?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe

Aeaaeai?? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie

E?EA?*OE ?ai? Eaii?aeiae/

OAeE
377 (091)

OI?AAE?IIss NENOAIAIE I?AeAIOIAEE

EAAE?O?EIAAIEO ?IA?OIEE?A

A OE?A?I?: IAAeAAIA?*IEE ANIAEO

(1888 – 1998 ?iee)

13.00.04 — oai??y ? iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii? ina?oe

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
AII Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ae?eniee
/eai AII Oe?a?ie IE*EAEI Iaeey A?eai??aia, I?aceae?y Aeaaeai??
iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe Oe?a?ie, aeaaeai?e-nae?aoa? a?aeae?eaiiy iaaeaaia?ee
? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe, i.Ee?a.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? AeUeII?I Aiaoie?e ?aaiiae/,
Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, i.Ee?a, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??;

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? IAI*AIEI Iao?i Iaioaeaeiiiiae/,
?inoeooo ?noi??? Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/ee
a?aeae?eii, i.Ee?a;

aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio A?AAAITHE Aai?a?e ?aaai?eiae/,
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. A.N.Neiai?iaee,
i?ioani? eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe oa i?aaiaiai aeoiaaiiy.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i.Oaeai?iae.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 2 /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.451.01 a ?inoeooo? iaaeaaia?ee ?
ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 254060, i.Ee?a,
aoe. I.Aa?eeinueeiai, 9, 5-e iiaa?o, cae can?aeaiue.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie (254060, i.Ee?a,
aoe. I.Aa?eeinueeiai, 9).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 29 ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?-

ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Oeeaoeuenueea A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oa aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?ney i?iaieioaiiy
iacaeaaeiino? a Oe?a?i? ?icii/aany iaeaaeee iiooe aeanieo oeyo?a
?icaoaeiae nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. O iiaeo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao iio?aaothoue ci?i ??ci? aniaeoe
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe. Iniaeeai aino?ith ? i?iaeaia ?aoi?ioaaiiy
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a.

Aoei a iani?aaaaeeeai noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ai?iaeiaae inoaii?o ?ie?a oe?e
i?iaeai? ia i?eae?eyeinue iaeaaeii? oaaae. I?ioa iiia?aaei? ?aoi?ie ia
iaee oni?oo oiio, ui ?o nooi?noue iieyaaea a iaiaaaii? aai eeoa
ino/anieoe eieeoith iiaeaeue, aai ae ia?aianoe ia oe?a?inueeee a?oio
ie?ai? aeaiaioe ca?oa?aeieo nenoai. Oe?eeii c?icoi?ei, ui ye ia?oee, oae
? ae?oaee aa??aioe ia iiaee aooe i?eeiyoieie. Ia?oee oiio, ui nenoaia
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a o iiaeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao ia
iiaea caeeoaoenue aac ?noioieo ci?i, a, ioaea, e oi?aaeyoe iath ia
iiaeia aoei ia iniia? canoa??eeo i?aeoiae?a; ae?oaee oiio, ui ca?oa?aei?
iiaeae? aoee ci???ioiaai? ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy a niaoeeo?/ieo aeiiii?/ieo
oiiaao eiaeii? e?a?ie, ye? caeaa?eueoiai ia a?aeiia?aeaee oei, ui
neeaeeny a iao?e aea?aeaa?.

Cae?enithth/e iiooe oeyo?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe acaaae? e oi?aae?iiy iath cie?aia, aaoi?e ?aoi?i i?aeoe/ii ia
a?aoiaoaaee aaaaoi??/iee aeina?ae ooieoe?iioaaiiy ??cieo nenoai
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i?. Iaeia c i?e/ei oeueiai iieyaa?
a oiio, ui a a?eueoino? oi?aae?ioe?a oa iaaeaaia?a-i?aeoee?a ca
?aaeyinueeeo /an?a aoei noi?iiaaii i?a?e?noe/ii-ciaaaaeeeaa noaaeaiiy
aei ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo iaaeaaiue. Oea coiiaethaaeinue oei, ui
i?ioyaii aeanyoe??/ ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo aaaaoi iiae?e, oaeo?a, ?iai,
iia’ycaieo c ?noi???th ?icaeoeo ina?oe a Oe?a?i?, na?aeiii
caiia/oaaeinue, aaee/acia e?euee?noue oe?iieo ?noi?e/ieo aeieoiaio?a,
caeiiiaeaa/eo oa ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a aoea iaaeinooiiith aeey
aeine?aeiee?a. Oe?ieiio caaaeia? ina?oyi iaaeoiaeeea aei?noei aeiciaaia
?ioi?iaoe?y ? eeoa oa, ui a?aeiia?aeaea aeieoiaioai i?aaey/i? ia?o??
eiioi?no?a oa aieiaiei iieiaeaiiyi oai??a eeanee?a ia?enecio-eai?i?cio.
C?icoi?ei, ui oaea ?ioi?iaoe?y ia aoea ia’?eoeaiith ? ia iaea iaoeiaiai
e i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy.

Aiaeii/an a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe e iaoa??aee oa e?oa?aoo?i? aeaea?aea
na?ae/aoue, ui a ?noi?e/iiio aeina?ae? oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ? aaaaoi aeiyoeiai oe?iieo ? aaaeeeaeo aeey
nueiaiaeaiiy iaaeaaiue, ye? iiaeooue aooe oai?/i aeei?enoai? a i?ioean?
?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?.

sse na?ae/eoue iaoa aea/aiiy, ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/i? aniaeoe oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a i?aeoe/ii ia
aeine?aeaeoaaeenue. O ie?aieo eaiaeeaeaonueeeo aeena?oaoe?yo c i?iaeai
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie (?.A.Aaa?eo,
A.?.Aaeaeoeaae/, I.I.Eioaiei, I.A.Ieoaeeianueea, I.I.Iaaeoi,
?.A.?aae/aiei, I.?.Ua?aae, N.A.Oethea?a oa ?io?) aena?oeaii eeoa ie?ai?
oi?aae?inuee? aniaeoe. Iaie ia aeyaeaii iiiia?ao?/ieo oa ?ioeo iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue, a yeeo ae oe?e?nii aiae?coaaeinue oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i?.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue cae?eniaiiai ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo
?ia?oiee?a a Oe?a?i? o 1888-1998 ??. coiiaeaia noeoii?noth /eiiee?a:
a?aenooi?noth oe?e?nii? eiioeaioe?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
i?aeaioiaeith eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a o no/anieo oiiaao; iaiaaaiiyi
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee caa?aaoe canoa??e? ye ca ci?noii, oae ? ca
oi?iith i?aeoiaee aei oi?aae?iiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iith ina?oith; ia
caaaeaee iaa?oioiaaiith i???ioaoe??th ia ca?oa?aei? ina?oi? nenoaie;
aino?ith iio?aaith iaoeiaiai iaa?oiooaaiiy oeyo?a oaeineiiaeaiiy
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a ia no/aniiio
aoai? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii a?aeiia?aeii aei oaiaoe/iiai
ieaio iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ?inoeoooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie i?e ?ic?iaoe? oaie “Noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoie i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? (e?iaoeue OYII? — ia?oa iieiaeia
XX noie?ooy)” ?E ? 0197E006394.

I?iaeaia oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a
aeine?aeaeoaaeanue iaie a o?iiieia?/ieo ?aieao 1888–1998??. Ieaeiy iaaea
coiiaeaia i?eeiyooyi ia?oiai caeiiiaeaa/iai aeoo, ui ?aaeaiaiooaaa
ae?yeuei?noue nenoai ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, a oaeiae ii/aoeii
i?aeoe/ieo ae?e c ?icaoaeiae nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a o
oea?nuee?e ?in??. Aa?oiy iaaea ca?aa?oueny ?c i?eeiyooyi ia?oiai a
?noi??? Oe?a?ie Caeiio “I?i i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/io ina?oo” (1998 ?.) oa
ii/aoeii ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?nioth/i? a iao?e aea?aeaa? nenoaie
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe.

Ia`?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy: I?ioan?eia ina?oa Oe?a?ie a i?ioean? ??
?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo.

I?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy: Noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie
i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a a Oe?a?i? a 1888-1998 ??.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy: I?inoaaeeoe noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie ieae/i?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?, aeyaeoe i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? a
oi?aae?ii? nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a ia ??cieo
?noi?e/ieo aoaiao oa aecia/eoe aeioe?euei?noue ? iiaeeea?noue
aeei?enoaiiy ?aeae iiceoeaiiai aeina?aeo a ?aoi?ioaaii? oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe ia no/aniiio aoai?.

Eiioeaioe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1.Cae?enithth/e aeine?aeaeaiiy, ie aeoiaeeee c iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui ia
??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao ?icaeoeo iaoi? aea?aeaae ooieoe?iioaaee ??ci?
nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, ye? iaee caaaeueio iaoo.
Aiaeii/an aiie iaee nooo?a? a?aei?iiino? a ci?no? oa no?oeoo??
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy, i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iao, oi?aae?ii?
ieie. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae oa iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee,
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa aaca ?oiueiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo
aoaiao iaee naith niaoeeo?eo. A i?ioean? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai iiooeo
a?aoiaoaaeinue oa, ui ie?ai? oaiaeaioe?? aoee noaeeie ? ae?noaaaee
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ia ianooiieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao.

3.Ieae/a i?ioan?eia ina?oa ia ??cieo aoaiao ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo
?icaeyaea?oueny iaie ye neeaaeia iaaeaaia?/ia nenoaia c ae?iaie/eie
ooieoe?yie. Oea coiiaeaii noeoii?noth nenoaiiooai?thth/eo iciae,
oa?aeoa?ieo aeey nioe?aeueieo, ina?oiuei-aeoiaieo oa ae?iaie/eo nenoai.

4.?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee
eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a cae?enithaaany ia iniia? oe?e?niiai i?aeoiaeo
aei oi?aae?iiy ye nenoaie, ui neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo eiiiiiaio?a: ia`?eoe
oi?aae?iiy, noa`?eoe oi?aae?iiy, no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy, ooieoe??
oi?aae?iiy, i?ioean oi?aae?iiy.

5.O ci?no? nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei oi?aae?iiy i?aeaioiaeith
eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a iaie aecia/aii /ioe?e aca?iiiia`ycaieo ?
aca?iiae?th/eo noi?iie: nenoaiii-noano?aoio, nenoaiii-no?oeoo?io,
nenoaiii-ooieoe?iiaeueio oa nenoaiii-?noi?e/io.

Caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

1.Iaa?oiooaaoe nooi?noue eeth/iaeo iiiyoue nenoaie i?aeaioiaee
eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a oa oi?aae?iiy iath.

2.I?inoaaeeoe aaiaco ?icaeoeo ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i? a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae.

3.I?iaiae?coaaoe aieea nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, ?aeaieia?/ieo oa
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a ia ??cieo
?noi?e/ieo aoaiao.

4.Aeyaeoe i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie
i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a a Oe?a?i? a 1888-1998 ??.

5.Noa?aeoa?ecoaaoe no?oeoo?o oi?aae?iiy oeeie nenoaiaie oa aeyaeoe ??
iniaeeaino? ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao.

6.Cae?enieoe eeaneo?eaoe?th oei?a iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, a yeeo
cae?enithaaeanue i?aeaioiaea ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; aecia/eoe ?oith
niaoeeo?eo ye ia’?eo?a oi?aae?inueeiai aieeao.

7.I?iaiae?coaaoe ci?no oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ia caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio, ?aa?iiaeueiiio, aaeocaaiio
??aiyo.

8.Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe iniiai? iai?yie aeei?enoaiiy ?aeae ?noi?e/iiai
aeina?aeo a oi?ioaaii? no/anieo iiaeaeae oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe.

Caaaeueia iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia o?einionueeeo
iieiaeaiiyo oai??? i?ciaiiy; oai??? nenoai ? oai??? oi?aae?iiy;
eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiiyo o?einio??, nioe?ieia??, iaaeaaia?ee,
ineoieia??, ?noi???, iie?oieia??, aeiiii?ee; caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo
i?eioeeiao iaoeiaino?, ?noi?ecio, nenoaiiino?, oe?eaiieeaaeaiiy,
naiii?aai?caoe??, eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iino? ye cania?a aea/aiiy noaiiaeaiiy
? ?icaeoeo iaaeaaia?/ieo nenoai; iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo nenoaiiiai oa
iniaeno?nii-ae?yeuei?niiai i?aeoiae?a o i?ciaii? nioe?aeueieo,
iaaeaaia?/ieo oaeo?a, yaeu, i?ioean?a.

Oai?aoe/io iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue iieiaeaiiy:

-oai??? nenoai (A.Aoaianue?a, ?.Aanooaeaa-Eaaea, ?.Aeaoaa?a, A.Ao?eia,
A.Aoio, A.Ae?oaeei?i, A.Eiiae?aoue?a, A.Eoioe, N.I`Aeiiiae,
A.Naaeianueeee, A.O?iia, ?.THae?i, N.ssia oa ?i.)

-oai??? oi?aae?iiy (A.Aiea?ueia, ?.?aaiei, ?.Eacaeia, I.Ia?eia,
A.Ioeueea?, I.Iaaieoea, A.?aiiiii?o, A.Oe?a?ioeaa, E.sseianii oa ?i.)

-oai??? iaaeaaia?/ieo nenoai (A.Aaciaeueei, A. A?ey?aa, N.Aii/a?aiei,
O.?eue?ia, I.Eiaaeueia, TH.Eiia?aeaanueeee, I.Eocuei?ia, ?.Eaaeaiei,
A.Eaaeiueia, A.Iaea?aiei, I. Iaoiooia, A.Nooiieeinueeee, A.Oaae?eeia oa
?i.)

-?noi??? Oe?a?ie (A. Aeaieeaiei, A.Eanueyiia, N.E?c/aiei,
A.E?aa/aiei, N.Eoeue/eoeueeee, A.Eaiiaee, I.Noaoaeueiee, I.Iai/aiei,
O.Oo?/aiei oa ?i.)

-?noi??? ina?oe Oe?a?ie (A.Aeaenthe, I.Aaae??iei, A.Aeueaa?ooaei,
A.A?eiueei, A.ssno?aeaianueeee, I.Nooiieeinueea, N.N??iiieei,
I.Ne?eiiee, A.Nooia?ee oa ?i.)

-?noi??? i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe (N. Aaoeoaa, A.Aanaeia, I.Aannaeue,
I.?aaiia, ss.Ca?aaeuenueeee, TH.Inianueeee, A.Eaeaoieeia, A.Oa?auaiei,
ss.?yiii oa ?i.)

-oi?aae?iiy ina?oiuei-aeoiaieie nenoaiaie (A. Aeeia, ?. Aa?aciye,
A.Aaneeue?a, A.Eoaiaee, O.Oaiiaa, I.Ino?iaa?oiaa, A.Eaca??a,
I.Iioaoiee, I.Neiiiia, N. Nieieia, I.Noioeia, I.*a?i?inueeee oa ?i.)

-?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oe a Oe?a?i? (I.Aieeia, A.Cae/oe, ?.Cycthi, E.Eiaaeue,
I.Ie/eaei, A.Iaotho, I.ss?ia/aiei oa ?i.)

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia ??cieo aoaiao iaoeiaiai iiooeo
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue caaaeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee oai?aoe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy:
o?iiieia?/iee, ui aeaa ciiao ?icaeyaeaoe oi?aae?iiy i?aeaioiaeith
eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a o aeeiai?oe?, ci?iao ? /ania?e iine?aeiaiino?;
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee aiae?c a?o?aieo aeaea?ae, ?noi?e/ii? oa
iaaeaaia?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a; i?iaeaiii-oe?eueiaee
aiae?c iaoa??ae?a ia??iaee/ii? i?ane, ?acoeueoao?a ?noi?e/ieo oa
aeiiii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy ?noi?e/ii? oa
aeiiii?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??, aeyaeaiiy oaiaeaioe?e a i?aai?caoe??
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? ia eiaeiiio c aoai?a ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo,
aieeao iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo oiia ia ?icaeoie nenoaie oi?aae?iiy.
Aeei?enoiaoaaeeny neioac, ii??aiyiiy, eeaneo?eaoe?y, ocaaaeueiaiiy oa
nenoaiaoecaoe?y aeyaeaieo oaeo?a e ?ioeo aeine?aeieoeueeeo aeaieo.
Cae?enithaaany ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c 23-??/ii? iaaeaaia?/ii?
ae?yeueiino? aaoi?a, ?c yeeo 18 — o nenoai? i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. A i?ioean? ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iiai
iiooeo anueiai aeei?enoaii 583 aeaea?ae, c ieo — 223 a?o?aieo. Aea/aii
108 ni?aa ?c oiiae?a Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a
aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie (a?o?ai? iaoa??aee c oiiae?a O?yaeo, A?IA,
Aea?aeieaio, Ia?iaeieo Eii?na??ao?a Ina?oe oa Caiaeueieo ni?aa Oe?a?ie,
?iniaeoe?? Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a I?i?noa?noaa
oeyo?a niieo/aiue a Oe?a?i?, Oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a a O?N?,
Aea?aeaaiiai Eii?oaoo ?aaee I?i?no??a O?N? c i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe). I?iaiae?ciaaii caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeai? aeoe, ui
?aaeaiaiooaaee ae?yeuei?noue caeeaae?a oa onoaiia nenoaie i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, ca?oe i?i ?iaioo ie?aieo caeeaae?a ina?oe oa i?aai?a
oi?aae?iiy ieie, noaoenoe/i? aeai?.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i? aei
1917 ?. aea/aii 115 ni?aa Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao
Oe?a?ie (caeiiiaeaa/? e ii?iaoeai? aeoe oea?nueeiai O?yaeo, aeieoiaioe c
oiiae?a eaioeaey??? Iiia/eoaey Ee?anueeiai o/aiaiai ie?oao, oaa?e/ii?
?iniaeoe?? Ee?anueeiai oaa?e/iiai ie?oao). Aeaea?aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
oaeiae caeiiiaeaa/? e ii?iaoeai? aeoe ia?oeo oe?a?inueeeo o?yae?a,
o?yaeo N?N? oa O?N?, I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, Aa?oiaii? ?aaee oa Eaa?iaoo
I?i?no??a iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie, Ia?iaeiiai Eii?na??aoo Ina?oe Oe?a?ie oa
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, iioae?eiaai? a “Iieiii Nia?aiee Caeiiia
?inneeneie Eiia?ee”, “Nia?aiee Caeiiia e ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaeoaeuenoaa,
ecaeaaaaiua i?e I?aaeoaeuenoaothuai Naiaoa”, “Ca??ieeo Caeii?a oa
?inii?yaeaeaiue ?ia?oie/a-Naeyinueeiai O?yaeo Oe?a?ie”, “Ca??ieeo
iinoaiia O?yaeo O?N?”, “Atheaoai? Ia?iaeiiai Eii?na??aoo ina?oe
Oe?a?ie”, “Ca??ieeo iaeac?a I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie”, io?oe?eieo
aeaeaiiyo Oeac?a I?aceaeaioa oa caeii?a Oe?a?ie a 1991-1998 ?ieao.
I?iaiae?ciaaii 126 aeieoiaio?a OeE EI?N oa OeE Eiiia?o?? Oe?a?ie, ui
?aaeaiaiooaaee ae?yeuei?noue caeeaae?a oa onoaiia, o yeeo
cae?enithaaeanue i?aeaioiaea ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. Aea/aii iioi/iee a?o?a
Aea?aeaaiiai Eii?oaoo O?N? c i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe oa I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae iaoa??aee, iioae?eiaai? a 14 iaaeaaia?/ieo
aeo?iaeao (“Oaoie/aneia ia?aciaaiea”, “Oaoie/aneia e eiiia?/aneia
ia?aciaaiea”, “I?ioanneiiaeueiia ia?aciaaiea”, “Ia?aciaaiea”,
“Ia?iaeiia i?inaauaiea”, “AEeciue ?aai/ae oeieu”, “Iooue i?inaauaiey”,
“?aaeyinueea ina?oa”, “?ia?oie/a ina?oa”, “Oeyo ina?oe”,
“I?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneia ia?aciaaiea”, “I?ioanneiiae”, “??aeia
oeiea”, “Na?oei”).

I?aai?caoe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeinue o 4 aoaie
i?ioyaii 1985-1998 ??.. Ia ia?oiio aoai? (1985-1987 ??.) oai?aoe/ii
inienethaaeanue i?iaeaia, aecia/aeenue ia`?eo, i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy,
eiai iaoa ? caaaeaiiy; aea/aeenue ?noi?e/ia, o?einionueea,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia, iaaeaaia?/ia, ineoieia?/ia e?oa?aoo?a,
caeiiiaeaa/? oa ii?iaoeai? aeoe, ui aoee aeinooiieie a oie /an, a oaeiae
a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe oa iioae?eiaai? iaoa??aee c oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy;
iaa?iiaaeaeoaaany oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, cae?enithaaeenue nenoaiaoecaoe?y ?
ia?aeiia ia?iaea aeaieo.

Ia ae?oaiio aoai? (1987-1991 ??.) iiaeeaeaii aea/aeenue oa
aiae?coaaeenue aeyaeai? aeieoiaioe ? iaoa??aee, aecia/aeenue iiaeeeaino?
e oeyoe aeei?enoaiiy aea/aiiai aeina?aeo.

Ia o?aoueiio aoai? (1991-1996 ??.) i?iaeiaaeoaaeinue aea/aiiy a?o?aieo
oiiae?a, e?oa?aoo?ieo oa ?ioeo aeaea?ae. O 1995 ?. aoea caoeuaia
aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeaaia?/ieo
iaoe c oaie “?icaeoie ci?noo oa oi?i i?aai?caoe?? i?aeaioiaee
eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a a Oe?a?i? o 1920-1929 ??.” Ie?ai? aniaeoe
aea/aiiai aeina?aeo aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o iao?e iaaeaaia?/i?e
ae?yeueiino? c oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a.
Iaa?iiaaeaeaiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae aiae?coaaany, nenoaiaoecoaaany,
cae?enithaaeinue iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeo iiaeaeae oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?.

Ia /aoaa?oiio aoai? (1996-1998??.) o?eaaa ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/iee iiooe,
aiae?coaaeenue iia? aeieoiaioe e iaoa??aee, ocaaaeueithaaeenue
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, cae?enithaaeinue ioi?ieaiiy oaenoo
aeena?oaoe??, ?ic?iaeyeeny ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy ?aeae
oeueiai ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo a ?aoi?ioaaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iith ina?oith Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui:

aia?oa a?aeoai?aii ?noi??th ?icaeoeo oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i? o 1888-1998 ??.; ia iniia? aeaoa?i?iiaaiiai
aiae?co eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo ianoaaei aecia/aii iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai?
ia??iaee a ?icaeoeo oi?aae?iiy ieie; iaa?oioiaaii iieiaeaiiy uiaei
nooiino? nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ye iaaeaaia?/ii? nenoaie
c ae?iaie/eie ooieoe?yie; cae?eniaii eeaneo?eaoe?th oei?a caeeaae?a
ina?oe, a yeeo cae?enithaaeanue i?aeaioiaea ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a
Oe?a?i?, aecia/aii ?oi? iniaeeaino? ye ia`?eo?a oi?aae?inueei?
ae?yeueiino?; ?ice?eoi nooi?noue, no?oeoo?o, ci?no oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao; cae?eniaii
iaoeiao ?ioa?i?aoaoe?th iaeaaaeeea?oeo iniaeeainoae o ?icaeoeo
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, ui iathoue
i?iaiinoe/io ni?yiiaai?noue, ? iiaeooue noaoe aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey
?ic?iaee iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo iai?yi?a ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue;
o iaoeiaee aia?ao aaaaeaii 87 iiaeo aeieoiaio?a, a oaeiae ?yae oaeo?a,
oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae, ui aacothoueny ia aeyaeaieo oa i?iaiae?ciaaieo iaie
a?o?aieo iaoa??aeao;

iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo iaaoee iieiaeaiiy uiaei nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? ?
iie?oe/ii? coiiaeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoai i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao; iaaaoeaiiai aieeao oeaio?ae?caoe??
oa oi?o?eaoe?? oi?aae?inueeeo i?ioean?a, iaoai?/iiai ia`?aeiaiiy
ia?iaeii? ina?oe oa i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe a ?aeeio nenoaio;
aeioe?eueiino? ?icaoaeiae nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iith
ina?oith ia iniia? i?eioeei?a aeaiie?aoecio, aoiai?caoe?? oa
aoiai?oa?ecaoe??.

Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o :

aecia/aii? oaeoi??a, ui coiiaeththoue oi?ioaaiiy iiai? nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i?; iaa?oiooaaii? iieiaeaiue uiaei
iaiao?aeiino? ia?aaoaeiae nenoaie oi?aae?iiy no/aniith
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iith ina?oith; i?iaiinoe/iino? caeiaooeo iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoao?a, cie?aia uiaei oai?aoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo
i?ioean?a c o?aooaaiiyi a?o/eciyieo ? na?oiaeo oaiaeaioe?e, aeinyaiaiue
?ioi?iaoe?eii-oaoiieia?/ii? ?aaiethoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o i?aeaioiaoe?
iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c ie?aieo i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieie caeeaaeaie ina?oe ia no/aniiio aoai? (ieaioaaiiy
?iaioe, ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy oi?aae?iiiy, aeei?enoaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a a oi?aae?ii?, oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?
oi?aae?iiy oa ?i.); ?ic?iaoe? i?iaeo?a ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a,
iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a uiaei e?oeaicoaaiiy e aoanoaoe??
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo caeeaae?a ina?oe oa ae?yeueiino? Eii?oaoo c
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe oi?aae?iiy ina?oe Ee?anueei? iaeanii? aea?aeaaii?
aaei?i?no?aoe??.

Aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, aeeeaaeai? a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?,
ai?iaaaeaeaii a i?aeoeeo ?iaioe Eii?oao?a c i?ioan?eii? ina?oe oa
oi?aae?iue ina?oe Ee?anueei? (aeia?aeea a?ae 15 o?aaiy 1998 ?. ?456 ),
Caii??cueei? (aeia?aeea a?ae 20 aa?aciy 1998 ?. ?124-31 ), *a?eanueei?
(aeia?aeea a?ae 9 aeiaoiy 1998 ?. ?111), Oa?e?anueei? (aeia?aeea a?ae 20
aeiaoiy 1998 ?. ?1426) iaeanieo aea?aeaaieo aaei?i?no?aoe?e, a oaeiae o
?iaio? aenia?oii? ?aaee Aea?aeaaii? ae?aaeeoaoe?eii? eii?n?? Oe?a?ie c
ieoaiue e?oeaicoaaiiy oa aoanoaoe?? caeeaae?a i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe (aeia?aeea I?iina?oe Oe?a?ie a?ae 23 ea?oiy 1999 ?. ? 9/1-71).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoaii a ?iaio? aaoi?a a neeaae? Eii?n??
c ieoaiue ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?; a
i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe Eii?oao?a c i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a Ee?anuee?e iaeano?
oa ?yae? ?ioeo iaeanoae; a ae?yeueiino? aenia?oii? ?aaee c e?oeaicoaaiiy
oa aoanoaoe?? i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo caeeaae?a ina?oe Aea?aeaaii?
ae?aaeeoaoe?eii? eii?n?? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa??aee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?: a iaaeaaia?/ieo
eieaaeaeao, ?inoeoooao oa oi?aa?neoaoao, caeeaaeao i?neyaeeieiiii?
ina?oe; aeey i?aeaioiaee iiiia?ao?e, iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a c
eo?n?a oai??? oa ?noi??? iaaeaaia?ee, iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a ?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeey ea??aiee?a caeeaae?a, onoaiia i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe oa i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith ina?oe; a oaeiae i?aeaioiaee
nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a a iaea?aeaii? ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a
oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaii? ia??iaeecaoe?? ?noi??? oi?aae?iiy
i?aeaioiaeith ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i?; iaa?oiooaaii? nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ye iaaeaaia?/ii? nenoaie c ae?iaie/eie
ooieoe?yie; aeyaeaii? iniiaieo oaiaeaioe?e o noaiiaeaii? oa ?icaeoeo
oi?aae?iiy i?aeaioiaeith ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i?; aeyaeaii? ?aeae
iiceoeaiiai aeina?aeo a oi?aae?ii? i?aeaioiaeith ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ia
??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao, ui iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o i?ioean?
?aoi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe; ?ic?iaoe? i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ia?aaoaeiae oi?aae?iiy oe??th nenoaiith a iao?e
aea?aeaa?..

A??ia?aei?noue ? a?aoiaioiaai?noue iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a
caaacia/othoueny iaoiaeieia?/iith ? oai?aoe/iith iaa?oioiaai?noth
aeo?aeieo iieiaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy; canoinoaaiiyi eiiieaeno
aca?iiiia`ycaieo iaoiae?a, aaeaeaaoieo eiai ia`?eoo, i?aaeiaoo, iao? oa
caaaeaiiyi; ii?aeiaiiyi e?euee?niiai oa ye?niiai aiae?co ?c
noaoenoe/ieie iaoiaeaie ii?aoethaaiiy aeine?aeieoeueeeo iaoa??ae?a;
aeei?enoaiiyi oe?iei? aeaea?aeueii? aace, cie?aia 223 a?o?aieo
aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a; a oaeiae iiceoeaieie iane?aeeaie
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a.

Ia caoeno aeiinyoueny:

1.Iieiaeaiiy uiaei nooiino? nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ye
iaaeaaia?/ii? nenoaie c ae?iaie/eie ooieoe?yie oa aieeao
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo, ?aeaieia?/ieo oaeoi??a ia noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoie oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao.

2.Aeyaeai? i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i? o 1888-1998 ??., oa?aeoa?i?
aeey eiaeiiai ?noi?e/iiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo nenoai oi?aae?iiy, cie?aia:

I ia??iae – 1888-1920 ??. Noai?aiiy ia?oeo i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?
oi?aae?iiy; iiooe oeyo?a oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?aeaioiaeith
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ia iniia? ii?aeiaiiy caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo, aaeocaaeo
oa i?eaaoieo ?ioa?an?a; iaaeaiiy I?i?noa?noao ia?iaeii? ina?oe
i?ia?aeii? ?ie? o aecia/aii? no?aoaa?? e oaeoeee a i?aeaioiaoe?
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; iayai?noue cia/ii? e?eueeino? noa’?eo?a
oi?aae?inueeiai aieeao; /?oea ?iciaaeoaaiiy ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy ia
??cieo ??aiyo; noai?aiiy nenoaie a?iiaaenueei-aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a
oi?aae?iiy; a?oioiaia ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa oa eaae?iaa caaacia/aiiy
ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a ina?oe. A 1917-1920 ??. o?yaee, ui ae?yee ia
oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, iaiaeii?aciai ?iaeee ni?iae noai?eoe aeani? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy i?ioan?eiith ina?oith, iaeiae aiie ia iaee oni?oo /a?ac
iaaeiaaio?eaaea ia?aaoaaiiy i?e aeaae? oeeo o?yae?a.

II ia??iae – 1920-1929 ??.. Oi?iaeiaae 1920-1923 ??. aoee noai?ai? oa
?icai?ioee naith ae?yeuei?noue iiaiiaaaei? niaoe?ae?ciaai? i?aaie
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, a oiio /ene? e i?aeaioiaeith
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; aoei aeinyaiooi iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy
oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e Ia?eiiina?oe oa Oe?aieiai?ioina?oe; iaaoee
iioe?aiiy aeaiie?aoe/i? canaaee a oi?aae?ii? caeeaaeaie ina?oe.
Aiane?aeie ?icai?oaiiy i?ioean?a oi?o?eaoe?? oa oeaio?ae?caoe?? a ina?o?
ai?iaeiaae 1924-1929 ??. naiino?ei?noue i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo?
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a aoea e?ea?aeiaaia;
iniiaieie ooieoe?yie oi?aae?iiy noaee eiio?ieue oa ?iniaeooaaiiy.

III ia??iae – 1929-1940 ??. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaeocaaeo i?aai?caoe?eieo
no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a.
I?iaeiaaeaiiy i?ioean?a oeaio?ae?caoe?? oa oi?o?eaoe??, aei?noea
ii?iaoeaia ?aaeaiaiooaaiiy oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? ea??aiee?a
caeeaae?a ina?oe. Ni?yiiaai?noue oi?aae?iiy ia caaacia/aiiy
aocueeii?io?eueii? i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oiee?a.

IV ia??iae – 1940-1959 ??. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy oeaio?ae?ciaaii? oa aei?noei
?aaeaiaioiaaii? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a.

V ia??iae – 1959-1991 ??. Aaciina?aaeiy o/anoue ia?o?eieo i?aai?a a
oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe; oi?ioaaiiy
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei oi?aae?iiy; ooaa?aeaeaiiy
aaaaoinooiaiaai? i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy. A 1988 ?.
a?aeaoeinue ia’?aeiaiiy nenoaie ia?iaeii? oa i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe; aecia/eeenue oaiaeaioe?? aei iineaaeaiiy oeaio?enonueeeo canaae
oa oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueei? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy;

VI ia??iae – 1991-1998 ??. Iiooe oeyo?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. Iineeaiiy oeaio?enonueeeo
oaiaeaioe?e a oi?aae?ii?, caoaeaiiy i?aa ea??aiee?a caeeaae?a
i?iooaoina?oe. Oi?ioaaiiy iiai? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace oi?aae?iiy
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oith.

3.Eeaneo?eaoe?y oei?a caeeaae?a ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe;
iaa?oiooaaiiy ?oi?o iniaeeainoae ye ia’?eo?a oi?aae?iiy.

4.Iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue no?oeoo?o ? ci?no
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ia
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio, ?aa?iiaeueiiio, aaeocaaiio ??aiyo.

5.Oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo iai?yi?a aeei?enoaiiy ?aeae
iiceoeaiiai ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo o oi?ioaaii? no?aoaa?? oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeany a aeiiia?aeyo ?
aenooiao ia: i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
“Ineoieiai-iaaeaaia?/i? i?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
eaae??a aeey caeeaae?a i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe” (Ee?a, 1999);
“Nenoaia iaia?a?aii? ina?oe: caeiaooee, iiooee, i?iaeaie” (*a?i?aoe?,
1996), “O?einio?y no/anii? ina?oe” (Ee?a, 1995); “Iiaea?i?caoe?y nenoaie
ina?oe a Oe?a?i? ia canaaeao iaoe?iiaeueieo o?aaeeoe?e oa
aoiiiaaeaaia?ee, aoiai?caoe?? ? aeaiie?aoecaoe??, na?oiaiai aeina?aeo”
(?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1995), “ss.I.?yiii e ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie
ina?oe Oe?a?ie” (AEeoiie?, 1995 ?.) oa ?i.; o aenooiao ia can?aeaiiyo
eieaa?e I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, ia iaeanieo ia?aaeao-nai?ia?ao
ea??aiee?a oa ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo
o/eeeu Ee?anueei?, Euea?anueei?, Caii??cueei?, Iieoaanueei?,
Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? iaeanoae oa i. Ee?aa, a oaeiae ia can?aeaii?
Oeaio?aeueii-No?aeiiai ?a?iiaenueeiai eeoao i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe
(Ee?a, 1996 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaaii a
32 iaeiiin?aieo iaoeiaeo oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo i?aoeyo, a naia: o 2
iiiia?ao?yo, 3 iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo, 22 noaooyo o
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo i?aoeue oa ?i. Caaaeueiee ianya
iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue c oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea? 41,2 aaoi?nueeeo
a?eoo?a.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a aei ?icae?e?a, caaaeueieo aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae (583 iaeiaioaaiue, c ieo 223 a?o?ai? ni?aae), 14 aeiaeaoe?a, ui
caeiathoue 39 noi?. Iniiaiee oaeno aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii ia 380 noi?.
?iaioa i?noeoue 5 oaaeeoeue (6 noi?.).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy;
aecia/aii ia`?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo, caaaeaiiy oa eiioeaioe?th; ?ice?eoi
aeaea?aeueio aaco; ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia ?
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, iniaenoee aianie; ai?iaaoe?th ?acoeueoao?a,
aeeeaaeaii iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? — “Oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a ye ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ia i?iaeaia” — i?iaiae?ciaaii aena?oeaiiy
i?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a o
e?oa?aoo?? O?O-OO no.; ooi/iaii ia??iaeecaoe?th ?noi??? i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i? o 1888-1998 ??.; aecia/aii nooi?noue
iiiyoo?ai-oa?i?iieia?/iiai aia?aoo aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ?icae?e? ooi/iaii ia??iaeecaoe?? ?noi??? i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a, iaa?oioiaai? I.Aanaeiaei, I.Iocaiiaei, A.Oa?auaieii, a oaeiae
cai?iiiiiaaii aaoi?nueeo ia??iaeecaoe?th:

ia?oee ia??iae — c e?ioey 80-o ??. O?O noie?ooy — aei 1920 ?. I?ney
i?eeiyooy “Iniiaieo iieiaeaiue i?i i?iieneia? o/eeeua” a Oe?a?i?, oae ye
? a on?e ?in??, ?icii/aeinue noai?aiiy nenoai i?iieneiai?,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oa ae?ii/i? ina?oe. Aiaeii/an aoee noi?iiaai?
i?aaie oi?aae?iiy ieie. Oe? nenoaie i?i?nioaaee aei aeiaoiaaiai
ia?aai?ioo 1917 ?. AEiaeiiio c o?yae?a, ui ae?yee ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie a
1917-1920 ??., ia aaeaeinue noai?eoe nenoaio i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe oa i?aai?caoe?eio no?oeoo?o oi?aae?iiy iath;

ae?oaee ia??iae — 1920-1929 ??. Noi?iiaaii oe?a?inueeo nenoaio ieae/i?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. Oeae ia??iae caaa?oeany i?eeiyooyi o?yaeiaeo oa
ia?o?eieo ??oaiue uiaei oi?o?eaoe?? ina?oi?o nenoai ?in?? oa Oe?a?ie;

o?ao?e ia??iae — 1929-1940 ??. I?aeaioiaea ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a aoea
ia?aaeaia ainiiaea?nueeei ia?eiiaoai. Ooieoe?iioaaee aaeocaa? nenoaie
i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy ?ia?oiee?a.

/aoaa?oee ia??iae -1940-1959 ??.. Noai?aii aea?aeaaio nenoaio o?oaeiaeo
?aca?a?a;

i`yoee ia??iae — 1959-1991??. Aea?aeaai? o?oaeia? ?aca?ae ?ai?aai?ciaaii
a nenoaio i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe. ?icii/aany ia?ao?ae aei
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ?c na?aaeiueith ina?oith. Ia?iaeia oa
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia ina?oa aoee ia’?aeiai? a ?aeeio nenoaio.

oinoee ia??iae — ?icii/eia?oueny ?c 1991 ?. Iiooe oeyo?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy
nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe, ?? aaeaioaoe?y aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee. I?eeiyoi Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/io ina?oo”.

A?aeiiaeaoenue a?ae ?aeaieia?/iiai i?aea?oioy o aecia/aii? iniiaieo
ia??iae?a a ?noi??? i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, ie ae?eoee aei
aeniiaeo, ui aieiaieie /eiieeaie, ye? aieeioee ia ci?no ? oi?ie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, oi?aae?iiy oe??th nenoaiith noaee ci?ie
a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae ia eiaeiiio ?c aecia/aieo
aoai?a. Oeae aeniiaie ia? iaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy aeey ?ica`ycaiiy
ia?niaeoeaieo i?iaeai i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a.

O ?icae?e? i?eae?eaii cia/io oaaao aiae?co naiaioe/iiai cia/aiiy iiiyoue
«nenoaia i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a», «i?ioan?eia ina?oa», «ieae/a
i?ioan?eia ina?oa», «i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia ina?oa», a oaeiae aeao?i?oe?e c
i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy. Aecia/aii nooi?noue iiiyooy «nenoaia i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a», yea, ia iaoo aeoieo, aeeth/a? o?e neeaaeia?:
nenoaio ina?oi?o i?ia?ai ? aea?aeaaieo ina?oi?o noaiaea?o?a aeey
i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a; ia?aaeo ina?oiuei-aeoiaieo
caeeaae?a ??cieo oei?a, aea ?aae?cothoueny ina?oi? i?ia?aie; nenoaio
i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy i?aeaioiaeith ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a oa i?aeii?yaeeiaai?
?i onoaiiae ? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Cae?eniaiee aiae?c aeaa i?aenoaae aeey aeniiaeo, ui aeey nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a aeanoea? nenoaiiooai?thth/? iciaee
iaaeaaia?/ieo nenoai. Ii?yae c oeei cacia/eii, ui nenoaia ia iiaea aooe
noai?aia, yeui a?aenooi? aeaye? aaaeeea? nenoaiiooai?thth/? oaeoi?e,
cie?aia: noeoii?noue iaaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa iie?oe/ieo
/eiiee?a; a?aeiia?aeia iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia aaca; aaeaioiaaiee aei
eiie?aoii? aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? (ieaiiai-oeaio?ae?ciaaii? /e ?eieiai?)
ainiiaea?nueeee iaoai?ci; iaeaaei? oiiae aeey i?aai?caoe??
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?.

Aeeeaaeaia aeua aea? i?aenoaae aeey aeniiaeo i?i oa, ui nenoaio
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a aeioe?eueii a?aeianoe aei eeano
iaaeaaia?/ieo nenoai c ae?iaie/eie ooieoe?yie.

O ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi aaoi?nuee? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy nooiino?
iniiaieo iiiyoue, iia`ycaieo ?c i?ioeanii oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. Aiae?c aea/aieo aeaea?ae c oaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaa ciiao c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iiiyooy «oi?aae?iiy» ye
«i?ioean…oii?yaeeoaaiiy nenoaie», iaeiei ?c iniiaieo caaaeaiue yeiai ?
«caa?aaeaiiy ye?nii? aecia/aiino? nenoaie oeyoii ia?aaaaeaiiy ?? ?c
iaeiiai noaio a ?ioee…» [A.Aoaianueaa. Iao/iia oi?aaeaiea iauanoaii
(Iiuo nenoaiiiai enneaaeiaaiey). — I.:Iieeoecaeao, 1968. — N.24] aei
iaaeaaiueiai /ano noiniaii iaaeaaia?/ieo nenoai acaaae?, ? nenoai
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, cie?aia, ia aeei?enoiaoaaeinue. Aiii
i?aei?ithaaeinue iiiyooyi «ea??aieoeoai». Cacia/eii, ui oaea ae i?aei?ia
oeeo iiiyoue ia? i?noea o Caeii? Oe?a?ie “I?i i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/io
ina?oo”(ethoee 1998 ?).

Aea/aiiy ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy
iaaeaaia?/ieie nenoaiaie oa caeeaaeaie ina?oe aea? i?aenoaae aeey
aeniiae?a uiaei i?e/ei ioioiaeiaiiy iiiyoue “oi?aae?iiy” oa
“ea??aieoeoai”. Ia iaoo aeoieo, ieie aoee: a)caeiiiaeaa/a cae??ieaiiy a
?aaeyinueeiio noni?euenoa? i?eioeeio ia?o?eiino?, iieiaeaiiy i?i ea??aio
?ieue eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??. sse iane?aeie, ooieoe?? i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy
aoee caaaeai? eeoa aei “…oi/iiai aeeiiaiiy iaeac?a, ?ino?oeoe?e,
?ioeo aee?aeoeaieo oa iaoiaee/ieo aeac?aie…”[Nieieia A. Oi?aaeaiea
aeayoaeueiinoueth n?aaeiaai i?iooaoo/eeeua. — I.:Aunoay oeiea, 1983. —
N.3]; a)a?aenooi?noue iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? oai??? oi?aae?iiy
iaaeaaia?/ieie nenoaiaie acaaae?, a oaeiae iaaeaaia?/iith nenoaiith c
ae?iaie/eie ooieoe?yie, cie?aia; a) ooo/ii noai?ai? ia?aoeiaee aeey
iioe?aiiy a N?N? no/anieo i?aeoiae?a aei oi?aae?iiy, ine?eueee aiie aoee
?ic?iaeai? a eai?oae?noe/ieo e?a?iao, ? ?aaeyinueea ?aeaieia?/ia nenoaia
aaaaeaea ca iaiiaeeeaa ? iaa?oue oe?aeeeaa aea/aiiy ?o oa iioe?aiiy a
aea?aeaa?. Aiae?c cia/ii? e?eueeino? aeaea?ae aeicaieea c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui iiiyooy “ea??aieoeoai” ? aeaeiaei noiniaii ?iaeiaiai
“oi?aae?iiy” ? a?aeia?aaea? nooi?noue aca?iei i?ae ea??aieeaie oa
i?aeeaaeeie. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, cacia/eii, ui ioioiaeiaiiy iiiyoue
“oi?aae?iiy” oa “ea??aieoeoai” ? iaoiaeieia?/ii iai?aaeeueiei. ?o
aeioe?eueii ?iciaaeiaoaaoe.

Aeey nenoaiiiai aiae?co oi?aae?iiy i?aeaioiaeith ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ia
??cieo aoaiao ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo aaeeea cia/aiiy ia? aecia/aiiy
iiiyoue “ci?no oi?aae?iiy”, “i?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy”. Ci?no i?ioeano
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a iaie aecia/aii ye
noeoii?noue oi?aae?inueeeo iia?aoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeinyaiaiiy iaaieo
ci?i o nenoai? a?aeiia?aeii aei ia?aaeaa/oaaieo. I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy
?icaeyaea?oueny ye aeioe?eueia iiaoaeiaa oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, ui aeyaey?oueny a ?iciiae?e?
oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e ca ??aiyie, anoaiiaeaiiy ?oiuei? iine?aeiaiino?,
ianooiiino?, ni?aa?aeiioaiue oiui.

Aeey aiae?co nooiino? oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?o- ie/eo
eaae??a aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? iiiyooy “ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy”, ia-a?? yeeo
ia? caaacia/oaaoe ?aaeoe?th ea?oth/i? nenoaie ia aoaeue-yeo ci?io a
noai? ea?iaaii? nenoaie. Ia iniia? aiae?co 18 eeaneo?eaoe?e
ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy aecia/aii /ioe?e iniiai? ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a: ieaioaaiiy, i?aai?caoe?y,
ea??aieoeoai ? eiio?ieue. Oe? ooieoe?? ie a?aeiineii aei neeaaeieo,
oiaoi oaeeo, ui iathoue naith no?oeoo?o ? ioiieththoue aeae?eueea
eiiiiiaio?a. Oae, ieaioaaiiy iiaea aeeth/aoe aiae?c, i?iaiicoaaiiy,
oe?eaaecia/aiiy, ioe?ieo aoaeoeaiino?; i?aai?caoe?y — ?iciiae?e
iiaiiaaaeaiue, aecia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, iiaoaeiao i?aai?caoe?e;
eiio?ieue — ?ic?iaeo noaiaea?o?a ? e?eoa???a, ii??aiyiiy ?aaeueieo
?acoeueoao?a c i?eeiyoeie noaiaea?oaie oa e?eoa??yie, cae?eniaiiy
iaiao?aeieo ei?eaoth/eo ae?e.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a a Oe?a?i? o 1888-1920 ?ieao” — aecia/aii iniaeeaino?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae, ui coiiaeee oi?ioaaiiy
nenoai i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, cie?aia: eai?oae?caoe?y
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ci?ie a caieaaieiae?ii? oa
caieaei?enooaaii?, ui aoee aeeeeeai? noieei?inueeith aa?a?iith
?aoi?iith, aa?a?ia ia?aianaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? O?O no.

Cia/iee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy nenoai i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a iaee
i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaaeenue o i?iieneiaino?. Aei oaeeo i?ioean?a iaie
a?aeianaii: c?inoaiiy i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, no?oeoo?i? ci?ie a
i?iieneiaino?, cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoeiiiai ae?iaieoeoaa cai?noue ?o/iiai,
c?inoaiiy e?eueeino? i?iieneiaeo ?ia?oiee?a. Ona?aeiieaiiy caeaaeiino?
ia?niaeoea aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo a?ae noaio i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a noaei iaeiei ?c /eiiee?a, ui noi?ioaaee aea?aeaaieoeueea
noaaeaiiy aei oe??? ni?aae o?yaeiaeo no?oeoo? oa a?iiaaenueeino? ?in?? a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae.

Ia iniia? aiae?co no?oeoo?e ina?oi?o nenoai, ui ooieoe?iioaaee a Oe?a?i?
iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no. aecia/aii oa noa?aeoa?eciaaii
iniiai? oeie caeeaae?a ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, a yeeo
cae?enithaaeanue i?aeaioiaea ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, cie?aia: ieae/?
o/eeeua: Ieae/? oaoi?/i? o/eeeua: 1.Ieae/? oaoi?/i? o/eeeua
“ii?iaeueiiai” oeio; 2. Ieae/? oaoi?/i? o/eeeua, ui ae?yee ia iniia?
?iaeea?aeoaeueieo noaooo?a; 3.?ioaa?iaai? caeeaaee ina?oe. Ieae/?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? o/eeeua: 1.Ieae/? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee?
o/eeeua ?ioaa?iaaiiai oeio; 2.Ieae/? niaoe?aeuei?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? o/eeeua. ?ai?nie/? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee:
1.?ai?nie/? o/eeeua; 2.Ieae/? ?ai?nie/? oeiee, ui ae?yee ia i?aenoaa?
?iae?a?aeoaeueieo noaooo?a; 3.Ieae/? ?ai?nie/? oeiee “ii?iaeueiiai
oeio”; 4.Oeiee ?ai?nie/eo o/i?a; 5.?ai?nie/? i?eooeee aeey a?aeieo
ae?oae, ae?oae-ne??o, ae?oae-?iaae?ae?a. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oeiee:
1.N?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oeiee ? oa ?? ?ic?yae?a ?ioaa?aeueiiai oeio;
2.N?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? niaoe?aeuei? oeiee ? ? ?? ?ic?yae?a;
3.I?aeoe/i? ?ioaa?aeuei? oeiee; 4.I?aeoe/i? niaoe?aeuei? oeiee;
5.N?euenuee? ?ai?nie/? iaa/aeuei? iaenoa?i?; 6.E?nia? oeiee; ?ai?nie/?
eeane ? a?aeae?eaiiy i?e caeeaaeao ina?oe ??cieo oei?a. Caeeaaee aeey
iicaoe?eueii? i?ioan?eii? i?aeaioiaee i?aoethth/iai ianaeaiiy:
1.?iaeea?aeoaeueia i?iieneiaa o/i?anoai; 2.Oaoi?/i? ? ?ai?nie/?
iaenoa?i? oa eo?ne. AE?ii/? i?ioan?ei? iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee:
1.?oeiae?euei? ? ?ai?nie/? eeane i?e caaaeueiiina?oi?o caeeaaeao;
2.Iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee, aea ii?aeioaaeenue i?ioan?eia oa
caaaeueiiina?oiy i?aeaioiaea; 3;I?ioan?ei? eo?ne. Anueiai a Oe?a?i? o
1888-1917 ??. ooieoe?iioaaei 22 oeie caeeaae?a ieae/i? i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe.

Ia iniia? aeaoaeueiiai aiae?co aeyaeaieo ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, ui
?aaeaiaiooaaee ae?yeuei?noue oeeo caeeaae?a ina?oe, a oaeiae ca?o?a i?i
?oith ae?yeuei?noue, iaie aecia/aii oa?aeoa?i? iciaee oeeo caeeaae?a
ina?oe, cie?aia: caeeaaee ina?oe ia?aaoaaee a ??cieo oi?iao aeaniino?
(aea?aeaai?e, i?eaaoi?e, a?iiaaenuee?e); ?oiy ae?yeuei?noue
cae?enithaaeanue ia iniia? caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a;
i?ae caeeaaeaie i?ioan?eii? ina?oe ??cii? niaoe?ae?caoe?? ia ?nioaaei
aoaeue-yeeo ai?eciioaeueieo /e aa?oeeaeueieo ca`yce?a. Iaeiae, oae?
ca`ycee aoee a caeeaaeao ina?oe iaaii? niaoe?ae?caoe??. Aeeeaaeaia aeua
aea? i?aenoaae aeey aeniiaeo: a ?in?? ?nioaaee nenoaie i?iieneiai?,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oa ae?ii/i? ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe.
A?aeiia?aeii aoei noi?iiaaii niaoeeo?/io nenoaio oi?aae?iiy oeeie
caeeaaeaie.

O ?icae?e? iaa?oioiaaii oae? ??ai? ? noa`?eoe oi?aae?inueei?
ae?yeueiino?: ?.Caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiee ??aaiue: 1.I?i?noa?noai ia?iaeii?
ina?oe oa ie?ai? aaeocaa? I?i?noa?noaa. 2.Iiia/eoae? o/aiaeo ie?oa?a;
??.?aa?iiaeueiee ??aaiue: 1.Aee?aeoi?e oa ?iniaeoi?e ia?iaeieo o/eeeu.
2.O/eeeui? ?aaee. 3.Cainuee? i?aaie oi?aae?iiy; ???.Ieae/ee ??aaiue:
1.Iiia/eoae? iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a. 2.Iiia/eoaeuenuee? ?aaee.
3.Iaaeaaia?/i? ?aaee caeeaae?a ina?oe. 9.Ea??aieee caeeaae?a ina?oe.
Iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie uiaei iniaeeai? ?ie? I?i?noa?noaa ia?iaeii?
ina?oe a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. Aeyaeaii
aieiai? iai?yie eiai ae?yeueiino? a noa?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. Ii-ia?oa,
oea ae?iaeaiiy aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a aaeoc? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe.
Iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no. I?i?noa?noai ia?iaeii? ina?oe
?i?oe?thaaei o?e ?aoi?ie i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. Ia?oa ?aoi?ia ?icii/aeanue
?c 1888 ?.: i?ney i?eeiyooy “Iniiaieo iieiaeaiue i?i i?iieneia? o/eeeua”
cai?noue ie?aieo caeeaae?a ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe ii/aee
noai?thaaoenue ie?ai? nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. Ae?oaa
?aoi?ia ?icii/aeanue o 1902 ?. Aiia ia?aaeaa/aea ?ai?aai?caoe?th
ae?yeueiino? oaoi?/ieo o/eeeu c iaoith ?oiuei? i???ioaoe?? ia
i?aeaioiaeo oaoi?e?a oa niaoe?ae?no?a na?aaeiuei? eaiee (cai?noue
eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a). O?aoy ?aoi?ia aoea i?aeaioiaeaia a 1916 ?.
?? iniiaia caaaeaiiy — noai?aiiy ie?aii? nenoaie i?ioan?eii? ina?oe,
eio?a iaea a ia`?aeiaoe nenoaie i?iieneiai?, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?,
ae?ii/i? ina?oe oa i?aeaioiaeo ? ia?ai?aeaioiaeo ?ia?oiee?a ia
ae?iaieoeoa?. Iaeiae, oey ?aoi?ia ia aoea ?aae?ciaaia /a?ac
?aaiethoe?ei? iiae?? 1917 ?.

Ua iaeiei iai?yiii ae?yeueiino? I?i?noa?noaa ia?iaeii? ina?oe a
oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a aoea
i?aai?caoi?nueea ?iaioa. sse cacia/aeinue a io?oe?eieo aeieoiaioao,
“anth c?iaeaio I?i?noa?noaii Ia?iaeii? Ina?oe ca aeaaaeoeyoue ?ie?a
?iaioo (noaiii ia 1908 ?.-?.E.) iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia aea? eaoaai???:
ia?oo noaiiaeoue iayai?noue i?aai?ciaaieo oa ?nioth/eo o aeaiee /an
onoaiia — oae ae iiaeoe, ina?oi?o cania?a aeey i?iaaaeaiiy a aeeooy ?
iioe?aiiy oaoi?/ii? ? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe; ae?oao /anoeio neeaaea?
noeoii?noue on?o ?ia?o i?aai?caoe?eiiai aai oai?aoe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, a
naia — ?ic?iaea ieoaiue, iia`ycaieo ?c iiaeaeueoei iioe?aiiyi oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe: neeaaeaiiy iieiaeaiue ? noaooo?a o/eeeu, i?aaee, iaa/aeueieo
i?ia?ai oiui” [Iaenei E. Iniiaiiieiaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiiai ia?aciaaiey //
Oaoie/aneia e eiiia?/aneia ia?aciaaiea. — 1908. — ?5.- N.7]. O
?acoeueoao? oaei? oe?eani?yiiaaii? ae?yeueiino? I?i?noa?noaii ia?iaeii?
ina?oe ca aeaaaeoeyoue ?ie?a aoei a?aee?eoi iiiaae 1700 iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. Oa?aeoa?iei aoei e oa, ui oey
ooieoe?y iioe?thaaeanue oaeiae ia caeeaaee ina?oe iaaea?aeaaii? oi?ie
aeaniino?, ye? noai?thaaeenue a?iiaaenueeeie i?aai?caoe?yie, i?eaaoieie
iniaaie, onoaiiaaie e i?aai?caoe?yie, eio?? ia i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeenue
ina?oyinueeiio a?aeiinoao. Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui I?i?noa?noaii ia?iaeii?
ina?oe a 1888-1917 ??. aoei ?ic?iaeaii oa iiaeaii ia caoaa?aeaeaiiy aei
aeueo aea?aeaaieo ?inoaioe?e 45 caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ui iaee caaaeueiee
oa?aeoa?, oa iiiaae 600 iieiaeaiue ? noaooo?a caeeaae?a ina?oe ??cieo
oei?a, ui cae?enithaaee i?aeaioiaeo ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. Oea I?i?noa?noai
cae?enithaaei oaeiae iia?aoeaia oi?aae?iiy ie?aieie caeeaaeaie ieae/i?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe.

Cia/io ?ieue a oi?aae?ii? caeeaaeaie nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a a?ae?a?aaaee iiia/eoae? o/aiaeo ie?oa?a. O ?icae?e? aeeeaaeaii
iniiai? iai?yie ?oiuei? oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? uiaei nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a: iaaeyae ca aeio?eiaiiyi o iaa/aeueieo
caeeaaeao ii?i /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa oa ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a;
ia??iaee/ia aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino? iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ie?oao;
ae??oaiiy eaae?iaeo ieoaiue; cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a na?aaei?o oa ieae/eo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao aeiaeaoeiaeo eo?n?a c o?aooaaiiyi i?noeaaeo
iio?aa. Aeineoue oe?ie? iiaiiaaaeaiiy iaee iiia/eoaei a oi?aaeiii?
oiiainaie caeeaaeia inaioe.

Iniiaieie noa`?eoaie a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? aoee aee?aeoi?e oa ?iniaeoi?e ia?iaeieo o/eeeu.
Noai?aiiy ii?iaeueieo oiia aeey ooieoe?iioaaiiy caeeaae?a ina?oe,
iaaeyae ca ?oiueith ?iaioith, caeo/aiiy ianaeaiiy aei ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeai caeeaae?a ina?oe – oae iaie aecia/aii iniiai? iai?yie a ci?no?
?oiuei? oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a
ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? cae?enithaaee oaeiae cainuee? onoaiiae oa
o/eeeui? ?aaee, ye? noai?thaaeenue o aoaa?i?yo oa iia?oao ye i?aaie
a?iiaaenueeiai oi?aae?iiy ni?aaaie ina?oe. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiaaaeaii, ui oeei i?aaenoaaieoeueeei i?aaiai aoee aeaeaaiaai?
aeineoue oe?ie? i?aaa a ?ica’ycaii? ie?aieo ieoaiue ae?yeueiino?
nenoai i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, cie?aia: oi?ioaaiiy ia?aae?,
iiooe aeiaeaoeiaeo aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy, a?iiaaenueeee eiio?ieue ca
?oiueith ae?yeuei?noth.

A oi?aae?ii? caeeaaeaie ina?oe iniaeeai aeoeaiith aoea a?iiaaenuee?noue.
Oaeee aeniiaie i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aiae?cii aeieoiaio?a, ui
?aaeaiaiooaaee ae?yeuei?noue ii/anieo iiia/eoae?a, ii/anieo niio?eoae?a,
iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aae, niaoe?aeueieo ainiiaea?nueeeo eii?oao?a. Aei ?oi?o
iiaiiaaaeaiue aoei a?aeianaii: noai?aiiy iaiao?aeieo oiia aeey
ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a ina?oe; ni?eyiiy o i?aoeaaeaoooaaii? aeioneiee?a;
iaaeyae ca noaiii iaa/aeueii-iaoa??aeueii? aace; ainiiaea?nueea
ae?yeuei?noue; iaaeyae ca ?acoeueoaoeai?noth iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano. Iiaiiaaaeaiiy iaaeaaia?/ieo ?aae aeiaeaoeiai iioe?thaaeenue ia
?ica’ycaiiy ieoaiue ci?noo iaa/aiiy, oi?ioaaiiy o/i?anueeeo
eiioeiaaio?a, caioi/aiiy oa iiea?aiiy o/aniee?a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai
i?ioeano oiui.

Cia/ia e?euee?noue noa`?eo?a oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? iaaiith i??ith
iaiaaeoaaea i?aaa ea??aieea caeeaaeo ina?oe, eio?ee iae?aany
iiia/eoaeuenueeith ?aaeith ? caiaeii caoaa?aeaeoaaany aea?aeaaieie
i?aaiaie oi?aae?iiy. Iniiaiei o eiai oi?aae?inuee?e ae?yeueiino? aoee
i?aai?caoe?y aeeiiaiiy a caeeaae? ina?oe /eiieo ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a
oa ?iaioe iaaeaaia?/iiai eieaeoeao e ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo, iaaeyae
ca iiaaae?ieith ? iaa/aiiyi o/i?a, aeeiiaiiyi iaa/aeueiiai ieaio ?
aioo??oiueiai ?icii?yaeeo.

Oaea i?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a
aoea oa?aeoa?iith aei 1917 ?., eiee a ?in?? ?icii/aeenue ?aaiethoe?ei?
iiae??, a ?acoeueoao? yeeo noa?a nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aoea
c?oeiiaaia. Iaie anoaiiaeaii, ui aei 1920 ?. aeiaeiiio o?yaeo, eio?ee
ae?ya ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, ia aaeaeinue noai?eoe iiao nenoaio
oi?aae?iiy ina?oith acaaae? oa nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a
cie?aia. Ii?yae c oeei cacia/eii, ui oae? ni?iae iaee i?noea.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? — “Oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
o 1920-1929 ?ieao” – noa?aeoa?eciaaii iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?
oa i?aai?caoe?eii-iie?oe/i? oaeoi?e, ui coiiaeee noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei?
nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a — ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe oa
i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy iath. Aei nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
/eiiee?a, ye? aieeaaee ia oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a oa oi?aae?iiy iath iaie a?aeianaii: cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiai?
aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee ? iiai? iiaeae? ainiiaea?thaaiiy; ia?ao?ae a?ae
i?eioniai? i?aoe? aei a?eueiiai iaeio ?iai/i? neee, oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo
i?aoe?, c?inoaiiy i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, iineeaiiy nioe?aeueii?
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? naeyinoaa; oaoi?/ia ia?aica?i?iiy ae?iaieoeoaa,
i?aeaeuaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? aeo?ao aeeai? ? o?a/aaeaii? a caniaao
ae?iaieoeoaa i?aoe?; iaaecae/aeii oyaeea nioe?aeueia noaiiaeua ae?oae ?
i?aee?oe?a. Aecia/aeueiee aieea ia noaiiaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei?
nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a iaea a?aenooi?noue ia ii/aoeo
20-o ??. ?aeeii? aea?aeaaiino? a e?a?i?, ui aeaaaei ciiao Oe?a?i?
cae?enithaaoe naiino?eio ina?oith iie?oeeo. A ?icae?e? aeiaaaeaii, ui
iaeiei ?c aeya?a oaei? iie?oeee noaei noai?aiiy nenoaie ieae/i?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, eio?a iaea a?aei?iiino? a?ae aiaeia?/ii? nenoaie a
?in?? oa ?ioeo e?a?iao.

Ia iniia? aiae?co no?oeoo?e nenoaie ina?oe ie ae?eoee aeniiaeo uiaei
oa?aeoa?ieo iciae ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie, ye? aieeioee ia
oi?ioaaiiy niaoeeo?/ii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy iath. Aei ieo a?aeianaii
ianooiia: ii-ia?oa, aoiaeaeaiiy ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe aei nenoaie
ina?oe Oe?a?ie. Iaeiae oe?a?inueea nenoaia i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a aiaeii/an aoea ? naiino?eiith iaaeaaia?/iith nenoaiith, ui iaea
naith iaaio niaoeeo?eo — eiie?aoio iaoo, caaaeaiiy ? ci?no, a oaeiae
iaaiee “iaaeaaia?/iee iaoai?ci” — oaoiieia?th ?aae?caoe??; ii-ae?oaa,
nenoaia ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe iaea o?ni? ca`ycee c ?ioeie eaieaie
nenoaie ina?oe Oe?a?ie, ui aa?aiooaaeenue ianaiia?aae ?aeeieie
iaoiaeieia?/ieie canaaeaie ?? ae?yeueiino?; ii-o?ao?, ?? iniiaieie
no?oeoo?iooai?thth/eie aeaiaioaie aoee 12 oei?a caeeaae?a ieae/i?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe oe?eueii? oi?ie iaa/aiiy (i?ioan?ei? oeiee, oeiee
oaa?e/ii-caaiaenueeiai o/i?anoaa, oeiee ?ia?oie/i? iieiae?,
eonoa?ii-?ai?nie/? oeiee, aoaeeiee ?ia?oie/eo i?aee?oe?a,
iaa/aeueii-?ai?nie/? iaenoa?i?, n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?iooeiee
ii?iaeueiiai oeio oa ?ioaa?aeueiiai oeio, oeiee aao?aoeueei? iieiae?,
oeiee n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai o/i?anoaa, i?iooeiee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? aa?oeeae? oa oeiee eiioi?ao/o) oa
iicaoe?eueii? oi?ie iaa/aiiy (eo?ne iiia?aaeiuei? i?aeaioiaee ?c
niaoe?aeueieie caaaeaiiyie, eo?ne e?ea?aeaoe?? oaoi?/ii? aaca?aiioiino?,
eo?ne i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe??, eo?ne aeey io?eiaiiy aeiaeaoeiai?
niaoe?aeueiino?; iaoiaee/i? onoaiiae).

Ia iniia? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co ?yaeo ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a, ?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoeue, cie?aia, ea??aiee?a
Ia?eiiino Oe?a?ie, iaie iaa?oioiaaii aeaa aoaie o noaiiaeaii? oa
ae?yeueiino? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ieae/ith i?ioan?eiith ina?oith: ia?oee —
1920-1923 ??., ae?oaee — 1924-1929 ??. O ia?oiio aoai? iaie aeyaeaii
oae? ??ai? ? noa`?eoe oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?: caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiee
??aaiue: Ia?iaeiee Eii?na??ao ina?oe, Oe?a?inueeee aieiaiee eii?oao
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ? niaoe?aeueii-iaoeiai? ina?oe
(Oe?aieiai?io-ina?oa); ?aa?iiaeueiee ??aaiue: aoaa?i?yeuei?
(aoai?ioina?oa) oa iia?oia? eii?oaoe i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ?
niaoe?aeueii-iaoeiai? ina?oe (iia?o-i?ioina?oa); ieae/ee ??aaiue
oi?aae?iiy: oe?euei? ?aaee, ea??aieee caeeaae?a ina?oe.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ci?noo oa iniaeeainoae oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee
eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a o 1920-1923 ??. aeaei i?aenoaae aeey
aeniiae?a, ui ia caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio ??ai? iaei i?noea iioeiaeueia
ii?aeiaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e Ia?eiiino Oe?a?ie oa
Oe?aieiai?ioina?oe. Oae, Ia?iaeiee Eii?na??ao ina?oe aecia/aa caaaeuei?
canaaee ina?oiuei? iie?oeee a aea?aeaa?, a Oe?aieiai?ioina?oa, ae?th/e a
iaaeao ?aeeii? ina?oiuei? nenoaie, cae?enithaaea oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe acaaae? oa ieae/ith i?ioan?eiith ina?oith, cie?aia.
Aeey oeueiai Oe?aieiai?ioina?o? ? aoei iaaeaii iiaiiaaaeaiiy
naiino?eiiai i?aaio oi?aae?iiy. Aiia iaea aeanio i?aai?caoe?eio
no?oeoo?o, i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ?aa?iiaeuei? i?aaie oi?aae?iiy oa
o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueeo naiino?ei?noue. Aei iniiaieo iai?yi?a
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? Oe?aieiai?ioina?oe aoei a?aeianaii:
?ic?iaeo aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a aaeoc? ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? iie?oeee;
i?aai?caoi?nueeo ?iaioo, ni?yiiaaio ia ?icai?oaiiy ia?aae? caeeaae?a
ina?oe; iiooe aeiaeaoeiaeo eioo?a ia oo?eiaiiy caeeaae?a ina?oe;
i?aai?caoe?th aini?ic?aooieiai? ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a ieae/i?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe; aecia/aiiy iniiaieo canaae o ci?no? i?aeaioiaee a
caeeaaeao ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe; ?icai?oaiiy iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe oa
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai caaacia/aiiy caeeaae?a ina?oe, eiio?ieue ca
?oiueith ae?yeuei?noth. Cia/ia i?noea a oi?aae?inuee?e ae?yeueiino?
Ia?eiiino oa Oe?aieiai?ioina?oe caeiaei noai?aiiy ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai?
aace ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a oa onoaiia ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. Ca
aeyaeaieie aeaieie, a 1920-1923 ??. Oe?aieiai?ioina?oith aoei
?i?oe?eiaaii i?eeiyooy 23 o?yaeiaeo aeieoiaio?a ?c i?iaeai ieae/i?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe.

O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai? iai?yie ci?noo
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? aoaa?i?yeueieo oa iia?oiaeo eii?oao?a
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ? niaoe?aeueii-iaoeiai? ina?oe, cie?aia:
?ic?iaeaiiy ieaio cae?eniaiiy ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe ia oa?eoi???
aoaa?i??, ocaiaeaeaiiy eiai c i?noeaaeie i?aaiaie aeeiiaa/i? aeaaee;
i?aai?caoe?th ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe;
i?aeaioiaeo oa aeaeaiiy iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a ? e?oa?aoo?e. Aaaeeeaei
caaaeaiiyi Aoai?ioina?oe aoei ia`?aeiaiiy coneeue ie?aieo aoaa?i?yeueieo
i?aai?a ? i?ioni?eie o ?ica’ycaii? i?iaeai i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a. Aoai?ioina?oai aoei iaaeaii noaoon i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
Oe?aieiai?ioina?oe. Aiie ia?aaoaaee o iiaea?eiiio oi?aae?inueeiio
i?aeii?yaeeoaaii?, ui caaacia/oaaei ?aaeueia a?aooaaiiy i?noeaaeo
iniaeeainoae a i?aai?caoe?? ieaioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo ia?aae? caeeaae?a
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, a oaeiae ni?eyei aecia/aiith ?aa?iiaeueiiai
eiiiiiaioa ci?noo i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy.

C aiae?co a?o?aieo aeaea?ae aeieeaa?, ui a 1920-1923 ??. aeineoue
niaoeeo?/iith aoea i?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy ia ieae/iio ??ai? —
aaciina?aaeiuei a caeeaaeao ina?oe. Niaoeeo?ea iieyaaea a oiio, ui
oeaio?aeueiei i?aaiii oi?aae?iiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iei caeeaaeii ina?oe
aoea oe?eueia ?aaea. sse cacia/aeinue o iiiaoeaieo aeieoiaioao,
“oe?eueiee eieaeoea iae?a? ia ii/aoeo eiaeiiai iaa/aeueiiai ?ieo
oe?eueio ?aaeo, ui noaiiaeoue i?aai iioi/iiai ea?oaaiiy oa cae?enith?
ea?ioaaiiy i?iooeieith” [Eiaeaen Caeii?a i?i Ia?iaeith Ina?oo ON?? //
Ca??iee iinoaiia oa ?inii?yaeaeaiue ?ia?oie/i-naeyinueeiai o?yaeo
Oe?a?ie. — 1922. -?49. — N.891].

Iiaee aoai a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe ?icii/aany
a 1924 ?. Ia oeueiio aoai? aoei ?ai?aai?ciaaii Ia?eiiin oa na?aaeiueth
eaieo oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe.
Oe?aieiai?ioina?oo oa ?? ?aa?iiaeuei? i?aaie oi?aae?iiy aoei
e?ea?aeiaaii. I?eeiyooy oaeiai ??oaiiy coiiaethaaeinue ia?aoiaeii aei
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, eiai oeaio?ae?caoe??th.
A?aeiia?aei? ci?ie iaee i?noea oaeiae o ci?no? oi?aae?inueei?
ae?yeueiino?. Ia aeuiio oa ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??aiyo ia?oi/a?aiaith noaea
ooieoe?y eiio?ieth oa ?iniaeooaaiiy, iinooiiaee ia?ao?ae aei
oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai aecia/aiiy ci?noo i?aeaioiaee a caeeaaeao ieae/i?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. Ci?ieeenue i?aeoiaee aei i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy
eiie?aoiei caeeaaeii ina?oe. Ooieoe?? oe?eueieo ?aae iinooiiai
iaiaaeoaaeenue, iiaiiaaaeieie noaaaee oi?aae?inuee? ooieoe?? ea??aieea
caeeaaeo ina?oe. Oeae ia??iae o ae?yeueiino? nenoaie ieae/i? i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe cae?i/eany i?eeiyooyi o 1929 ?. ??oaiiy uiaei oi?o?eaoe??
ina?oi?o nenoai ?in?? oa Oe?a?ie.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? — “Oi?aae?iiy aaeocaaeie nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee
eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a o 1929-1940 ?ieao” — i?iaiae?ciaaii
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? /eiieee, ui coiiaeee oi?ioaaiiy aaeocaaeo nenoai
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, cie?aia: ni?iao noai?aiiy
ai?iii-eiioi?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa, caieaiiaaiee “no?eaie” o
i?iieneiaiio ?icaeoeo, caoiaee uiaei ou?eueiaiiy ?iai/iai /ano, iiyao
aaeeei? e?eueeino? ciaaeieaieo naeyi, ye?, o?eath/e a?ae
eieaeoea?caoe??, iaiaaaeenue i?aoeaaeaoooaaoenue o i?iieneiaino?.
Aecia/aii ?yae ?aeaieia?/ieo i?e/ei, eio?? iaee cia/iee aieea ia
noai?aiiy aaeocaaeo nenoai i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. Oea —
iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy “iiaiai” ?ia?oie/iai eeano, i?aai?caoe?y
ianiaiai ?ooo ca iaieiae?iiy oaoi?/ieie ciaiiyie, ?icai?oaiiy
nioe?ae?noe/iiai ciaaaiiy. Aeiaaaeaii, ui aeieeiaiiy aaeocaaeo nenoai
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a noaei caeiiii??iei ?icaeoeii i?ioean?a
oi?o?eaoe?? oa oeaio?ae?caoe?? a ina?o?, a oaeiae iane?aeeii ai?ioueae c
?acoeueoaoaie oe?a?i?caoe?? oa iaiaaaiiyi “cieueoe aei inoaieo
oi?eaeueio ae?a?inueeo ina?oith nenoaio” [E?aa/aiei A. Nioe?aeuei? ci?ie
? iaoe?iiaeueia na?aeii?noue a Oe?a?i? OO no. / Ia?. c aiae. — E.:
Iniiae, 1997. — N.178]. Ooo/iee ?ic?ea i?ioan?eii? oa
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? i?aeaioiaee, iaaeaiiy ia?o?e nooi i?aeoe/iiai
ni?yioaaiiy noaee nooo?aeie oaeoi?aie oeueiai ?oei?aiiai i?ioeano. C
oe??th iaoith ieae/a i?ioan?eia ina?oa aoea aeaaaeaia c
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy Ia?eiiino, ui ia?aoai?eany o “aeeiiaa/ee i?aai ia?o??
c aeoaea iaiaaeaieie i?aaaie” [Aauaiei A. I?i?eo ina?oe a naiino?ei?e
Oe?a?i?. — Ithioai, 1957. — N.13].

Ni?eueiith iciaeith aeey an?o aaeocaaeo nenoai aoea oioiaei?noue
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?i ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. Oea
iiynith?ii oei, ui a aea?aeaa? ooieoe?iioaaea iaeneiaeueii
oeaio?ae?ciaaia oi?aae?inueea nenoaia, ae?yeuei?noue yei?
ni?yiiaoaaeanue ia ?aae?caoe?th ?aeeii? iie?oeee a aaeoc? i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a.

Aecia/aii oae? iniiai? oeie caeeaae?a ina?oe aaeocaaeo nenoai
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a: 1.Caeeaaee ina?oe aeey i?aee?oe?a:
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/i? oeiee; oeiee oaa?e/ii-caaiaenueeiai o/aieoeoaa
(OCO); oeiee o/aieoeoaa ianiaeo i?ioan?e (OOII) (oeiee ?aaeainiiiai
o/aieoeoaa, oeiee iaoeiii-o?aeoi?iiai o/aieoeoaa; oeiee ?aaeainiiiai
o/aieoeoaa; oeiee aoae?aaeueiiai o/aieoeoaa; oeiee a??ie/i-i?iieneiaiai
o/aieoeoaa); eonoa?ii-i?iieneia? oeiee; a?eaaaeia o/aieoeoai. 2.Caeeaaee
“aeiaeaoeiai? ?ia?oie/i? ina?oe”: oeiee ?ia?oie/iai thiaoeoaa;
oeiee-i?aei?e?inoaa; i?iooaoi?/i? eo?ne (eo?ne “anooio” o ae?iaieoeoai;
eo?ne “ieaiiaiai ia?anoaaiiy”; ?io? oi?ie eo?niai? i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oiee?a i?iieneiaino?; eo?niaa i?aeaioiaea aeey ?ia?oiee?a
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa).

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aeeeaaeaieo aeua iniiaieo
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?i i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a
aeicaieea ae?eoe aeniiaeo, ui, ia a?aei?io a?ae iiia?aaeiueiai ia??iaeo
?icaeoeo nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, ia?aaea caeeaae?a
ina?oe ye ia`?eo oi?aae?inueeiai aieeao iaaoea iiaeo iciae,
caeaa?eueoiai iaaaoeaiiai oa?aeoa?o. Aei oaeeo ci?i iaie a?aeianaii:
ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? oei?a caeeaae?a ina?oe; i???ioaoe?th ia
aocueeii?ioan?eio i?aeaioiaeo iaeaooi?o ?ia?oiee?a; cia/ia nei?i/aiiy
oa?i?i?a iaa/aiiy; eiiieaeooaaiiy oeeo caeeaae?a ina?oe ia iniia?
eeaniaiai i?aeoiaeo.

Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oa ?aeaieia?/i? /eiieee noaiiaeaiiy aaeocaaeo
nenoai i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, iniaeeaino? ??
no?oeoo?iooai?thth/eo aeaiaio?a coiiaeee oi?ioaaiiy niaoeeo?/ii? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy ieie. A ?icae?e? iaa?oioiaaii aeaa aoaie a ?icaeoeo
i?aai?caoe?? oa ci?noo oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a: ia?oee — 1929-1932 ??.; ae?oaee — 1932-1940 ??. Ia ia?oiio
aoai? aoee i?eeiyo? ia?o?eii-o?yaeia? ??oaiiy i?i ia?aaea/o caeeaae?a
ina?oe c i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a o i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy Aeui? ?aaee
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa (A?IA) oa ie?aieo ainiiaea?nueeeo ia?eiiao?a;
cae?enithaaany iiooe iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy aaeocaaiai oi?aae?iiy oa
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? Ia?iaeiiai eii?na??aoo ina?oe; iaee i?noea
ni?iae noai?aiiy iiaiai oeaio?aeueiiai i?aaio oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a oa i?aeaaeocaai? ?aaee c i?iaeai
?ia?oie/i? ina?oe; iiooeo oeyo?a i?aceae?e ?aeiiieo aeeiiaa/eo eii?oao?a
oa i?nueeeo ?aae aei oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe.
Cae?eniaiee anaa?/iee aiae?c aeaa i?aenoaae aeey aeniiaeo, ui oe?
ni?iae aoee iaaaeaeeie. I?ney e?ea?aeaoe?? A?IA (1932 ?,) oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a aoei ia?aaeaii aaeocaaei
ia?eiiaoai. Aiane?aeie oeueiai noi?ioaaeinue e?eueea nenoai oi?aae?iiy
i?aeaioiaeith ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a: o aaeocyo ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno, ui iaee caaaeueiinithcia cia/aiiy oa i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaeeny
caaaeueiinithciei ia?eiiaoai; o aaeocyo ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno, eio?? aoee a?aeianai? aei i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ?IE O?N?; aeey
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oiee?a, ui i?aoethaaoeiooue a ?ioeo aaeocyo
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno.

Aiae?c i?aai?caoe?? oa ci?noo oi?aae?iiy a nenoai? Ia?eiiaaaei?iio N?N?,
Ia?eiicaio oa Ia?eiii?aoe? Oe?a?ie aeaee i?aenoaae aeey aeniiaeo:
iacaaaeath/e ia ??cia a?aeii/a i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy, ci?no oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a aoa ?aeaioe/iei. Aeey iueiai
aoee oa?aeoa?ieie: /?oea ?iciaaeoaaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e i?ae
aeueie oa ?aa?iiaeueieie ??aiyie oi?aae?iiy; aei?noea oeaio?ae?caoe?y
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?; iayai?noue aaeeei? e?eueeino? ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a, ui ?aaeaiaiooaaee ae?yeuei?noue caeeaae?a nenoai
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. A?aei?iiino? a oi?aae?ii? aaeocaaeie
nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a iaee i?noea eeoa a i?aai?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy. O eiaeiiio a?aeiinoa? ooieoe?iioaaee ie?ai? oi?aae?inuee?
no?oeoo?e ia aeuiio oa ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy.

Oi?aae?iiy eiie?aoiei caeeaaeii ina?oe aoei cina?aaeaeaii a ?oeao eiai
ea??aieea, yeee io?eioaaa aeey oeueiai i?aeoi iaiaiaaeai? i?aaa.
Iani?aaae? ae neooaoe?y aoea aeaui ?ioith, i?i ui na?ae/eoue aea/aiiy
aaaaoueio ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a oa a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a. Ii-ia?oa,
ae?yeuei?noue ea??aiee?a iaiaaeoaaeanue iayai?noth aaee/acii?
e?eueeino? ii?iaoeaieo oa ?ino?oeoeaieo aeieoiaio?a, ui ?aaeaiaiooaaee
ae?yeuei?noue caeeaaeo i?aeoe/ii c eiaeiiai a?eueo aai iaio aaaeeeaiai
ieoaiiy oe?eueiiai aeeooy. Oae, eeoa a nenoai? caeeaae?a ina?oe
Ia?iaeiiai Eii?na??aoo oeyo?a niieo/aiiy ia ii/aoeo 40-o ??. iaie
aeyaeaii 22 /eiieo aeieoiaioe. Iniaeeai aei?noei ?aaeaiaiooaaeenue
o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueea oa iaa/aeueii-aeoiaia ae?yeuei?noue. Ii-ae?oaa,
i?eioeeiiai aaaeeea? oi?aae?inuee? ooieoe?? — ieaioaaiiy i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, aecia/aiiy ?? ci?noo cae?enithaaee aeu?
oi?aae?inuee? no?oeoo?e. Ii-o?ao?, i?aeoe/ii an? ea??aieee aoaeue-yei?
eaiee ina?oe ia?aaoaaee i?ae ieeueiei iaaeyaeii oa iino?eiei
?aeaieia?/iei oeneii, i?ae no?aoii caeioaa/aiiy o “iaoe?iiae?ci?” /e
aoaeue-yeiio “ooee?”. Iaeiaioa aeyaeaiiy naiino?eiino? ia aeiioneaeinue
? iaa?oue ia?ane?aeoaaeinue. Ii-i`yoa, iai?ee?ioe? 30-o ?ie?a o
eaae?iaiio neeaae? ea??aiee?a i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
a?aeaoeeny cia/i? ci?ie. Ia i?noea aee?aeoi??a iaa/aeueii-aeoiaieo
onoaiia, ye? aoee ca?eueiai? ?c oeeo iinaae i?ae /an /enoie, i?eeoee
iia? ethaee, a?eueo?noue c yeeo ia iaea iaeaaeiiai aeina?aeo ?iaioe.

Ioaea, noai?aia i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy aaeocaaeie nenoaiaie
i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ia iiaea caaacia/eoe
?oiueiai aoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

O i`yoiio ?icae?e? — “Oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a” –
aecia/aii iniiai? /eiieee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai oa iie?oe/iiai
?icaeoeo, ui coiiaeee oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a, cie?aia:
c?inoaiiy i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa; i?e?oa?ecaoe?y aeiiii?ee aea?aeaae;
a?aeaoaeiaa ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa i?ney cae?i/aiiy a?eie 1941-1945
??.; aenoaineaiee ?icaeoie ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno. Oea
iio?aaoaaei ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a, ?oiueiai ia?a?iciiae?eo. Aaeocaa? nenoaie ieae/i? i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe ia iiaee aeeiiaoe iia? caaaeaiiy. Naia oiio e aoei i?eeiyoi
??oaiiy i?i noai?aiiy nenoaie o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a. O ?icae?e? aecia/aii
iniiai? iciaee nenoaie o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a, cie?aia: iaaeaiiy nenoai?
oa?aeoa?o iai?aa?enueeiai? cae?eoi? i?aai?caoe??; cia/ia ciaioaiiy
e?eueeino? oei?a ina?oiuei-i?ioan?eieo caeeaae?a; iia?e?caoe?y o/i?a ia
iaa/aiiy a caeeaaeao o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a; aeei?enoaiiy ?o ye aeiaeaoeiai?
?iai/i? neee.

Oea aieeioei ia oi?ioaaiiy niaoeeo?/ii? i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e oa
ci?noo oi?aae?iiy. Noa`?eoaie oi?aae?iiy o nenoai? ia
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio ??ai? aoee Aieiaia oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a
i?e ?IE N?N? (1940-1946 ??.) oa I?i?noa?noai o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a N?N?
(1946-1959 ??.); ia ?anioae?eainueeiio ??ai? — ?anioae?eainueea
Oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a (1940-1946 ??.) oa Oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeo
?aca?a?a I?i?noa?noaa o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a N?N? (1946-1959 ??.). Aiae?c
ci?noo ae?yeueiino? oeeo oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo? aeaa i?aenoaae aeey
aeniiaeo, ui a caaaeueiinithcieo i?aaiao aoei cina?aaeaeaii i?aeoe/ii
an? iniiai? ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a.

Aieiaia caaaeaiiy ?anioae?eainueeeo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy — i?aai?caoe?y
aeeiiaiiy ??oaiue caaaeueiinithciiai a?aeiinoaa oa eiio?ieue ca
ae?yeuei?noth caeeaae?a nenoaie o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a. Aiaeia?/iith aoea
o/anoue a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a
?aa?iiaeueieo i?ae?icae?e?a oeeo oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo?. Aiae?c
a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a aeicaieea aecia/eoe oae? iniiai? iai?yie ?oiuei?
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?: aeeiiaiiy ??oaiue ia?o?eieo, ?aaeyinueeeo
oa aaeocaaeo i?aai?a c i?iaeai ae?yeueiino? nenoaie o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a;
?icaeoie ? caa?aaeaiiy ia?aae? caeeaae?a ina?oe; cae?eniaiiy
iaa/aeueii-ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?; i?aai?caoe?y iaoiaee/ii?,
iie?oeei-aeoiaii? oa o?ceoeueoo?ii-ianiai? ?iaioe; i?aai?caoe?y iaai?o,
aeioneo oa i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy iieiaeeo ?ia?oiee?a;
o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueea caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a oa onoaiia
nenoaie o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a. Ea??aieoeoai ae?yeuei?noth caeeaae?a ina?oe
cae?enithaaa aee?aeoi?, oi?aae?inuee? ooieoe?? yeiai a oiiaao aei?noei
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy iaeneiaeueii iaiaaeoaaeenue.
Iniiaieie a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a aoee
i?aai?caoe?eii-?icii?yae/? aai aaei?i?no?aoeai? iaoiaee. Naia caaaeyee
aenie?e i?aai?ciaaiino? oa oeaio?ae?caoe?? ea?oth/a nenoaia
caaacia/oaaea ??ciiiai?oio oa oaeaeeo ?aaeoe?th ia aoaeue-ye? ci?ie a
ea?iaai?e nenoai?.

Aeyaeaii oae? iniaeeaino? a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a:
iayai?noue /?oei no?oeoo?iaaii? oi?aae?inueei? “aa?oeeae?”; iaeneiaeueia
oeaio?ae?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy; cina?aaeaeaiiy a i?aaiao oi?aae?iiy aeuiai
??aiy i?aeoe/ii an?o oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aei
i?aai?caoe?? oa ci?noo oi?aae?iiy iiai?noth a?aeiia?aeaa
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe?? a aea?aeaa? oa iniiaiei canaaeai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy a i?e.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? — “Oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe
a 1959-1998 ?ieao” – i?iaiae?ciaaii i?e/eie, ui coiiaeee noai?aiiy
nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe oa aeeeaaeaii ?? oa?aeoa?i? ?ene
ye ia`?eoa oi?aae?inueeiai aieeao. Aei iniiaieo i?e/ei ?ai?aai?caoe??
nenoaie o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a o nenoaio i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe iaie
a?aeianaii: c?inoaiiy i?iieneiaiai ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?-nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ia iniia? aenoaineaiiai ?icaeoeo ia?iaeiiainii-aea?nueeiai
eiiieaeno; iecueeee ??aaiue i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?; iacaaeia?eueia
aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a; no?oeoo?i? ci?ie o
oi?ioaaii? aeioiae?a aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo; ?icaeoie i?ioean?a
ianiaiai a?aeoieo iieiae? c naea (o 50-60-o ??.). O oiae? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeyaeaii oae? iniaeeaino? nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe: ciaioaiiy
e?eueeino? oei?a iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a; iinooiiaa ?ai?aai?caoe?y ?o a
?aeeiee oei; no??iea c?inoaiiy e?euee?nieo ia?aiao??a nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; iiooe iioeiaeueieo oeyo?a ii?aeiaiiy
iaa/aeueii? oa ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?; /anoeiaa a?aeiiaeaiiy i?eioeei?a
ainiiaea?nueeiai ?ic?aooieo; cia/ia ci?oeiaiiy iaa/aeueii-iaoa??aeueii?
aace oa noai?aiiy ianeoaiaoth/i? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

Ia oeueiio aoai? iaoeiaiai iiooeo iaie aecia/aii ?yae niaoeeo?/ieo iciae
a i?aai?caoe?? oa ci?no? oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe. Ia?aaeon?i, oea — aeoeaia o/anoue a oi?aae?ii? aeueo ia?o?eieo
? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a. I?i oea na?ae/eoue oa, ui i?ioyaii 1959-1987 ??.
aoei i?eeiyoi 56 ia?o?eii-o?yaeiaeo iinoaiia c ieoaiue i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a.

O ?icae?e? aeiaaaeaii, ui aeoeaio o/anoue a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a?aee o?yaeia? no?oeoo?e. A aeeiai?oe?
oeueiai i?ioeano iaie aecia/aii aeaa aoaie: ia?oee 1959-1966 ??.,
ae?oaee — 1966-1988 ??. Aeey ia?oiai aoaio aoei oa?aeoa?iei ?icoe?aiiy
i?aa ?anioae?eainueeiai o?yaeo a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe. Oea aeyaeyeinue o caoaa?aeaeaii? ieai?a
i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a o i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo o/eeeuao;
?ic?iaoe? ia?niaeoeaieo ? ??/ieo ieai?a i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiy iieiae?;
cae?eniaii? i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a aeey ?ioeo nithcieo
?anioae?e ? i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia oa i?aai?caoe?e nithciiai
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy a ianyaao, ui aecia/aeenue ca?aeii c
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeeie ieaiaie; ?iciiae?e? i?aeaioiaeaieo
eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a; eiio?ie? ca i?aaeeueiei aeei?enoaiiyi
iieiaeeo ?ia?oiee?a; i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe c i?eeiio iieiae? aei
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo o/eeeu oa caaacia/aii? iia?aoeaiiai ea??aieoeoaa
?oiuei? ae?yeuei?noth; o?iainoaaii? oa iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiio
caaacia/aii? onoaiia ? caeeaae?a nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe. Ia
ae?oaiio aoai? o/anoue o?yaeo O?N? a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe aoea cia/ii caoaeaia. Aiaeii/an
?icoe?thaaeenue iiaiiaaaeaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai Eii?oaoo N?N? c
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe ye caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiai i?aaio oi?aae?iiy.

A?aeaoeenue ci?ie a ci?no? ae?yeueiino? ?anioae?eainueeeo i?aai?a
oi?aae?iiy: Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe i?e ?aae?
I?i?no??a O?N? oa Aea?aeaaiiai Eii?oaoo ?aaee I?i?no??a O?N? c
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe. Nooi?noue oeeo ci?i iieyaaea o caoaeaii?
oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e inoaiiueiai. Iniiai? c ieo iinooiiai
ia?aaeaaaeenue Aea?aeaaiiio eii?oaoo N?N? c i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe,
a ia ?anioae?eainuee? i?aaie oi?aae?iiy aoei iieeaaeaii i?aai?caoe?th
aeeiiaiiy eiai ??oaiue.

Aeiaaaeaii, ui cia/io ?ieue a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe a?ae?a?aaaee iaeani? (i?nuee? a i?noao Ee?a? oa Naaanoiiie?)
oi?aae?iiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe. Aecia/aii i`youe iniiaieo
iai?yi?a ?oiuei? oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?: ieaioaaiiy
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe a ?aa?ii?, i?aai?caoe?y iaa/aeueii-aeoiaii?
oa iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ii? ?iaioe, cae?eniaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiai
caaacia/aiiy caeeaae?a ina?oe, ?iaioa c ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieie
eaae?aie, cae?eniaiiy ?iniaeooaaiiy oa eiio?ieth ca ?iaioith caeeaae?a
ina?oe.

Aaaaoinooiaiaaa i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe ia caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio oa ?aa?iiaeueiiio
??aiyo coiiaeea niaoeeo?/i? i?aeoiaee aei oi?aae?iiy eiie?aoiei
caeeaaeii i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe. Ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe, ye?
?aaeaiaiooaaee i?aoeth ea??aiee?a i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo o/eeeu, ca?oia
aeieoiaioaoe?y i?i ?iaioo caeeaae?a ina?oe aeaee i?aenoaae aeey
aeniiaeo, ui iniiaieie a ci?no? oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? aee?aeoi??a
aoee: i?aai?caoe?y aeeiiaiiy iaeac?a, ?ino?oeoe?e, ?ioeo aee?aeoeaieo ?
iaoiaee/ieo aeac?aie i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy aeui? eaiee i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
ia?o?eieo i?aai?caoe?e. I?ia?aeiei o ci?no? ae?yeueiino? ea??aieea
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iiai o/eeeua aoei i?aeo?eiaiiy noaa?eueiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy caeeaaeo a iaaeao, aecia/aieo /eiieie ii?iaoeaieie
aeieoiaioaie.

Cia/ia oaaaa a ?icae?e? i?eae?eaia aiae?co ?ioaa?aoe?? nenoai
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? oa ia?iaeii? ina?oe, ui iaea i?noea o 80-o ??., oa
?? aieeao ia i?aai?caoe?th e ci?no oi?aae?iiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iith
ina?oith. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaiei ?acoeueoaoii ?ioaa?aoe?eieo i?ioean?a
noaei iaoai?/ia ia`?aeiaiiy aeaio nenoai oa i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy ieie. Ia
caaaeath/e ia oea, i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia ina?oa caa?aaea an?
nenoaiiooai?thth/? iciaee. A no?oeoo?? oa ci?no? oi?aae?iiy a?aeaoeenue
ci?ie. Cia/ii iineaaeeenue oeaio?enonuee? oaiaeaioe??, ?yae aaaeeeaeo
oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e aoei aeaeaaiaaii ?aa?iiaeueiei i?aaiai
oi?aae?iiy oa ea??aieeai caeeaae?a ina?oe, iineeeeanue oaaaa aei
aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a, cai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue aeaiaioe
aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueei? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iith
ina?oith. Iaeiae o iiaeaeueoiio oe? iiceoeai? iaaeaaiiy ia aoee
cae??ieai?.

C oeeo oa ?ioeo i?e/ei nenoaia i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe iaaoea iiaeo
iciae ye ia`?eo oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?, cie?aia: i?ecoieieeenue
?ai?oa ?icii/ao? i?ioeane oaeineiiaeaiiy ia?ae?eo i?ioan?e;
caaaeueiiina?oiy i?aeaioiaea iaeneiaeueii iaaeeceeanue aei ci?noo
iaa/aiiy a caaaeueiiina?oi?e oeie?; i?iooaoo/eeeua ii/aee i???iooaaoenue
ia iecueeee ca ??aiai i?aeaioiaee eiioeiaaio aeioneiee?a ainueieo eean?a
caaaeueiiina?oiuei? oeiee; cia/ii iia??oeeinue eaae?iaa caaacia/aiiy
i?iooaoina?oe; cai?iaaaeaeoaaany caeeoeiaee i?eioeei ?iciiae?eo
o?iainiaeo ? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a; caie?eaeanue i?aeaioiea i?iaeo?a
caeiiiaeaa/eo ? ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a; ooo/ii aaeueioaaeinue
aeei?enoaiiy i?ia?aneaieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy a i?iooaoina?o?. Oea
oiaiiaeeeaethaaei ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, ui ii/aea
oi?ioaaoenue a Oe?a?i? i?ney i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino?.

O ?icae?e? noa?aeoa?eciaaii iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? oi?ioaaiiy
i?aai?caoe?eii? no?oeoo?e oa ci?noo oi?aae?iiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iith
ina?oith a 1991-1998 ??. Iaa?oioiaaii aeniiaie uiaei ?oiuei?
iaaeinoaoiuei? a?aeiia?aeiino? caaaeaiiyi o?ainoi?iaoe??
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe a oiiaao ?ioi?iaoe?eii-oaoi?/ii?
?aaiethoe??, oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei oa ?eieo i?aoe?.

I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe aoea c?iaeaia ni?iaa aianoe ci?ie a i?aai?caoe?th
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe. Eaeaoueny i?i
noai?aiiy a 1991 ?. o neeaae? I?i?noa?noaa Eii?oaoo c i?ioan?eii?
ina?oe, aioo??oi? ?ai?aai?caoe?? aia?aoo Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe oiui. Iaeiae oe? caoiaee ia noaee aaaiiei
/eiieeii oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe. A i?e c`yaeeeny iciaee, ye? ii?yae c ?ioeie oaeoi?aie nooo?ai
coiiaeee iia??oaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe.
Iaaoee iioe?aiiy i?ioeane oeaio?ae?caoe?? oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?.
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe cae??ieei ca niaith cia/io /anoeio ooieoe?e
iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy caeeaaeaie ina?oe, ye? /a?ac iaei/enaeuei?noue
aia?aoo oi?aae?iiy caeeoeeenue ia?aae?ciaaieie. Cia/ii iia??oeeinue
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? nenoaie i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. Ia cae?enith?oueny i?ioean aaeaioaoe??
ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio nenoaie aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

Oe? i?ioeane iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia ae?yeuei?noue ?aa?iiaeueieo
i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy. C iaoith iie?ioaiiy ?oiueiai aieeao ia
ae?yeuei?noue nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio
??ai? noaee noai?thaaoenue Eii?oaoe c i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe.
Aoaeoeai?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? i?aeoaa?aeaeaia
“Iniiaieie iai?yiaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie”,
caoaa?aeaeaieie Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie 8 o?aaiy 1996 ?.

O ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii ia?niaeoeae oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe i?ney i?eeiyooy Caeiio Oe?a?ie
“I?i i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/io ina?oo” (1998 ?.). Aecia/aii iniiai? iai?yie
aeei?enoaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo o ?aoi?ioaaii? oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe o iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao.

AENIIAEE

1.A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe, eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue oa caaaeaiue
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?inoaaeaii aaiaco, i?iaiae?ciaaii aieea
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oa ?aeaieia?/ieo oaeoi??a
ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoie nenoai i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. Oea
aeaei iiaeeea?noue noi?ioethaaoe iieiaeaiiy i?i oa, ui ia ??cieo aoaiao
?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo iaoi? aea?aeaae ooieoe?iioaaee ??ci? nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, ye? iaee caaaeueio iaoo. Aiaeii/an aiie
iaee nooo?a? a?aei?iiino? o ci?no? oa no?oeoo?? i?ioan?eiiai iaa/aiiy,
i?aai?caoe?eii-iaaeaaia?/ieo oi?iao, oi?aae?ii?. Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa aaca ?oiueiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao iaee naith niaoeeo?eo.

2.Nenoaia i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ? noeoii?noue ina?oi?o i?ia?ai
? aea?aeaaieo ina?oi?o noaiaea?o?a aeey i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo
?ia?oiee?a; ia?aaea caeeaae?a ina?oe, a yeeo ?aae?cothoueny ina?oi?
i?ia?aie; i?aaie oi?aae?iiy i?aeaioiaeith ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a oa
i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ?i onoaiiae e i?aei?e?inoaa. Ia iniia? oai?aoe/iiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaio i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a iaie a?aeianaii aei
eeano iaaeaaia?/ieo nenoai c ae?iaie/eie ooieoe?yie.

3.Aaiethoe?y nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a o 1888-1998 ??.
coiiaeaia noeoii?noth noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oa nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
oaeoi??a ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, cie?aia:

eai?oae?caoe??th n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa, noieei?inueeith aa?a?iith
?aoi?iith, i?iieneiaei ia?aai?ioii, oaeaeeei c?inoaiiyi i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa — iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ia ii/aoeo OO no.;

niaoeeo?eith aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith, cae?eniaiiyi iie?oeee oe?a?i?caoe??,
cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi iiai? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee c ?? ?eieiaeie aeaiaioaie,
a?aeaoaeiaith ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, ?iaeono??ae?caoe??th oa
eieaeoea?caoe??th, ii/aoeii ieaiiai? aeiiii?ee, ?ic?iaeith oa
?aae?caoe??th aaeeeeo aea?aeaaieo ainiiaea?nueeeo i?ia?ai, nioe?aeueiei
noaiiaeuai ae?oae, i?aee?oe?a oa iieiae? — o 20-o ??.;

noai?aiiyi “ai?iii-eiioi?noe/iiai noni?euenoaa”, ?icaeoeii i?ioean?a
oi?o?eaoe?? oa oeaio?ae?caoe?? ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?,
“i?aeoeueinooaaiiyi” ?iaeono??ae?caoe??, iaiao?aei?noth oi?ioaaiiy
“iiaiai” ?ia?oie/iai eeano, i?ioeanaie o?aai?caoe??, oi?ioaaiiyi o
noni?euenoa? aeooiaii-?aeaieia?/iiai iaoai?cio, iniiaith yeiai aoea
eeaniaa ai?ioueaa — o 30-o ??.;

c?inoaiiyi ianya?a i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa iaia?aaeiaei? ae?oai?
na?oiai? a?eie, i?e?oa?ecaoe??th aeiiii?ee, noai?aiiyi nenoaie aaeeeeo
aea?aeaaieo ?aca?a?a, a?aeaoaeiaith ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno
i?ney Aaeeei? A?o/eciyii? a?eie 1941-1945 ??. — o 40-50-o ??.;

aenoaineaiei ?icaeoeii ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno, “i?ei?oeaiith
?iaeono??ae?caoe??th”, iecueeei ??aiai i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?,
iacaaeia?eueiei aeei?enoaiiyi o?oaeiaeo ? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a,
no?oeoo?ieie ci?iaie o oi?ioaaii? aeioiae?a aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo,
?icaeoeii i?ioean?a a?aeoieo iieiae? c naea — o 50-60-o ??.;

“ia?aaoaeiaith” ?aaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, i?iaieioaiiyi ?aea?
aacia?a?aii? ina?oe — o 80-o ??.;

?icaeoeii o 90-o ??. ?eieiaeo i?ioean?a a aeiiii?oe? iacaeaaeii?
Oe?a?ie.

4.Nenoaia i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a Oe?a?ie i?ieoea a nai?io
?icaeoeo oae? ia??iaee:

Ia?oee ia??iae — ?c e?ioey 80-o ?ie?a O?O noie?ooy — aei 1920 ?. I?ney
i?eeiyooy “Iniiaieo iieiaeaiue i?i i?iieneia? o/eeeua” (1888?.) aoei
noi?iiaaii nenoaie i?aeaioiaee i?iieneiaeo ? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
?ia?oiee?a, ae?ii/i? ina?oe. Oe? nenoaie ?nioaaee aei 1920 ?., ca
aeiyoeii oeo caeeaae?a ina?oe, ae?yeuei?noue yeeo aoea i?eieiaia /a?ac
ia?oo na?oiao oa a?iiaaeyinueeo a?eie ? ainiiaea?nueeo ?ic?ooo.

Ae?oaee ia??iae — 1920-1929 ??. Noai?aiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
nenoaie ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, yea aaaaoi a /iio a?ae??ciyeany a?ae
nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe. Oeae ia??iae caaa?oeany a 1928-1929
??., eiee aoee i?eeiyo? o?yaeia? oa ia?o?ei? ??oaiiy i?i oi?o?eaoe?th
ina?oi?o nenoai ?in?? oa Oe?a?ie.

O?ao?e ia??iae — 1929-1940 ??. Nenoaia i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a
aoea i?aeii?yaeeiaaia ainiiaea?nueeei ia?eiiaoai. O e?a?i?
ooieoe?iioaaee aaeocaa? nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a.

*aoaa?oee ia??iae — 1941-1959 ??. Ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? nenoaie
o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a ye iai?aa?enueeiai? i?aai?caoe?? c aei?noeei
oeaio?ae?ciaaiei oi?aae?iiyi, ui caaacia/oaaea iio?aae ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa o eaae?o?eiaai?e ?iai/?e nee?.

I’yoee ia??iae — 1959-1991 ??. Ooaa?aeaeaiiy na?aaeiueiai i?iooaoo/eeeua
ye ?aeeiiai oeio caeeaaeo i?iooaoina?oe, aea cae?enithaaeany
i?aeaioiaea ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, ia?ao?ae aei ?aeeieo iaa/aeueieo ieai?a
oa i?ia?ai, ia’?aeiaiiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? oa ia?iaeii? ina?oe a
?aeeio nenoaio.

Oinoee ia??iae — ?icii/eia?oueny ?c 1991 ?ieo. I?ney i?iaieioaiiy
iacaeaaeiino? a Oe?a?i? ?icii/aany i?ioean iiooeo aeanieo oeyo?a
?icaoaeiae nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. I?eeiyoi Caeii
Oe?a?ie “I?i i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/io ina?oo” (1998 ?.).

5.Aeyaeaii ?yae oaiaeaioe?e o ?icaeoeo ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a
Oe?a?i?. Aei ieo a?aeianaii: aeoeaia oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a
aaeoc? i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; ?icaeoie nenoaie ieae/i?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe ye neeaaeiai? ina?oiuei? nenoaie aea?aeaae;
iaeneiaeueia a?aooaaiiy iio?aa ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno o
oi?ioaaii? oa ?icaeoeo nenoai i?ioan?eii? ina?oe; ??ciioeii?noue
caeeaae?a ina?oe, a yeeo cae?enithaaeanue i?aeaioiaea ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a; a?oioiaia ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa caaacia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? nenoaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; noai?aiiy naiino?eieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy
oaeeie nenoaiaie; iaiaaaiiy noai?eoe nenoaio aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueeiai
oi?aae?iiy ieae/ith i?ioan?eiith ina?oith; oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a; ii?aeiaiiy aeeiai?/iiai oa aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai i?aeoiae?a aei
oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ?c caa?aaeaiiyi iaaii? noaa?eueiino? a ?ica’ycaii?
oi?aae?inueeeo i?iaeai.

6.Aeyaeaii iniaeeaino? no?oeoo?e oa ci?noo oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie
i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao,
cie?aia:

o 1888-1920??. ooieoe?iioaaea aaaaoi??aiaaa no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. Ia caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio ??ai?
i?aaiaie oi?aae?iiy aoee I?i?noa?noai ia?iaeii? ina?oe oa aaeocaa?
i?i?noa?noaa, iiia/eoae? o/aiaeo ie?oa?a. Ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? —
?iniaeoi?e ? aee?aeoi?e ia?iaeieo o/eeeu, o/eeeui? ?aaee, cainuee?
i?aaie oi?aae?iiy. Ia ieae/iio ??ai? — iiia/eoae? iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a,
iiia/eoaeuenuee? oa iaaeaaia?/i? ?aaee ? ea??aieee caeeaae?a ina?oe.
Iniaeeao ?ieue a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a
a?ae?a?aaaei I?i?noa?noai ia?iaeii? ina?oe. Aiii oi?ioaaei aea?aeaaio
iie?oeeo a oe?e aaeoc?, cae?enithaaei i?aai?caoi?nueeo ?iaioo uiaei
noai?aiiy oa ?icaeoeo nenoaie, ?ic?iaeyei ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao aaco
ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a ina?oe, caaacia/oaaei iia?aoeaia oi?aae?iiy
ie?aieie oeiaie caeeaae?a ina?oe, aeaeaaaei aeicaiee ia i?aai
cae?eniaiiy ina?oiuei? ae?yeueiino? an?i caeeaaeai ina?oe iacaeaaeii
a?ae oi?i aeaniino?. Iniaeeainoyie o ci?no? oi?aae?iiy i?aeaioiaeith
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a aoee: /?oea ?iciaaeoaaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e ia
eiaeiiio c ??ai?a oi?aae?iiy; aenieee ??aaiue oeaio?ae?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy; oe?iea caeo/aiiy aei oi?aae?iiy caeeaaeaie ina?oe
a?iiaaenueeino?;

o 1920-1929 ??. oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
cae?enithaaee Oe?aieiai?ioina?oa ye iiaiiaaaeiee naiino?eiee i?aai
oi?aae?iiy oa i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ?e no?oeoo?e a ?aa?iiao. Aiaeii/an oea
ia ii?iaeaeoaaei a?ae??aaiino? nenoaie ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a?ae
caaaeueii? ina?oiuei? nenoaie. No?aoaa?/i? ??oaiiy uiaei ?icaeoeo oa
ia?niaeoea ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a
iaa?oioiaoaaeenue oa i?eeiaeenue a iaaeao ?aeeii? ina?oiuei? nenoaie, ui
ae?yea ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae. Aei i?ia?aeieo
iniaeeainoae oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe Oe?a?ie a
1920-1929 ??. iaie a?aeianaii: i?aaiaiiy ?icaoaeoaaoe naiiaooith
iaoe?iiaeueio nenoaio i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a oa ?ic?iaeoe
a?aeiia?aeia caeiiiaeaa/a e ii?iaoeaii-iaoiaee/ia caaacia/aiiy ??
ae?yeueiino?; ?nioaaiiy iiaiiaaaeieo oa ooieoe?iiaeueii iacaeaaeieo
i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith ia aeuiio e na?aaeiueiio ??aiyo oi?aae?iiy;
iine?aeiaia i?aai?caoi?nueea ?iaioa i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith ieae/i?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe, ni?yiiaaia ia noai?aiiy caeeaae?a i?ioan?eii? ina?oe
??ciiai oeio e ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?; oe?iea ?icai?oaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo
canaae oa aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith ieae/i?
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe;

o 1929-1940 ??. oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a
cae?enithaaee Aeua ?aaea ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa oa aaeocaa? Ia?eiiaoe,
a neeaae? yeeo aoei noai?aii niaoe?aeuei? oi?aae?inuee? no?oeoo?e.
Caaaeyee ?nioaaiith a aea?aeaa? iiaooiueiai aia?aoo aea?aeaaii? aeaaee,
?aeeii? ?aeaieia?? oa ia?o?eiiai ea??aieoeoaa oe? nenoaie iaee aaaaoi
ni?eueiiai, a oiio /ene? e o ci?no? oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?
(caaaeuei? eiioeaiooaeuei? iai?yie ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a, a yeeo
cae?enithaaeany i?aeaioiaea ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; ?aeeia nenoaia
ieaioaaiiy i?aeaioiaee ?iai/i? neee; ?aeaieia?/ia ni?yioaaiiy ??
ae?yeueiino?; nenoaia eiio?ieth ca ?iciiae?eii oa aeei?enoaiiyi eaae??a
aeioneiee?a caeeaae?a ina?oe).

Aecia/aii oae? iniaeeaino? a oi?aae?ii? aaeocaaeie nenoaiaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a: /?oea ?iciaaeoaaiiy ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a i?ae aaeocaaeie ia?eiiaoaie oa
Ia?iaeiei eii?na??aoii ina?oe; noai?aiiy aaeocaaeo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; a?aenooi?noue ia
?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a (o ??cieo aaeocyo i?iieneiaino? ?anioae?eainueeiai
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy); canoinoaaiiy ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy noo?
oa oi?i oi?aae?iiy i?aeaioiaeith ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ia aeuiio ??ai?;
iayai?noue cia/ii? e?eueeino? aaeocaaeo ?ino?oeoeaieo oa ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaio?a, ui ?aaeaiaiooaaee ae?yeuei?noue caeeaae?a ina?oe c eiaeiiai
ieoaiiy ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?;

o 1940-1959 ??. oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a cae?enithaaee
Aieiaia oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a i?e ?aaeia?eii? N?N?, I?i?noa?noai
o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a N?N? oa i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ?i ?anioae?eainuee? e
iaeani? oi?aae?inuee? no?oeoo?e. Oa?aeoa?ieie iniaeeainoyie oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a aoee: iayai?noue no?oiei? oi?aae?inueei?
“aa?oeeae?”; iaeneiaeueia oeaio?ae?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy; cina?aaeaeaiiy a
oeaio?aeueiiio i?aai? oi?aae?iiy iniiaieo oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e, aac
aoaeue-yeiai aeaeaaoaaiiy /anoeie c ieo ia ieae/? ??ai? oi?aae?iiy.
Aaeeeiai cia/aiiy a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith o?oaeiaeo ?aca?a?a iaaeaaaeinue
iaoiaee/i?e ?iaio?, ii?iaoeaiiio, i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/iiio caaacia/aiith,
i?aai?caoe?? eiiieaeooaaiiy caeeaae?a ina?oe iieiaeaeth, ii?iaoeaia
caaacia/aiiy ?oiuei? ae?yeueiino?, oioaeueiiio eiio?ieth ca
ae?yeuei?noth caeeaae?a ina?oe, i?aai?caoe?? aeeiiaiiy ae?th/eo
?ino?oeoeaii-ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a;

o 1959-1991 ??. oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe
cae?enithaaee Aea?aeaaiee Eii?oao ?aaee I?i?no??a N?N? c
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe (1959-1988 ??.), Aieiaia oi?aae?iiy
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe O?N? (1959-1966 ??.), Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao
?aaee I?i?no??a O?N? c i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe (1966-1988 ??.) oa
i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ?i iaeani? e i?nuee? (o i?noao Ee?a? ? Naaanoiiie?)
oi?aae?iiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe. A ci?no? oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe aei 1988 ?. iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?eyeanue:
i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? nenoaie ia aeeiiaiiy ia?o?eii-o?yaeiaeo
??oaiue c i?iaeai i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; a?oioiaiiio
ii?iaoeaiiio caaacia/aiith ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a ina?oe, a yeeo
cae?enithaaeanue i?aeaioiaea ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; nenoaiaoe/i?e ?
aaaaoianiaeoi?e ?iaio? c ea??aieie oa ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieie
eaae?aie; iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/iiio caaacia/aiith caeeaae?a
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe.

O 1988 ?. aoei cae?eniaii ?ioaa?aoe?th nenoai i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ?
ia?iaeii? ina?oe. Iaeaieiai?oei o oeeo i?ioeanao aoei ia`?aeiaiiy
i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ? ia?iaeii? ina?oe, a
?acoeueoao? /iai oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a
ia?aeoei aei Aea?aeaaiiai Eii?oaoo N?N? c ia?iaeii? ina?oe, I?i?noa?noaa
ia?iaeii? ina?oe O?N?. Aiane?aeie oeeo i?ioean?a, eio?? oae ? ia iaaoee
iciae ?ioaa?oaaiiy, a ci?no? oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe c`yaeeenue iia? iniaeeaino?, cie?aia: iineaaeaiiy oeaio?enonueeeo
oaiaeaioe?e; aeaeaaoaaiiy ?yaeo aaaeeeaeo oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e ia
ieae/ee ??aaiue oi?aae?iiy ?c caa?aaeaiiyi ca aeueie i?aaiaie
ii?iaoeaiiai caaacia/aiiy oa eiio?ieueieo ooieoe?e; ni?iae ia?aaea/?
oi?aae?iiy cia/iith e?euee?noth i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ieo o/eeeu ?ioei
(aaeocaaei) i?i?noa?noaai oa a?aeiinoaai; cai?iaaaeaeaiiy /anoeiaeo
aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy; oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy a oi?aae?ii?
nenoaiith i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe i?eioeei?a aeaiie?aoecio;
iaiaaaiiy noai?eoe nenoaio aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueeiai oi?aae?iiy
i?aeaioiaeith ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a.

I?ney i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? (1991 ?.) i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i? a
iniiaiiio caeeoeeanue aac ci?i. Ia oeueiio aoai? a?aeaoaa?oueny
iino?eia nei?i/aiiy e?eueeino? oi?aae?ioe?a-i?ioan?iiae?a a i?aaiao
oi?aae?iiy ia caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio oa ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??aiyo.
A?aeaoeenue ci?ie a ci?no? oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?, cie?aia:
iia??oeeiny ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa, i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/ia ?
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ia caaacia/aiiy nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe;
ao?a/aii iaaooee aeina?ae aeaiie?aoecaoe?? oi?aae?iiy caeeaaeaie
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe oa aeei?enoaiiy aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a
oi?aae?iiy; iineeeeenue oeaio?enonuee? oaiaeaioe?? o aecia/aii? ci?noo
iaa/aiiy. C iaoith iie?ioaiiy oi?aae?iiy caeeaaeaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? ii/eiathoue noai?thaaoenue niaoe?aeuei?
i?aaie oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a — Eii?oaoe c
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe a no?oeoo?? oi?aae?iue ina?oe iaeanieo
aea?aeaaieo aaei?i?no?aoe?e.

7.I?ia?aei? ?aea? iiceoeaiiai ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? o ?aoi?ioaaii?
no/anii? nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe ia aeaio ??aiyo: oai?aoeei-
iaoiaeieia?/iiio ? i?aeoe/iiio.

Ia oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iiio ??ai? eiai aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeaa aeey
?ic?iaee eiioeaioe?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a
oa oi?aae?iiy iath, oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iiai oa iaoiaee/iiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy i?aeaioiaee oi?aae?inueeeo eaae??a aeey nenoaie
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe, cae?eniaiiy iiaeaeueoeo
?noi?eei-iaaeaaia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Aea/aiiy ?noi??? noaiiaeaiiy oa
?icaeoeo oi?aae?iiy i?aeaioiaeith ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i? a oiiaao
cae?eniaiiy noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ? aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i aea? ciiao
oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe e ?ic?iaeoe ia?niaeoeai? iiaeae? ?icaeoeo
nenoai oi?ioaaiiy eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a.

Ia i?aeoe/iiio ??ai? ?aea? aeina?aeo oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ia ??cieo aoaiao ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? aeey ?ica’ycaiiy ianooiieo caaaeaiue: noai?aiiy no/anii?
ii?iaoeaii? aace ae?yeueiino? caeeaae?a ina?oe c i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a; ?ic?iaee iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c
ie?aieo i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a
oe?eiio ? eiie?aoiiai caeeaaeo i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe cie?aia;
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy nooiaiaai? i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe; i?aai?caoe??
?iaioe Eii?oao?a c i?ioan?eii? ina?oe; oai?/iai aeei?enoaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a; ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aaaaoieaiaeueiiai o?iainoaaiiy caeeaae?a
nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe; i?aai?caoe?? iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai
caaacia/aiiy nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; ?icaeoeo nenoaie
aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueeiai oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe; i?aeaioiaee ea??aiee?a caeeaae?a i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe;
?ic?iaee aea?aeaaieo noaiaea?o?a ci?noo i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo
?ia?oiee?a; oaeineiiaeaiiy ?iaioe c e?oeaicoaaiiy oa aoanoaoe??
caeeaae?a i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; iaa?oiooaaiiy e?eoa???a
aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? nenoai i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a;
onoiaiiy noia?a/iinoae ? iaoiaeieia?/ieo cai/aiue o no/anieo ii?iaoeaieo
aeieoiaioao, ui ?aaeaiaioothoue ae?yeuei?noue nenoaie i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; ?ic?iaee i?ia?aie iaa/aeueiiai eo?no c ?noi???
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe aeey aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe ??cieo ??ai?a
ae?aaeeoaoe?? oa ?inoeooo?a i?neyaeeieiiii? ina?oe; ?icaeoeo
aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeai aiae?aaia?ee ye aaeoc? iaaeaaia?/ii? iaoee, ui
ioiieth? oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie ina?oe aei?ineeo.

Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa? noai?aiiy iaoeiai? ooiaeaiaioaeueii?
a?ae?ia?ao?? oa ?noi??ia?ao?/ieo iaeyae?a c i?iaeai i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a
Oe?a?i?.

8.Iio?aao? ooi/iaiiy iiiyoo?ai-oa?i?iieia?/iee aia?ao, ui ?ice?eaa?
ye?ni? oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a. Ia iaoo
aeoieo, aeey ?? iicia/aiiy aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe iiiyooy “ieae/a
i?ioan?eia ina?oa” aai “ii/aoeiaa i?ioan?eia ina?oa”. O oie aea /an
iaaeioe?eueiei ? i?aei?ia iiiyooy “i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia ina?oa” iiiyooyi
“i?ioan?eia ina?oa”, ui iaei i?noea a iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e e?oa?aoo?? oa
ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaioao o 1990-1996 ??.

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ae/a?io? aaaaoianiaeoieo i?iaeai ?noi???
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i?.
Iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy iio?aaothoue oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee
iiaeaethaaiiy nenoai i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a oiiaao ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee; i?iaeaie i?eioeei?a, iaoiae?a, ooieoe?e, iaoai?ci?a, ci?noo
oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a oa ?o
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaiai caaacia/aiiy ia ??cieo aoaiao ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo;
ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie oi?ioaaiiy eaae?o?eiaaieo
?ia?oiee?a.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

?.Iiiia?ao??, iaa/aeuei? oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iin?aieee:

1.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo
?ia?oiee?a a Oe?a?i? (1888-1988 ??.): Iiiia?ao?y. — E.:Aeua oeiea, 1998.
– 256 n.

2.E?ea?/oe ?.E. I?iaeaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i?
(1920-1929 ??.): Iiiia?ao?y. — E.: ?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia??
i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie,1996. – 206 n.

??.Noaoo? a aeo?iaeao oa iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo ca??ieeao:

1.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Aei ieoaiiy i?i iacao nenoaie i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a// I?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia ina?oa. – 1999. — ?1. – N.52-55.

2.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Ia i?aai?caoe?eieo canaaeao iaiaaeaeiaioo // Na?oei. –
1998. — ?4. – N.9-12.

3.E?ea?/oe ?.E. ?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy oi?aae?iiy
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iei o/eeeuai // Na?oei. — 1998. — ?3. – N.5-7.

5.E?oeaicoaaiiy i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a o caeeaaeao ina?oe //
O?oaeiaa i?aeaioiaea a caeeaaeao ina?oe. – 1998. — ?2. – N.16-20.

6.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Ia?niiae o no?oeoo?? oi?aae?iiy i?iooaoo/eeeuai //
Na?oei. — 1998. — ?1. — N.14-18.

7.E?ea?/oe ?.E. ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe //
I?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia ina?oa. — 1998. — ?1. — N.49-55.

8.E?ea?/oe ?.E. I?aai?caoe?y aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? i?iooaoo/eeeua //
??aeia oeiea. – 1997. — ?7-8. — N.78-80.

9.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Iioeaaoe?y ae?yeueiino? ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
i?aoe?aiee?a o eiioaeno? oi?aae?iiy no/aniei i?iooaoo/eeeuai //
Iaaeaaia?ea ? ineoieia?y i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. – 1997. — ?2. — N.75-78.

10.E?ea?/oe ?.E. I?i aeaye? aniaeoe ainiiaea?nueeiai ?ic?aooieo o
i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/i?e ina?o? Oe?a?ie 20-o ?ie?a // I?ioan?eia ina?oa:
oai??y ? i?aeoeea: Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee atheaoaiue. — 1997. — ?1-2 (5-6).
— N.176-184.

11.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Nenoaia oi?aae?iiy i?aeaioiaeith eaae?o?eiaaieo
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i? o 1920-1929 ??. // Iaaeaaia?ea ?
ineoieia?y. – 1997. -?4. – N.223-233.

13.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Noeeue oi?aae?iiy ye oiiaa aoaeoeaii? ae?yeueiino?
ea??aieea // Na?oei. – 1997. — ?3. — N.8-10.

14.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo noaiaea?o?a ye aaaeeeaa
oiiaa ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii? ina?oe //I?iaeaie ina?oe. —
E.:A?iie. — 1997. – Aeione 10. — N.41-47.

15.E?ea?/oe ?.E. I?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia ina?oa a oiiaao ?eieo //Iia?
oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy. — E.: A?iie. — 1997. — Aeione 23. — N.11-14.

16.E?ea?/oe ?.E. ?ioi?iaoe?eia caaacia/aiiy oi?aae?iiy ina?oi?i
caeeaaeii o i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iiio o/eeeu? //Iia? oaoiieia?? iaa/aiiy. —
E.:A?iie. — 1997.- Aeione 28. — N.33-40.

17.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Iaiaaeaeiaio o i?iooaoina?o?: Ia`?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue
/e iinooiea iiae?? //I?iaeaie ianooiiino? oa ?ioaa?aoe?? ci?noo iaa/aiiy
o nenoai? “oeiea-IOO-AIC” : Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee ca??iee. – A?iieoey. —
1996. — N.168-170.

18.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Aeaye? aniaeoe ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo i?aeaioiaee o/i?a
i?iooaoo/eeeu aei ?iaioe a oiiaao ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa // ?aei?noue
?aoe?iiaeueiiai oa aiioe?eii-ii/ooo?aiai a ina?oiuei-aeoiaieo nenoaiao:
Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee ca??iee. – Oa?e?a. — 1996. — N.184-187.

19.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Iioeaaoe?y ae?yeueiino? ?iaeaia?ii-iaaeaaia?/ieo
i?aoe?aiee?a ye oiiaa oni?oiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?iooaoo/eeeua //O
oai?/iio iiooeo: Ca??iee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a. — E. — 1996. —
N.6-9.

20.E?ea?/oe ?.E. *e iio??aiee iaiaaeaeiaio i?iooaoina?o?? // Na?oei —
1996.- ?2.-N.70-74.

21.E?ea?/oe ?.E. I?aeaioiaea ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i? a 1920-1929
?ieao: aeniiaee oa o?iee // Oeyo ina?oe. – 1996. — ?2. — N.37-40.

22.E?ea?/oe ?.E. ?eieiaa aeiiii?ea ? i?iooaoina?oa // Na?oei.-1996.-?1.
— N.24-31.

???.Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??:

1.E?ea?/oe ?.E. E?oeaicoaaiiy caeeaae?a ina?oe, ui cae?eniththoue
i?aeaioiaeo ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a: Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??. — E.:
?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie,1996. —
33 n.

2.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Ieaioaaiiy ?iaioe i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/iiai o/eeeua a
no/anieo oiiaao: Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??. — E.: ?inoeooo
iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie,1997. — 69 n.

3.Iaaeaaia?/ia nea?aieoey Ee?aueie: Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee ca??iee / Iaoe.
?aae. ?.E. E?ea?/oe — E.: 1997.- Aei.1. — 135 n. (Aaoi?nueea o/anoue —
iaoeiaa ?aaeaaoaaiiy, anooiia noaooy).

4.Iaaeaaia?/ia nea?aieoey Ee?aueie: Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iee ca??iee
/Iaoeiaee ?aaeaeoi? ?.E.E?ea?/oe. — E.: 1998. — Aei.2. -146 n.
(Aaoi?nueea o/anoue — iaoeiaa ?aaeaaoaaiiy, anooiia noaooy).

5.Ina?oa Ee?aueie – 98: Noai, oaiaeaioe??, ia?niaeoeae:
?ioi?iaoe?eii-aiae?oe/iee ca??iee / Ca caa. ?aae. ?.E.E?ea?/oea. – E.:
Oi?aae?iiy ina?oe Ee?anueei? iaeanii? aea?aeaaii? aaei?i?no?aoe??, 1999.
– 144 n. (Aaoi?nueea o/anoue – iaoeiaa ?aaeaaoaaiiy, anooiia noaooy).

IY.Oace aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo:

1.E?ea?/oe ?.E. O?einionuee? canaaee ieae/i? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe a
Oe?a?i? o 20-o ?ieao // O?einio?y ina?oe a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?: Iaoa??aee
Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “O?einio?y no/anii?
ina?oe oa noai ?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy a Oe?a?i?” (1-3 ethoiai 1966 ?.). — E.:
?CII. — 1997. — N.297-301.

2.E?ea?/oe ?.E. Ianooii?noue o i?ioan?ei?e ina?o? Oe?a?ie o 1920-1929
?ieao //Nenoaia iaia?a?aii? ina?oe: caeiaooee, iiooee, i?iaeaie:
Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. — O 6-oe
eieaao. — *a?i?aoe?: Ieoaoeue. -1996. – Ei.2. — N.23-24.

E?ea?/oe ?.E. Oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a
a Oe?a?i?: iaaeaaia?/iee aniaeo (1888-1998 ?iee). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe
?c niaoe?aeueiino? 13.00.04 — oai??y ? iaoiaeeea i?ioan?eii? ina?oe. —
?inoeooo iaaeaaia?ee ? ineoieia?? i?ioan?eii? ina?oe AII Oe?a?ie, Ee?a,
1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? a?aeoai?aii ?noi??th ?icaeoeo oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a a Oe?a?i? o 1888-1998 ??.; ia iniia?
aeaoa?i?iiaaiiai aiae?co eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo ianoaaei aecia/aii iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaai? ia??iaee a ?icaeoeo nenoai i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo
?ia?oiee?a a Oe?a?i?; cae?eniaii eeaneo?eaoe?th oei?a caeeaae?a ina?oe c
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo eaae??a; aecia/aii ?oi? iniaeeaino? ye ia`?eo?a
oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino?; iaa?oioiaaii nenoaio i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a ye nioe?aeueii-iaaeaaia?/io nenoaio c ae?iaie/eie ooieoe?yie;
?ice?eoi nooi?noue, no?oeoo?o, ci?no, oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a ia ??cieo ?noi?e/ieo aoaiao; iaa?oioiaaii
iaiao?aei?noue ? aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo oa
i?aai?caoe?eieo canaae iaiaaeaeiaioo a oi?aae?ii? nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee
eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oiee?a a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i?; iaa?oioiaaii
i?iaiinoe/i? iieiaeaiiy uiaei ?icaeoeo oi?aae?iiy nenoaiaie i?aeaioiaee
?ia?oie/eo eaae??a, ye? iiaeooue noaoe aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey
?ic?iaee iiaeo iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo iai?yi?a ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaaaeaeai? a i?aeoeeo ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith i?aeaioiaee eaae?o?eiaaieo ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a ia caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio oa ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??aiyo.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i?ioan?eia ina?oa, nenoaia i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oie/eo
eaae??a, ieae/a i?ioan?eia ina?oa, i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ia ina?oa, ii/aoeiaa
i?ioan?eia ina?oa, oi?aae?iiy, ci?no oi?aae?iiy, i?aai?caoe?y
oi?aae?iiy.

Eeea?/oe E.E. Oi?aaeaiea nenoaiaie iiaeaioiaee eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
?aai/eo a Oe?aeia: iaaeaaiae/aneee aniaeo (1888 – 1998 aiaeu). –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaaeaaiae/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 13.00.04 – oai?ey e iaoiaeeea i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey. – Einoeooo iaaeaaiaeee e ineoieiaee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai
ia?aciaaiey AII Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ia iniiaaiee a?oeaiuo iaoa?eaeia, iao/iuo e eeoa?aoo?iuo
enoi/ieeia, ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia aia?aua ainnicaeaii enoi?eth
?acaeoey oi?aaeaiey nenoaiaie iiaeaioiaee eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo
eaae?ia a Oe?aeia a 1888-1998 aa.. Iao/ii iainiiaaiu ia?eiaeu a
?acaeoee yoeo nenoai; ?anniio?aia nouiinoue iniiaiuo iiiyoee, eioi?ua
eniieuecothony a enceaaeiaaiee. Ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee a
?acaeoee nenoai ia/aeueiiai, iecoaai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai e
i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneiai ia?aciaaiey a Oe?aeia. Iainiiaaii
nouiinoue nenoaiu iiaeaioiaee ?aai/eo eaae?ia eae niaieoiiinoue nenoai
ia?aciaaoaeueiuo i?ia?aii e ainoaea?noaaiiuo noaiaea?oia aeey
iiaeaioiaee eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo; naoue o/?aaeaeaiee ia?aciaaiey,
a eioi?uo ?aaeecothony yoe ia?aciaaoaeueiua i?ia?aiiu; nenoaio i?aaiia
oi?aaeaiey iiaeaioiaeie eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo eaae?ia e
iiae/eiaiiua ei o/?aaeaeaiey e i?aaei?eyoey. ?anniio?aii
oeaeaniia?aciinoue i?eiaiaiey aeaoeieoeee “ia/aeueiia i?ioanneiiaeueiia
ia?aciaaiea” eee “iecoaa i?ioaneeiiaeueiia ia?aciaaiea” aeey
iaicia/aiey nenoaiu iiaeaioiaee ?aai/eo eaae?ia. Ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca
?yaea eeanneoeeaoeee nioeeaeueiuo, iaaeaaiae/aneeo e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
nenoai aeieacaii, /oi nenoaia iiaeaioiaee ?aai/eo eaae?ia yaeyaony
iaaeaaiae/aneie nenoaiie n i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ooieoeeyie.
Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo, eaeaieiae/aneeo e
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaaeaaiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia ia oi?ie?iaaiea
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u e niaea?aeaiey oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie
i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneiai ia?aciaaiey, auyaeaiu iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee
a yoeo i?ioeannao. Ioa?aeoa?eciaaia no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey nenoaiaie
iiaeaioiaee eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo e ii?aaeaeaiu aa iniaaiiinoe ia
?acee/iuo enoi?e/aneeo yoaiao. Inouanoaeaia eeanneoeeaoeey iniiaiuo
oeiia o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, ii?aaeaeaiu eo iniaaiiinoe eae noauaeoia
oi?aaeai/aneiai aicaeaenoaey. Oaeaeaii aieiaiea ii?aaeaeaieth noauaeoia
oi?aaeai/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ia iauaainoaea?noaaiiii e ?aaeiiaeueiii
o?iaiyo a ?aciua enoi?e/aneea ia?eiaeu nouanoaiaaiey nenoai iiaeaioiaee
?aai/eo eaae?ia. Aeaia oa?aeoa?enoeea nouiinoe niaea?aeaiey
oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eaaeaeiai ec yoeo noauaeoia oi?aaeaiey,
ii?aaeaeaiu eo acaeiinayce a i?ioeanna oi?aaeai/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Enneaaeiaaiu iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee oi?ie?iaaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiiie
no?oeoo?u e niaea?aeaiey oi?aaeaiey i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneei
ia?aciaaieai a 1991-1998 aa. Iainiiaaii auaiae ia eo ianiioaaonoaee
caaea/ai o?ainoi?iaoeee i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneiai ia?aciaaiey a
oneiaeyo eioi?iaoeeiiii-oaoiieiae/aneie ?aaiethoeee, oi?ie?iaaiey iiauo
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee e ?uiea o?oaea.

Enneaaeiaaiea niaea?aeaiey i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey iicaieeei ii?aaeaeeoue
iiceoeaiue e iaaaoeaiue iiuo yoie aeayoaeueiinoe. Oai?aoe/anee
iainiiaaiu aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey iiceoeaiuo eaeae enoi?e/aneiai
iiuoa a i?ioeanna ?aoi?ie?iaaiey nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneiai ia?aciaaiey nia?aiaiiie Oe?aeiu ia
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieiae/aneii e i?aeoe/aneii o?iaiyo. Inouanoaeaia iao/iay
eioa?i?aoaoeey aaaeiaeoeo iniaaiiinoae a ?acaeoee oi?aaeaiey nenoaiaie
iiaeaioiaee ?aai/eo eaae?ia, eiathueo i?iaiinoe/aneoth iai?aaeaiiinoue,
eioi?ua iiaoo noaoue aaaeiaeoei enoi/ieeii aeey ?ac?aaioee iiauo
iao/ii-oai?aoe/aneeo iai?aaeaiee ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee.

Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey aiaae?aiu a i?aeoeeo aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie iiaeaioiaee ?aai/eo eaae?ia ia
iauaainoaea?noaaiiii e ?aaeiiaeueiii o?iaiyo.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: i?ioanneiiaeueiia ia?aciaaiea, nenoaia iiaeaioiaee
?aai/eo eaae?ia, iecoaa i?ioanneiiaeueiia ia?aciaaiea,
i?ioanneiiaeueii-oaoie/aneia ia?aciaaiea, ia/aeueiia i?ioanneiiaeueiia
ia?aciaaiea, oi?aaeaiea, niaea?aeaiea oi?aaeaiey, i?aaiecaoeey
oi?aaeaiey.

Ihor L. Likarchuk. Management of systems efficient labour personnel
preparation in Ukraine: pedagogical aspect (years jf 1988-1998).
Manuscript.

Dissertation to apply for the degree of a Doctor of Pedagogical Science
on the speciality 13.00.04 – theory and methods of professional
education. — Institute of Pedagogics and Psychology of professional
education of the APN of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

It the dissertation the history of development of systems of labour
personnel preparation in Ukraine in 1888-1998 has been described;
scientifically-based periods in the development of systems of labour
personnel preparation have been determined on the basis of the analysis
of concrete historic circumstances; classification of all kinds of
educational institutions, where preparation of efficient workers was
performed has been done, specific features of these institutions as
subjects of managing activities have been defined; system of labour
personnel preparation has been grounded as social-pedagogical system
with production functions; essence, structure, content of management of
systems of labour personnel preparation at different historic stages
have been determined; necessity and expediency of implementation of
methodological and organizational foundations of management in managing
systems of labour personnel preparation in independent Ukraine have been
grounded; prognostic basis as to the development of management of
systems of labour personnel preparation, which may become an important
source for working out the new scientific-theoretical directions of
fundamental research has been grounded.

The most important results of the research have been implemented in
practice of activities of the bodies, which manage system of labour
personnel preparation at national and regional levels.

Key words: professional education, system of preparation of labour
personnel, lower professional education, professional technical
education, elementary technical education, management, content of
management, organization of management.

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