy aa?aieo
?a/iaei o oeoe?iaiio ae?iaieoeoa? ? ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a ?ia?aoaaiiy
oeueiai i?ioeano // 61 Iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y OAeOOO. –Ee?a. –1995.
–N.6.

Bobrovnik L.D., Rudenko V.N. The activity of nitrogenous compounds in
glucose degradation reaction // Meeting of the Scientific Committee and
Subcommitee “Beet Quality and Storage”. –Prague. –1996.

Niaa?oaiia ?.I., Aia??aiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I. Aieea oaiia?aoo?e ia
ooai?aiiy aa?aieo ?a/iaei i?e eoaeiiio ?iceeaae? aetheice // 62 Iaoeiaa
eiioa?aioe?y OAeOOO. –Ee?a. –1996. –N.11.

Niaa?oaiia ?.I., Aia??aiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I. Ia?aoai?aiiy
D-aetheice a eoaeieo aiaeieo ?ic/eiao: aieea eiioeaio?aoe?? ia ooai?aiiy
aa?aieo ?a/iaei // 62 Iaoeiaa eiioa?aioe?y OAeOOO. –Ee?a. –1996. –N.11.

Bobrivnyk L.D., Rudenko V.M., Novikov V.V. Influence of hydroxyl-ions,
amino- and thiocompounds as nucleophilic reagents of the D-glucose
transformation in alkaline solution // 25 General Assembly of
International Commission for Sugar Technology. – Antwerp.
–1999.

Aia??aiee E.Ae., ?oaeaiei A.I., Niaa?oaiia ?.I. Niin?a ciaioaiiy
eieuei?iino? oa i?aeaeuaiiy oa?iino?eeino? iai?ai?iaeoeo?a oeoe?iaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa // Nai?ia? aieiaieo niaoe?ae?no?a oeoe?iaeo caaiae?a,
anioe?aoe?e oa a?oiiaeo eaai?aoi??e “I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ao?yeioeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa”. –Ee?a. –1999.

?oaeaiei A.I. Ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei o oeoe?iaiio ae?iaieoeoa? oa
?ic?iaea iaoiae?a eiai ?ia?aoaaiiy. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.18.05 – oaoiieia?y oeoe?enoeo ?a/iaei. –
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao oa?/iaeo oaoiieia?e, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyioo? ieoaiiy anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ia?aa?ao
?aaeoe?? iiao??iiy, yea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei
a oaoiieia?/ieo oiiaao oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa ? aecia/aiiy i?e?iaee
aieeao ?aaaaio?a (ioeeaio?e?a, ieeniee?a) ia i?ioean ooai?aiiy
caaa?aeaiiy. Aecia/aii iine?aeiai?noue ia?aoai?aiue ia ?aii?o noaae?yo
?aaeoe?? ?iceeaaeo D-aetheice. Io?eiai? aeai? i?i oa?aeoa? aieeao
i?e?iaee ? aoaeiae ?aaaaio?a ia ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei. Aeieacaia
caeaoi?noue ai?iiai?nieo niieoe ?aaaoaaoe ?c noi?iiaaieie caaa?aeaieie
?a/iaeiaie (i?iaeoeoaie eoaeiiai ?iceeaaeo ?aaeoeoth/eo naoa??a,
ea?aiaeyie), ui iieacaei iiieeeia?noue no/anii? eiioeaioe??
eeaneo?eaoe?? caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa uiaei
ooai?aiiy a?oie aacacioieo caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei. Aecia/aii oa?aeoa?
aieeao ieeniee?a ia i?ii?aei? niieoee ? caaa?aeai? ?a/iaeie.
Anoaiiaeaiee neeueiee ieenithaaeueiee aoaeo noi?o? oei?iiai aaiia oa
iia?o?y, ye ?ia?a?oi?o ?aaeoe?? iiao??iiy. ?ic?iaeai? aoaeoeai? niiniae
?ia?aoaaiiy i?ioeano ooai?aiiy caaa?aeaieo ?a/iaei oa cieaeaiiy
caaa?aeaiiy iai?ai?iaeoeo?a oeoe?iaiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Cae?eniaii
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai iaoiaeo ?ia?aoaaiiy ?aaeoe?? iiao??iiy,
i?eaiaeyoueny aeai? eiai aoaeoeaiino?.

Eeth/aa? neiaa: ?aaeoe?y iiao??iiy, iiaeaeueia nenoaia, iiiinaoa?eaee,
ai?iiai?ni? niieoee, ia?aiao?e ?aaeoe??, ioeeaio?euei? ?aaaaioe,
i?ii?aei? niieoee, caaa?aeai? ?a/iaeie, ieenieee, ?ia?a?oi?e,
OO-niaeo?ineii?y, E?-niaeo?ineii?y.

?oaeaiei A.I. Ia?aciaaiea ie?aoaiiuo aauanoa a naoa?iii i?iecaiaenoaa e
?ac?aaioea niiniaia aai eiaeae?iaaiey. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.18.05 – oaoiieiaey naoa?enouo aauanoa. — Oe?aeineee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ieuaauo oaoiieiaee, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniio?aiu aii?inu onoaiiaeaiey caeiiiia?iinoae
i?ioaeaiey ?aaeoeee iiao?aiey, eioi?ay i?eaiaeeo e ia?aciaaieth
ie?aoaiiuo aauanoa a oaoiieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo naoa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
auyniaiey oa?aeoa?a aeeyiey ?acee/iuo ?aaaaioia (ioeeaioeeia,
ieeneeoaeae) ia i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey ie?aoaiiuo niaaeeiaiee. Ii?aaeaeaia
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue i?aa?auaiee ia ?aiieo noaaeeyo ?aaeoeee
?aceiaeaiey D-aetheicu. Iieo/aiu aeaiiua i oa?aeoa?a aeeyiey i?e?iaeu e
no?iaiey ?aaaaioia ia ia?aciaaiea ie?aoaiiuo niaaeeiaiee. Onoaiiaeaia
niiniaiinoue aieiiniaea?aeaueo niaaeeiaiee ?aaae?iaaoue ni
noi?ie?iaaiiuie ie?aoaiiuie niaaeeiaieyie (i?iaeoeoaie uaei/iiai
?aceiaeaiey ?aaeooee?othueo naoa?ia, ea?aiaeyie), /oi oeacaei ia
ioeai/iinoue nia?aiaiiie eiioeaioeee eeanneoeeaoeee ie?aoaiiuo aauanoa
naoa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa ioiineoaeueii ia?aciaaiey a?oiiu aacacioenouo
ie?aoaiiuo aauanoa. Ii?aaeaeai oa?aeoa? aeeyiey ieeneeoaeae ia
i?iiaaeooi/iua niaaeeiaiey e ie?aoaiiua aauanoaa. Onoaiiaeai neeueiue
ieeneeoaeueiue yooaeo niane oei?iie ecaanoe e aicaeooa eae eiaeaeoi?a
?aaeoeee iiao?aiey. ?ac?aaioaiu yooaeoeaiua niiniau eiaeae?iaaiey
i?ioeanna ia?aciaaiey ie?aoaiiuo aauanoa e nieaeaiey ie?aoaiiinoe
iieoi?iaeoeoia naoa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Inouanoaeaii i?iecaiaenoaaiiia
aiaae?aiea iaoiaea eiaeae?iaaiey ?aaeoeee iiao?aiey, i?eaaaeaiu aeaiiua
aai yooaeoeaiinoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?aaeoeey iiao?aiey, iiaeaeueiay nenoaia, iiiinaoa?eaeu,
aieiiniaea?aeauea niaaeeiaiey, ia?aiao?u ?aaeoeee, ioeeaioeeueiua
?aaaaiou, i?iiaaeooi/iua niaaeeiaiey, ieeneeoaee, eiaeaeoi?u,
OO-niaeo?ineiiey, E?-niaeo?ineiiey .

Rudenko V.M. The formation of the colour compounds in the Sugar
production and elaboration of inhibitory methods for this process. –
Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 0.5.18.05 – technology of
saccharine substances. – Ukrainian State University of Food
Technologies, Kyiv, 1999.

In the dissertation there is considered the questions of establishment
of regularity in the course of browning reaction, which results in
colour formation in technological conditions of sugar Industry.
Systematic examination on the chemism of D-glucose transformation both
in water solution and amino carbonyl reaction is executed. D-Gluco-se
transformations on the early stages of decomposition reaction in pH
range 1,0-13,0 was found to have similar sequence. Mutarotation reaction
was shown to be the first stage in this sequence, because it provides
existence of reactive acyclic forms (oxycarbonyl and enediol) of
reducing sugars. RAMAN-spectroscopy has been employed in the detection
of the carbonyl and enediol absorption bands. Changes in the intensity
of these bands allowed the monitoring of the concentration of the open
forms both of D-glucose and D-fructose at different temperatures and
pHs. Hydroxyl- ions catalyse the mutarotation reaction of reducing
sugars, but high concentrations promote isomerizations, (-elimination
and decomposition reactions. Temperature renders stronger influence on
the equilibrium concentration of open forms of reducing sugars compared
with effect of acid or base catalysis. The concentration of the open
forms was observed to increase due to the presence of amino acid.
Reactions of acid formation are predominant on the next stages of
D-glucose decomposition reaction in particular in alkali solutions.
Then intensive formation of unsaturated ozones (( 225 nm) and
(di)carbonyl containing intermediates has place in further conversion
of D-glucose. Reactive unsaturated ozones are exposed to transformation
readily that is why they are monitored in slightly alkaline and acid
medium only. The further conversion of the key intermediates of early
stages depends on the OH( and H+ concentrations to a considerable
extent.

By UV-spectroscopy there is demonstrated that in amino carbonyl reaction
amino acid joins in double bond of unsaturated ozones (( 215-225 nm) at
the low temperatures (up to 15(C). That is why absorption band of
unsaturated carbonyl containing intermediates (( 225 nm) is not observed
in model system D-glucose/glycine. Amino acid takes part in addition
reaction on the final stage after polymer formation as well.

Depending on the electronic nature and structure amino compounds are
capable to react with intermediates and (1) turn readily the latter into
the colour compounds or (2) remove reactive intermediates from further
transformation and lower colour formation reaction. The influence of
OH( and H+ concentration on the run of the early and final stages of
amino carbonyl reaction has been studied by UV-spectroscopy. There were
determinate the areas of pHs in which certain processes occur.

There is showed that nucleophilness of reagent exercises considerable
influence on the early stages run of amino carbonyl reaction. Character
of effect of sulphur containing substances as a competitors of amino
acid in nucleophilic addition to D-glucose carbonyl group on the early
stages of amino carbonyl reaction is elucidated. There is stated that
thioglycolic acid reacts actively with the key intermediates of amino
carbonyl reaction and it slows down their further transformation into
coloured substances.

There is demonstrated that amino acids are ability to react with
unsaturated structure fragments of final coloured compounds (“products
of alkaline decomposition of reducing substances”, caramels). This puts
on doubt modern conception of colour compounds classification about the
formation nitrogen-free colour compounds in condition of sugar
production. Consequently the problem of working out another approach to
colour compounds classification is arise. Molecular mass of colour
compounds is quite likely to be the basic for such classification.

By spectroscopy and chromatographic study there is achieved that
oxidising agents have an influence on all stages of D-glucose
decomposition both in alkaline solutions and amino carbonyl reaction.
They destroy double bonds in (1) enediol intermediates of mutarotation
reaction, (2) unsaturated ozones and enediol forms of (di)carbonyl
intermediates of the early stages, (3) and chromophore structure
fragments of final coloured compounds. This yields a considerable
inhibitory effect and the decrease in colour. Oxygen and air oxygen was
detected to display appreciable oxidising effect. The latter depends on
initial pH value. There is established strong oxidising effect of
mixture chloride of lime and air as inhibitor of browning reaction.
There is worked out effective methods both inhibition of colour
formation and the decrease in colour of sugar industry semiproduct.
Industrial utility of inhibitory method of browning reaction is
realised. Data of its efficiency is given.

Keywords: browning reaction, model system, monosaccharides, amino
containing compounds, reaction parameters, nucleophilic reagents,
intermediates, oxidising agent, inhibitors, UV-spectroscopy, RAMAN-
spectroscopy.

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