I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

NO?AeIIOE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

OAeE 658. 5 + 334.7

OA??IIAA

IEUeAA NA?A??AIA

OI?AAE?IIss AE?IAIE*EI IIOAIOe?AEII I?E IIAeA?I?CAOe?? AINIIAeA?NUeEIAI
EIIIEAENO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.01 — Aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa

? i?aai?caoe?y
ae?iaieoeoaa

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Eoaainuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien .

Aeena?oaoe?th aeeiiaii o No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ( i. Eoaainuee ).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ai?iieiaa Aeea Aaeai?aia,

No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe : aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

*a?aiaa E?ae?y Aai?a??aia,

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee i?iieneiaino? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaaeai?? iaoe Oe?a?ie,
aaaeo/ee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy
ae?iaieoeoaii (i.Aeiiaoeuee);

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

E??naiei Ieueaa Aiaoie??aia,

Eoaainueeee ?inoeooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa
Oe?a?ie, aeioeaio eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee, o?iain?a oa i?aaa (i.Eoaainuee).

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aeiiii?ee oa
ia?eaoeiao (i.Oa?e?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 4 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 29.051.01 o
No?aeiioe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith : 91034,
Eoaainuee, ea. Iieiae?aeiee, 20 A.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 91034, Eoaainuee, ea.
Iieiae?aeiee, 20A.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 4 aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eica/aiei A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie ainiiaea?nueeei eiiieaenai
o?aaeeoe?eii iaeaaeeoue cia/ia ?ieue. O oaia??oi?e /an ainiiaea?nuee?
eiiieaene oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee ciaoiaeyoueny a ne?ooiiio noai?,
ine?eueee ieioe? i?ioeane i?eaaoecaoe?? ? ?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? ?noioii ia
aieeioee ia ?oith ae?yeuei?noue. Caoiaee ?c naiaoe?? oe?a?inueeeo
ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a, a?aeiiaeaiith ?o ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa
iiaeeeai cae?enithaaoe o?eueee ia iniia? iiaea?i?caoe?? oeeo eiiieaen?a.

Iniiaio oaaao i?e iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno aeioe?eueii
neiioeaio?oaaoe ia aeei?enoaii? oa aecia/aii? iniiaieo iai?yie?a
?icaeoeo eiai ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo. Ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ? neeaaeiith nenoaiith. I?ioa a oe?e yeino?
ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno a aeiiii?/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? i?aeoe/ii ia ?icaeyaea?oueny. *ano?oa onueiai a ?iaioao, ui
i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeaiith ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno, ?icaeyaeathoueny iiiyooy iioaioe?aeo, eiai no?oeoo?a, ioe?iea
aaee/eie iioaioe?aeo ? oeyoe aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy. Aeinoaoi?
iioe?aiiy iaea?aeaa ?ano?niee i?aeo?ae aei eiioeaioe?? ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo, o yeiio iiiyooy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
noeoii?noue ?ano?n?a, ui o i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa i?eeiathoue oi?io
/eiiee?a ae?iaieoeoaa. Ii?yae ?c ?ano?niei i?aeoiaeii aei aecia/aiiy
nooiino? ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo a aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? cono??/a?oueny
? i?aeo?ae, ca yeei iiiyooy ae?iaie/iai eai?oaeo ? ae?iaie/i?
iiooaeiino? ?icaeyaeathoueny ye neiii?i?/i?.

No/ani? aeine?aeaeaiiy c i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii c
o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae i?ioeano iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno oa oiia ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aei ?eieiai?
nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy, iaeaea a?aenooi?. Oey a?aenooi?noue
coiiaeaia, c iaeiiai aieo, niaaeii ae?iaieoeoaa a ainiiaea?nueeeo
eiiieaenao, a, c ?ioiai — /anoeiaith ao?aoith ?ioa?an?a a/aieo naia aei
i?iaeai ae?iaieoeoaa oa ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo. Ca?oa?aei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy c aeaii? i?iaeaie oaae ia iiaeia aeciaoe nenoaiieie, aei
oiai ae ?o ia iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe o iiaiiio ianyc? oa aac aianaiiy
a?aeiia?aeieo ci?i o ca’yceo ?c niaoeeo?eith ?icaeoeo aeiiii?/ii?
neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i? oa oi?aae?iiy oe?a?inueeeo ainiiaea?nueeeo
eiiieaen?a. Ana oea aecia/a? aaaeeea?noue e aeooaeuei?noue i?iaaaeaieo
aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaie oa ?o cia/aiiy aeey
ae?yeueiino? ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a.

Neeaaei?noue ieoaiue oi?aae?iiy noai?aiiyi e aeei?enoaiiyi ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, a?aenooi?noue iaoeiai? oa
iaoiaee/ii? aace aeey iiaoaeiae a?aeiia?aeieo nenoai oi?aae?iiy,
iaa?oiooaaiiy aeai?o no?aoaa?e ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo i?e
iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno coiiaeee, a e?ioeaaiio
?aooieo, aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eio
?iaioo aeeiiaii o a?aeiia?aeiino? c oaiaoeeith aea?aeathaeaeaoieo
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
(oaia AI-50-99 “Oi?ioaaiiy iaoiaeieia?? oi?aae?iiy i?aei?e?inoaaie a
oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee”) oa a ?aieao I?aeia?iaeiiai i?iaeoo
“Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c /eiiee?a oa no?aoaa?e iiaea?i?caoe?? i?iieneiaeo
i?aei?e?inoa o e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith (ia i?eeeaae? ?in?? oa
Oe?a?ie)”, yeee aeeiio?oueny ca i?ia?aiith INCO – COPERNICUS Contract no
ERB IC 15 – CT 98 – 1012.

I?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eia?ea,
i?eioeeie iaoiaee oa i?aeoe/i? aniaeoe oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii ?
aeei?enoaiiyi ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno i?e
iiaea?i?caoe?? eiiieaeno. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aacith
aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa iieiaeaiue
aeena?oaoe?? ? ainiiaea?nuee? eiiieaene i. Eoaainueea oa Eoaainueei?
iaeano?.

Iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
eiiieaenia ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo, iaoiaee/ieo ? i?eeeaaeieo ieoaiue
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno i?e eiai
iiaea?i?caoe?? ia i?aenoaa? ocaaaeueiaiiy e ?icaeoeo iaoiaee/ii? aace
no?aoaa?/iiai oi?aae?iiy, oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoai?cio
oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei eiai ?aae?caoe??.

Iniiai? iaoeia? ? i?aeoe/i? caaaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe coiiaeaii
iinoaaeaiith iaoith oa i?noyoue:

aiae?c iniaeeainoae ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ye ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy o
no/anieo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao Oe?a?ie;

aecia/aiiy iiiyooy, caaaeaiue ? iniiaieo iai?yie?a iiaea?i?caoe??
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno;

aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ooi/iaiiy iiiyooy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, iniaeeainoae eiai ?icaeoeo oa aeei?enoaiiy
i?e iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno;

aeyaeaiiy iaea?eueo cia/oueo /eiiee?a, ui aecia/athoue aeei?enoaiiy oa
?icaeoie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno a no/anieo
aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao Oe?a?ie;

i?iaaaeaiiy eeaneo?eaoe?? oa eiaeeo?eaoe?? /eiiee?a ciai?oiueiai oa
aioo??oiueiai na?aaeiaeua, ye? aecia/athoue aeei?enoaiiy oa ?icaeoie
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno;

aenia?oio ioe?ieo cia/eiino? /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia aeei?enoaiiy oa
?icaeoie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, oa
aecia/aiiy ?aiao eiaeiiai c /eiiee?a a eiai a?oi?;

iaoiaeeeo ae?aaiinoeee ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno, yea aaco?oueny ia ioe?ioe? eiaeiiai c aeaiaio?a iioaioe?aeo
ca aeiiiiiaith e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a;

oi?ioethaaiiy eiioeaioe?? oa aea?? i?eioeei?a iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy
aeei?enoaiiyi ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno,
aecia/aiiy no?oeoo?e iaoai?cio ca aeiiiiiaith iao?e/iiai oi?aae?iiy;

?ic?iaeo aeai?eoio iiaoaeiae iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno;

aecia/aiiy i?aeoiae?a aei eiiieaenii? ioe?iee noaio ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, yea ? aacith oe?eueiaeo ianoaiia
aeey iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno;

?ic?iaeo i?aeoiae?a aei oi?ioaaiiy aeueoa?iaoea no?aoaa?? oi?aae?iiy
ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno;

aecia/aiiy niinia?a aeai?o no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
i?e iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno;

i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co aoaeoeaiino? i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy i?aeoiae?a aei
oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno oa
i?iieneiaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiaeee, ye? ?ic?iaeaii ia iniia?
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoiaeieia?/io oa oai?aoe/io
iniiao aeine?aeaeaiue neeaee nenoaiiee oa eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei
oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? i?iaaaeaii a aeena?oaoe??, aacothoueny ia iaoeiaeo
?ic?iaeao a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo aeiiii?no?a o aaeoc?
oi?aae?iiy oa ?ic?iaie c ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue ? i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoiaee naiaioe/iiai aiae?co,
iaoiaee noaoenoe/ii? ia?iaee aeaieo i?i ?iaioo ainiiaea?nueeeo
eiiieaen?a, iaoiae aenia?oii? ioe?iee, iao?e/iee iaoiae, niiniae
neooaoe?eiiai aiae?co, eia?/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy, oai??? i?eeiyooy
??oaiue, a oaeiae a?ao?/iee aiae?c.

?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? oai?aoe/i? oa iaoiaee/i?
?ic?iaee a/aieo, ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue, io?oe?ei? noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee i?i ?iaioo a?o/eciyieo
ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a, caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe, ui
?aaeaiaioothoue oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy a
Oe?a?i?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe. Iniiaiee iaoeiaee ?acoeueoao aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe iieyaa? o iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/ieo iniia oi?aae?iiy
aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno oa o ?ic?iaoe? i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii oaeei
iioaioe?aeii.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
iieyaa? o oaeiio:

ooi/iaii iiiyooy ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno oa ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co /anoioe
aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo aeaiaio?a o aecia/aiiyo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo oa
??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a;

?ic?iaeaii iao?eoeth ioe?iie aeaiaio?a ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, yea yaey? niaith iiiaeeio iieaciee?a, ui
ooai?ththoueny ia iniia? ?ic?aooieo aca?iieo niieo/aiue ?yaeo
iieaciee?a, ? aeicaieythoue iine?aeiaii niinoa??aaoe ci?ie oa?aeoa?enoee
ia’?eoa, aeoiaey/e c? ci?ie aace ii??aiyiiy;

noi?iiaaii iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, iniiaith yeiai ? aecia/aiiy ia?
aeaiaio?a iaoai?cio, ui iathoue a?aeiia?aeaoe anoaiiaeaiei aeiiaai;

cai?iiiiiaaii aaaaoi??aiaao ioe?ieo noaio ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, yea ia?aaeaa/a? io?eiaiiy ?aeaaeueii?,
aoaeiiii? oa ?ic?aooieiai? ioe?iee ?c ianooiiei ?o aa?aaoaaiiyi;

iaa?oioiaai? iieiaeaiiy neooaoe?eiiai i?iaeooaaiiy i?e ?ic?iaoe?
no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno,
yea ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c noeoiiino? i?iaiiciaaieo neooaoe?e, ui iiaeooue
neeaaeaoeny o ae?yeueiino? eiiieaeno, aeoiaey/e ?c ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
?ic?aooieiai?, oaeoe/ii? oa aoaeiiii? ioe?iee iieaciee?a ii an?o ??aiyo
ii??aiyiiy;

noi?iiaaii iao?eoeth aeai?o no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, yea a?aoiao? ??aaiue i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue c ?icaeoeo iioaioe?aeo oa ??aaiue eiai
aeei?enoaiiy, ? aacith aeai?o no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
oa aecia/aiiy no?aoaa?/ieo eiioo??a iiaaae?iee ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno a aaeoc? aeei?enoaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? a
iaa?oiooaaii? i?aeoiae?a aei i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ei
iioaioe?aeii i?e iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. Caeiaoaa/ai
aaciina?aaeiuei i?iaaaeaii eeaneo?eaoe?th e eiaeeo?eaoe?th /eiiee?a, ye?
aecia/athoue noai oa aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, aeine?aeaeaii cia/ou?noue oeeo /eiiee?a.
Aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue ?ic?iaeai? niiniae io?eiaiiy aa?aaiaaii? ioe?iee
noaio ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, ia i?aenoaa?
yei? cae?enith?oueny aea?? no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, iaoiaeeea ae?aaiinoeee ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, ?ic?iaeaia iao?eoey aeai?o
no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.
Aaoi?nueeith ? ?ic?iaea iieiaeaiue neooaoe?eiiai i?iaeooaaiiy i?e
?ic?iaoe? no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii? oai?aoe/ieo
ieoaiue i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii i?e
iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaee/ieo
i?aeoiae?a aei oi?ioaaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo no?aoaa?e ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno oa aeai?o iaea?eueo aoaeoeaii? oa
aeioe?eueii? c ieo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oa ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?ic?iaeai? a aeena?oaoe?? i?aeoiaee, niiniae oa iaea?aeai? ?acoeueoaoe
yaeythoue niaith oai?aoe/io oa iaoiaee/io iniiao oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio
oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno i?e eiai iiaea?i?caoe??. Aiie aeicaieythoue
iaa?oiooaaoe aea?? no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ia iniia?
i?ia?aie iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iaa?oioiao?oueny ianooiiei:

cae?eniai? eeaneo?eaoe?y oa eiaeeo?eaoe?y /eiiee?a, ui aecia/athoue
??aaiue ?icaeoeo oa aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iiaoaeia?
nenoaie ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy i?aeaioiaee e i?eeiyooy
no?aoaa?/ieo ? iioi/ieo ??oaiue c oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno i?e iiaea?i?caoe?? eiiieaeno;

ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?oii? ioe?iee aeae?eaii iaea?eueo cia/ou? /eiieee,
ui a?aoiaothoueny i?e ae?aaiinoeoe? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ? ?ic?iaoe? no?aoaa?? eiai ?icaeoeo;

?ic?iaeaiee eiiieaen iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? i?ecia/ai? aeey
ae?aaiinoeee noaio e aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, aeicaiey? io?eiaoe ioe?ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?
ioe?ieo aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeainoae ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo;

?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iiaoaeiae iaoai?cio
oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno aecia/athoue iine?aeiai?noue oi?ioaaiiy
iaoai?cio oa yaeythoue niaith oe?e?nio nenoaio ?ino?oiaio?a i?aaiaiai,
aeiiii?/iiai oa iioeaaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy iaoai?cio;

aecia/aiiy aa?aaiaaii? ioe?iee noaio ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aeicaiey?
ioe?ieoe i?noea ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ia na?oiaiio ?
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?eieo, a oaeiae iiaiioo aeei?enoaiiy ?aaeueieo
iiaeeeainoae iioaioe?aeo;

neooaoe?eia i?iaeooaaiiy iaaea? iiaeeea?noue i?iaiae?coaaoe noeoii?noue
i?iaiiciaaieo neooaoe?e, ui iiaeooue neeaaeaoeny o ainiiaea?nueeiio
eiiieaen?, oa ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe eiaeio c neooaoe?e ca aeiiiiiaith
ni?aa?aeiioaiue ?ic?aooieiai?, oaeoe/ii? oa aoaeiiii? ioe?iee iieaciee?a
ii an?o ??aiyo ii??aiyiiy — na?oiaiio, iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?
ainiiaea?nueeiio;

?ic?iaeaia iao?eoey aeai?o no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ni?ey? ?aae?caoe?? aeaio ooieoe?e
iaiaaeaeiaioo: i?eeiyooth ??oaiue ?c no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno oa ?iciiae?eo aeei?enoiaoaaieo
?ano?n?a c iaoith noai?aiiy eiieo?aioiiai noaoono ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue o oi?i? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno cai?iaaaeaeaii i?e i?iaaaeaii? ie?aieo ?ia?o c iiaea?i?caoe??
a oieaeeiaia?e eiiiai?? “Eoaainueeoaieiaic”, cae?eoiio aeoe?iia?iiio
oiaa?enoa? “Aaoieeaiai” oa i?eeiyoi aei aeei?enoaiiy o a?aee?eoiio
aeoe?iia?iiio oiaa?enoa? “Eene/ainueeiaooai?aneioac” (i.Eene/ainuee).

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe oa ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.
?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue iia?aeiieaii, iaaiai?aii oa ooaaeaii
ia can?aeaii? I?aceae?? I?aeia?iaeii? Aeaaeai?? iaoee oa i?aeoeee
i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa (i.Ai?ii?ae, 1999 ?.), ia eiioa?aioe??
“Oi?aa?neoao oa ?aa?ii” (i.Eoaainuee 1998 ?.) oa eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe a?aeia?aaeaii o 9 ioae?eaoe?yo. Caaaeueiee ianya
ioae?eaoe?e – 2,87 ae.a., c yeeo iniaenoi aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 2,3 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ye? aeeeaaeaii ia 182 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai
oaenoo, a oiio /ene? 23 oaaeeoe? oa 21 ?enoiie. Nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae ?c 220 iaeiaioaaiue iaaaaeaii ia 16 noi??ieao ? 8 aeiaeaoe?a –
ia 53 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiue
caoeuathoueny oae? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy.

?icae?e 1. Iiiyooy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ?
/eiieee, ui aecia/athoue eiai noai.

Ia?ao?ae aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aei ?eieiai? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy
iaoiiaea iiyao iiaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i ae?yeueiino?
ainiiaea?thaaiiy e iaeii/anii c oeei iio?aao? iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei
oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth aaea ?nioth/eie, aei /enea yeeo a?aeiinyoueny
ainiiaea?nuee? eiiieaene.

Aaiethoe?y ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a ? ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iniia ?o
?nioaaiiy ia?ic?eaii ca’ycai? ?c ?icaeoeii i?iieneiaino?. O ?iaio?
aeine?aeaeaii aeaee ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a, oaeeo ye o?anoe,
eiia?iaoe, i?aeaaeocaa? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? eiiieaene, ae?iaie/? oa
iaoeiai-ae?iaie/? ia’?aeiaiiy, oieaeeiaia? eiiiai??,
i?iieneiai-o?iainia? a?oie, iieacaii oiiae ?o aeieeiaiiy oa iniaeeaino?
?icaeoeo.

C iaoith aecia/aiiy ?icoi?iiy ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno a aeena?oaoe??
ca aeiiiiiaith naiaioe/iiai aiae?co aeae?eaii iniiai? aeaiaioe oa aacia?
iiiyooy aecia/aiue ??ciiiai?oieo aeae?a ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a. C
o?aooaaiiyi aiae?co /anoioe aeei?enoaiiy iniiaieo aeaiaio?a aecia/aiue
??cieo aeae?a ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a ooi/iaia iiiyooy
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. Ainiiaea?nueeee eiiieaen ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
aeae ia’?aeiaiiy i?aei?e?inoa iaei??? aai ??cii? aaeocaai?
i?eiaeaaeiino? ia iino?ei?e aai oei/ania?e iniia?, ui iathoue ??ciee
th?eaee/iee noaoon, ?c iaoith cae?eniaiiy aai eii?aeeioaaiiy ni?eueii?
ae?yeueiino? ii aeeiiaiith noaae?e i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa aioiai?
i?iaeoeoe?? aai ?? ?aae?caoe??, ii i?iaaaeaiith iaaiiai aeaeo ?ia?o aai
iaaeaiith iineoa.

Ainiiaea?nuee? eiiieaene, ye? ?niothoue o i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie,
ia?aaaaeii aoei noai?aii a aeiiii?oe? oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oeio.
Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue oaeeo eiiieaen?a oa?aeoa?ia aeey aaeocae aaaeei?
i?iieneiaino?. Oae, e?aea?e iaoaeo?a?eii? i?iieneiaino? — AeIE
“E?eai??aenoaeue”, IE ?iai? ?ee?/a oa “Acianoaeue” — ii a?eueoino?
iiceoe?e aea?aeaoue i?i?ioi iieiaeio oe?a?inueeiai ?eieo, a ae?iaieoeoai
aeaeo?iaia?a?? a Oe?a?i? cae?enith?oueny o?noueia aeoe?iia?ieie
oiaa?enoaaie. Oe?eiio ?yaeo c aaeeeeo nenoai oe?a?inueei? i?iieneiaino?
o oaia??oi?e /an iaeaaeeoue cia/ia /anoea iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?eieo iaaiiai
aeaeo i?iaeoeoe??.

Ainiiaea?nuee? eiiieaene o i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, ye iieacaee i?iaaaeai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, a?ae/oaathoue cia/i? o?oaeiiu? o nai?io ?icaeoeo, ui
coiiaeaii, ia?o ca ana, iecueeei i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/iei ??aiai
?icaeoeo, aenieei ??aiai ciino iniiaieo oiiae?a, iaaeiaaioaaei?noth
ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae oa a oe?eiio iaaeinoaoi?i ??aiai aeei?enoaiiy
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo oa a?aenooi?noth nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo a
oi?aae?ii? iei.

O ?iaio? iieacaii, ui iniiaiith oi?iith ia?aoai?aiue o ae?yeueiino?
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ? eiai iiaea?i?caoe?y. I?e oeueiio
iiaea?i?caoe?y ?icaeyaea?oueny ia c o?aaeeoe?eii? oi/ee ci?o — ye ci?ie
a eiino?oeoe?? ie?aieo iaeeieoeue onoaoeoaaiiy aai i?iaeoeoe??, ui
aeionea?oueny, ? i?eaaaeaiiy ?o o noai, ui a?aeiia?aea? no/aniiio
oaoi?/iiio e aeiiii?/iiio ??aith ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa, a ye ci?ia aai
a?aeiiaeaiiy aiae?ciaaiiai ia’?eoa — ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.
Iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno i?eionea? aianaiiy
iaiao?aeieo, aaeaeaaoieo ci?i, ui caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? eiiieaeno. O ?iaio? ?ice?eoi ci?no ? iaaaaeaii
anaa?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a iiaea?i?caoe??
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno: iiaea?i?caoe?y a?aeiioaiue aeaniino?,
iiaea?i?caoe?y ae?iaie/eo a?aeiioaiue, iiaea?i?caoe?y ae?iaie/i? aace,
iiaea?i?caoe?y i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeionea?oueny, iiaea?i?caoe?y ae?iaie/i?
no?oeoo?e, iiaea?i?caoe?y eiia?oe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, iiaea?i?caoe?y
?ioaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a, iiaea?i?caoe?y ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

Iniiaio oaaao i?e iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno aeioe?eueii
neiioeaio?oaaoe ia aeei?enoaii? oa aecia/aii? iniiaieo iai?yie?a
?icaeoeo eiai ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a i?aeoiaeao aei aecia/aiiy iiiyooy e
ci?noo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ? ?icoiaeaeaiiy, /anii nooo?a?, ui
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? a?aenooi?noue /?oeiai aecia/aiiy nooiino? ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo a
?iaio? c?iaeaiee aeniiaie, ui iiiyooy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno iio?aao? ooi/iaiiy. A?aeiia?aeii aei
cai?iiiiiaaiiai ooi/iaiiy ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye
iioaioe?eio ni?iiiaei?noue ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno aai eiai ie?aiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa aeeiioaaoe iaaiee ianya ?ia?o, aeioneaoe i?iaeoeoe?th aeey
?aae?caoe?? nai?? i?n?? ? oe?eae, ui aecia/ai? eiai noaoooii, aea
nooi?iue ?aae?caoe?? oe??? ni?iiiaeiino? iaoiiaeaia ?ioaineai?noth
aieeao aiaeiaaiieo ? aeciaaiieo /eiiee?a. Cai?iiiiiaai? ooi/iaiiy
aeicaieythoue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno ? eiiieaeniei iiiyooyi, no?oeoo?oaaiiy yeiai iaaea?
iiaeeea?noue aeae?eeoe oae? aeaee iioaioe?ae?a ye ?ioaeaeooaeueiee
iioaioe?ae, iioaioe?ae onoaoeoaaiiy, iioaioe?ae oaoiieia?/ieo
iiaeeeainoae, ?iiiaaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae ? ?yae ?ioeo.

?icaeoie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno a ?iaio?
?icaeyaea?oueny ye ooieoe?y iiiaeeie a?aoiaio?a, o yeino? yeeo
aenooiathoue /eiieee, ui aecia/athoue ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae. *eiieee
yaeythoue niaith aeinoaoiuei neeaaeiee ia’?eo aea/aiiy, ui
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ??ciiiai?oieie iniaeeainoyie, ? a caeaaeiino? a?ae
oeeo iniaeeainoae ii ??ciiio a?aoiaothoueny i?e ?ic?iaoe? no?aoaa??
aeei?enoaiiy ? ia?iuoaaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno. Iiiaeeii?noue /eiiee?a iaoiiaeei iaiao?aei?noue ?oiuei?
eeaneo?eaoe??.

C iaeyaeo ia a?aeiino? ? iaaeie?ee iiia?aaei?o eeaneo?eaoe?e o
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaiee i?aeo?ae aei eeaneo?eaoe?? /eiiee?a,
ui aecia/athoue aeei?enoaiiy ? ?icaeoie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno c iiceoe?e oi?aae?iiy oeeie i?ioeanaie.
Eeaneo?eaoe?th /eiiee?a aeeiiaii c aeei?enoaiiyi oaeeo /ioe?ueio iciae:
nooi?iue aieeao ia /eiiee (oi?aaey?i? ? iaoi?aaey?i? /eiieee), ia’?eo
aieeao /eiieea (ainiiaea?nueeee eiiieaen o oe?eiio oa ie?ai? aeaiaioe
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno), na?aaeiaeua aeieeiaiiy /eiieea (aiaeiaaii?
oa aeciaaii? /eiieee) oa i?e?iaea /eiieea (i?e?iaei?, i?aaia?,
ethaenueeee, ?ioaeaeooaeuei? oa o?iainia? /eiieee). Eiaeia aeae?eaia
a?oia /eiiee?a anaa?/ii aeine?aeaeoaaia a ?iaio?.

Ia iniia? aeeiiai?e eeaneo?eaoe?? aecia/ai? /eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia
oae? aeaiaioe ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo, ye iniiai? ae?iaie/? oiiaee,
i?aaeiaoe i?aoe?, i?aoey, oi?ia aeaniino?, i?aaiaa, ?iiiaaoe?eia,
o?iainiaa, oi?aae?inueea e i?aai?caoe?eia caaacia/aiiy iioaioe?aeo.
Caaaeueia e?euee?noue /eiiee?a neeaea 280. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
/eiiee?a aieeaa? ia oaeee aeaiaio ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, ye iniiai? ae?iaie/? oiiaee (35,4%).
Ae?oaa i?noea ii /eneo /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue, iaeaaeeoue
?iiiaaoe?eiiio caaacia/aiith iioaioe?aeo ( 13,2%). ?icaeyioo? /eiieee
iaea?aeaee eeaneo?eaoe?eiee eiae, ui o oi?iae?ciaaiiio aeae? aecia/a?
iaiao?aei? oa?aeoa?enoeee aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia’?eoa. No?oeoo?a eiaeo
/eiieea iiaoaeiaaia a?aeiia?aeii aei iciae eeaneo?eaoe?? a?oi /eiiee?a.
Ia i?aenoaa? noaie eiaeoaaiiy eiaeiiio c 280 /eiiee?a i?eaeaniaiee na?e
oeeo?iaee eiae. ?ic?iaeaia eiaeeo?eaoe?y /eiiee?a aeicaiey?
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o aeey noai?aiiy aace aeaieo aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie
i?aeo?eiee i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ii oi?aae?iith aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, a oaeiae i?iaiaeeoe
nenoaiiee aiae?c i?ioean?a, ui aecia/athoue aeei?enoaiiy ? ?icaeoie
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

?icae?e 2. Aeine?aeaeaiiy noaio ? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
i?e iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao /eiiee?a ia noai ? ?icaeoie ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno aeioe?eueii i?iaiaeeoe c
aeei?enoaiiyi aenia?oieo iaoiae?a ioe?iee, ine?eueee aieea aeoaea
aaaaoueio /eiiee?a ioe?ieoe ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a e?euee?nii? ioe?iee
i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy /eiiee?a, ui aieeaathoue ia ae?iaie/ee
iioaioe?ae ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, iaoiiaeee aea?? ye ia’?eo?a
ioe?iee oae? ?o aeaee: iayai?noue ? iiaeeeaino? iniiaiiai ?
aeiiii?aeiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, i?eeaae?a ? ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee,
oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee, o?ainii?oo; iayai?noue ? iiaeeeaino? aoae?aaeue,
nii?oaeaeaiue, aia?aaoe/ieo ? o?ainii?oieo eiioi?eaoe?e ? ieiu;
aeinoaoi?noue ? oaoiieia?/i?noue ne?iaeie ? caaio?aaeue; iayai?noue ?
iiaeeeaino? oi?aae?inueei? eiiaiaee, ?iaeaia?iiai ia?niiaeo ? ?iai/eo
eaae??a; o?iainia? ?ano?ne i?aei?e?inoaa; ??aaiue ? iayai?noue caae?ea
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ic?iaie ia i?aei?e?inoa?; /eiieee aeaniino?;
eii’thieoo?a ?eieo; /eiieee i?aaiaiai na?aaeiaeua; ??aaiue i?aai?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy ia i?aei?e?inoa?.

Aenia?oai aoei cai?iiiiiaaii ioe?ieoe ii aeanyoeaaeuei?e oeae?
cia/ei?noue eiaeiiai /eiieea ? aecia/eoe eiai ?aia. Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy
aenia?oii? ioe?iee /eiieee, ui aieeaathoue ia noai ? aeei?enoaiiy
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, ?icae?eai? ia aea?
a?oie — iaoa??aeueii-?a/iaeii? (iniiai? ae?iaie/? oiiaee, i?aaeiaoe
i?aoe?, i?aoey) ? o?iainiai-?ioaeaeooaeuei? /eiieee (o?iainiaee,
?iiiaaoe?eiee ? ?ioi?iaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae eiiieaeno). Ianoaaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeiny ia aaeeeeo ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaenao i?noa Eoaainueea, a
oaeiae ia i?aei?e?inoaao, ye? noai?aii ia aac? ainiiaea?nueeeo
eiiieaen?a o ?acoeueoao? i?eaaoecaoe??.

Aenia?oia ioe?iea cia/eiino? /eiiee?a, ui aecia/athoue ae?iaie/ee
iioaioe?ae ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, aeicaieea noi?ioaaoe a?oio
iaea?eueoa cia/eieo /eiiee?a: iayai?noue ? iiaeeeaino? iniiaiiai ?
aeiiii?aeiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, i?eeaae?a ? ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee,
oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ? o?ainii?oo; iayai?noue ? iiaeeeaino?
oi?aae?inueei? eiiaiaee, ?iaeaia?iiai ia?niiaeo ? ?iai/eo eaae??a;
iayai?noue ? ??aaiue caae?ea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ic?iaie ia
i?aei?e?inoa?; noai eii’thieoo?e ?eieo ? o?iainia? ?ano?ne
i?aei?e?inoaa.

Iaioa cia/eieie /eiieeaie aeey aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno aenia?oaie aeciaia oi?ia aeaniino?
i?aei?e?inoa, ui neeaaeathoue eiiieaen; ??aaiue i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy;
noai i?aaiaiai na?aaeiaeua; iayai?noue ? iiaeeeaino? aia?aaoe/ieo
eiioi?eaoe?e ? ieiu; aeinoaoi?noue ? oaoiieia?/i?noue ne?iaeie ?
caaio?aaeue. Aeoiea aenia?o?a aeyaeeiny aeinoaoiuei ocaiaeaeaiith. I?i
oea na?ae/eoue, cie?aia, cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa eiiei?aeaoe?? — 0,97. I?e
io?eiaieo noaoenoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoeeao iiaeia aaaaeaoe ?acoeueoaoe
aenia?oece aeinoaoiuei ocaiaeaeaieie ? caaeia?eueieie.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaiee iaoiae aenia?oieo
ioe?iie aeicaieeee aeae?eeoe iaea?eueoa cia/ei? /eiieee, ui iiaeii?
a?aoiaoaaoeny i?e ae?aaiinoeoe? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ? ?ic?iaoe? no?aoaa?? eiai ?icaeoeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?nioth/eo i?aeoiae?a aei ae?aaiinoeee aeei?enoaiiy
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno aeicaieeee
anoaiiaeoe, ui na?aae ieo a iniiaiiio ia?aaaaeathoue i?aeoiaee, ye?
aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe eeoa aeaye? noi?iie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo. Oae?
i?aeoiaee ia?aaaaeii caniiaai? ia c?noaaeaii? oaeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ? i?iaeoii? iiooaeiino? i?aei?e?inoaa. I?e
oeueiio oae? ioe?iee a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a aoaeothoueny ia iniia?
oa?aeoa?enoee ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa ?c aeei?enoaiiyi iaoo?aeueieo ?
aa?o?nieo aei??thaa/?a, i?e/iio, o e?auiio aeiaaeeo — ?c aeei?enoaiiyi
ieoiieo aeo?ao ?ano?n?a. ?ic?iaeyoe ? i?iaiaeeoe i?ia?aie no?aoaa?/iiai
oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii ia aac? oaei? ?ioi?iaoe?? neeaaeii.

C iaoith caaacia/aiiy eiiieaeniino? ioe?iee noaio ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno a aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii
aeaiaioio nenoaio ae?aaiinoeee, yea caniiaaia ia aca?iicaeaaei?e
ioe?ioe? aeaiaio?a, ui noai?ththoue iioaioe?ae — caniae i?aoe?,
i?aaeiaoe i?aoe?, aeei?enoiaoaaia i?aoey, ?ioi?iaoe?ei? ? o?iainia?
?ano?ne, a oaeiae ?ioaeaeooaeuei? iiaeeeaino? i?aei?e?inoaa a /anoei?
?iiiaaoe?e.

A?aeiia?aeii aei cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ?acoeueoao nenoaiiiai
niieo/aiiy ooai?thth/eo eiai aeaiaio?a. Niieo/aiiy aeaiaio?a iaoiiaeth?
ae?iaie/? iiaeeeaino? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ? aecia/a? eiai
ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae. Eiaeiee ?c cacia/aieo aeaiaio?a cai?iiiiiaaii
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith ??ciiiai?oieo iieaciee?a — ye
caaaeueieo, oae ? i?eaaoieo, ye e?euee?nieo, oae ? ye?nieo. Eiaeiee c
aeaiaio?a iiaeia ioe?ithaaoe c ??ciiiai?oiei nooiaiai aeaoae?caoe??.

Naia oaeee i?aeo?ae aei ae?aaiinoeee ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo /a?ac
iniaeeaino? ? oa?aeoa?enoeee eiai ooai?thth/eo aeaiaio?a aeicaiey?
aeinyaoe iaiao?aeiiai ?acoeueoaoo, iaea?aeaoe ocaaaeueiaio, ia’?eoeaio,
?ioi?iaoe?eii-i?noeo ioe?ieo noaio ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ? eiai aeei?enoaiiy.

Aeey aeaiaioii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno o ?iaio? ia?aii iao?e/iee i?aeo?ae. Ca?aeii c iei a
i?aeeyaath/iio ? i?enoaeeo iao?eoe? ?icoaoiao?oueny nienie aaciaeo
iieaciee?a, ui aecia/athoue e?ioeaa? iieacieee ?iaioe eiiieaeno aai
iieacieee ooyaoaaieo ?ano?n?a. ?ic?aooiee i?iaaaeyoueny c iaoith ioe?iee
oa?aeoa?enoeee ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo e ioe?iee aeei?enoaiiy
iiaeeeainoae ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. I?e
oeueiio oa?aeoa?enoeea ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ?icaeyaea?oueny ye
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeei?enoaieo ?ano?n?a ? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, a
iiaeeea?noue ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aecia/a?oueny ieoiiith aaee/eiith
e?ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo ia iaeeieoeth ooyaoaaiiai ?ano?no.

Iao?eoey ioe?iie yaey? niaith iiiaeeio iieaciee?a, ui ooai?youeny ia
iniia? ?ic?aooieo aca?iieo niieo/aiue ?yaeo iieaciee?a. Oi?io iao?eoe?
ioe?iie iiaeaii a oaae. 1.

Iao?eoeth, ui iaaaaeaii a oaaeeoe?, iiaoaeiaaii ca i?eioeeiii ae?eaiiy
iieaciee?a, ui i?noyoueny a ?? i?aeeyaath/iio (A1, A2, A3, A4), ia
iieacieee, ui noiyoue o i?enoaeeo (A1, A2, A3, A4). ?acoeueoaoe
ae?eaiiy iicia/ai? a oaaeeoe? neiaieii I i. j.

Iiaoaeiaa iao?eoe? iaaea? iiaeeea?noue aeeth/eoe a ia? ??ciiiai?oi?
iieacieee ? ae?aaeaoe iaei? iieacieee /a?ac ?io?.

Oaaeeoey 1. Iao?eoey ioe?iie

Iieacieee Oeo? ?yaee?a Iieacieee

A1 A2 A3 A4

Oeo?

noiai/ee?a 00 01 02 03 04

A1 10 1 I12 I13 I14

A2 20 I21 1 I23 I24

A3 30 I31 I32 1 I34

A4 40 I41 I42 I43 1

Iniaeea?noth iao?eoe? ? oa, ui eiaeiiio iieacieeo, ui noi?oue aeua
aieiaii? ae?aaiiae? (iicia/aiith oeeo?ith 1), a?aeiia?aea? cai?ioiee
eiio iieaciee, ui noi?oue ieae/a aieiaii? ae?aaiiae?. Ooai?ai? a oaeee
niin?a iieacieee aeicaieythoue iine?aeiaii niinoa??aaoe ci?ie
oa?aeoa?enoee ia’?eoa, aeoiaey/e c? ci?ie aace ii??aiyiiy. Noiniaii aei
ae?aaiinoeee ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno
cai?iiiiiaaiee iao?e/iee i?aeo?ae ?aae?co?oueny ia iniia? iiaoaeiae
noeoiiino? iao?eoeue ioe?iie ii eiaeiiio c aeaiaio?a ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo.

?icae?e 3. I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

I?e oi?aae?ii? ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii o ?aieao caaaeueii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ca’ycee i?ae ie?aieie aeaiaioaie
neaae? aai oe?eeii a?aenooi?, ui ? iaoiiaeth? iecueeo aoaeoeai?noue
?acoeueoao?a oi?aae?iiy. Aeey iiaeieaiiy oeueiai iaaeie?eo i?iiiio?oueny
oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

Iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ?icaeyaea?oueny a ?iaio? ye noeoii?noue
aeiiii?/ieo, iioeaaoe?eieo, i?aai?caoe?eieo, i?aaiaeo niinia?a
oe?eani?yiiaaii? aca?iiae??, ui caaacia/othoue ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a
aca?iiae?th/eo noi??i, ia’?eo?a ? noa’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy. Ine?eueee
aeaiaioe ia’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy iiaeooue iaoe aeiiii?/io, nioe?aeueio,
i?aai?caoe?eio, ? i?aaiao i?e?iaeo, iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy iiaeiiee
oi?ioaaoeny ye nenoaia aeiiii?/ieo, iioeaaoe?eieo, i?aai?caoe?eieo ?
i?aaiaeo iaoai?ci?a.

No?oeoo?a cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aeeth/a? oae? aeaiaioe: ia’?eo oi?aae?iiy (IO);
oe?e? ooieoe?iioaaiiy (OeO); e?eoa??? ae?yeueiino? (e?euee?niee aiaeia
oe?eae) (EAe); aeaiaioe oi?aae?iiy (aeaiaioe ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy ?
?oiueiai ca’yceo, ia ye? cae?enith?oueny aieea a ?ioa?anao aeinyaiaiiy
iinoaaeaieo oe?eae) (AIaO); ?ino?oiaioa??e aieeao ia aeaiaioe oi?aae?iiy
(?A); iaoa??aeuei?, o?iainia? ?ano?ne ? i?aai?caoe?eiee iioaioe?ae, i?e
aeei?enoaii? yeeo ?aae?co?oueny ia?aiee iaoiae oi?aae?iiy ?
caaacia/o?oueny aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? oe?e? (I?). Aca?iica’ycie
aeaiaio?a, ui ooai?ththoue iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi oa
?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, iaaaaeaii
ia ?en. 1.

?en. 1. No?oeoo?a iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii

ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

Oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno i?iiiio?oueny cae?enithaaoe a
oae?e iine?aeiaiino?. Nii/aoeo aecia/athoueny oae? ia?e aeaiaio?a
iaoai?cio: IO ? OeO (aecia/aiiy ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy ? oe?eae
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoai?cio), OeO ? EAe (e?euee?niee iien oe?eae), EAe ?
AIaO (aeaiaioe ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy, ia eio?? iaiao?aeii aieeaaoe, uia
aeeiiaoe caaaeaiiy). sseui iaiao?aeia noeoii?noue aeaiaio?a ia’?eoa
oi?aae?iiy ia iiaea aooe noi?iiaaia, oi ooi/ith?oueny ia’?eo oi?aae?iiy
? (aai) oe?eue ooieoe?iioaaiiy, oiaoi oi?iothoueny iia? ia?e OeO ? EAe ?
EAe ? AIaO. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c i?e?iaeith aeaiaio?a ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy
aeae?a?oueny ?ino?oiaioa??e aieeao, oiaoi oi?io?oueny ia?o (EAe, YIaO).

I?ney oi?ioaaiiy ia? aeaiaio?a iaoai?cio aecia/a?oueny noeoii?noue
iaiao?aeieo, ui caaacia/othoue ea?oth/ee aieea ?ano?n?a, ca aeiiiiiaith
yeeo i?aai?co?oueny ea?oth/ee aieea ia noai a?aeiia?aeieo aeaiaio?a
ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy, o oiio /ene? cae?enith?oueny aea?? i??i?eoaoieo
iioea?a ae?yeueiino? aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie.
Ia aeaiiio aoai? iine?aeiaii oi?iothoueny ia?e aeaiaio?a (?A, I?) ?
(Yiao, I?).

Caeeth/iei aoaiii oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ?
?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ? noai?aiiy
aiae?oe/iiai aeiea, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aeueoa?iaoeaiee aea?? no?aoaa?/ieo
ae?e, oi?ioaaiiy aiae?oe/iiai ?ino?oiaioa??th (A?) ? ioe?iea
ae?yeueiino? (Ioe). sseui a?aeoeeaiiy ianooo?a?, oi iaiao?aeiee
ia?aaeyae ?ino?oiaioa??th aieeao (?A); i?e ?noioieo a?aeoeeaiiyo aeieea?
iio?aaa a ?ai?aai?caoe?? ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy (IO) ? ia?aaeyae oe?eae
ooieoe?iioaaiiy (OeO). Oi?ioaaiiy eiaei?e ?c ?icaeyiooeo ia? aeaiaio?a
iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno cae?enith?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei ?ic?iaeaiiai
a aeena?oaoe?? aeai?eoio.

Oe?eueia? ianoaiiae aeey iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno a?oioothoueny ia
eiiieaeni?e ioe?ioe? noaio ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo, yea ia iiaea
cae?enithaaoeny ia aac? aaniethoieo ioe?iie, oiio ui aiie ia aeathoue
iiaii? ea?oeie noaio ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy, eiai eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa aai
iaaeie?e?a, ia aeicaieythoue ?iaeoe eiiieaeniee i?aeo??iaiee ?
i?aeae?iaie/ee aiae?c. Aaniethoi? iieacieee noaio ? aeei?enoaiiy
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno iaei?ioi?iaoeai?. O
ca’yceo c oeei o ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii o?ueio??aiaao ioe?ieo ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo, i?e eio??e a?aeiini? iieacieee ? ?acoeueoaoii ii??aiyiiy
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aiae?ciaaiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno c
e?aueie na?oiaeie aeinyaiaiiyie (?aeaaeueia ioe?iea), ?c e?aueie
iaoe?iiaeueieie iieacieeaie (aoaeiiia ioe?iea) ? c iioaioe?eieie
iiaeeeainoyie naiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno (?ic?aooieiaa ioe?iea).
Ca aaco ii??aiyiiy i?eeia?oueny oaeoe/iee aai ?aaeueiee ??aaiue
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. ?acoeueoaoii
o?ueio??aiaai? ioe?iee ? i?aenoieiaa ioe?iea ?icaeoeo ? noaio ie?aieo
aeaiaio?a aai onueiai ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno. Ine?eueee i?aenoieiaa ioe?iea ? ?acoeueoaoii aa?aaoaaiiy
iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee, aeinyaiaiue ? iaaeie?e?a o aeei?enoaii?
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, oi aiia iaea?aeaea o
?iaio? iacao aa?aaiaaii? ioe?iee. Aa?aaiaaia ioe?iea iiaea i?iaaaeeoeny
ye ii ie?aieo aeaiaioao, ui ? neeaaeiaeie ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae, oae ?
ii ae?iaie/iio iioaioe?aeo a oe?eiio.

Aeey iaea?aeaiiy aa?aaiaaii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno a ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny i?aeo?ae, yeee
caniiaaiee ia iaea?aeaii? a?aeiinii? ioe?iee /anoeiaeo iieaciee?a
noiniaii ?aeeii? aace ii??aiyiiy, ?c ianooiiei ?ic?aooieii na?aaeiueiai
cia/aiiy ?iaeaeniaaieo ioe?iie ii eiaeiiio aeaiaioo ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ? ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo eiiieaeno a oe?eiio. sse aaciaee
iiaea aooe i?eeiyoee iaeei c aiae?ciaaieo ??ai?a ioe?iee. Aeey
aeei?enoaiiy ?aeeii? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace a ?ic?iaeai?e iaoiaeeoe? ye
aaco ii??aiyiiy aeei?enoaii aoaeiiiee ??aaiue ioe?iie. A ie?aieo
aeiaaeeao o yeino? aace iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe iieacieee, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae eiieo?aio?a.

Ioe?iee noaio aeei?enoaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno a ?iaio? i?iaaaeeeeny ii o?ueio iai?yieao:
caaaeueia ioe?iea, ui a?aoiao? cia/aiiy an?o iieaciee?a ? ci?io ?o o
aeeiai?oe?; ioe?iea ci?ie aa?aaiaaieo iieaciee?a o /ano, oiaoi
aeeiai?/ia ioe?iea; ioe?iea noaio ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo a caaeaiee
iiiaio /ano. A?ao?/ii cai?iiiiiaaiee i?aeo?ae aei iaea?aeaiiy
aa?aaiaaii? aeeiai?/ii? ioe?iee noaio ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno i?i?ethno?iaaiee ia ?en.2.

?en. 2. A?ao?e ci?i ?ic?aooieiaiai cia/aiiy iieacieeo o iiiaio /ano t ii
a?aeiioaiith aei aoaeiio.

Aecia/aiiy aa?aaiaaii? ioe?iee noaio ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo aeicaiey?
ioe?ieoe i?noea ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ia na?oiaiio ?
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?eieo. E??i oiai, c’yaey?oueny iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe,
iane?eueee iiaii aeei?enoiaothoueny eiai ?aaeuei? iiaeeeaino?. Oaea
iiaea?eia ioe?iea — ii aeaiaioao ? ??aiyo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo —
aeicaiey? eiiieaenii nenoaiii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ainiiaea?nueeee eiiieaen
? eiai ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae, ui ia? aeoaea aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey
oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo iioaioe?aeo.

Aeey ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno i?iiiio?oueny neooaoe?eia i?iaeooaaiiy, yea
ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy noeoiiino? i?iaiiciaaieo neooaoe?e, ui iiaeooue
neeaaeaoeny o ae?yeueiino? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, ii?aeiaiiy ?o o
?aeeio noaio oa ?o aiae?c. Eiaeia neooaoe?y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ?ic?aooieiai?, oaeoe/ii? oa aoaeiiii? aa?aaiaaii?
ioe?iee iieaciee?a ii an?o ??aiyo ii??aiyiiy — na?oiaiio,
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ? ainiiaea?nueeiio.

Aeoiaey/e c aiae?co ?ic?iaeaii? noaie neooaoe?eiiai i?iaeooaaiiy ?
iiaeeeaeo iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, iiaeia
aeae?eeoe aea? aeiaaeuei? no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo.
Ia?oee iai?yiie ia?aaeaa/a? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo aeinyaiaiue,
iiaea?i?caoe?th ae?iaie/i? aace eiiieaeno, i?iaeoeoe??, ui
aeionea?oueny, oa oaoiieia??, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny. Oeae iai?yiie
aei?aaaeaiee i?e i?i?iaeueiiio a?aenoaaaii? ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno a?ae na?oiaeo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo e?aea??a aai
i?e iiaiiio aeei?enoaii? ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo
caaaeaiiy ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno
caiaeeoueny aei iaea?eueo iiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo
aeinyaiaiue. Ae?oaee aa??aio iai?yieo oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?e ?icaeoeo
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno iia’ycaiee ?c a?eueo
?ioaineaiei aeei?enoaiiyi iayaieo iiaeeeainoae iioaioe?aeo ca ?aooiie
iiaea?i?caoe?? i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeiai na?aaeiaeua, yea aoaea
ni?eyoe i?aeaeuaiith eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? eiiieaeno. Oaeee aa??aio
no?aoaa?? aeioe?eueii canoinoaaoe o neooaoe?yo, eiee niinoa??aa?oueny
nooo?aa ??cieoey i?ae iiaeeeainoyie ? oaeoe/iei aeei?enoaiiyi
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

A ?iaio? nenoaiaoeciaai? iiaeeea? niieo/aiiy ??ciiiai?oieo neooaoe?e, ui
iiaeooue neeaaeaoeny o ae?yeueiino? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno,
iai?yie?a no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo oa ??ai?a i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue. Ca aeiiiiiaith oe??? nenoaiaoecaoe?? aecia/ai?
i??i?eoaoi? iai?yiee ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno ? ??aaiue i?eeiyooy ??oaiiy ii iei.

sse ?ino?oiaio ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, a ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaii iao?eoeth aeai?o
no?aoaa?e. Iao?eoey iiaoaeiaaia c o?aooaaiiyi aeniiae?a, ui c?iaeai?
i?e neooaoe?eiiio i?iaeooaaii?, ?acoeueoao?a ae?aaiinoeee ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo e aa?aaiaaii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. Iniiaith iiaoaeiae iao?eoe? aeai?o no?aoaa?e
? aea? iciaee — ??aaiue aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno (ai?eciioaeue) ? ??aaiue i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue ? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ieo (aa?oeeaeue).
Eiaeia ?c oeeo iciae iiaea i?eeiaoe iiiaeeio cia/aiue. Aeey oe?eae
oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno a ?iaio? aeae?eai? o?e noaio eiaeii? iciaee: iecueeee,
na?aaei?e ? aenieee.

Aeei?enoaiiy iao?eoe? aeai?o no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno aeicaieeei noi?ioaaoe aeaa’youe aeae?a
no?aoaa?e ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo. Oea oae? no?aoaa??:
aeei?enoaiiy aioo??oi?o iiaeeeainoae ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno;
iiaea?i?caoe?y ?nioth/iai ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy iayaieo iiaeeeainoae; ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eieo aeinyaiaiue o ae?iaie/i-oaoiieia?/io aaco ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno; aeei?enoaiiy aaeocaaeo iiaeeeainoae; ni?eyiiy iiaea?i?caoe??
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno aaeocaaeie ?ano?naie;
?ic?iaea ? ?aae?caoe?y aaeocaaeo i?ia?ai i?aeo?eiee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eieo aeinyaiaiue o ainiiaea?nueeiio eiiieaen?; aeei?enoaiiy
iaoe?iiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ainiiaea?nueeei eiiieaenii; ?ic?iaea ?
?aae?caoe?y aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai i?aeo?eiee ?icaeoeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno; ?ic?iaea ? ?aae?caoe?y i?ia?ai inai?iiy na?oiaeo
?iiiaaoe?eieo aeinyaiaiue ia aac? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

C iaeyaeo ia noai oa aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo, yeee ioe?iaii
ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?iaeaii? a ?iaio? o?ueio??aiaai? ioe?iee, iai?yie?a
no?aoaa?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ui aecia/athoueny neooaoe?eiei i?iaeooaaiiyi,
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeei iaiaaeaeiaioii oa aea?aeaaiith
i?iieneiai-aeiiii?/iith iie?oeeith, nenoaiaoeciaaieo iiaeeeaeo
niieo/aiue ??ciiiai?oieo neooaoe?e, ui iiaeooue neeaaeaoeny o
ae?yeueiino? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, a oaeiae ia i?aenoaa?
cai?iiiiiaaii? iao?eoe? aeai?o no?aoaa?e ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo, a aeena?oaoe?? aecia/aii a?n?i no?aoaa?/ieo eiioo??a
iiaaae?iee ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ii aeei?enoaiith ? ?icaeoeo eiai
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo (?en. 3). Oeeo?aie ia ?en.2 iicia/ai? ii?yaeeia?
iiia?e no?aoaa?e a?aeiia?aeii aei iao?eoe? aeai?o no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

?en. 3. No?aoaa?/i? eiioo?e ii ?icaeoeo ? aeei?enoaiith ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

Eiioo?e neooaoe?e ?icae?eai? a?nnth no?aoaa?e. I?aa?oa in? ?icoaoiaaia
aeoeaia no?aoaa?y ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno, yea ni?yiiaaia ia aeei?enoaiiy na?oiaeo ?iiiaaoe?eieo
aeinyaiaiue. E?a?oa ciaoiaeeoueny ianeaia no?aoaa?y, yea ia?aaeaa/a?
a?eueo iiaia aeei?enoaiiy iayaieo aioo??oi?o iiaeeeainoae ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

No?aoaa?/iee eiioo? ?icaeoeo ? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
aecia/a? ca’ycie ? aca?iiae?th ??ciiiai?oieo no?aoaa?e, ui
ei?aniiiaeothoueny c a?aeiia?aeieie eaaae?aoaie iao?eoe? aeai?o
no?aoaa?e ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

AENIIAEE

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue cae?eniai?
oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy ? i?aeoe/ia ae??oaiiy aeooaeueiiai caaaeaiiy
no/anii? iaoee oa i?aeoeee c oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii i?e
iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. Iniiai? aeniiaee oa
?acoeueoaoe, ye? aeieeee ?c iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, caiaeyoueny aei
oaeiai:

1. Iieacaii, ui aaiethoe?y ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a ? ?ic?iaea
oai?aoe/ieo iniia ?o ?nioaaiiy ia?ic?eaii ca’ycai? ?c ?icaeoeii
i?iieneiaino?. O ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii aeaee ainiiaea?nueeeo eiiieaen?a,
oaeeo ye o?anoe, eiia?iaoe, i?aeaaeocaa? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? eiiieaene,
ae?iaie/? oa iaoeiai-ae?iaie/? ia’?aeiaiiy, oieaeeiaia? eiiiai??,
i?iieneiai-o?iainia? a?oie, iieacaii oiiae ?o aeieeiaiiy oa iniaeeaino?
?icaeoeo.

2. Ca aeiiiiiaith naiaioe/iiai aiae?co ooi/iaia iiiyooy ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno. Ainiiaea?nueeee eiiieaen ?icaeyaea?oueny ye aeae ia’?aeiaiiy
i?aei?e?inoa iaei??? aai ??cii? aaeocaai? i?eiaeaaeiino? ia iino?ei?e
aai oei/ania?e iniia?, ui iathoue ??ciee th?eaee/iee noaoon, ?c iaoith
cae?eniaiiy aai eii?aeeioaaiiy ni?eueii? ae?yeueiino? ii aeeiiaiith
noaae?e i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa aioiai? i?iaeoeoe?? aai ?? ?aae?caoe??,
ii i?iaaaeaiith iaaiiai aeaeo ?ia?o aai iaaeaiith iineoa.

3. O ?iaio? iieacaii, ui iniiaiith oi?iith ia?aoai?aiue o ae?yeueiino?
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ? eiai iiaea?i?caoe?y. I?e oeueiio
iiaea?i?caoe?y ?icaeyaea?oueny ia c o?aaeeoe?eii? oi/ee ci?o — ye ci?ie
a eiino?oeoe?? ie?aieo iaeeieoeue onoaoeoaaiiy aai i?iaeoeoe??, ui
aeionea?oueny, ? i?eaaaeaiiy ?o o noai, ui a?aeiia?aea? no/aniiio
oaoi?/iiio e aeiiii?/iiio ??aith ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa, a ye ci?ia aai
a?aeiiaeaiiy aiae?ciaaiiai ia’?eoa — ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. O
?iaio? ?ice?eoi ci?no ? iaaaaeaii anaa?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo
iai?yie?a iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

4. ?ic?iaeaii i?aeo?ae aei eeaneo?eaoe?? /eiiee?a, ui aecia/athoue
aeei?enoaiiy ? ?icaeoie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno c iiceoe?e oi?aae?iiy oeeie i?ioeanaie. Eeaneo?eaoe?th
/eiiee?a aeeiiaii c aeei?enoaiiyi /ioe?ueio iciae: nooi?iue aieeao ia
/eiieee, ia’?eo aieeao /eiieea, na?aaeiaeua aeieeiaiiy /eiieea oa
i?e?iaea /eiieea. Eiaeia aeae?eaia a?oia /eiiee?a anaa?/ii
aeine?aeaeoaaia. Ia iniia? aeeiiai?e eeaneo?eaoe?? aecia/ai? /eiieee, ui
aieeaathoue ia oae? aeaiaioe ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ye iniiai?
ae?iaie/? oiiaee, i?aaeiaoe i?aoe?, i?aoey, oi?ia aeaniino?, i?aaiaa,
?iiiaaoe?eia, o?iainiaa, oi?aae?inueea e i?aai?caoe?eia caaacia/aiiy
iioaioe?aeo.

5. ?icaeyioo? /eiieee, ui aecia/athoue aeei?enoaiiy ? ?icaeoie
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, iaea?aeaee
eeaneo?eaoe?eiee eiae, ui o oi?iae?ciaaiiio aeae? aecia/a? iaiao?aei?
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia’?eoa. No?oeoo?a eiaeo /eiieea
iiaoaeiaaia a?aeiia?aeii aei iciae eeaneo?eaoe?? a?oi /eiiee?a. Ia
i?aenoaa? noaie eiaeoaaiiy eiaeiiio c 280 aeae?eaieo /eiiee?a
i?eaeaniaiee na?e oeeo?iaee eiae. ?ic?iaeaia eiaeeo?eaoe?y /eiiee?a
aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o aeey noai?aiiy aace aeaieo aaoiiaoeciaaii?
nenoaie i?aeo?eiee i?eeiyooy ??oaiue ii oi?aae?iith aeei?enoaiiyi ?
?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

6. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao /eiiee?a ia noai ? ?icaeoie ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno i?iaaaeaii c aeei?enoaiiyi
aenia?oieo iaoiae?a, ine?eueee aieea aeoaea aaaaoueio /eiiee?a ioe?ieoe
ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiae?a e?euee?nii? ioe?iee i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai.
Aenia?oia ioe?iea cia/eiino? /eiiee?a, ui aecia/athoue ae?iaie/ee
iioaioe?ae ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, aeicaieeea noi?ioaaoe a?oio
iaea?eueoa cia/eieo /eiiee?a: iayai?noue ? iiaeeeaino? iniiaiiai ?
aeiiii?aeiiai onoaoeoaaiiy, i?eeaae?a ? ia/enethaaeueii? oaoi?ee,
oaoiieia?/ii? inianoee ? o?ainii?oo; iayai?noue ? iiaeeeaino?
oi?aae?inueei? eiiaiaee, ?iaeaia?iiai ia?niiaeo ? ?iai/eo eaae??a;
iayai?noue ? ??aaiue caae?ea iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?ic?iaie ia
i?aei?e?inoa?; noai eii’thieoo?e ?eieo ? o?iainia? ?ano?ne
i?aei?e?inoaa.

7. C iaoith caaacia/aiiy eiiieaeniino? ioe?iee noaio ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno a aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaia
aeaiaioia nenoaia ae?aaiinoeee, yea caniiaaia ia aca?iicaeaaei?e
ioe?ioe? aeaiaio?a, ui noai?ththoue iioaioe?ae. A?aeiia?aeii aei
cai?iiiiiaaiiai i?aeoiaeo ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ?acoeueoao nenoaiiiai niieo/aiiy
ooai?thth/eo eiai aeaiaio?a. Niieo/aiiy aeaiaio?a iaoiiaeth? ae?iaie/?
iiaeeeaino? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ? aecia/a? eiai ae?iaie/ee
iioaioe?ae. Eiaeiee ?c cacia/aieo aeaiaio?a cai?iiiiiaaii ioe?ithaaoe c
??ciiiai?oiei nooiaiai aeaoae?caoe?? oa ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith
??ciiiai?oieo iieaciee?a.

8. ?ic?iaeaii ?ino?oiaioa??e aeaiaioii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, yeee aaco?oueny ia aeei?enoaii? iao?e/iiai
i?aeoiaeo. Iao?eoey ioe?iie yaey? niaith iiiaeeio iieaciee?a, ui
ooai?youeny ia iniia? ?ic?aooieo aca?iieo niieo/aiue ?yaeo iieaciee?a. A
iao?eoe? ?icoaoiao?oueny nienie aaciaeo iieaciee?a, ui i?aaenoaaeythoue
niaith e?ioeaa? iieacieee ?iaioe eiiieaeno aai iieacieee ooyaoaaieo
?ano?n?a. ?ic?aooiee i?iaaaeyoueny c iaoith ioe?iee oa?aeoa?enoeee
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo e ioe?iee aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeainoae ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. I?e oeueiio oa?aeoa?enoeea
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ?icaeyaea?oueny ye ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeei?enoaieo
?ano?n?a ? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a, a iiaeeea?noue ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo aecia/a?oueny ieoiiith aaee/eiith e?ioeaaiai ?acoeueoaoo ia
iaeeieoeth ooyaoaaiiai ?ano?no.

9. Cai?iiiiiaaii o?ueio??aiaao ioe?ieo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo, i?e
eio?i? a?aeiini? iieacieee ? ?acoeueoaoii ii??aiyiiy ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo aiae?ciaaiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno c e?aueie na?oiaeie
aeinyaiaiiyie, ?c e?aueie iaoe?iiaeueieie iieacieeaie ? c iioaioe?eieie
iiaeeeainoyie naiiai ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. Ca aaco ii??aiyiiy
i?eeia?oueny oaeoe/iee ??aaiue ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno. ?acoeueoaoii o?ueio??aiaai? ioe?iee ? aa?aaiaaia
(i?aenoieiaa) ioe?iea ?icaeoeo ? noaio ie?aieo aeaiaio?a aai onueiai
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

10. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii e aeei?enoaiiyi
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, ui ia’?aeio?
aeaiaioe i?aaiaiai, aeiiii?/iiai, i?aai?caoe?eiiai oa iioeaaoe?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy. I?aoeacaeaoi?noue iaoai?cio caaacia/o?oueny ca ?aooiie
noai?aiiy aioo??oiuei? oe?eueiai? aaeaioaoe?eii? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy,
iaae?eaiith a?aeiia?aeieie iiaiiaaaeaiiyie ? ?ano?naie.

11. No?aoaa?th ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno i?iiiio?oueny oi?ioaaoe ia i?aenoaa? neooaoe?eiiai
i?iaeooaaiiy, yea ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy oa aiae?c noeoiiino?
i?iaiiciaaieo neooaoe?e, ui iiaeooue neeaaeaoeny o ae?yeueiino?
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. Eiaeia neooaoe?y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ?ic?aooieiai?, oaeoe/ii? oa aoaeiiii? aa?aaiaaii?
ioe?iee iieaciee?a ii an?o ??aiyo ii??aiyiiy — na?oiaiio,
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ? ainiiaea?nueeiio. Ia iniia? oeeo ioe?iie aoaeo?oueny
noaia neooaoe?eiiai i?iaeooaaiiy. A ?iaio? nenoaiaoeciaai? iiaeeea?
niieo/aiiy ??ciiiai?oieo neooaoe?e, ui iiaeooue neeaaeaoeny o
ae?yeueiino? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, iai?yie?a no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo oa ??ai?a i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue.
Aeoiaey/e c aiae?co noaie neooaoe?eiiai i?iaeooaaiiy ? iiaeeeaeo
iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno aeae?eai? aea? aeiaaeuei?
no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii: ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eieo aeinyaiaiue, iiaea?i?caoe?th ae?iaie/i? aace eiiieaeno,
i?iaeoeoe??, ui aeionea?oueny, oa oaoiieia??, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny oa
a?eueo ?ioaineaia aeei?enoaiiy iayaieo iiaeeeainoae iioaioe?aeo ca
?aooiie iiaea?i?caoe?? i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeiai na?aaeiaeua.

12. sse ?ino?oiaio ?ic?iaee no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno a ?iaio? cai?iiiiiaaia iao?eoey aeai?o
no?aoaa?e. Iao?eoey iiaoaeiaaia c o?aooaaiiyi aeniiae?a, ui c?iaeai?
i?e neooaoe?eiiio i?iaeooaaii?, ?acoeueoao?a ae?aaiinoeee ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo e aa?aaiaaii? ioe?iee ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. Iniiaith iiaoaeiae iao?eoe? aeai?o no?aoaa?e
? aea? iciaee — ??aaiue aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ? ??aaiue i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue ?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ieo. Ca aeiiiiiaith iao?eoe? a ?iaio? aecia/ai?
iiaeeea? no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno.

13. C iaeyaeo ia neooaoe??, o yeeo iiaea ciaoiaeeoeny ainiiaea?nueeee
eiiieaen, aeoiaey/e c ?ic?iaeaii? a ?iaio? o?ueio??aiaai? ioe?iee noaio
? aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo, iai?yie?a no?aoaa?/iiai
?icaeoeo, ui aecia/athoueny neooaoe?eiei i?iaeooaaiiyi,
aioo??oiueiainiiaea?nueeei iaiaaeaeiaioii oa aea?aeaaiith
i?iieneiai-aeiiii?/iith iie?oeeith, a oaeiae ia i?aenoaa? cai?iiiiiaaii?
iao?eoe? aeai?o no?aoaa?e, aecia/ai? a?n?i no?aoaa?/ieo eiioo??a
iiaaae?iee ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ii aeei?enoaiith ? ?icaeoeo eiai
ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo.

IA?AE?E INIIAIEO IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Oa?eiiaa I.N. Eniieueciaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea
oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena//Aecian-eioi?i. – 1999. — ?11-12. – C. 136-138
.

2. Oa?eiiaa I.N. Eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae e iiaea?iecaoeee oicyenoaaiiiai
eiiieaena//Aaniee Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa. – Oa?ueeia: OAIO. — 1999. — ?51. – N.148-151.

3. Oa?eiiaa I.N. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue iioaioeeae e?oiiuo oicyenoaaiiuo
eiiieaenia // Aecian-eioi?i. – 1999. — ?3-4. – N.144-145.

4. Oa?eiiaa I.N. Auai? no?aoaaee ?acaeoey e eniieueciaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena//Aaniee
Oa?ueeianeiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. –
Oa?ueeia: OAIO. — 1999. — ?49. – N.67-72.

5. Ieanea/ A.A., Oa?eiiaa I.N. Ioeaiea e aeoeaecaoeey yenii?oiiai
iioaioeeaea ?aaeiia//Aecian-eioi?i. – 1998. — ?6. – N.65-66.

6. Oa?eiiaa I.N. Oi?iaeecaoeey iino?iaiey no?aoaaee ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena//A?niee
No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – Eoaainuee: NOAeO. –
1998. — ?6 (16). – N.121-126.

7. Oa?eiiaa I.N. Oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iioaioeeaeii
oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena ia iniiaa aa?aae?iaaiiie ioeaiee//A?niee
No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. – Eoaainuee: NOAeO. –
1999. — ? 5 (20). – N.118-124.

8. Aeeaien A.E., Oa?eiiaa I.N. Ioeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea ii
auioneo eiieo?aioiniiniaiie i?iaeoeoeee//Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue
No?aeiioe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo /.2. – Eoaainuee:
Aeaeaaieoeoai No?aeiioe?. aea?ae. oi-oo. – 1999. — N.11-14.

9. Oa??iiaa I.N. I?noea oa ?ieue ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo a oi?aae?ii?
i?aei?e?inoaii//Oace aenooi?a ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
«I?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai oa noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa a Oe?a?i?». — 1996?. – E.: ?CII, 1996. – N.97-98.

10. Oa?eiiaa I.N., Ieanea/ A.A. ?aaeiiaeueiay iieeoeea//I?iaeaiu
?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoee ?aaeiia a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. — Eoaaine:
IAI “EIO”. – 1998. – N.78-79.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oa??iiaa I. N. Oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii i?e iiaea?i?caoe??
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.01 – Aeiiii?ea i?aei?e?inoaa ? i?aai?caoe?y
ae?iaieoeoaa. – No?aeiioe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, Eoaainuee, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy oi?aae?iiy ae?iaie/ei iioaioe?aeii i?e
iiaea?i?caoe?? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. C oe??th iaoith aeine?aeaeaii
iniaeeaino? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno ye ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy o no/anieo
aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao. Aeyaeai? iaea?eueo cia/ou? /eiieee, ui aecia/athoue
aeei?enoaiiy oa ?icaeoie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno, i?iaaaeaii ?o eeaneo?eaoe?th oa eiaeeo?eaoe?th. ?ic?iaeaii
iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy ii ae?aaiinoeoe? ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy
aeei?enoaiiyi oa ?icaeoeii ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno. Aecia/ai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy neooaoe?eiiai i?iaeooaaiiy, yea
ia?aaeaa/a? aiae?c noeoiiino? i?iaiiciaaieo neooaoe?e, ui iiaeooue
neeaaeaoeny o ae?yeueiino? ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. ?ic?iaeaii
iao?eoeth aeai?o no?aoaa?? aeei?enoaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, yea a?aoiao? ??aaiue i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue c ?icaeoeo iioaioe?aeo oa ??aaiue eiai
aeei?enoaiiy. Iieacaii aeioe?euei?noue i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy
i?aeoiae?a aei oi?ioaaiiy no?aoaa?? ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo
ainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno oa cae?eniaii i?iieneiaa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iaoiaeee, ye? ?ic?iaeaii ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oi?aae?iiy, ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae, ainiiaea?nueeee
eiiieaen, iiaea?i?caoe?y, ae?aaiinoeea, neooaoe?eia i?iaeooaaiiy,
no?aoaa?y.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oa?eiiaa I.N. Oi?aaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iioaioeeaeii i?e
iiaea?iecaoeee oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.01 – Yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeey
i?iecaiaenoaa. – Ainoi/iioe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao
Ieienoa?noaa ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu, Eoaaine, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniio?aiu aii?inu oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiui
iioaioeeaeii i?e iiaea?iecaoeee oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena. N yoie
oeaeueth enneaaeiaaiu iniaaiiinoe oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena eae iauaeoa
oi?aaeaiey a nia?aiaiiuo yeiiiie/aneeo oneiaeyo Oe?aeiu. Iieacaii, /oi
yaiethoeey oicyenoaaiiuo eiiieaenia e ?ac?aaioea oai?aoe/aneeo iniia eo
nouanoaiaaiey ia?ac?uaii naycaiu n ?acaeoeai i?iiuoeaiiinoe. N iiiiuueth
naiaioe/aneiai aiaeeca ooi/iaii iiiyoea oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena. A
?aaioa iieacaii, /oi iniiaiie oi?iie i?aia?aciaaiey a aeayoaeueiinoe
oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena yaeyaony aai iiaea?iecaoeey. A ?aaioa ?ane?uoi
niaea?aeaiea e aeaii ananoi?iiiaa iainiiaaiea iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee
iiaea?iecaoeee oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena.

?ac?aaioai iiaeoiae e eeanneoeeaoeee oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeythueo
eniieueciaaiea e ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea oicyenoaaiiiai
eiiieaena. Ia iniiaa i?iaaaeaiiie eeanneoeeaoeee ii?aaeaeaiu oaeoi?u,
aeeythuea ia oaeea yeaiaiou i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea eae iniiaiua
oiiaeu, i?aaeiaou o?oaea, o?oae, oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe, i?aaiaia,
eiiiaaoeeiiiia, oeiainiaia, oi?aaeai/aneia e i?aaiecaoeeiiiia
iaania/aiea iioaioeeaea. ?anniio?aiiua oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeythuea
eniieueciaaiea e ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea oicyenoaaiiiai
eiiieaena, iieo/eee eeanneoeeaoeeiiiue eiae. ?ac?aaioaiiay eiaeeoeeaoeey
oaeoi?ia iicaieyao eniieueciaaoue eo aeey nicaeaiey aacu aeaiiuo
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu iiaeaea?aeee i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ii oi?aaeaieth
eniieueciaaieai e ?acaeoeai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea
oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena. I?iaaaeaia yenia?oiay ioeaiea cia/eiinoe
oaeoi?ia, aeeythueo ia eniieueciaaiea e ?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iioaioeeaea oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena.

N oeaeueth iaania/aiey eiiieaeniie ioeaiee ninoiyiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iioaioeeaea oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena a aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaia
yeaiaioiay nenoaia aeeaaiinoeee, eioi?ay iniiaaia ia acaeiicaaeneiie
ioeaiea yeaiaioia, ia?acothueo iioaioeeae. ?ac?aaioai eino?oiaioa?ee
yeaiaioiie ioeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea oicyenoaaiiiai
eiiieaena, eioi?ue iniiauaaaony ia eniieueciaaiee iao?e/iiai iiaeoiaea.

I?aaeeiaeaia o?aoo?iaiaaay ioeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea, i?e
eioi?ie ioiineoaeueiua iieacaoaee yaeythony ?acoeueoaoii n?aaiaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena n iaeeo/oeie
ie?iauie aeinoeaeaieyie, n iaeeo/oeie iaoeeiiaeueiuie iieacaoaeyie e n
iioaioeeaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie naiiai oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena. Ca aaco
n?aaiaiey i?eieiaaony oaeoe/aneee o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iioaioeeaea oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena. A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioai
iaoaieci oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiui iioaioeeaeii oicyenoaaiiiai
eiiieaena, eioi?ue iiaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eae a ?aaeeia oi?aaeaiey e
eniieueciaaiey nouanoaothuaai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea, oae e
?aaeeia aai ?acaeoey. Iaoaieci iauaaeeiyao i?aaiaua, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua,
yeiiiie/aneea e iioeaaoeeiiiua yeaiaiou oi?aaeaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiui
iioaioeeaeii.

No?aoaaeth ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea oicyenoaaiiiai
eiiieaena i?aaeeaaaaony oi?ie?iaaoue ia iniiaa neooaoeeiiiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey, eioi?ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao oi?ie?iaaiea e aiaeec
niaieoiiinoe i?iaiiciuo neooaoeee, aicieeathueo a aeayoaeueiinoe
oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena. Eae eino?oiaio ?ac?aaioee no?aoaaee ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena, a ?aaioa
i?aaeeiaeaia iao?eoea auai?a no?aoaaee. Iao?eoea iino?iaia n o/?oii
auaiaeia, naeaeaiiuo i?e neooaoeeiiiii i?iaeoe?iaaiee, ?acoeueoaoia
aeeaaiinoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea e aa?aae?iaaiiie ioeaiee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena. A caaeneiinoe
io neooaoeee, a eioi?ie iiaeao iaoiaeeoueny oicyenoaaiiue eiiieaen,
enoiaey ec ?ac?aaioaiiie a ?aaioa o?aoo?iaiaaie ioeaiee ninoiyiey e
eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea, iai?aaeaiey
no?aoaae/aneiai ?acaeoey, ii?aaeaeyaiiai neooaoeeiiiui i?iaeoe?iaaieai,
aioo?eoicyenoaaiiui oi?aaeaieai e ainoaea?noaaiiie
i?iiuoeaiii-yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeeie, a oaeaea ia iniiaa i?aaeeiaeaiiie
iao?eoeu auai?a no?aoaaee, ii?aaeaeaiu ainaiue no?aoaae/aneeo eiioo?ia
iiaaaeaiey oicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena ii eniieueciaaieth e ?acaeoeth aai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oi?aaeaiea, i?iecaiaenoaaiiue iioaioeeae, oicyenoaaiiue
eiiieaen, iiaea?iecaoeey, aeeaaiinoeea, neooaoeeiiiia i?iaeoe?iaaiea,
no?aoaaey.

ANNOTATION

Sharipova O.S. Management of an industrial potential for want of
modernizing of an economic complex. — Manuscript.

The dissertation is to obtain a science of the candidate of economic
sciences on a speciality 08.06.01 — Economy of the enterprise and
production organization of. – East-Ukrainian State University of
Ministry of education of Ukraine, Lugansk, 1999.

The thesis has recommendations as to industrial potential management
when modernizing the economic complex. To that end the essence and
peculiarities of development of industrial potential of economic
complex. Factors affecting its state and development prospects are
determined as well as their classification and codification is carried
out. Special methods for diagnostics of state and usage of industrial
potential of economic complex. Organizational mechanism for industrial
potential development is also developed. The method of situation
projecting of development strategy and usage of industrial potential of
economic complex is developed.

Key word: management, industrial potential, economic complex,
modernizing, diagnostics, situation projecting, strategy.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 28.09.1999 ?. Oi?iao 60o84 1/16 1,25 ae.a.

Oe?aae 100 aecaiiey??a. Caeac ?

?ioai?eio NOAeO. 91034, i. Eoaainuee, eaa?oae Iieiae?aeiee, 20A.

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