Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iEE oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie «Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee
?inoeooo»

?IIAIIA Ieaenaiae? ?aaiiae/

OAeE 621.391

Oi?aae?iiy iioieaie iiaieo iia?aeiieaiue ia ia?aaeao ca’yceo
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.12.02 — Oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei? nenoaie

? oi?aae?iiy ieie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? Oe?a?ie
«Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo»

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe
Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? ?EUe*AIEI Ieoaeei THoeiiae/,
i?i?aeoi? IOOO «EI?».

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe
AA?AIIA Aieiaeeie? Eaii?aeiae/, Iaoeiai — aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo
«Eaaio–Iaa?aaoe?y», i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? EO*OE Aiae??e Ieoaeeiae/, Einoeooo einie/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee,
i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? IA*O??I Ieeiea Eai?oiiiae/,
I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, canooiiee ia/aeueieea Aieiaiiai oi?aae?iiy
iaoee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai — aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo
ca’yceo.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “14” ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae26.002.14 o Iaoe?iiaeueiiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? Oe?a?ie «EI?» ca aae?anith: 252056, Ee?a-56, i?. Ia?aiiae
37, ei?ion 1, aoaeeoi??y 244 .

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «11» aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee O?eanueeee E.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Niaoeeo?ea ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae ca’yceo acaaae? ? ia?aae ca’yceo
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy a iniaeeaino? oaea, ui ?c-ca noioanoe/iiai
aieeao ia ?oi? aeaiaioe /eneaiieo ??cii??aeieo /eiiee?a o aeaeyae?
oaoi?/ieo a?aeiia, ii?acie aai ia?aaaioaaeaiue, i?e?iaeiei yaeuai iiaeia
aaaaeaoe a?aeoeeaiiy a aeiaaeeia? i?ii?aeee /ano ?oi?o ia?aiao??a a?ae
ii?iiaaieo cia/aiue, ui i?eaiaeyoueny aei cieaeaiiy yeino?
ianeoaiaoaaiiy aaiiaio?a ieae/a iaiao?aeieo ii?i. A ca’yceo c oeei
caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo c iaoith
caaacia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeio ?oiueiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? aaaeeeaith
? aeooaeueiith caaea/ath, ui aeieea? i?e noai?aii? iiaeo ia?niaeoeaieo ?
iiaea?i?caoe?? ia?aae ca’yceo, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a aenieoaoaoe??.
Aecia/aiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy,
yeo noai?aii aeey oeueiai, aeyaeaiiy iaea?eueo o?eaeeo aca?iica’yce?a
i?ae ?? aeaiaioaie oa ?ic?iaea iioeiaeueieo ? noaiioeiaeueieo ??oaiue ii
i?aai?caoe?eii — oaoi?/i?e ? aeai?eoi?/i?e iiaoaeia? oaeeo nenoai ia
aac? ??ciiiai?oieo iaoaiaoe/ieo cania?a iieeaaeaii a iniiao iei?oiuei?
?iaioe.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iaei?i c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iieaciee?a, ui
a?aeaeaathoue ??aaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai i?ia?ano
aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie, ? nooi?iue ?icaeoeo ?? nenoaie ca’yceo. Oiio
ieoaiiyi aaeineiiaeaiiy ia?aae ca’yceo, i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino?
?oiueiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?eae?ey?oueny iino?eia ? iaiineaaia oaaaa. Oea
a?aeiineoueny ye aei ia?aae caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy, oae ? aei ia?aae
ca’yceo ??ciiiai?oieo a?aeiinoa.

Ii?yae c caaaeueieie caeiiii??iinoyie iiaoaeiae ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae
ca’yceo aoaeue-yeiai oeio, a?aeii/? ia?aae? ca’yceo iiaeooue ?noioii
a?ae??ciyoeny a?ae ia?aae caaaeueiiai ei?enooaaiiy. Oea coiiaeth?
aeae?eaiiy a?aeii/eo ia?aae a iniaeeaee eean – ia?aae ca’yceo
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy (ICNI).

Aiae?c oiia canoinoaaiiy ICNI iieaco?, ui aac aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy
caaacia/eoe ii?iaeueiee ?aaeei ?oiueiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeinoaoiuei
neeaaeii, a /anoi ? iaiiaeeeai. Oea ca’ycaia c oei, ui no?oeoo?a ICNI
noeeueia aei /anoeo ? ??ceei ci?iai aiane?aeie ia??iaee/iiai ?icai?oaiiy
? eiaaoethaaiiy ?oi?o aeaiaio?a i?e aeeiiaii? caaea/ caaacia/aiiy
ca’yceo, aeoiaeo c eaaeo aeaiaio?a ia?aae, ia?ai?uaiue i?aai?a
oi?aae?iiy ? ie?aieo aaiiaio?a, iia??oaiiy yeino? eaiae?a ca’yceo oa ?i.
Oiio aeey caaacia/aiiy ii?iaeueiiai ?aaeeio ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae
ca’yceo niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy ca ieie, a oaeiae ca ?oi?ie
aeaiaioaie, iiaeiai aooe caaacia/aiee iino?eiee eiio?ieue ?
ia?aaeaa/aiee eiiieaen caoiae?a uiaei i?aeo?eiaiiy iniiaieo iieaciee?a a
iaaeao caaeaieo cia/aiue.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy ?aaeeio ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae ca’yceo
noai?ththoueny aea? nenoaie: nenoaia oi?aae?iiy anoaiiaeaiiyi niieo/aiue
(NOAN) ? nenoaia oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeath ca’yceo (NOIC).

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui ieoaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy NOAN a i?ioean? ??oaiiy
caaea/ oi?aae?iiy, ye i?aaeei, aeeeth/athoueny c ?icaeyaeo, oi/a, ye
aoaea iieacaia ieae/a, aeaia nenoaia iiaea aeyaeoe ?noioiee aieea ia
i?ioean oi?aae?iiy ia ia?aaeao ca’yceo.

Ieoaiiyi iiaoaeiae ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy NOIC ia ??ciiiai?oiiai ?iaeo
ia?aaeao ca’yceo i?enay/aia cia/ia /enei ?ia?o a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo
aaoi??a. Iaeiae a ieo caniae, ui i?iiiiothoueny, ia a iiai?e i???
a?aeiia?aeathoue niaoeeo?oe? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ICNI, a /anoeia i?iaeai
aeiee ua ia ciaeoee naiai ??oaiiy.

Ia aeaiee /an aeae?eythoue aeaa aeaeyaeo NOIC: noaoe/i? ? aeeiai?/i?.
Iaei??? c iniiaieo caaea/ noaoe/ieo NOIC ? i?iaeooaaiiy ia?aae ca’yceo,
ui noai?ththony, c caaeaieie iieacieeaie iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?oiueiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Aeey ia?aae c eiiooaoee?th eaiae?a ?nio? ?yae iaoiaeee,
ui aeicaieyoue ae??ooaaoe aeaio caaea/o. Iaeiae, a ieo aeei?enoiao?oueny
aeiiouaiiy i?i oa, ui ieai ?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy (I?I) caaea?oueny a
ao?aeieo aeaieo. ?aaeueii oea ia oae. I?I aeyaey? ?noioiee aieea ia
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy ia?aae? ca’yceo. Oiio aeaia
aeiiouaiiy iiaea i?ecaanoe aei cieaeaiiy oi/iino? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

Aeeiai?/i? NOIC caaacia/othoue ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c ?aaeueiith ianoaiiaeith ia ia?aae? ca’yceo.
Neeaaei?noue iaoaiaoe/iiai iieno i?ioeano ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae?
ca’yceo noai?th? iaai? o?oaeiiu? a io?eiaii? aoaeoeaieo ??oaiue on?o
caaea/ oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo. Oiio ia aeaiee /an i?e aeinoaoiuei
aeeaiei? oai?aoe/ii? i?i?iaoe? oaeeo ieoaiue, ye aecia/aiiy noeoiiino?
oeyo?a ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? a iai?yieao ca’yceo, iia?aoeaiiai
ei?eaoaaiiy ieaio ?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy o aeiaaeeo no?oeoo?ieo ci?i a
ia?aae?, a?aenooi? ??oaiiy, ui i?eeiyo? aeey i?aeoeee, oaeeo aaaeeeaeo
i?iaeai, ye aeyaeaiiy aeaea?ae aeieeiaiiy aeanoaa?e?coth/i? neooaoe?? ?
aecia/aiiy cania?a aeiaaaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aae? aei iaiao?aeieo
ii?i.

Iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe, ? oea a ia?oo /a?ao noino?oueny ICNI, ui c an?o
aeae?a ca’yceo, ui caaacia/othoue iai?i ?ioi?iaoe??th i?ae niiaeeaa/aie,
iaea?eueoee ianya ia?aaea?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith oaeaoiiiiai ca’yceo. Ii
?nioth/ei ioe?ieai ia aeaiee /an, iai?eeeaae, a eiiooo?ieo ia?aaeao
a?enueeiaiai ca’yceo c aeiiiiiaith oaeaoiiiiai ca’yceo ia?aaea?oueny
aeecueei 90-95% a?ae anueiai ianyao iia?aeiieaiue. A ia?niaeoea?, ii
i??? ?icaeoeo ?io?ano?oeoo?e ca’yceo, a?aenioie oaeaoiiieo iia?aeiieaiue
a caaaeueiiio ianyc? iiieceoueny, aea, ye iieaco? ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae,
a?i ? a iaeaeeae/?e ia?niaeoea? (ca aeiyoeii ie?aieo niaoeeo?/ieo
aeiaaee?a) aoaea neeaaeaoe ia iaioa 60%.

Iacaaaeth/e ia iiyao a inoaii?e /an ?yaeo iiaeo oaoiieia?e a ca’yceo,
oaeeo ye SDH, Frame relay, ATM, inoaoi/iee aea?? caniao eiiooaoe?? aeey
ia?aaea/? i?iiiae oae ? ia c?iaeaiee. Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue iaea?eueo
?iciianthaeaeaiei caniaii iia?aoeaii? eiiooaoe?? iiaieo iia?aeiieaiue ?
can?a eiiooaoe?? eaiae?a ? eiai ??ciiaeaee. A a?i iaeiaio aoaeoeaiee c
oi/ee ci?o iio?aa a eaiaeao ca’yceo, ui i?eoiaeyoueny ia iaeia
anoaiiaeaia niieo/aiiy.

Iaeiei c ia?niaeoeaieo cania?a ia?aaea/? ? ?iciiae?eo iiaieo
iia?aeiieaiue a oeeo?iaeo ia?aaeao ca’yceo, ui ?aae?cothoue i?eioeeie
noaoenoe/iiai ou?eueiaiiy, ? eiiooaoe?y iaeao?a (EI). Iniiaieie
ia?aaaaaie aeaiiai caniao eiiooaoe?? ? oa, ui a?i aeicaiey? aeinyaiooe
aeniei? yeino? oaeaoiiiiai ca’yceo ? aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?no
oeeo?iaeo ia?aae. E??i oiai, ?aae?caoe?y iaeaoii? ia?aaea/? aeicaiey?
cae?enithaaoe ni?eueio ia?aaea/o i?iiiae ? aeaieo ia aac? ?aeeiiai
caniao eiiooaoe?? – eiiooaoe?? iaeao?a. A oeae /eiiee aeoaea aaaeeeaee
i?e noai?aii? ?ioaa?aeueieo ia?aae ca’yceo.

Ia aeaiee /an can?a EI io?eiaa oe?iea canoinoaaiiy a ia?aaeao ia?aaea/?
aeaieo (NIAe). Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiy aeeaieeo iaoeiaeo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ae?iaeai? eiie?aoi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??
uiaei iiaoaeiae oa i?ioieie?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae ia?aaea/? aeaieo
(NIAe) c EI. A oae aea /an, aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae canoinoaaiiy
caniao EI ia ia?aaeao ca’yceo aeey ia?aaea/? iiae ua ia caaa?oai?.
Iaea?eueo aeeaiei aea/ai? ieoaiiy, ye? iia’ycai? c aenia?eiaioaeueii –
o?ce/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie, iaoe?eaieie ia aecia/aiiy aeiia aei
iieaciee?a yeino? ia?aaea/? i?iiiae, iniiaieie c yeeo ? aeiionoei?
cia/aiiy aaee/ei cao?eiee ? ao?ao iiaieo iaeao?a aaiiaio?a.

Iaaeinoaoiuei aeeaiei aeine?aeaeai? ia?aaeaa? ieoaiiy, ye? a iniiaiiio
iaiaaeothoueny ?icaeyaeii i?ioean?a a iaeiiio eiiooaoe?eiiio oeaio?? aai
ia a?eoe?, ui c’?aeio? noi?aei? eiiooaoe?ei? oeaio?e ia?aae? c
eiiooaoe??th iaeao?a. I?e oeueiio ioe?iea yeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae?
aaaeaoueny ii iieacieeai yeino? ia?aaea/? i?iiiae. A oea eeoa iaeia
noi?iia ieoaiiy. Iaiao?aeia ioe?iea yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy aaiiaio?a, ui
aecia/a?oueny ?iia??i?noth a?aeiiae a anoaiiaeaii? niieo/aiiy. I?e?iaeii
ooo iiaeiii a?aoiaoaaoeny ? ye?noue ia?aaea/? i?iiiae. Aeey ??oaiiy
oaeiai eeano caaea/ iaiao?aeii i?iaanoe ?ic?iaeo iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae,
ui aeicaieyoue a?aooaaoe aca?iica’ycee i?ioean?a o?ainii?oiiai ?
ia?aaeaaiai ??ai?a, a oaeiae no?oeoo?i? ia?aiao?e ? ia?aiao?e
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia?aae? ca’yceo.

??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo aeua ieoaiue aeicaieeoue ?icaeiooe oai??th
oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo ? i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ?oiueiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeany a ?aieao ieaiiaeo IAe? ? AeE?, ui i?iaiaeeeeny: IOOO «EI?»
– «Iniiaa»; a// A-0375 — ‘I?ieia-N», «Ooan», «Eioa?aeaeaiea — I?»,
«Eioa?aeaeaiea», ‘Eioaa?ae–2E», ‘Eioaa?ae–OCI», ‘I?iaiic–1″,
‘Oeieio–Eoe», «Eaaaiaea», «Ieiica», «Eaneaae», «O?ae-O», «E?e?y»; EA?OC
– «Ia?o?oo», ‘Oi?aaeaiea-85″.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeieia?/ieo
iniia ? i?eioeei?a i?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/ii? ? aeai?eoi?/ii? iiaoaeiae
nenoai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, ui
a?aoiaothoue iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ? iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ia?aae, ui oi?aaeythoueny, a oiiaao no?oeoo?e oa iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui
ci?iththoueny, ? i?ioeae?? aa?aneaiiai ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ae??oothoueny ianooii? aca?iiiia’ycai? caaea/?:

aecia/aiiy caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae ? niaoeeo?ee iiaoaeiae ?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae ca’yceo niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, ?oi? iniiai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ? iniaeeaino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy iiaieo iia?aeiieaiue, ye
iniiai? ia?aaeoiiae aeey ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy ICNI;

?ic?iaea ocaaaeueiaii? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo, ui a?aoiao?
o?ce/io nooo?a?noue ?aaeueieo i?ioean?a ? ?ice?eaa? aca?iiae?th
/eiiee?a, ui coiiaeththoue i?ioeane a ia’?eoao oi?aae?iiy, ea?oth/?
aieeao c aieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy ? ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aieeao;

aecia/aiiy ii?oieia?? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy ? i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? ?? aeaiaio?a a oiae?
??oaiiy caaea/, ui iieeaaeathoueny ia ieo;

?ic?iaea iaoiaeee noaoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo niaoe?aeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy c o?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ?oiueiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?
iaiao?aei?noue oi?ioaaiiy I?I a oiae? ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy;

?ic?iaea iaoiaeee ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy a aeeiai?oe? ?oiueiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy, ui
aeicaieyoue, a caeaaeiino? a?ae i?eioeei?a iiaoaeiae nenoaie oi?aae?iiy,
caaacia/eoe i?aeo?eiaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aae? a iaaeao iaiao?aeieo ii?i
aai cae?enieoe iioei?caoe?th ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae? ii iaeiiio aai
aeae?eueeii ia?aiao?ai;

aecia/aiiy cania?a caoenoo ia?aae ca’yceo niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy
a?ae ia?aaaioaaeaiue;

?icaeoie cania?a oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo c eiiooaoe??th iaeao?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaeia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa
ae??oo?oueny i?iaeaia nenoaiaoecaoe?? caaea/ oi?aae?iiy ia ia?aaeao
ca’yceo niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, c o?aooaaiiyi aieeao ??cii??aeieo
aeanoaa?e?coth/eo oaeoi??a, ui coiiaeththoue ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae?,
yea oi?aaey?oueny. Iaoeiaa iiaecia io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny
iiaeii? i?aeoiaeo, ui aeicaieea ?ic?iaeoe ?yae iiaeo iiaeaeae, cania?a ?
iaoiaeee ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, ui aieiae?thoue
?noioiith iiaecii?, i?aeoe/iith ? oai?aoe/iith oe?ii?noth, aeiinyoueny
ia caoeno:

I?aai?caoe?eii-oaoi?/ia iiaoaeiaa nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy. Ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aeiieo iiaeaeae aeaia
iiaeaiiy a?eueo iiaii a?aoiao? aieea nenoaie oi?aae?iiy anoaiiaeaiiyi
niieo/aiue ia ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeath ca’yceo.

Iaoiaeeea ??oaiiy caaea/ noaoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy c eiiooaoe??th eaiae?a. I?aeo?ae, ui
i?iiiio?oueny, caaacia/o? oi?ioaaiiy ieaio ?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy a
oiae? ??oaiiy caaea/? iioei?caoe?? cia/aiue ia?aiao??a ia?aae?, yea
oi?aaey?oueny, ia a?aei?io a?ae a?aeiieo iaoiaeee, aea aeei?enoiao?oueny
aeiiouaiiy, ui I?I caaeaiee.

Iaoiaeeea ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy ii aeiaaaeaiith oa?aeoa?enoee
ia?aae?, yea oi?aaey?oueny, aei iaiao?aeieo ii?i i?e oeaio?ae?ciaai?e
iiaoaeia? ICNI. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? i?aeoe/ii ae??ooaaoe
caaea/o caaacia/aiiy caaeaiiai ?aaeeio ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae?, yea
oi?aaey?oueny.

Niin?a ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy nenoaiith aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeath ca’yceo c iao?e/iei i?eioeeiii oi?ioaaiiy ieaio
?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy. I?aeo?ae ui i?iiiio?oueny, o ii??aiyii? c
a?aeiiei caniaii ?aeue?o?a, aeicaiey? cieceoe ianya iaaaioaaeaiiy
oi?aae?iiy ia ia?aae? ? /an oi?ioaaiiy ieaio ?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy a
N ?ac, aea N — /enei eiiooaoe?eieo oeaio??a a ia?aae? ca’yceo.

Iaoiae ia?o?ooiiai i??i?eoaoo oa eiai iiaeeo?eaoe??, ui aeicaieyoue
caaacia/eoe aeeiai?/ia oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi iao?aeieo oeyo?a.
I?aeo?ae, ui i?iiiio?oueny, caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae?, ui oi?aaey?oueny, o anueiio ae?aiacii?
iaaaioaaeaiue, o ii??aiyii? c aeei?enoaiiyi cae/aeieo cania?a caiyooy
iao?aeieo oeyo?a. I?e oeueiio, iniaeea?noth caniao ? a?aenooi?noue
iaiao?aeiino? i?iaaaeaiiy yeeo — iaaoaeue aei???a iaaaioaaeaiiy ? aeo?ao
ia ia?aae? ca’yceo.

Iaoiae caoenoo ia?aae ca’yceo a?ae ia?aaaioaaeaiue a i?ioean? ??oaiiy
caaea/ oi?aae?iiy anoaiiaeaiiyi niieo/aiue. Aeaiee can?a aeicaiey?
caanoe aei i?i?ioio aieea iaei?o iai?yie?a ca’yceo ia ?io? a oiiaao
aeieeiaiiy ia?aaaioaaeaiue ? caaacia/eoe ?aaeei ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae
ca’yceo aeecueeei aei iii?iaeueiiai.

Iaoiaeeea ioe?iee yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy ia oaeaoiii?e ia?aae? c
eiiooaoe??th iaeao?a. ?nioth/? a iei?oi?e /an iaoiaeeee aeicaieythoue
ae?iaeyoe aiae?c eeoa ie?aieo aeaiaio?a ia?aae? (eiiooaoe?eiiai oeaio?o
aai a?eee ia?aae?, ui c’?aeio? aeaa noi?aeieo eiiooaoe?eieo oeaio?e) ii
iieacieeo yeino? ia?aaea/? i?iiiae ? ia ia?aaeaa/athoue ioe?ieo
?iia??iino? aeo?ao i?e anoaiiaeaii? niieo/aiue a iai?yieao ca’yceo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe ? aeei?enoaiiy ?? ?acoeueoao?a. I?aeoe/ia
oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui cai?iiiiiaaia iiaa iaoeiaa
iai?aaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo
niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, ui aeicaieeoue ae??ooaaoe ieoaiiy
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae ,ui oi?aaeythoueny, a
oaeiae caaacia/oaaoe aecia/aiiy aeaea?aea aeanoaa?e?caoe?? ia?aiao??a
ia?aae? ? iiaeeeaeo oeyo?a aeiaaaeaiiy ?? oa?aeoa?enoee aei iaiao?aeieo
ii?i.

Oai?aoe/i? ? i?eeeaaei? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ?aae?ciaai? i?e ?ic?iaoe?
Eiioeaioe?? iiaoaeiae ?aeeii? aaoiiaoeciaaii? nenoaie ca’yceo Ca?ieieo
Nee Oe?a?ie, a oiae? noai?aiiy ia?niaeoeaieo c?ace?a eiiaiaeii–ooaaieo
iaoei oaeoe/ii? eaiee oi?aae?iiy NA ? AIN, eiiooaoe?eii? oaoi?ee ca’yceo
aeey CN Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
EA?OC ? IOOO «EI?».

Iniaenoee aeeaae aaoi?a. Iniiai? ?aea? aeine?aeaeaiiy ? io?eiai? a
aeena?oaoe?? ?acoeueoaoe iaeaaeaoue iniaenoi aaoi?o. ?c ni?eueieo
ioae?eaoe?e ia caoeno aeiinyoueny iieiaeaiiy, io?eiai? aaoi?ii
naiino?eii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?aea? ? eiie?aoi?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia
I?aeia?iaeieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo ? aaeocaaeo eiioa?aioe?yo,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?aaeao ? nai?ia?ao, a oiio /ene?: ia Ainuei?e
i?aeia?iaei?e e?einuee?e eiioa?aioe?? (i. Naaanoiiieue, 1998), ia
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «No?aoaa?y aoiaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie o
na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??» (i. Ee?a, 1997), ia 11
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 100-??//th ?aae?i (i. Ee?a,
1995), ia A?enueeiaeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo Ee?anueeiai A?OC
(i. Ee?a, 1984… 1997a. A.), ia A?enueeiaeo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo Eai?ia?aaenueeiai A?OC (i. Eai?ia?aae, 1985, 1987), ia
I?aeaaeocaa?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aaoiiaoeciaai? nenoaie
i?iaeooaaiiy ? ?ic?iaee aia?aoii-i?ia?aiieo cania?a
?ioi?iaoe?eii-ia/enethaaeueieo ia?aae (i. Iineaa, 1990), ia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?aaeao a// A-0375, ia iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao eaoaae?e
cania?a oaeaeiioi?eaoe?e IOOO «EI?».

Ioae?eaoe??. Nienie iaoeiaeo i?aoeue aeeth/a? 86 iaeiaioaaiue. C ieo ii
oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? 72 ?iaioe, a oiio /ene? 1 iiiia?ao?y, 2
iaa/aeueieo iin?aieea, 2 aaoi?nueeeo na?aeioeoaa, 36 noaoae, 12 ca?o?a
ii IAe? ? AeE?, a oaeiae oace aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiai — oaoi?/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao. Ia?ae?e iaea?eueo aaaeeeaeo ?ia?o iaaaaeaiee
a nieneo aeaea?ae ,ui aeei?enoiaoaaeeny.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
aeanyoe ?icae?e?a, oeeaaeaiiy ? nieneo aeaea?ae, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeeny.
Iaoa??ae ?iaioe aeeeaaeaiee ia 323 noi??ieao, c yeeo 46 noi??iie
caeiathoue iaethiee ? nienie aeaea?ae, ui aeei?enoiaoaaeeny, ui aeeth/a?
164 iaeiaioaaiiy.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

I?iaaaeaiee a ia?oiio ?icae?e? aiae?c iieacaa, ui ia?aaea/a iiae a
ia?aaeao ca’yceo o ii??aiyii? c ?ioeie aeaeyaeaie ca’yceo ia? nai?
oa?aeoa?i? iniaeeaino?. Oe? iniaeeaino? iia’ycai? c aieeaii /anoioiiai
ae?aiaciio oeiiaeo o?aeo?a ca’yceo ia ye?noue ia?aaea/? iiae, niaoeeo?ee
aia?aaoe/iiai ?iciiae?eo caoe?a iiae ? oei/aniai? no?oeoo?e iiaieo
iia?aeiieaiue. A?aooaaiiy aeaieo iniaeeainoae i?e oi?aae?ii? ia?aaeaie
ca’yceo, aeicaiey? caaacia/eoe aenieo ye?noue ia?aaea/? iiae a i?ioean?
iai?io ?ioi?iaoe??th i?ae aaiiaioaie.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aecia/ai? aeiiae aei oeeo?iai? ia?aaea/? iiae ?
?ic?iaeai? aiae?oe/i? iiaeae? aeaea?ae iiaieo neaiae?a, ui aeicaieyoue
aecia/eoe iniiai? ia?aiao?e iioieo iiaieo iaeao?a.

Iaiao?aei?noue caaacia/aiiy aeiia aaiiaio?a aei yeino? ia?aaea/? i?iiiae
iaeeaaeo? iaiaaeaiiy ia aeiionoeio ia?aaeaao cao?eieo ? aaee/eio ao?ao
iiaieo iaeao?a. Aaee/eia cao?eiee iaio 300 in ? ao?aoa iiaieo iaeao?a a
iaaeao 7%(10% ia aeeeeeathoue ?noioiiai iia??oaiiy yeino? iiaiiai
iai?io.

Aecia/aiiy /enaeueieo cia/aiue iieaciee?a i?ioeano ia?aoai?aiiy
aiaeiaiaiai iiaiiai neaiaeo a oeeo?iao oi?io aeiaaa? iiaoaeiae
iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?. A iei?oi?e /an a?aeii? aeaa aeaeyaeo iiaeaeae
oaeiai oeio:

1. C aeaiia iiaeeeaeie noaiaie aaiiaioa: aeoeaiee aai ianeaiee. Aeoeaiee
noai aaiiaioa — a ia??iae? aacia?a?aii? iiae (AI). Ianeaiee – a ia??iae?
iaoce iia/aiiy (II).

2. C o?ueiia iiaeeeaeie noaiaie aaiiaioa. Ooo aeoeaiee noai a?aeiia?aea?
iiaiiio ?iioeueno (I?). Iaeei ianeaiee noai — iaoca aacia?a?aii? iiae
(IAI), ?ioa – a II.

Ia?aoiaee i?ae noaiaie a?aeiia?aeathoue i?e?iaeiiio ii?yaeeo
i?ioiaeaeaiiy iniiaieo iiaieo aeaiaio?a. A?eueo oi/ii a?aeaeaa?
iiaaae?ieo aaiiaioa iiaeaeue aeaea?aea iiaieo neaiae?a c o?ueiia
iiaeeeaeie noaiaie aaiiaioa. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?icaeyioo? iaeaea?
iiaeae?.

eiai noai?a a aeene?aoi? iiiaioe tj (j=1,2,…), aea

Iao?eoey ||( || ?iia??iinoae ia?aoiae?a ia aace?/? noai?a aaiiaioa ia?
aeaeyae

,

Aea ( – ?iia??i?noue ia?aoiaeo ca tj – tj-1=F c noaio 0 (tj-1) a 1 (tj);

( – ?iia??i?noue ia?aoiaeo ca ?ioa?aae tj – tj-1=F c noaio 1 (tj-1) a 0
(tj).

?iia??iino? (i (i=0,1) noaoe?iia?iiai ?iciiae?eo noai?a aaiiaioa, ui
aaaea iiaiee iai?i. Iiaeooue aooe aecia/ai? ne?aeoth/ei /eiii:

(1)

A ae?oaee iiaeae?, oae ye a /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy ia??iaeo IAI aaiiaio
ianeaiee, iaiao?aeii ?icaeyaeaoe iiaaae?ieo aaiiaioa ia aace?/? {i (tj);
i=0.1, 2} neeaaeaoeny c o?ueio eiai iiaeeeaeo noai?a

I?e ?icaeyae? aoaeaii oaeiae aaaaeaoe, ui o?eaae?noue tii? ia??iaeo IAI
? o?eaae?noue t?e ia??iaeo I? i?aeii?yaeeiaai? aeniiiaioe?aeueiiio
caeiio ?iciiae?eo.

Iao?eoey ?iia??iinoae ia?aoiae?a ia aace?/? {i (tj); i=0,1, 2} ia?
aeaeyae

,

Aea (1 ( ?iia??i?noue ia?aoiaeo c noaio 0 (tj-1) a noai 1 (tj);

(2 ( ?iia??i?noue aeoiaeo c noaio 1 (tj-1) ? ia?aoiaeo c ?iia??i?noth( a
noai 0 (tj) aai c ?iia??i?noth ( =1–( a noai 2 (tj);

( ( ?iia??i?noue ia?aoiaeo c noaio 2 (tj-1) a noai 1 (tj).

Aeey ?icaeyaeoaaii? aace?/? c o?ueio iiaeeeaeo noai?a aaiiaioa iiaeooue
aooe ciaeaeai? ?iia??iino?( i (i=0.1, 2,) noaoe?iia?iiai ?iciiae?eo
ciaoiaeaeaiiy aaiiaioa a i-i noai?:

(2)

Aecia/eii eiao?oe?aio aeoeaiino? aaiiaioa. Cia/aiiy eiao?oe?aioa (
aeoeaiino? aaiiaioa /enaeueii ??aii ?iia??iino? ciaoiaeaeaiiy aaiiaioa a
aeia?eueiee iiiaio /ano a aeoeaiiio noai?.

sseui aaiiaio oa?aeoa?eco?oueny o?eueee aeaiia iiaeeeaeie noaiaie, oi

, (3)

,

F – o?eaae?noue oi?ioaaiiy iiaiiai iaeaoo,

( na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue ia??iae?a AI ? II a?aeiia?aeii.

sseui aaiiaio oa?aeoa?eco?oueny o?ueiia noaiaie oa

(4)

;( =1 –(;

– na?aaei? o?eaaeino? IAI, I?, II, a?aeiia?aeii.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e ?aaeuei? cia/aiiy o?eaaeino? iiaieo aeaiaio?a, iiaeia
aecia/eoe /enaeueia cia/aiiy(. I?e a?aooaaii? iaeiiai ianeaiiai noaio
(II) -((0.46, a yeui a?aoiaothoueny aeaa ianeaieo noaie (IAI ? II) -(
(0.36. C ?iia??i?noth ( ( 0.76 ne?aeii ca I? ne?aeo? IAI ? c
?iia??i?noth ( =0.24 — II(

?iciiae?e /enea iiaieo iaeao?a a iaeaoo?iiio iiaiiio neaiae? a
i?eiouaii? i?i aeniiiaioe?aeueiiio ?iciiae?e o?eaaeino? iiaieo aeaiaio?a
iiaea aooe aecia/aiee ne?aeoth/ei /eiii:

,

oiaoi aeaia caeaaei?noue i?aeei?y?oueny aaiiao?e/iiio caeiio ?iciiae?eo.

iiaieo iaeao?a, ui neeaaeathoue ?E iiaea aooe aecia/aia o aeaeyae?

(6)

Aeey a?oie aeaea?ae iiaieo neaiae?a

(7)

aea ( – eiao?oe?aio aeoeaiino? aaiiaioa i?e a?aooaaii? iaeiiai
ianeaiiai noaio.

Oaeei /eiii, /enei aiaeii/an aeoeaieo aeaea?ae iiaieo neaiae?a
i?aeei?y?oueny a?iii?aeueiiio ?iciiae?eo.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?icaeyaeo ia’?eoo oi?aae?iiy — ia?aae?
ca’yceo niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy (ICNI). Ooo a?aecia/aia, ui ICNI
ii?yae c caaaeueieie caeiiii??iinoyie iiaoaeiae ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy,
i?eoaiaiieie an?i ia?aaeai ca’ycee, iathoue ?noioi? iniaeeaino?, ui
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe a i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy. I?iaiae?ciaai? iniiai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aae ca’yceo, ? aeae?eai? o?, ui aeicaieythoue
e?euee?nii ioe?ieoe nooi?iue ?oiuei? a?aeiia?aeiino? nai?io oe?eueiaiio
i?ecia/aiith ? noai?thaaoe iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, ui caaacia/othoue
??oaiiy a?eueoino? caaea/ oi?aae?iiy.

Caaaeath/e ia oa, ui ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue iaaaioaaeaiiy ICNI
noai?th?oueny iiaieie iia?aeiieaiiyie, aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy
iaeaaeiaiiy ia?aae ca’yceo aoaea a aaaaoiio aecia/aoeny caniaii
eiiooaoe?? ?ioi?iaoe?? oeueiai aeaeyaeo ca’yceo. C oe??? oi/ee ci?o,
aeey ia?aaea/? iiaieo iia?aeiieaiue aeioe?eueii canoinoaaiiy caniao
eiiooaoe?? iaeao?a, ui aeicaieeoue i?aeiyoe i?iioneio ni?iiiaei?noue
ia?aae? a?eueo i?ae a aeaa ?ace.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny iniaeeaino? ia?aaea/? iiaieo
iia?aeiieaiue a ia?aaeao c eiiooaoe??th iaeao?a (EI). A?aoiaoth/e, ui
aeey ia?aaea/? iiae a ia?oo /a?ao i?eionea?oueny aeei?enoaoe ?aaeei
a??ooaeueieo c’?aeiaiue, a ?iaio? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae?
?icaeyaea?oueny naia a oeueiio ?aaeei?.

Ioe?iea yeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oaeaoiiii? ia?aae? c EI (OIEI) iiaeiia
caaacia/oaaoe ioiieaiiy aeaio ??ai?a:

ia o?ainii?oiiio ??ai? – ye?noue ianeoaiaoaaiiy oaeaoiiieo aeeeee?a
(cayaie ia anoaiiaeaiiy AC);

ia ia?aaeaaiio ??ai? – ye?noue ianeoaiaoaaiiy iiaieo iaeao?a;

A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui ia?aaeaaa cao?eiea iiaieo iaeao?a aaiiaioa a ia?aae?
c EI, i?aoethth/i? a ?aaeei? AC, ? cao?eieith ia?aaea/? a oeyoo
anoaiiaeaiiai AC, iniiaieie iieacieeaie yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy iiaieo
iaeao?a aaiiaioa a OIEI iiaeooue aooe i?eeiyo? ianooii?:

aeiionoeia aaee/eia TD cao?eiee iiaieo iaeao?a a AC;

aeiionoeia aaee/eia td cao?eiee iiaieo iaeao?a ia a?eoe? ia?aae?;

?iia??i?noue ao?aoe PD iiaiiai iaeaoo aaiiaioa a AC ?c–ca ia?aaeuaiiy
/ano aeinoaaee aeiionoeii? aaee/eie TD;

?iia??i?noue ao?aoe pd iiaiiai iaeaoo aaiiaioa ia a?eoe? ?c–ca
ia?aaeuaiiy /ano ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeiionoeii? aaee/eie td.

E??i oiai, iaiao?aeiei ? iieaciee, ui a?aeaeaa? aca?iica’ycie yeino?
ianeoaiaoaaiiy oaeaoiiieo aeeeee?a (cayaie ia anoaiiaeaiiy AC) ? ye?noue
ianeoaiaoaaiiy iiaieo iaeao?a. A yeino? oaeiai iieacieea i?iiiio?oueny
aeei?enoaoe ?iia??i?noue PBC (TD, PD) a?aeiiae o anoaiiaeaii? AC ?c-ca
iacaaeia?eueiaiiy aeiia aaiiaio?a aei iieaciee?a yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy
iiaieo iaeao?a a AC, yeeie ? ?iia??i?noue PD ao?aoe ? aaee/eia TD
aeiionoeii? cao?eiee iiaiiai iaeaoo aaiiaioa a AC.

Aecia/aiiy iniiaieo iieaciee?a yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy iiaieo iaeao?a a
a?eeao OIEI aeiaaa? ?ic?iaee a?aeiia?aeii? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?. I?e
oeueiio a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiai ii?io?oueny aaee/eia cao?eiee iiaieo
iaeao?a ii?io?oueny ia ana niieo/aiiy aai ia eiaeio a?eeo, iiaeeea? aeaa
aa??aioe iiaeae?.

Ia?oee aa??aio aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe a?eeo OIEI o aeaeyae? nenoaie
ianiaiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy (NII) c iaiaiaaeaiith aeiaaeeiith /a?ae iiaieo
iaeao?a aei eaiaeo ia?aaea/?. Ae?oaee aa??aio — a?aeiia?aea? ?icaeyaeo
a?eee OIEI o aeaeyae? NII c iaiaaeaiith aeiaaeeiith /a?ae. I?e oeueiio
aeiaaeeia /a?ae aecia/a?oueny aaee/eiith td.

Aiae?oe/ia iiaeaeue a?eee ia?aae? c eiiooaoe??th iaeao?a aac iaiaaeaiiy
aeiaaeeie /a?ae a ?iaio? oyaeaia o aeaeyae? nenoaie ianeoaiaoaaiiy
iioieo iiaieo iaeao?a (NIIII) a?ae a?oie aeaea?ae iiaiee iaaaioaaeaiiy
(AeII).

NIIII iiaea aooe ?icaeyiooa ia ianooii?e aace?/? ?? noai?a:

; t-jtj-1((; j(((((((,

Aea k(tj(( /enei iaeao?a, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a NII?I a aeia?eueiee iiiaio
/ano tj.

*enei iiaieo iaeao?a, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny ia ianeoaiaoaaii? a a?eoe?
ia?aae? a aeia?eueiee iiiaio /ano iiaea aooe aecia/aia ne?aeoth/ei
/eiii:

,

.

?iia??iino? p( (k=0(() noaoe?iia?iiai ?iciiae?eo /enea ( iiaieo iaeao?a,
ui ciaoiaeyoueny a NIIII, iiaeia iienaoe ianooiiith nenoaiith ??aiyiue:

(8)

Aeey ??oaiiy nenoaie ??aiyiue (8) iiaeia aeei?enoaoe can?a ooieoe?e, ui
ae?iaeythoue. A ?acoeueoao? ??oaiiy io?eiai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace, ui
aeicaieyoue aecia/eoe ianooii? ia?aiao?e:

1. Eiao?oe?aio ( ooieoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy eaiaeo.

(9)

aea N( oaeaee?noue eaiaeo ia?aaea/? (a/n);

V ( oaeaee?noue aeaea/? oeeo?iai? iine?aeiaiino? ia aeoiae?
iiaiiia?aoai?thth/iai aeaoooaaiiy aaiiaio?a (a/n);

I, I( aeiaaeeia caaieiaeo (a) ? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? /anoeie (a) iiaiiai
iaeaoo, a?aeiia?aeii.

iiaieo iaeao?a, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a NIIII

(10)

iiaieo iaeao?a a NIIII

(11)

5. ?iia??i?noue pd ao?aoe iiaiiai iaeaoo ?c–ca iaaeoaeeooy aeiionoeii?
aaee/eie /ano td cao?eiee:

(12)

A aiae?oe/i?e iiaeae? a?eee c iaiaaeaiith aeiaaeeiith /a?ae
aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoai?ci aeieoaaiiy ii?ooaiiy a /a?ao iiaiiai iaeaoo,
?iia??i?noue ianeoaiaoaaiiy yeiai iecueea.

Aace?/ noai?a iiaeae? i?aaenoaaeii a aeaeyae?

?iia??iino? p( (k(0(() noaoe?iia?iiai ?iciiae?eo /enea( iiaieo iaeao?a,
ui ciaoiaeyoueny a NIIII iienothoueny nenoaiith ??aiyiue aeaeyaeo:

(13)

Aeey ??oaiiy nenoaie ??aiyiue (13) iiaeia oaeiae aeei?enoaoe can?a
ooieoe?e, ui ae?iaeythoue. A ?acoeueoao? ??oaiiy io?eiai? aiae?oe/i?
ae?ace aeey aecia/aiiy ianooiieo iieaciee?a:

iiaieo iaeao?a, ui ciaoiaeyoueny a /a?c?:

(14)

cao?eiee iiaiiai iaeaoo:

(15)

ao?aoe iiaiiai iaeaoo:

-aeecueea cia/aiiy

(16)

-a?eueo oi/ia cia/aiiy

(17)

A i’yoiio ?icae?e? ae?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy ?
aecia/ai? ae??oaeuei? ?oi? nenoaie

Aeey caaacia/aiiy ?aaeeio ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae ca’yceo
iaiao?aeii noai?thaaoe aea? nenoaie: nenoaia oi?aae?iiy anoaiiaeaiiyi
c’?aeiaiue (NOAC) ? nenoaia oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeath ca’yceo (NOIC).

Caaea/? oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo iaaeoi aaaaoia?aii? ? ??ciiieaiia?.
?o aeioe?eueii ?icaeyaeaoe a ianooiieo oiiaao:

ieaiiaiai ?icai?oaiiy aai eiaaoethaaiiy ia?aae?, ui oi?aaey?oueny;

ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae? ca’yceo, ui oi?aaey?oueny;

ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae? ca’yceo, ui oi?aaey?oueny a aeno?aiaeueieo
neooaoe?yo.

Iaei??? c iniiaieo caaea/ ieaiiai? ci?ie no?oeoo?e ia?aae? ca’yceo ?
aecia/aiiy iaiao?aeiiai eaiaeueiiai ?ano?no ia?aae?, ui caaacia/o?
ianeoaiaoaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy c caaeaiith ye?noth.

), oiaoi

(18)

i?e ianooiieo iaiaaeaiiyo:

aea P – aeiionoeia ?iia??i?noue aeo?ao a iai?aaeaii? ca’yceo;

);

) ia?aae?;

zij – iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui iaaeoiaeeoue ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy a ?ioi?iaoe?ei?
iai?yiee;

— ?iia??i?noue aeo?ao ia a?eeao ia?aae?;

I — /enei a?eie a ia?aae?.

) I?I caaeaiee. A oeueiio aeiaaeeo caaea/a (5.1) ia?aoai?th?oueny a
caaea/o (5.2):

(19)

i?e ianooiieo iaiaaeaiiyo:

Eeth/iaith caaea/ath NOIC a i?ioean? ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
ia?aae? ca’yceo, ui oi?aaey?oueny, ? oi?ioaaiiy I?I, caaeai?
oa?aeoa?enoeee ? aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ,ui caaacia/o? iaeaaeiaiiy
ia?aae? ca’yceo, ui oi?aaey?oueny, oiaoi

) (20)

i?e ianooiieo iaiaaeaiiyo:

,

aea V – /enei eaiae?a, aeeo/aiiy yeeo c a?eie ia?aae? ia i?ecaiaeeoue
aei Pij > P;

;

Vij – /enei eaiae?a a a?eoe?;

V 0ij – iaiao?aeia /enei eaiae?a a a?eoe? mij aeey ianeoaiaoaaiiy
iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui iaaeoiaeeoue ?c caaeaiith ye?noth.

I?e aeieeiaii? ia ia?aae? ca’yceo aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoe?e, iia’ycaieo c
aieeaii ciai?oi?o /eiiee?a ,ui ii?aaeathoue, NOIC ia?aeeaaea?oueny a
iniaeeaee ?aaeei ?iaioe. Aeey ioe?iee neooaoe?? ia ia?aae? ca’yceo
ae?iaey?oueny ??oaiiy caaea/? (5.3). A ?acoeueoao? iiaea aeyaeoeny, ui
ye?noue ianeoaiaoaaiiy P < max {Pij} a aeayeeo iai?yieao ca'yceo ieae/a iaiao?aeieo ii?i. A oeeo oiiaao a ia?oo /a?ao ae?iaey?oueny ni?iaa aeiaanoe oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aae? aei iaiao?aeieo ii?i oeyoii ia?a?iciiae?eo aai iaiaaeaiiy /enea oeyo?a ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? a /anoei? iai?yie?a ca'yceo, oiaoi. (21) i?e ianooiieo iaiaaeaiiyo: , aea ( ij - iiaeeea? oeyoe ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe?? a iai?aaeaii? ca'yceo; ('ij - oeyoe ia?aaea/? ?ioi?iaoe??, ia yee iaeeaaeaia caai?iia o aeei?enoaii?. sseui i?eeiyo? i??e ia i?ecaiaeyoue aei aaaeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo, oi ianooiiei e?ieii ? aaaaeaiiy a aenieoaoaoe?th iayaiiai ?aca?ao nee ? cania?a. Ia aeaiiio aoai? aecia/a?oueny i?i?iaeueii iaiao?aeiee aeiaeaoeiaee ?ano?n, ui caaacia/o? aeiaaaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aae? aei iaiao?aeieo ii?i, oiaoi (22) i?e ianooiieo iaiaaeaiiyo: , aea V 0ij – i?i?iaeueia iiooaei?noue a?eee, iaiao?aeia aeey ianeoaiaoaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy c iaiao?aeiith ye?noth; V0 – iaiao?aeia /enei eaiae?a aeey aeiaaaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aae? aei iaiao?aeieo ii?i. sseui iaiao?aeia /enei eaiae?a ia?aaeuo? iayaiee ?aca?a, oi ianooiiith i??ith aeiaaaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aae? aei iaiao?aeieo ii?i iiaea aooe iaiaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ,ui aoiaeeoue, oiaoi (23) i?e ianooiieo iaiaaeaiiyo: . ?ieiee, i?e aeieeiaii? aeno?aiaeueieo neooaoe?e, cai?noue aeiiae aeiaaaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aae? aei ii?iiaaieo cia/aiue, noaaeoueny oiiaa caaacia/aiiy iiaeeeai? i?iioneii? ni?iiiaeiino? c iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiith ye?noth. Oinoee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iiaeaeyi nenoai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeath ca'yceo. Ia iniia? aiae?co caaea/ oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca'yceo ?ic?iaeaia ocaaaeueiaia iiaeaeue ooieoe?iioaaiiy NOIC c o?aooaaiiyi aca?iiae?? /eiiee?a, ui coiiaeththoue i?ioeane a ia'?eo? oi?aae?iiy, ea?oth/? aieeaii c aieo i?aai?a NOIC, ? ?acoeueoaoe oeueiai aieeao. I?e oeueiio, ia a?aei?io a?ae oeo ui iioae?eoaaeeny a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e e?oa?aoo??, a iiaeae? a?aoiaaiee aieea NOAC ia i?ioeane oi?aae?iiy. Ae?iaeaiee aiae?c i?eioeei?a no?oeoo?ii? iiaoaeiae NOAN, ia iniia? yeiai cai?iiiiiaaia o?ueio??aiaaa iiaeaeue nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ? aecia/ai? caaea/? aeaiaio?a nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, ui ae??oothoueny ia eiaeiiio ??ai?. Ia iniia? aiae?co oeiiaeo caaea/, ui ae??oothoueny a i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeath ca'yceo, ?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe?eii–oaoi?/ii? iiaoaeiae nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ? ocaaaeueiaiee aeai?eoi aca?iiae?? ?? aeaiaio?a, ui aeicaieyoue aecia/eoe neeaae aia?aoiiai ? i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy, a oaeiae iai?yiee ? ii?yaeie aca?iiae?? NOIC ? NOAC. Aecia/ai? i?eioeeie iiaoaeiae ia?aae? oi?aae?iiy. A caeaaeiino? a?ae aei??iino? ia'?eoo oi?aae?iiy ? caaea/, ui ia ia? iieeaaeathoueny, aiia iiaea noi?uaoeny c ia?aaeath ca'yceo, ui oi?aaey?oueny, aai aooe aeae?eaiith. A nueiiiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny caniae ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy i?e ??ciiiai?oieo caniaao iiaoaeiae NOIC. Iaei??? c iniiaieo caaea/, ui ae??oothoueny a i?ioean? noaoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca'yceo, ? i?iaeooaaiiy ia?aae c caaeaieie iieacieeaie iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?oiueiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Oae ye ia?aaea ca'yceo ? neeaaeiith ? aei?iaith nenoaiith, oi a i?ioean? ??oaiiy aeaii? caaea/? iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy ?? iaeaaeiaiiy, ui aeicaieeoue nei?ioeoe eiai caaaeueiee ianya ? i?aeaeueoe iia?euei?noue. A iei?oi?e /an ? a?aeiiee ?yae ?ia?o, ui aeicaieyoue ae??ooaaoe caaea/? oaeiai eeano. Iaeiae, ye i?aaeei, a ieo aeei?enoiao?oueny aeiiouaiiy, ui I?I caaeaiee. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui I?I aeyaey? ?noioiee aieea ia aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy ia?aae? ca'yceo. Oiio aeaia aeiiouaiiy iiaea i?ecaanoe aei cieaeaiiy oi/iino? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? oeae oaeo a?aoiao?oueny ? ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea, a ye?e I?I oi?io?oueny a oiae? ??oaiiy caaea/ noaoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy. ?icaeyioo? iaoiaee ??oaiiy caaea/ aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca'yceo. Cai?iiiiiaaiee i?eioeei iiaoaeiae aeeiai?/ii? aeaoeaio?ae?coaaiie NOIC ia aac? iao?e/iiai caniao oi?ioaaiiy I?I, ui aeicaiey? a N ?ac nei?ioeoe ianya iaaaioaaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy ? /an oi?ioaaiiy ieaio ?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy o ii??aiyii? c a?aeiiei iaoiaeii "?aeue?o?a", aea N – /enei eiiooaoe?eieo oeaio??a a ia?aae?. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ??oaiiy caaea/, ui caaacia/o? i?aeo?eieo iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aae? a iaaeao iaiao?aeieo ii?i a i?ioean? oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeath ca'yceo. I?e oeueiio cae?enith?oueny ye aeyaeaiiy iniiaieo aeaea?ae aeieeiaiiy aeanoaa?e?coth/i? neooaoe??, oae ? aecia/aiiy cania?a aeiaaaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aae? aei iaiao?aeieo ii?i. A iei?oi?e /an ioae?eaoe?? i?i iaoiaeeee, ui aeicaieyoue i?aeoe/i? ae??ooaaoe caaea/? oaeiai eeano, a iaoeiai - oaoi?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? cono??/athoueny aeoaea ??aeei. A ainueiiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny caniae aeeiai?/iiai oi?aae?iiy anoaiiaeaiiyi niieo/aiue, ye? aeicaieyoue i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae ,ui oi?aaeythoueny. A?aeiii, ui aei iaaii? aaee/eie iaaaioaaeaiiy, yeo iiaeia iacaaoe e?eoe/iith, aeei?enoaiiy iao?aeieo oeyo?a aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe i?iioneio ni?iiiaei?noue ia?aae?. Ia?aaeaeuaiiy aeaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy aaaea aei cieaeaiiy i?iioneii? cae?aiino? ia?aae?. Oiio iaei??th c caaea/, ui aeieea? a i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca'yceo, ? caaacia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy iao?aeieo oeyo?a. Aeey ??oaiiy oe??? caaea/? a ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeo ia?o?ooiiai i??i?eoaoo. Aeaiee iaoiae caniiaaiee ia i?eioeei? aeeiai?/iiai i?enai?iiy i??i?eoaoo cayaeai iaei??? ? o??? aea eaoaai??? aaiiaio?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeiaaeeie oeyoo, ii yeiio oe? cayaee ianeoaiaothoueny. I?e oeueiio, c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/iino? ? aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iaeaaeiaiiy ia?aae? cayaeai, ui ianeoaiaothoueny ii iaeei?iooei (i?yiei) oeyoai, i?enaiththoue a?eueo aenieee i??i?eoao ii a?aeiioaiith aei i??i?eoaoo cayaie, ui ianeoaiaothoueny ii iao?aeiei oeyoai. Io?eiai? a ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe iieacothoue, ui ia?aae? ca'yceo c ia?o?ooiei i??i?eoaoii caaacia/othoue a?eueo aenieo ye?noue ianeoaiaoaaiiy, i?ae ia?aae? ca'yceo c iaoiaeaie ? aac iaoiae?a, o anueiio ?icaeyaeoaaiiio ae?aiacii? iaaaioaaeaiue. I?e oeueiio aoaea a?aenooiy iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aei???a iaaaioaaeaiiy ? aeo?ao ia ia?aae? ca'yceo. Iiaeaeueoa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae ca'yceo aoei cae?eniaia ia iniia? eiia?ioaaiiy iaoiaeo ia?o?ooiiai i??i?eoaoo ? ia?aaoaeia (III). I?iaaaeaia ii??aiyeueia ioe?iea cania?a, ui iioae?eoaaeeny a no/ani?e iaoeiai - oaoi?/i?e e?oa?aoo??, ? ?ic?iaeaieo a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iieacaea, ui inoaii? iathoue ia?aaaao. Aeaa'yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ??oaiith ieoaiue oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca'yceo a oiiaao ia?aaaioaaeaiiy. C iaoith aiae?co oe??? i?iaeaie aoea ?ic?iaeaia aiae?oe/ia iiaeaeue, ui aeicaieeoue aeine?aeaeoaaoe aieea iaei?o iai?yie?a ca'yceo ia ?io? a oiiaao aeieeiaiiy eieaeueieo ia?aaaioaaeaiue. E??i oiai, aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? ia?ao?aei? i?ioeane ia ia?aaeao ca'yceo ? aeyaeaiee ?oi?e iaaaoeaiee aieea ia i?iioneio ni?iiiaei?noue ia?aae ca'yceo. Aeae? ia aiae?oe/i?e oa ?i?oaoe?ei?e iiaeaeyo aoea aeine?aeaeaia iiaaae?iea ia?aae ca'yceo c II ? III a oiiaao ia?inoaiiy ia?aaaioaaeaiiy. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iieacaee, ui ?ic?iaeai? caniae aeicaieythoue cieceoe iaaaoeaia aieeao ia?aaaioaaeaiue ia ye?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae ca'yceo. Aeey caoenoo ia?aae ca'yceo a?ae ia?aaaioaaeaiue aoa ?ic?iaeaiee iaoiae ia'?iiiai i??i?eoaoo, ui aeicaieeoue caaacia/eoe ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae? a iii?iaeueiiio ?aaeei? i?e aeieeiaii? eieaeueieo ia?aaaioaaeaiue. A iniia? iaoiaeo eaaeeoue i?eioeei iaiaaeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy. I?e/iio, iaiaaeaiiy cae?enith?oueny oeyoii aeeiai?/iiai i?enai?iiy i??i?eoaoo aeeeeeai aei caeaaeiinoae a?ae ianyao iaaaioaaeaiiy a iai?aaeaii? ca'yceo. sseui iaaaioaaeaiiy a iai?aaeaii? ca'yceo ia ia?aaeuo? ii?iiaaiiai cia/aiiy, oi eiio i?enaith?oueny i?aeaeuaiee i??i?eoao. sseui iaaaioaaeaiiy a iai?aaeaii? ca'yceo ia?aaeuo? ii?iiaaia cia/aiiy, oi eiio i?enaith?oueny iiieaeaiee i??i?eoao. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai? ia aiae?oe/i?e oa ?i?oaoe?ei?e iiaeaeyo, iieacaee aeinoaoiuei aenieo aoaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaeaiiai caniao. A?i aeicaiey? i?aeoe/ii iiai?noth aeeeth/eoe aieea ia?aaaioaaeaiiai iai?aaeaiiy ca'yceo ia ye?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?ioeo. A aeanyoiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iniaeeaino? oi?aae?iiy OIEI. ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy aeiaaa? ?ic?iaee a?aeiia?aeii? iiaeae?. I?e oeueiio iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy OIEI. Iniiaiith ? iaea?eueo ?noioiith iniaeea?noth ? oa, ui i?ioeane ianeoaiaoaaiiy oaeaoiiieo aeeeee?a ? iiaieo iaeao?a a OIEI i?io?eathoue ia ??ciiiai?oieo ??aiyo ia?aae?. *anoeiai, ianeoaiaoaaiiy oaeaoiiieo aeeeee?a (anoaiiaeaiiy a??ooaeueieo c’?aeiaiue) ae?iaey?oueny ia o?ainii?oiiio ??ai? ia?aae?, a ianeoaiaoaaiiy iiaieo iaeao?a (aooa??caoe?y ? ia?aaea/a ii eaiaeai ia?aae? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c? no?aoaa??th, ui aeei?enoiao?oueny ia?o?ooecaoe?y) a?aeaoaa?oueny ia ?? ia?aaeaaiio ??ai?. I?e oeueiio oaeaee?noue i?ioean?a, ui i?io?eathoue a ieo, aei??th?oueny a ??cieo ianooaaao /ano, ui a?ae??ciythoueny iaeei a?ae iaeiiai ia aeae?eueea ii?yaee?a. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaia iiaeaeue, ui aeicaieeoue a?aooaaoe aca?iica'ycie ia?aaeaaiai ? o?ainii?oiiai ??ai?a. Ia iniia? aeaii? iiaeae? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy a i?ioean? noaoe/iiai oi?aae?iiy oaeaoiiieie ia?aaeaie c EI. A yeino? iniiaiiai iieacieea yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaeany ?iia??i?noue PBC (TD, PD) a?aeiiae i?e anoaiiaeaii? AC ?c–ca iacaaeia?eueiaiiy aeiia aaiiaio?a aei iieaciee?a yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy iiaieo iaeao?a a AC ii ?iia??iino? PD aeo?ao ? aaee/ei TD aeiionoeii? cao?eiee iiaieo iaeao?a aaiiaio?a a AC. AENIIAEE A aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaia ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iniia iiaoaeiae nenoai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca'yceo niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy ia aac? aecia/aiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia'?eoo oi?aae?iiy, aeyaeaiiy iaea?eueo o?eaeeo aca?iica'yce?a i?ae aeaiaioaie, iioei?caoe?? i?eioeei?a ?oiuei? i?aai?caoe?eii - oaoi?/ii? ? aeai?eoi?/ii? iiaoaeiae ? ?ic?iaee cania?a ??oaiiy iniiaieo caaea/ oi?aae?iiy. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiue io?eiai? ianooii? iniiai? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe: ?ic?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaio iiaeaeue i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca'yceo c o?aooaaiiyi aca?iiae?? /eiiee?a, ui coiiaeththoue i?ioeane a ia'?eo? oi?aae?iiy, aieea c aieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy ? ?acoeueoaoe oeueiai aieeao. I?e oeueiio a iiaeae? a?aoiaaiee aieea NOAC ia i?ioeane oi?aae?iiy. Cai?iiiiiaaia o?ueio??aiaaa iiaeaeue nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ? ocaaaeueiaiee aeai?eoi aca?iiae?? ?? aeaiaio?a, ui aeicaieyoue aecia/eoe neeaae aia?aoiiai ? i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy, a oaeiae iai?yiee ? ii?yaeie aca?iiae?? NOIC ? NOAC. ?ic?iaeaiee ocaaaeueiaiee iieaciee yeino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oaeaoiiii? ia?aae? c EI, ui a?aoiao? aca?iica'ycie i?ioean?a ui i?io?eathoue ia ?? o?ainii?oiiio ? ia?aaeaaiio ??aiyo. A yeino? oaeiai ocaaaeueiaiiai iieacieea i?iiiio?oueny i?eeiyoe ?iia??i?noue PBC (TD, PD) a?aeiiae i?e anoaiiaeaii? AC ?c-ca iaiiaeeeaino? caaacia/aiiy aeiia aaiiaio?a aei iieaciee?a yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy iiaieo iaeao?a a AC, yeeie ? ?iia??i?noue PD ao?ao ? aaee/eia TD aeiionoeii? cao?eiee iiaieo iaeao?a o anoaiiaethaaiiio AC. ?ic?iaeai? aiae?oe/i? iiaeae? aeaiaio?a ia?aae? c EI, ye? aeicaieyoue ae?iaeoe ioe?ieo iieaciee?a ianeoaiaoaaiiy iiaieo iaeao?a. Ia ?oi?e iniia? io?eiai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace, ui aeicaieyoue ?ic?aoiaoaaoe: ?iia??i?noue ao?aoe iiaiiai iaeaoo aaiiaioa ?c–ca ia?aaaioaaeaiiy aaee/eie aeiionoeii? cao?eiee; aeiionoeia /enei eia?/ieo eaiae?a a?eee, ui iiaeooue aooe aiaeii/an oyaeai? aeey anoaiiaeaiiy AN, aeiiae aaiiaio?a ,ui caaacia/othoue aei yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy iiaieo iaeao?a; na?aaei?e /an ciaoiaeaeaiiy iiaieo iaeao?a a /a?c? aei eaiaeo ia?aaea/? ? na?aaeith aeiaaeeio oe??? /a?ae. ?ic?iaeai? aiae?oe/i? ? ?i?oaoe?ei? iiaeae? a?oie aeaea?ae iiaiiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, ui aeicaieyoue ae?iaeoe ioe?ieo iniiaieo ?iia??ii-oei/aniaeo ia?aiao??a iioieo iiaieo iaeao?a a?ae e?ioeaaiai /enea aaiiaio?a, eiaeiee c yeeo aaia?o? iiai? iaeaoe. A ca'yceo c oei, ui ia?aaea c EI caaacia/o? a?eueo aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy eaiae?a, i?ae ia?aaea c EE, aiia iaio o?eaea aei ia?aaaioaaeaiue ? aeiaaa? i?aeaeuaii? oaaae i?e ??oaii? ieoaiue oi?aae?iiy. Aiae?c yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy oaeaoiiieo aeeeee?a aei ia?aae c EI na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iia??oaiiy yeino? iaeaoii? ia?aaea/? i?iiiae (ca?eueoaiiy aeiionoeiiai cia/aiiy ?iia??iino? ao?aoe iiaiiai iaeaoo) ia aeeeeea? iii?oiiai iie?ioaiiy yeino? ianeoaiaoaaiiy oaeaoiiieo aeeeee?a. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aae? ca'yceo c EE, a yeee ieai ?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy oi?io?oueny a oiae? ??oaiiy caaea/?, a a?aeciaeo a?ae iayaieo a iaoeiai - oaoi?/i?e e?oa?aoo??, aea aeei?enoiao?oueny aeiiouaiiy, ui I?I caaeaiee. Cai?iiiiiaaiee i?eioeei iiaoaeiae nenoaie ,ui aeaoeaio?ae?coaaeany oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeath ia aac? iao?e/iiai caniao oi?ioaaiiy I?I, ui aeicaiey? a N ?ac nei?ioeoe ianya iaaaioaaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy ? /an oi?ioaaiiy ieaio ?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiiy o ii??aiyii? c a?aeiiei caniaii "?aeue?o?a", aea N - /enei eiiooaoe?eieo oeaio??a a ia?aae?. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ??oaiiy caaea/? ii caaacia/aiith i?aeo?eiee iniiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee ia?aae? a iaaeao iaiao?aeieo ii?i a i?ioean? oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeath ca'yceo. Aecia/aiee ii?yaeie io?eiaiiy ao?aeieo aeaieo aeey ??oaiiy oe??? caaea/? c iaiao?aeiei nooiaiai oi/iino? ? a??ia?aeiino?. ?ic?iaeaiee can?a ia?o?ooiiai i??i?eoaoo, yeee aeicaieeoue i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae? o anueiio ae?aiacii? iaaaioaaeaiue, o ii??aiyii? c aeei?enoaiiyi cae/aeieo cania?a caiyooy iao?aeieo oeyo?a. Aeaiee can?a a?aeiinii i?inoee a ?aae?caoe??. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aae a oiiaao eieaeueieo ia?aaaioaaeaiue iieacaee, ui ia?aaaioaaeaiiy ie?aieo iai?yie?a ca'yceo iiaea noaoe aeaea?aeii ia?aaaioaaeaiiy ?ioeo iai?yie?a ca'yceo, a ?ieiee ? an??? ia?aae? a oe?eiio. Aeei?enoaiiy ia?o?ooiiai i??i?eoaoo ? eiai iiaeeo?eaoe?? aeicaiey? cia/ii cieceoe aieea eieaeueieo ia?aaaioaaeaiue ia iieacieee ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia?aae?. I?e/iio, aoaeoeai?noue aeaieo cania?a a?eueo aeniea a oiiaao ia?aaaioaaeaiiy ie?aieo iai?yie?a ca'yceo, i?ae a oiiaao aeieeiaiiy caaaeueiiia?aaeaaiai ia?aaaioaaeaiiy. Aeieeiaiiy ia ia?aaeao ca'yceo ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei iiyae iaaaoeaieo yaeu, aieea yeeo a?ae/oaa?oueny a oa/?th iaaiiai i?ii?aeeo /ano, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae ia?aiao??a ia?aae?. Cieceoe iaaaoeaiee aieea ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a aeicaiey? aeei?enoaiiy ia?o?ooiiai i??i?eoaoo. ?ic?iaeaiee can?a caoenoo ia?aae ca'yceo a?ae ia?aaaioaaeaiue a i?ioean? ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy anoaiiaeaiiyi niieo/aiue, ui aeicaieeoue aoaeoeaii ai?ioeny c eieaeueieie ia?aaaioaaeaiiyie. Aeaiee can?a aeicaiey? i?aeoe/ia iiai?noth aeeeth/eoe aieea ia?aaaioaaeaiiai iai?aaeaiiy ia an?o ?io? iai?yiee ca'yceo. Iniiaiith iniaeea?noth oi?aae?iiy oaeaoiiieie ia?aaeaie c EI ? iaiao?aei?noue a?aooaaiiy aca?iica'yceo i?ioean?a ia?aaeaaiai ? o?ainii?oiiai ??ai?a, ui i?io?eathoue a ??ciiiai?oieo ianooaaao /ano, ui a?ae??ciythoueny ia aeae?eueea ii?yaee?a. Aeey ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy oaeaoiiieie ia?aaeaie c EI ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea, ui aeicaieeoue ioe?ieoe ye?noue ianeoaiaoaaiiy aaiiaio?a ia?aae? c o?aooaaiiyi aca?iica'yceo i?ioean?a o?ainii?oiiai ? ia?aaeaaiai ??ai?a, a oaeiae no?oeoo?ieo ? ia?aiao??a iaaaioaaeaiiy ia?aae? ca'yceo. Oaeei /eiii, iinoaaeaia iaoa ? caaea/?, ui noi?ioethaaeeny a ii/aoeo ?iaioe, ae??oai?. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia eaa? eiioa?aioe?e ? oaiaoe/ieo nai?ia??a ??ciiiai?oiiai ??aiy. I?eeeaaeia /anoeia ?iaioe a cia/iiio nooiai? ?aae?ciaaia a IE?, IE? ? iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? AIC. NIENIE ?IA?O, UI IIOAE?EIAAI?. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 72 ?iaioe, iniiaieie c yeeo ?: ?iiaiia A. E. Oi?aaeaiea iioieaie ?a/aauo niiauaiee ia naoyo nayce. - E.: IOe i?e EAEON, 1998. - 272n. AEeaeoea I.E., Eoeei A.A., ?iiaiia A.E. Naoe ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. - E.: EAAEON, 1985. - 211n. ?iiaiia A. E. Caaea/e oi?aaeaiey naoyie nayce a /a?acau/aeiuo neooaoeeyo // Ca’cie. - 1998. - ?4. - N.23-25. ?iiaiia A.E. Ioeaiea aa?iyoiinoii - a?aiaiiuo ia?aiao?ia eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia a oeaio?aeeciaaiiuo nenoaiao oi?aaeaiey naoyie nayce // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. *anoue 1. - E.: EA?OC, 1998. - N.98 - 110. ?iiaiia A. E. Eniieueciaaiea aieiiaiai iaoiaea oi?aaeaiey ?ani?aaeaeaieai eioi?iaoeee ia naoyo n eiiiooaoeeae iaeaoia // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?4. - E.: EA?OC, 1998. - ?4. - N.7 - 15. ?iiaiia A. E. Oeaio?aeeciaaiiia oaoiieiae/aneia oi?aaeaiea naoyie nayce a aeeiaieea eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?2. - E.: EA?OC, 1998. - ?2. - N.37 - 49. ?iiaiia A. E. 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Iooe iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai // Iaoaiecaoeey e aaoiiaoecaoeey oi?aaeaiey. - 1989. - ?4. - N.47-49 Eaaaaeaa I.I., ?iiaiia A.E., Ua?aeia E.I. Oeeo?iaua ?aciinei?inoiua nenoaiu eiiiooaoeee aeey naoae oeia ISDN // I?aoe? eiioa?aioe?? "No?aoaa?y aoiaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie o na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??".-E.: 1997. - N.142-146. Aei?ianeeo A.A., Eaiaoaiie A.E., E?eaaiei A.A., ?iiaiia A.E. Aaeaioeaiia oi?aaeaiea i?ei?eoaoaie a nenoaia iaeaoiie nayce // Iaoaiecaoeey e aaoiiaoecaoeey oi?aaeaiey.-1989. - ?3. - N.56-58. ?iiaiia A.E. Oi?aaeaiea naoyie nayce n ia?o?ooiui i?ei?eoaoii //I?aoe? eiioa?aioe?? "No?aoaa?y aoiaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie o na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?ino??".-E.: 1997. - N.239-244. ?iiaiia A.E. Ii?oieiae/aneay iiaeaeue nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey naoyie nayce // Iaoa?eaeu 8-e iaaeaeoia?iaeiie E?uineie eiioa?aioeee. - Naaanoiiieue, 1998. - oii 1. - N.433-434 AIIOAOe?? ?iiaiia A.?. Oi?aae?iiy iioieaie iiaieo iia?aeiieaiue ia ia?aaeao ca’yceo niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy. ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia iiooe a/aiiai nooiaiy aeieoi?o oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.12.02. – Oaeaeiioi?eaoe?ei? nenoaie oa oi?aae?iiy ieie. Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, Ee?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ic?iaoe? oai?aoe/ieo iniia iiaoaeiae nenoai oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaie ca’yceo niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy ia aac? aecia/aiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia’?eoo oi?aae?iiy, aeyaeaiiy iaea?eueo no?eeeo ca’yce?a i?ae aeaiaioaie, iioei?caoe?? i?eioeei?a ?o i?aai?caoe?eii–oaoi?/ii? ? aeai?eoi?/ii? iiaoaeiae oa ?ic?iaoe? iaoiae?a ??oaiiy iniiaieo caaea/ oi?aae?iiy. A ?iaio? ?icaeaa?oueny iiaa iai?aaeaiiy a oi?aae?ii? ia?aaeaie ca’yceo niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy a oiiaao ci?i no?oeoo?e, iaaaioaaeaiiy oa i?ioeae?? aa?aneaiiai ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua. ?ic?iaeaii eaieo iaoiae?a ??oaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy, ui aeicaieythoue iioei?coaaoe oa?aeoa?enoeee ia?aae, ui oi?aaeythoueny, ye ia iniia? iiaii?, oae ? eieaeueii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i noai ?o aeaiaio?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iathoue i?eeeaaeio iai?aaeai?noue. Eeth/ia? neiaa: nenoaia oi?aae?iiy, ia?aae? ca’yceo niaoe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, eiiooaoe?y, iaiaaeaaaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy, iiai? iia?aeiieaiiy, ye?noue ianeoaiaoaaiiy. ?iiaiia A.E. Oi?aaeaiea iioieaie ?a/aauo niiauaiee ia naoyo nayce niaoeeaeueiiai iacia/aiey. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.12.02 - oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua nenoaiu e oi?aaeaiea eie. Iaoeeiiaeueiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao Oe?aeiu “Eeaaneee iieeoaoie/aneee einoeooo”, Eeaa, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea oai?aoe/aneeo iniia iino?iaiey nenoai oi?aaeaiey naoyie nayce niaoeeaeueiiai iacia/aiey ia aaca ii?aaeaeaiey iniiaiuo caeiiiia?iinoae ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iauaeoa oi?aaeaiey, auyaeaiey iaeaieaa onoie/eauo acaeiinaycae iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie, iioeiecaoeee i?eioeeiia eo i?aaiecaoeeiiii - oaoie/aneiai e aeai?eoie/aneiai iino?iaiey e ?ac?aaioee iaoiaeia ?aoaiey iniiaiuo caaea/ oi?aaeaiey. A ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony iiaia iai?aaeaiea a oi?aaeaiee naoyie nayce niaoeeaeueiiai iacia/aiey a oneiaeyo eciaiythuaeny no?oeoo?u, iaa?ocee e i?ioeaiaeaenoaey aa?anneaiie aiaoiae n?aaeu. ?ac?aaioaiu ?yae iaoiaeia ?aoaiey caaea/ oi?aaeaiey, iicaieythueo iioeiece?iaaoue oa?aeoa?enoeee oi?aaeyaiuo naoae eae ia iniiaa iieiie, oae e eieaeueiie eioi?iaoeee i ninoiyiee eo yeaiaioia. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou eiatho i?eeeaaeioth iai?aaeaiiinoue Eeth/aaua neiaa: nenoaia oi?aaeaiey, naoe nayce niaoeeaeueiiai iacia/aiey, eiiiooaoeey, ia?aie/aiea iaa?ocee, ?a/aaua niiauaiey, ea/anoai ianeoaeeaaiey. Romanov A.I. The voice messages flow management on special purpose communication networks. – Manuscript. The dissertation for a doctor’s degree by speciality 05.12.02 - The telecommunication systems and management on them. National technical university of Ukraine “Kiev politechnical institute”, Kiev, 1999. The dissertation is devoted to the theoretical foundation development of a special purpose communication networks control system construction based on the definition of the basic laws of management object functioning, revealing of the most steadiest interrelations between elements, optimization of principles of their organizational–technical and algorithmical construction and development of methods of the basic management problems decision. A new direction in special purpose communication networks management under conditions of structure and load variations and counteraction of agressive external environment is developed in this work. The processes of communication networks management are considered at three levels. The first level is centralized management of communication networks. The given systems solve management problems on the basis of the complete information about a communication network. The methods allowing to make a communication network throughput estimation, to determine those network elements wich have the greatest deviations from a normal functioning mode, to take the rational decisions of bringing the network characteristics up to demanded norms by using an available reserve of forces and means or incoming traffic restriction are developed for centralized systems in dissertation. The second level is decentralized management of communication networks. These systems solve problems of a communication network functioning parameters optimization on the basis of the local information of network elements states. Their purpose is the indentification of centralized control system disadvantages, the main of which are low survivability and rather large duration of a management cycle. A way of the management problems decision of decentralized system is offered. A high survivability of a control system and fast reaction on structural changes in a communication network is reached while this method has rather simple practical realization. The third level is the connections establishment management. The optimization of the information transfer path selection for each request of service, taking to account of a current state of a communication network is provided at the given level of management. The methods of the connections establishment management, allowing to increase an efficiency of communication networks functioning are offered in the dissertation. Offered methods allow to solve two groups of problems. First is an roundabout paths occupation optimization, depending on communication network congestion. Second is an information directions protection under overload occurrence. The using of a dynamic priority, applying to the requests on service in the dependence of the situation on a communication network, is in the basis of methods. The basic advantage of these methods is that they do not require realization of load and loss values measurements in a communication network. In addition they have rather simple practical realization. Large attention is spared to peculiarities of management on package switched telephone networks. The ways of an service quality estimation on such networks with regard to interrelation of processes, proceeding at transport and network levels are considered. Key words: a control system, special purpose communication network, switching, traffic restriction, voice messages, service quality. PAGE 29 (

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