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Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie

A?eion A?eoi? Oa?aniae/

OAeE: 351.713

Oi?aae?iiy

iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith a Oe?a?i?

25.00.05. — aaeocaaa oi?aae?iiy: oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith

aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

Ee?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?ee ? o?iain?a Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? th?eaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee th?eno Oe?a?ie,
Aieini?/aiei ?aai Iaioae?eiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
i?aaa oa o?iain?a Oe?a?inueeiai o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo
Aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe?? Oe?a?ie.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, A?oaiaaeuenueeee TH??e Naiaiiae/, aieiaiee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo i?iaeai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia?
Oe?a?ie;

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee
Eoi?ia ?iia Ieaenaiae??aia, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo o?iainiaiai
i?iaiicoaaiiy ?inoeoooo aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy Iaoe?iiaeueii?
Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee aeiiii?/iee ?inoeooo I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie,
a?aeae?e o?iainiai-athaeaeaoii? ? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 23 ethoiai 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 50.34.01 a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie (252057, i. Ee?a, aoe.
A.Iioue?, 20).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 252057, i. Ee?a, aoe. A.Iioue?, 20.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 22 n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A.I.Iiaianthe

caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Anooi. Oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiith iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith ?
iaei??th c aeooaeueieo i?iaeai. O ia??iae ia?aoiaeo a?ae ieaiiai? aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ? noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae i?aai?caoe?y
aoaeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae ii?yae ?c oaeineiiaeaiiyi
nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy noa? aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie.
Oiio a?ae /?oeino? ?? ae?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeeiiaiiy nai?o ooieoe?e ia
an?o ??aiyo, caeaaeeoue i?ioean aaeaioaoe?? iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie
aei ?eieiaeo noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei.

No/ania Oe?a?ia iio?aao? ia o?eueee cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a ?eieiai?
naii?aaoeyoe??, a ianaiia?aae, iioei?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy ia an?o iai?yiao
aeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino?, iniaeeai o noa?? ae?iaieoeoaa, yea ia?
iiooaeiee, aea ia?aae?ciaaiee iioaioe?ae. Iaeiae ?c aeayeeo i?e/ei a
Oe?a?i? neeaeanue iai?eionoeii aeniea iie?oecaoe?y aeiiii?/ieo ?
nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei. Iaiao?aei? oaoiieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei ae??oaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai /anoi i?aei?iythoueny ?aeaieia??th. O ?acoeueoao?
caeoeiaeie noaee ia o?eueee ie?ai? i?aei?e?inoaa, a oe?ea iecea aaeocae,
ui noai?eei aeiiii?/io e?eco. O caa?iaii? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie c?
ui??/iei iineaiiyi aei ia?iaeo oa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie aeoeaioo?oueny
iniaeeaa oaaaa ia ae??oaii? iaaaeueiiai caaaeaiiy — aii?yaeeoaaiiy oa
aeiaaaeaiiy aei oeea?e?ciaaieo aei???a nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, yea a
noeioethaaea ae?iaie/ee i?ioean ? no?oeoo?i? ci?ie Caa?iaiiy I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie E.Ae.Eo/ie c? ui??/iei iineaiiyi aei ia?iaeo, Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie //O?yaeiaee eo?’??. – 1998. — ? 89-90. – N. 1..

Ui noino?oueny eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy caaaeaiue, iinoaaeaieo
I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie, oi ooo oaeiae aeieeathoue i?iaeaie e?euee?niiai oa
ye?niiai oa?aeoa?o. Eaae?iaee ei?ion a Oe?a?i? aeineoue iiooaeiee —
iiiaae 300 oeny/ aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a. I?ioa cia/iee i?ioan?eiee oa
i?aai?caoi?nueeee aeina?ae noa?oiai iieie?iiy ia i?aee??ieth?oueny, ye
ne?ae, iiaeie i?aeoiaeaie, iaia’yceiaeie aeey no/anieo oiia, ? iaaiaee,
i?aoe?aieee c a?eueo-iaio ?eieiaei ieneaiiyi aeineoue /anoi ua neaaei
aieiae?thoue oai???th oi?aae?iiy Oai naii. – N. 5..

Ia?aae oao?aoeyie noi?oue caaaeaiiy eaae?o?eiaaiiai ae??oaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ea??aieoeoaa
i?aea?aeii/eie i?aaiaie, ui iiai?noth noino?oueny ae?yeueiino?
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae ye iiai? no?oeoo?e aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa o?nii iia’ycaia c ?ic?iaeith eiiieaeno iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai
noaiiaeaiiy oa oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith, ui i?aoeth? a
aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece oa iaaeineiiaeino? iiaeaoeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, iaiaaa?oueny iioei?coaaoe aeeiiaiiy nai?o ooieoe?e, aea
iio?aao? i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiai? i?aeo?eiee ia iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
canaaeao.

O aeena?oaoe?? aecia/athoueny aieiai? i?e/eie ?nioaaiiy o?iueiai?
aeiiii?ee, ui ia?aoeiaeaea? iiiaeaoeoaaiith cia/ieo ianya?a eai?oaeo,
eio?? iaa?oathoueny iica iaaeaie eaaaeueiiai naeoi?o aeiiii?ee. Iaei??th
c oaeeo i?e/ei ? a?aenooi?noue ?ic?iaie iai?yieo iaoiae?a
aeieoiaiooaaiiy ae?e noa’?eo?a iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, iia’ycaieo ?c ooeeaiiyi
a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a. Oey oa ?yae ?ioeo ianoaaei, ui ni?eythoue
o?i?caoe?? aeiiii?ee, aeaoa?i?iothoue aeaaaeaiiy c iiey iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
iiiaae 50 a?aenioe?a aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo aea?aeaae. Naia c oeeo
iiceoe?e o aeena?oaoe?? aiae?cothoueny ye a ?noi?e/iiio, oae ? a
no/aniiio aniaeoao ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c iaoeiaei iaa?oiooaaiiyi
iaiao?aeiino? noai?aiiy caeiiiaeaa/i? aace aeey aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy
iiaeaoeiaeie i?aaiaie, iniaeeai o ia?ao?aei?, iaeaaae/? /ane
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. O ca’yceo c oeei o ?iaio? ni?anoaaey?oueny
a?aeiia?aei?noue i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae a Oe?a?i?
c iiceoeaiei na?oiaei aeina?aeii; ?icaeyaea?oueny oe?iea eiei iae?i- ?
i?e?i ??aiaaeo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c oaeineiiaeaiiyi naii? iiaeaoeiai?
iie?oeee, nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith oa
?? eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy.

O aeine?aeaeaii? aecia/athoueny oeyoe aeao?i?caoe?? aeiiii?ee,
aaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie a oe?eiio oa eiie?aoii oaei? ??
neeaaeiai? ye ae?yeuei?noue iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui any
?iaioa o oeueiio iai?yi? iiaeiia aoaeoaaoenue ?c o?aooaaiiyi i?eioeei?a
? iieiaeaiue Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie uiaei a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aea?aeaae
ia?aae ethaeeiith ? noni?euenoaii, a oaeiae a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?
noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia?aae aea?aeaaith.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaaaeaii c aeei?enoaiiyi ii??aiyeueiiai aeiiii?ei-i?aaiaiai aiae?co
iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie ? iiaeaoeiaeo
i?aai?a a Oe?a?i? oa i?aeia?iaeiiai aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe?? ? cae?eniaiiy
cai?o iiaeaoe?a. Oea ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ioae?eaoe?yo aeena?oaioa ?
aeaei iiaeeea?noue c?iaeoe aianie o iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeo ?iaioo ca
oaiith “?ic?iaea iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a
ca iai?yiii “Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy” ca?aeii i. 09 Eiiieaeniiai iaoeiaiai
i?iaeoo Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia?
Oe?a?ie “Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy oa naiia?yaeoaaiiy”(1998).

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoa i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o oiio, uia, nie?ath/enue ia
aiae?c ?aaeueiiai noaio ni?aa a aeiiii?oe? oa iiaeaoeia?e neoaea?
Oe?a?ie, aeei?enoiaoth/e aeniiaee, c?iaeai? o ?acoeueoao? aea/aiiy
no/anii? iaoee oi?aae?iiy, iaa?oiooaaoe ?c iaoeiaeo iiceoe?e
iaiao?aei?noue canoinoaaiiy ?? iieiaeaiue uiaei iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e
oa aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae, ni?yiiaaii? ia
caaacia/aiiy i?aeoe/ii? ?aae?caoe?? i?eioeei?a oa ii?i Eiinoeoooe??
Oe?a?ie.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aecia/ai? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inuee?
canaaee, caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, ia yeeo noi?ioaaeanue ? ?icaeaaeanue
iiaeaoeiaa neoaeaa a Oe?a?i?;

— iaa?oiooaaoe iaiao?aei?noue iine?aeiaii-aacia?a?aii? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee
oai?aoe/ieo ? i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c aecia/aiiyi no/anieo
aeiia aei oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith;

— aecia/eoe iniiai? i?eioeeie ? iaoiaee oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? nenoaie
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy oa ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae;

— aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? aieeao nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaeo /eiiee?a o noa??
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ia aecia/aiiy aieiaieo iai?yi?a oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy
iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith;

— ?ice?eoe iniiai? neeaaeia? o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee oa i?iaeaie
ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a;

— iaoeiai iaa?oiooaaoe eeth/ia? iai?yie aaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?e ai?iaaaeaeaii? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
caoiae?a uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee ? nenoaie
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy noaia iiaeeeaei cae?eniaiiy iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?ii?
iiaoaeiae, oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
?? ae?yeueiino?.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue
nenoaia caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo oa niaoe?aeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oaeeo ye iaoa??ae?noe/ia ae?aeaeoeea i?ciaiiy noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo
yaeu, eia?ea, aiae?c, neioac, ?iaeoeoe?y, aeaaeoeoe?y a oaeiae ?yae
?ioeo iaoeiaeo iaoiae?a, cie?aia ?noi?e/iee, nioe?ieia?/iee
(aieaooaaiiy, iieooaaiiy oa ?io?) oa iaoiae niinoa?aaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. O i?ioean?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oeyoii aea/aiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae, iia’ycaieo ?c
oi?ioaaiiyi oe?a?inueei? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee oa noaiiaeaiiyi
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae, ii??aiyiiy oeeo i?ioean?a ?c ooieoe?iioaaiiyi
iiaeaoeiaeo nenoai e?a?i, ui noaee ia ?eieiaee oeyo ?icaeoeo, aecia/ai?
iai?yie iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e ? caaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae a
Oe?a?i?, a naia:

— aia?oa c?iaeaiee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ie?aia ooieoe?iioaaiiy
iiaeaoeiai? ?iniaeoe?? ? iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? ia ia ei?enoue ni?aa?
cai?o iiaeaoe?a oa Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie o na?ii? 1996 ?. ia aac?
Aieiaii? aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai? ?iniaeoe?? I?i?noa?noaa o?iain?a ?
a?aeiia?aeieo i?ae?icae?e?a I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa aoea noai?aia
a?eueo aeineiiaea nenoaia i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae a
Oe?a?i?, ui aeicaieeei iie?ioeoe noai oi?aae?iiy iath;

— ?ic?iaeaii i?iaeoe Caeii?a Oe?a?ie ? iinoaiia Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a,
canoinoaaiiy yeeo iiceoeaii aieeioei ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino?
iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? oa iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae a oe?eiio;

— ae?noaee iiaeaeueoa ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie, iia’ycai? c caeiiiaeaa/ei
caaacia/aiiyi ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe??, a oiio /ene?: noai?aiiy
niaoe?ae?ciaaieo iia?aoeaieo ? ne?ae/eo i?ae?icae?e?a; a?aeae?e?a aeey
aecia/aiiy iai?yieo iaoiae?a aeieoiaiooaaiiy ooeeaiue a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a, i?aeia?iaeieo ca’yce?a; cai?iaaaeaeaii iia? oi?ie ? iaoiaee
i?aeaioiaee i?aoe?aiee?a aeey iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia oei, ui aiia, ii-ia?oa,
cae?enithaaoeia ?acii ?c ?ioeie iaoeiaeie ?ic?iaeaie oeueiai
ni?yioaaiiy, iiceoeaiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy aeoiee uiaei iaiao?aeiino?
oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith c o?aooaaiiyi no/anieo
aeiia, a ii-ae?oaa, aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny
ye o i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae, oae ? a
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, i???ioiaaieo ia i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe
oa eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy cacia/aii? neoaeae.

E??i oiai, i?aeoe/ia ? oai?aoe/ia cia/ou?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa?:

a) o iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e aaeoc? — iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ic?iaie o
oaeeo noni?eueieo aaeocyo, ye: oai??y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, aeiiii?ea
? o?iaine, o?einio?y i?aaa.

a) o noa?? i?aaioai?/ino? — aeniiaee oa i?iiiceoe??, ui i?noyoueny a
aeena?oaoe??, iiaeooue neoaeeoe iaoiaeieia?/iith ? oai?aoe/iith iniiaith
?ic?iaee caeiiiaeaa/eo oa ?ioeo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia
ae??oaiiy oa aaeineiiaeaiiy aeooaeueieo ieoaiue iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie oa
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae.

a) o noa?? ?aae?caoe?? i?aaa — aeniiaee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, aenoioo?
aeena?oaioii, aeiiiiiaeooue cai?iaaaeaeaiith aeineiiaeeo, iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo oi?aae?inueeeo noaiaea?o?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? naiino?eiei
iaoeiaei aeine?aeaeaiiyi. Oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee aoee cae?eniai? ia iniia?
aea/aiiy iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ? i?aeoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a, aeyaeaieo caeiaoaa/ai
i?ae /an noaaeoaaiiy o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao ?c i?aeaioiaee eaae??a aeey
iiaeaoeiaeo neoaea Oai?ueie, ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe??, NOA oa Eaiaaee,
aiae?co noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo Aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe??
Oe?a?ie.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?aea? oa ?ic?iaee, ui iaeaaeaoue ni?aaaoi?ai E.?.Aooaiei,
I.TH.AEa??eiao, A.?.Ei/aoiao, A.A.Eoe?oo, A.I.Ie?iiaieo,
I.E.E?nianuee?e, A.I.Iiiiae/o, O.I.I?ioeaieo, I.A.Neoiee, A.I.*aaaio oa
A.I.Oai?ath, ?acii ?c yeeie aoee iaienai? iaoeia? i?aoe?, ia
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee,
cae?eniai? aaoi?ii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aoee iieeaaeai? a
iniiao aeiiia?aeae aeena?oaioa ia I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? ?c ieoaiue
o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie oa No?aeii? ?a?iie a
1997 ?ioe?, ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? ?c i?iaeai oa oeyo?a ?icaeoeo
iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie a 1998 ?ioe? oa «e?oaeeo noieao». Oai?aoe/i?
i?iaeaie oe??? oaie iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee ?
o?iain?a Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Aeena?oaio ? ni?aaaoi?ii oanoe iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/ieo iin?aiee?a ?c
ieoaiue e?ei?iaeueieo aniaeo?a o noa?? aeiiii?ee (1988-1997 ??.), ye?
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?aoe?aieeaie iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? oa a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean?.

?yae ieoaiue, ye? noaee i?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aaoi? ye ea??aiee iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe??, a iio?i ia/aeueiee oaeoeueoaoo
i?aeaioiaee, ia?ai?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? i?aoe?aiee?a
iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? Oe?a?inueeiai o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo
Aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe?? Oe?a?ie ?aae?coaaa o i?ioean?
nai?? ?iaioe.

O 1995-1998 ??. aaoi? a?aa o/anoue o i?aeaioiaoe? o?ueio Caeii?a
Oe?a?ie, cie?aia «I?i aianaiiy ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei E?ei?iaeueiiai oa
E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaen?a Oe?a?ie uiaei iineeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a» a?ae 5 ethoiai
1997 ?ieo ? 44/97-A?, «I?i aianaiiy ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei Caeiio
Oe?a?ie «I?i aea?aeaaio iiaeaoeiao neoaeao a Oe?a?i?» a?ae 5 ethoiai
1998 ?ieo ? 83/98-A?, «I?i aianaiiy ci?i aei
E?ei?iaeueiiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie oa aeayeeo ?ioeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a
Oe?a?ie o ca’yceo c ooai?aiiyi iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe??» a?ae 5 ethoiai 1998
?ieo ? 85/98-A? oa i?iaeoo Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i aianaiiy ci?i ?
aeiiiaiaiue aei E?ei?iaeueiiai ? E?ei?iaeueii-i?ioeanoaeueiiai eiaeaeno
Oe?a?ie i?i aaei?i?no?aoeai? i?aaiii?ooaiiy uiaei iineeaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ii?ooaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i aaethoia
?aaoethaaiiy».

E??i oiai, aaoi? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aa o/anoue o
i?aeaioiaoe? aeaio Oeac?a I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie oa /ioe?ueio ae?th/eo
iinoaiia Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, ui noinothoueny i?aai?caoe??
ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae (aeia?aeea Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ?
168/36 a?ae 15 ea?oiy 1998 ?ieo).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii iioae?eiaaii 7 noaoae a
oaoiaeo aeo?iaeao, 3 ?icae?ee a 2 iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao oa 1 oace.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa
aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? – 171 noi??iea. Aeei?enoaii
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae – 118. Aeiaeaoee – 11 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeacothoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy, eiie?aoecothoueny ia’?eo,
iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi?ioeth?oueny i?aeoe/ia oa oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy
iniiaieo iieiaeaiue aeena?oaoe??, ?? iiaecia, nooi?iue ai?iaaoe?? ?
ia?ae?e ioae?eaoe?e ?c i?iaeaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «I?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy ae?yeuei?noth iiaeaoeiai?
neoaeae a oiiaao ?ioaa?aoe?eii-ia?ao?aeieo i?ioean?a o noa??
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei» ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae, nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? oaie aeena?oaoe??, aieea
o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee oa ?ioeo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ? i?aaiaeo /eiiee?a
o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ia oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith.

I?ae?icae?e 1.1. «Noaiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae — iiai? no?oeoo?e
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy» i?enay/aiee aiae?co iiaiioe aeine?aeaeaiino?
i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith, aiae?co i?aeoiae?a aei
caeiiiaeaa/iai caaacia/aiiy ?? noaiiaeaiiy. Cie?aia ?ice?eaathoueny
i?iaeaie ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ye iiai? oi?aae?inueei? no?oeoo?e aea?aeaae
oa oi?ioaaiiy ? naiiaaeineiiaeaiiy a iaaecae/aeii neeaaeieo oiiaao
?icaeoeo iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie.

A aeiiii?/i?e, th?eaee/i?e oa oi?aae?inuee?e aaeocyo iaoee ?nio?
iacia/ia e?euee?noue aeine?aeieoeueeeo i?aoeue, i?enay/aieo ?ic?iaoe?
ieoaiue, aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaieo c eiiieaeniei aea/aiiyi i?ioean?a
?icaeoeo iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae a Oe?a?i?, a oei a?eueoa a?aei?aoethaaiiyi
iai?yie?a ?? oaeineiiaeaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi na?oiaiai aeina?aeo oa aeiia
neooaoe??, ui neeaeanue o a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?oe?. Na?aae oaeeo ?ia?o
ne?ae a?aecia/eoe iauiaeaaii iioae?eiaai? i?aoe?: “Iiaeaoeiaa nenoaia
Oe?a?ie” (1994) A.I.Oaaeiniaa; “Iiaeaoeiaa i?aai” (1997)
I.I.Eo/a?yaaiea; “I?aaiaee ?aaeei iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?” (1997)
I.O.Aaae oa “Iniiae iiaeaoeiaiai i?aaa” (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c E.I.Aeieath)
(1998); “Ii?ooaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa” (1995) E.I.Oiiaiei; “Ana
i?i iiaeaoee a Oe?a?i?” (1995) I.I.Neai?oeiaa; “sse iie?auaoe
iiaeaoeiaee eiio?ieue” (1996) ?.N.Coeeiaa; “?anneaaeiaaiea oeeiiaiee io
oieaou iaeiaia” (1997) A.A.Eenaiea; “Iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea ? aeiiii?/i?
?aoi?ie” (1996) ?.A.?iciooaiea oa “Aea?aeaai? o?iaine: oi?ioaaiiy ?
aeei?enoaiiy ia i?noeaaiio ??ai?” (1997); “O?iaine i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
aeaaee Oe?a?ie: iniiae oai??? oa i?aeoeee” (1997) A.?.E?aa/aiea;
“O?iueiaa aeiiii?ea ye i?aaeiao aeiiii?/ii? e?ei?iieia??” (1998)
A.I.Iiiiae/a.

Aeey oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa aaaeeeaei caeeoa?oueny aea/aiiy ?
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiceoeaieo aeniiae?a o oai??? oi?aae?iiy
iiiaeaoeoaaiiyi, aeeeaaeaieo o i?aoeyo ?in?enueeeo a/aieo “Iaeiae”(1997)
i?ae ?aaeaeoe??th Ae.A.*a?ieea, aea caa?oa?oueny cia/ia oaaaa ia
?ioi?iaoecaoe?th aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae ye caii?ooe?
aoaeoeaiino? ?? ae?yeueiino?. Oea iaea?eueo aaeaea i?aoey ?in?enueeeo
a/aieo ?c ieoaiue aena?oeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai?
neoaeae.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?eeainueeiai a/aiiai ?.E.Aea?iaa?aa “Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea” (1997), ciaeiieoue ?c aiae?cii ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
eiioeaioe?e, iniiaieo i?eioeei?a iiaeaoeiai? th?enaeeeoe?? NOA oa i?aaee
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. O eiec? ?icaeyaea?oueny aeiaaeueia nenoaia (Global
system), ui aeei?enoiao?oueny ia o?eueee o NOA , aea e o Aaeeeia?eoai??,
Oaaoe??, I?ia//ei?, I?aea?eaiaeao oa ssiii??. Aeey aea/aiiy
caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo aeiiii?e ia?aaeiaeo e?a?i, ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?o
iiaeaoeiaeo nenoai, a?aeoeeaiue a?ae ieo aeioe?eueii caa?iooenue aei
i?aoe? Ia?o?ia Oi?oea?a “Ii??aiyiiy aeiiii?/ieo nenoai” (1997) .

Aea a aeine?aeaeaiiyo oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo iaaeinoaoiuei aena?oeai?
na?oiaee aeina?ae oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, noaiiaeaiiy
iiaeaoeiaeo nenoai, iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a oa oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaith
neoaeaith.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, o aeena?oaoe?? aiae?cothoueny iniiai? i?eioeeie ?
ooieoe?? no/anii? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, aecia/a?oueny ?? aieea ia
ae?yeuei?noue iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae ye iniiaiiai caniao cai?iaaaeaeaiiy
oe??? iie?oeee a aeeooy, aeeiiaiiy iath iniiaiiai caaaeaiiy – eiio?ieth
ca iaiiaiaiiyi athaeaeaoo, ui iio?aao? nooo?aiai oaeineiiaeaiiy
ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae. Aiae?co?oueny aieea o?iueiai?
aeiiii?ee oa ?ioeo /eiiee?a ia i?ioeane i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy
iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith.

Ia i?aenoaa? aea/aiiy ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae o 1992-1996 ??.
?iaeoueny aeniiaie i?i iaiao?aei?noue ?? iiaeaeueoiai oaeineiiaeaiiy,
aaeaea iiaeaoeiaa ?iniaeoe?y ae/a?iaea nai? iiaeeeaino? ? aaea ia
ni?iiiaeia iiaiith i??ith aeeiioaaoe iinoaaeai? ia?aae iath caaaeaiiy.
Iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith
iaoiiaeaia iaaieie i?e/eiaie, cie?aia: cia/iei ?inoii e?eueeino?
noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy; caeo/aiiyi aei aeiiii?ee e?a?ie ?iicaiieo
?iaanoeoe?e, ui aeiaaa? ia?aoiaeo aei na?oiaeo, oeea?e?ciaaieo ii?i a
iiiaeaoeoaaii?; ana a?eueoith eiioeaio?aoe??th iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iai?io?a o
o?ce/ieo in?a i?e aeii?ioth/iio ?ai?oa iiiaeaoeoaaii? i?aei?e?inoa;
iaiao?aei?noth noai?aiiy ?aeeiiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?inoi?o aeey
aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth ca oiaa?ii-a?ioiaeie iioieaie o e?a?i?; aenieei
??aiai e?ei?iiaaiii? o?i?caoe?? aeiiii?ee oa iaiao?aei?noth canoinoaaiiy
iiaeo oi?i ? iaoiae?a iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ?? iai?io?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.2. “Aieea nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaeo /eiiee?a o noa??
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ia aecia/aiiy i??i?eoaoieo iai?yi?a oi?aae?iiy
iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith» i?iaiae?ciaaii aieea aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee ia
oi?ioaaiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a. Anoaiiaeaii caeaaei?noue
caaaeueiiai noaio aeiiii?ee a aea?aeaa? a?ae ?? ni?iiiaeiino? ?
caeaoiino? cae?eniaiiy eiio?ieth oa oi?aae?iiy athaeaeaoieie ?ano?naie.

Aeine?aeaeaii no?oeoo?o iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo oa
aieea iiaeaoe?a ia ?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Aecia/aii, ui a eiai
no?oeoo?? iae?aneaia oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy /anoee iai?yieo iiaeaoe?a,
ia yeo i?eiaaea? iaeaea 48 % aeioiae?a. A oie aea /an iecueea /anoea
iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae ?iii?oiiai ieoa na?ae/eoue i?i iaaeoi e?aa?aeueia
noaaeaiiy iaoi? e?a?ie aei ?iii?oo oiaa??a iae?eoe/iiai ?iii?oo, ui
iiaeooue ae?iaeyoeny a?o/eciyieie oiaa?iae?iaieeaie. Oeei iiynith?oueny
caiaiaae aeaniiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa nei?i/aiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue ?c iueiai
aei athaeaeaoo.

I?aai e iaia’ycie nieaoe iiaeaoe?a ?icaeyaea?oueny aeena?oaioii ye
iaeia c iniiaieo oi?i aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae a?iiaaeyiaie oa aea?aeaaith,
ye? iiaeii? iaoe iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaio caeiiiaeaa/o aaco, aooe
ni?aaaaeeeaeie oa iniiaaieie ia ae?? nioe?aeueieo ?aaoeyoi??a.
Aeio?eiaiiy oeeo aeiia aeicaieeoue aio/ei e aoaeoeaii io?eioaaoe
iiaeaoee. Iiaeaeueoee aiae?c na?ae/eoue, ui iiaeaoeia? i?aaia?aeiineie c
aieo aea?aeaae uiaei ieaoieea iiaeaoeo iinyoue i?eioniaee oa?aeoa?.
Ine?eueee aiey iiaaae?iee ieaoieea iiaeaoeo aeineoue iaiaaeaia ?aieaie
aea?aeaaiiai i?eiono a a?e o?iainiaeo noyaiaiue, oi aiia caeaaeaoeia
a?ae ni?eeiyooy iei anoaiiaeaieo «i?aaee» iiaaae?iee ? eiai
ni?iiiaeiino? aeaeeaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy o eiie?aoieo oiiaao.
A?aoiaoth/e, ui iiaeaoeia? caeiie ioiieththoue an? noa?e
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ieaoieea iiaeaoeo o aoaeue-ye?e e?a?i? ?, ye i?aaeei,
ia ei?enoothoueny iiioey?i?noth, iiaeaoeiaa neoaeaa ia iiaea i/?eoaaoe
aaccaia?a/iiai oa aeia?ia?eueiiai ?o aeeiiaiiy, ui ? ia’?eoeaiei
oaeoi?ii.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneth?oueny oie oaeo, ui iiceoeaiee oa?aeoa?
caeaaeaoeia a?ae oiai, iane?eueee nenoaia iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ciiaea
caaeiaieueieoe iio?aae aea?aeaae i?e aeiionoeiiio ooo ooeneo ?ioa?an?a
ieaoieea ? iaaeaii? iiaeeeaino? ?icai?oaiiy oa noeioethaaiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa. A ?ioiio ?ac? aiia ni?eyoeia c?inoaiith iaaaoeaiiai
noaaeaiiy aei iiaeaoe?a ana oe?oiai eiea ieaoiee?a, nei?iith ieie
ii?ooaiue iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa ?c canoinoaaiiyi ??cieo niinia?a ?
iaoiae?a ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a. Oeei cia/iith i??ith
iiynith?oueny oneeaaeiaiiy neooaoe?? o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?.

C oeeo oa ?ioeo i?e/ei aeieeee aeiaeaoeia? i?iaeaie a i?aai?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaeie i?aaiaie, ui aeiaaathoue ia?aaeyaeo i??i?eoao?a
o ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae c iaoith i?ioenoiyiiy iaaaoeaiei
nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaei /eiieeai. Aeey ?oiueiai ae??oaiiy iiaeaoeiaa
neoaeaa aeiooaia: noai?eoe i?ae?icae?ee ii ai?iouea? c eiio?aaaiaeith;
cae?enithaaoe aeiaeaoeia? caoiaee uiaei iiaa?iaiiy aaethoe c-ca ei?aeiio
oa e?aaeeo?a, acyoeo i?ae aa?aio?th O?yaeo; aeae?eeoe aeiaeaoeia? neee
aeey i?eieiaiiy ae?yeueiino? o?eoeaieo o??i; noai?eoe aeiaeaoeia? aace
aeaieo aeey iineeaiiy eiio?ieth ca aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea;
aee?eaaoe i?aei?eueia aeaioiaeaiiy ai??e/aieo ae?ia?a; a?aoe o/anoue ia
o?eueee a eiio?ie? ca iaaeoiaeaeaiiyie aei Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, a e
aei iain?eiiai oa ?ioeo oiiae?a.

O ?icae?e? 1.3. «O?iueiaa aeiiii?ea oa i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inuee? e
aeiiii?ei-i?aaia? i?iaeaie ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae oa ?ioeo
i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee» a?aecia/a?oueny, ui a Oe?a?i? neeaeany
neooaoe?y, ca yei? ?ici??e o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee noathoue ana
iaaacia/i?oeie. C?inoaiith ?? ianya?a ni?eythoue i?e/eie ye
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai, oae ? i?aaiaiai oa?aeoa?o. Na?aae ia?oeo
iiaeia aeae?eeoe aenieee ??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy noa’?eo?a
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino?, caaino?aiiy aeiiii?/ii? e?ece, aenieee
??aaiue i?eoiaaiiai aac?ia?ooy, cao?eieo c aeieaoith ca?ieaoe, iain?e
oiui.

Aei i?aaiaeo i?e/ei aai /eiiee?a, ui ni?eythoue aeac?ioaa?aoe??
aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a oa aeaoa?i?iothoue o?i?caoe?th
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei iiaeia a?aeianoe i?e/eie caaaeueii
eiioeaiooaeueiiai ??aiy, ui iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia ii?iioai?/ee
i?ioean o i?aaiaiio ?aaoethaaii? a?aeiinei o noa?? aeiiii?ee, yea, a
naith /a?ao, ia anoaiiaeth? aoaeoeaieo i?aaiaeo iaoai?ci?a i?ioeae??
ooeeaiith a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, a oaeiae i?aeaeuo? e?ei?iiaaiiee
iioaioe?ae oa o?i?caoe?th o?iainiai-ainiiaea?nueeeo a?aeiinei.

Iniiaith nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?e/ei aeeao/ino? o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee
iaaiith i??ith ?: ii-ia?oa, ianoaa?euei?noue iie?oe/ii? ianoaiiaee;
ii-ae?oaa, iaaeiioe?iea noni?eueii? iaaaciaee ?nioaaiiy o?iueiai?
aeiiii?ee; ii-o?ao?, iaaaeaeaaoi?noue oi?i ? iaoiae?a ae?yeueiino?
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae oa ?ioeo i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a o eieae?caoe??
aeaea?ae iiiiaiaiiy naeoi?o o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee.

Aeey ae??oaiiy iacaaieo o ?icae?e? i?iaeai aecia/aia oaiaoeea
iaiao?aeieo iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, eio?? ni?eyoeiooue oaeineiiaeaiith
ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae oa caeo/aiith aei iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
o?iueiaeo i?eaooe?a.

?icae?e ae?oaee «I?aeia?iaeiee aeina?ae oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae» i?enay/aiee iae?aneaiith iai?yie?a iioei?caoe??
oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaeie i?aaiaie. Cie?aia, o i?ae?icae?e? 2.1.
«Cai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeiiai aeina?aeo uiaei iiaeaeueoiai
oaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie oa iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae a Oe?a?i?” ia
i?aenoaa? aiae?co aaeaeiai i?iaaaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i o e?a?iao, ui
noaee ia ?eieiaee oeyo ?icaeoeo, noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? i?eioeeie
iioeiaeueiiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy. C?iaeai? aeniiaee i?i oa, ui
oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? ia? a?aeaoaaoeny a
i?ioean? aeiaaino?ieiai? iiaoaiii? iiaeaoeiai? ?aoi?ie oeyoii
iinooiiaiai cieaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y. O?aaa iaa/eoeny oi?ei
cae?enithaaoe eiio?ieue iaae aeioiaeaie aea?aeaae, nooo?ai ni?inoeaoe
ae?th/o caeiiiaeaa/o ca?aaoeueiaai?noue aeiiii?ee, yea ooiaoa?
i?aei?e?ioey a «o?iue». Naia iiiyooy iiaeaoeiai? ?aoi?ie ia? ia’?aeiaoe
a nia? ia o?eueee ci?io caeiiiaeaanoaa, ui ?aaoeth? ?ici??e noaaie ?
i?ioean noyaiaiiy iiaeaoe?a, a e oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai?
neoaeae.

Caeiiii??ii, ui aeey iie?ioaiiy caaaeueii? neooaoe?? ?c iaaeoiaeaeaiiyie
aei athaeaeaoo oa aoaeoeaiino? eiio?ieueii? ?iaioe iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae,
iaiao?aeii aeinyaoe noaa?eueiino? iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, yeo
caaacia/eei a aaaaeaiiy a ae?th caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a ?c ieoaiue
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ia ?ai?oa, i?ae /a?ac ??e ?c iiiaioo ?o i?eeiyooy, oa
iaci?ii?noue noaaie, i?euea ? i?aaee iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?ioyaii uiiaeiaioa
o?ueio ?ie?a ?c /ano aaaaeaiiy a ae?th aeo?a iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa
noiniaii ieaoiee?a, ye? aa?ooue o/anoue o oe?eueiaeo aea?aeaaieo
?iaanoeoe?eieo i?ia?aiao i?ioyaii anueiai oa?i?io ?o ae??. Oae aoei
c?iaeaii a ?yae? e?a?i, ui ia?aee oeyo ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue.

A?eueo aeaaaeaiiai i?aeoiaeo iio?aao? i?ioeaaeo?a ia?aooaaiiy oa
noyaiaiiy oo?aoieo naieoe?e, cae?eniaiiy ?ioeo i?eioniaeo caoiae?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.2. «I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?inueei?
ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaieo iiaeaoeiaeo aaei?i?no?aoe?e ? iiaeaoeiaeo
?iniaeoe?e» aecia/athoueny i?iaeaie oi?aae?inueei? ae?yeueiino? oa
iai?yie ?aoi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a a?aeiia?aeii aei aeeiiaiiy
iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue. Ia aeaiiio aoai? i?iiiio?oueny a?aooaaoe o?e
iniiai? caaaeaiiy, c yeeie iino?eii cono??/a?oueny iiaeaoeiaa neoaeaa:
iaiao?aei?noue i?aai?caoe?? ? cae?eniaiiy ?iaioe iaoiaeaie, eio?? a
ni?eyee aeeiiaiith ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a nai?o iaia’yce?a oa aoee
noi?nieie c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith; iino?eia i?aeo?eiaiiy ??aiy
iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo, a oaeiae o/anoue o ?ic?iaoe?
caeiiii?iaeo?a, ui caaacia/oaaee a aoaeoeaio iiaeaoeiao iie?oeeo.
Aeeiiaiiy cacia/aieo caaaeaiue aeiaaa? nooo?aeo ci?i o eoeueoo??
ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae, i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?inueeeo caoiae?a ?
?o caeiiiaeaa/iio caaacia/aii?, iinooiiai? ? i?iaeoiaii? iiaea?i?caoe??
on?o iayaieo ?ano?n?a.

Aei iniiaieo iai?yi?a ?icaeoeo iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae, ia iao iiaeyae,
aeioe?eueii a?aeianoe oae?, ye: oaeineiiaeaiiy i?iaiicoaaiiy
iaaeoiaeaeaiue; ?icoe?aiiy aace iiiaeaoeoaaiiy; noai?aiiy aeinoaoiueiai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai caaacia/aiiy; i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ia?aa??ie;
oaeineiiaeaiiy caeiiiaeaanoaa; nei?i/aiiy oa e?ea?aeaoe?y iaaei?iie;
ciaioaiiy iiaeaoeiai? ca?oiino? oa ni?iuaiiy iaoai?cio ia?aooaaiiy
iiaeaoe?a; oaeineiiaeaiiy ?iaioe ?c ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a oa noai?aiiy
nenoaie aca?iiae?? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae c ?ioeie i?aaiaie aeeiiaa/i?
aeaaee.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy oeeo iai?yie?a iaiao?aeii iino?eii i?aoethaaoe iaae
iioei?caoe??th no?oeoo?e iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae, oaeineiiaeaiiyi nenoaie
iieaoe i?aoe?, noai?aiiyi a?aeiia?aeii? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace,
aecia/aiiyi /?oeeo e?eoa???a ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe eiaeiiai
i?ae?icae?eo oa i?aoe?aieea.

I/aaeaeia iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa,
oeyoii ciaioaiiy e?eueeino? iiaeaoe?a, ni?iuaiiy iaoai?cio ?o
ia?aooaaiiy, o ia?oo /a?ao, aeey o?ce/ieo in?a, ciaioaiiy iiaeaoeiai?
ca?oiino?, oi?o?eaoe?? aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo o ??cieo aaeocyo
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? oa i?eaaaeaiiy eiai aei na?oiaeo
noaiaea?o?a. A?ae oeeo caoiae?a aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeeoue
noaa?euei?noue ?iaioe iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae.

Iio?aao? oaeiae aaaaeaiiy aoaeoeai?oeo ?aaoethth/eo i?aaiaeo iniia aeey
canoinoaaiiy iiaeaoeiaeie ?iniaeoe?yie i?aaa iaaeaiiy a?aeno?i/ie oa
?icno?i/ie caeaaeii a?ae o?iainiaiai noaio ieaoieea iiaeaoeo oa
ia?niaeoea ?icaeoeo ia oa?i?i ia a?eueoa 3 ?ie?a, cie?aia e ia i?aaao
iiaeaoeiaiai e?aaeeoo.

Iieiaeaiiy Iiaeaoeiaiai eiaeaeno Oe?a?ie, i?e oiia? eiai i?eeiyooy,
iiaeii? ae??oeoe i?iaeaie ni?aaaaeeeaiai ?iciiae?eo iiaeaoeiaiai oyaa?y
i?ae ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a, ni?iuaiiy iaoai?cio iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, /?oeiai
aecia/aiiy i?aa ? iaia’yce?a ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a ? cai??a, caaacia/aiiy
noaa?eueiino? iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, a oaeiae iie?ioaiiy ?iaioe
iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a c ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.3. «Caaacia/aiiy ?ioaa?aoe?? iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? o
iiaeaoeiao neoaeao» aecia/athoueny iniiai? iai?yie ii?aeiaiiy a ?iaio?
coneeue i?aai?a iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae oa iiaeo oi?ioaaiue o ?oiueiio
neeaae? — i?ae?icae?e?a iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe??. Ia ciaiooth/e cia/aiiy
cae?eniaieo caoiae?a, a?aecia/a?oueny, ui ?oiy ni?eueia ae?yeuei?noue
uiaei eiio?ieth ca aeio?eiaiiyi iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa iio?aao?
iiaeaeueoi? aeoea?caoe?? oa aaeineiiaeaiiy. Iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith
ii?iaeueii? ?oiuei? ni?ai?aoe? ? /?oea aecia/aiiy caaaeaiue aeey
eiaeiiai i?aoe?aieea oa ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a eiio?ieth ca e?ioeaaeie
?acoeueoaoaie aeeiiaiiy.

I?eoiaoaaiiy i?eaooe?a a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy — iniaeeaee aeae
i?aaiii?ooaiue, ui aeiaaa? a?ae iiaeaoeiai? i?e?oe?? nenoaiiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei i?aai?caoe?? iia?aoeaii-neoaeaiai? ae?yeueiino?. Aiia ia
iiaea aeeiioaaoe nai? iaia’ycee iaeaaeiei /eiii aac o?nii? aca?iiae?? c
?ioeie i?ae?icae?eaie iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a.

Iei? aeinoaoiuei /?oei aeyaeythoueny oa?aeoa?i? ?ene iaaaoeaieo
i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie. Aiie aeicaieythoue
iaaiith i??ith noi?ioethaaoe nenoaiia oyaeaiiy i?i noaie ooeeaiiy a?ae
nieaoe iiaeaoe?a oa iiaoaeoaaoe aaeaeaaoio nenoaio a?aeiia?aeieo
i?aaiioi?iiieo caoiae?a.

C?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?inueei?
ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae aaaeaii cae?enieoe oae? caoiaee:
ia?aaanoe iiaeaoeia? i?aaie ia ooieoe?iiaeueio no?oeoo?o; aaanoe iia?
iiaeaoeia? oaoiieia?? ? i?ioeaaeo?e; i?aeaeueoe ??aaiue ?ioi?iaoecaoe??
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae; cae?enieoe yeiaeoaeaeoo ?ioaa?aoe?th iiaeaoeiai?
i?e?oe?? aei iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae oa aeoea?coaaoe o/anoue o
caeiiiaeaa/iio i?ioean?.

?icae?e o?ao?e “I?aaia? a?aeiineie i?ae ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a oa
aea?aeaaith” i?enay/aiee i?iaeaiai, ui aeieeee i?ae ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a
oa aea?aeaaith a ?acoeueoao? i?i?aooie?a, aeiiouaieo iiaeaoeiaeie
?iniaeoe?yie. O i?ae?icae?e? 3.1. “I?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? canaaee
?aae?caoe?? i?aa ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a ye /eiiee aeio?eiaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa” aena?oeth?oueny iaia’ycie aea?aeaae o caaacia/aii?
ni?aaaaeeeaino? i?e cai?? iiaeaoe?a oa aeio?eiaii? i?e oeueiio oaeeo
i?aa ieaoiee?a ye i?aai ia ?ioi?iaoe?th oa aeiiiiiao, ia aiaeyoe?th,
ieaoeoe ia a?eueoa, i?ae anoaiiaeaii caeiiiaeaanoaii, oa ?ioeo. Ia
iniia? aiae?co aeio?eiaiiy i?aa ieaoiee?a a Oe?a?i?, ia?aaeaa/aieo
Eiinoeoooe??th oa ?ioeie caeiiiaeaa/eie aeoaie, aaoi? iaa?oiooaaa
aeniiaie, ui o a?aeiineiao i?ae ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a ? aea?aeaaith
aeieeee i?iaeaie, ye? i?ecaaee iaeaea aei eiioe?eoii? neooaoe??.
Ae??oeoe ?o iiaeeeai eeoa ca oiia onoiaiiy iaaeie?e?a o i?aeaioiaoe?
eaae??a oa iineeaiiy ?iaioe c ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.2. “I?aeaioiaea eaae??a iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae oa
caaacia/aiiy ?iaioe c ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a” ia iniia? aiae?co noaio
i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae ca ia??iae ?? ?nioaaiiy
c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iaaeinoaoiy i?ioan?ei?noue /anoeie
iiaeaoeiaeo ?iniaeoi??a o ia?o? ?iee noaiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a
caaaeaaaea cia/ii? oeiaee ?o ?i?aeaeo. Oey neooaoe?y caaino?eeanue ?
aeiaaa? oa?i?iiaeo caoiae?a.

Eaae?iaa iie?oeea o iiaeaoeia?e neoaea? iio?aao? ni?yioaaiiy ia
noai?aiiy nenoaie caaacia/aiiy i?ioan?eiiai ?inoo i?aoe?aiee?a,
oaeineiiaeaiiy eiiieaenieo i?ia?ai i?aeaioiaee oa i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? eaae??a, noai?aiiy aaieo aeaieo i?ioan?eii i?eaeaoieo
oao?aoe?a aeey iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a ye ?aca?ao aeey i?inoiaiiy o
neoaeaia?e ea?’???.

Aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aeaioiaee eaae??a aeey neoaeae oa ?iaioe c
ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a aeioe?eueii aoei a: i?aai?coaaoe aoaeoeaia iaa/aiiy
iiaeaoeiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a ? ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a; iaeaaiaeeoe /?oeo
nenoaio aeaioiaeaiiy oa nai?/aniiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy aeaie?a
iiaeaoeiai? oa aooaaeoa?nueei? ca?oiino?, ?a?no??a aooaaeoa?nueeiai
iae?eo; noai?eoe nenoaio eiinoeueoaoe?eieo ioieo?a, cie?aia aeaeo?iiieo;
ae?iaeoe nenoaio i?aeo?eiee oa aeei?enoaiiy iia?aeiieaiue a?iiaaeyi i?i
oaeoe ooeeaiiy a?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy; i?aai?coaaoe iaa/aiiy o/i?a
caaaeueiiina?oi?o oe?e oa nooaeaio?a ?c ieoaiue iiaeaoeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ocaaaeueiththoueny ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? iieyaathoue o ianooiiiio:

1. Ii??aiyiiy iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, iiaeaoeiaeo nenoai oa i?aai?caoe??
ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiaeo neoaea a aeiiii?/ii ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao oa a
Oe?a?i? na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui a iao?e aea?aeaa? ?niothoue nooo?a?
a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae iniiaieo i?eioeei?a oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a o oeeo e?a?iao, ye? aaeueiothoue
?icaeoie aeiiii?ee a Oe?a?i?. O?neaeueia ni?yiiaai?noue iiaeaoeiai?
iie?oeee aea?aeaae ii?yae ?c ?ioeie i?i?aooieaie a oi?aae?ii?
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie i?ecaaea aei cieaeaiiy ae?iaie/i?
aeoeaiino? i?aei?e?inoa, no?eioaaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? oa
?icaeoeo noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo, cie?aia e ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, noai?aiiy
aeiaeaoeiaeo i?iaeai ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae.

2. Noai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie aeiaaa? oa?i?iiaiai
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo caoiae?a uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy
iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie, yea a noaea i?aea?oioyi aeey
no?oeoo?ii? iioei?caoe?? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae e i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
?? ae?yeueiino?, ia aaeueioth/e ?icaeoie i?aei?e?iieoeoaa ?, ia?o ca
ana, ae?iaie/iai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee. Ci?no oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae, oeyo?a eiai cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aca?iiiaoiiaeth?oueny,
ii?yae ?c cai?iaaaeaeaiiyi canaae ?eieiai? naii?aaoeyoe??,
iaiao?aei?noth i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiai? iioei?caoe?? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith, ye? iiaeii? a?oiooaaoeny ia canaaeao
noeioethth/i? o?iainiai?, e?aaeeoii-?iaanoeoe?eii?,
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, iniiaiith iaoith yei?
iiaeii? aooe aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie aea?aeaae, onoiaiiy i?e/ei oa oiia
o?i?caoe?? noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, noeioethaaiiy eaaaeueiiai
iai?ioo eai?oae?a, iineeaiiy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe
iiaeaoe?a.

3. Iaaaeueiith iio?aaith nueiaiaeaiiy ? aecia/aiiy iaoeiai
iaa?oioiaaieo, i??i?eoaoieo, ooieoe?iiaeueieo iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino?
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae, ?ic?iaea iaoiaeee iii?oi?eiao oa eieae?caoe??
aeaea?ae oi?ioaaiiy o?iueiaiai naeoi?o aeiiii?ee, ca?eueoaiiy
iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ca ?aooiie ni?yioaaiiy
coneeue iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae ia eieae?caoe?th iaea?eueo iaaacia/ieo,
e?ei?iiaaiieo aeaea?ae aeioiae?a i?aei?eueiiai naeoi?o o?iueiai?
aeiiii?ee.

4. Aeey caaacia/aiiy nenoaie i?iaiicoaaiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo
oa oi?aae?iiy cai?ii iiaeaoe?a, o oiio /ene? i?eioniaeo, iaiao?aeia
caeiiiaeaa/i aecia/aia oeaio?ae?ciaaia nenoaia io?eiaiiy, iaeiie/aiiy oa
ia?iaee ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i i?eaooee noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

5. C iaoith i?eieiaiiy i?aeoeee ianiaeo aac?acoeueoaoieo ia?aa??ie ?
aaci?aenoaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?ioe?a, cieaeaiiy ao?ao
i?aei?e?ioe?a oa aeo?ao aea?aeaae i?e aeeiiaii? i?ioeaaeo?e
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iaiao?aeii ia iao/i?e iniia? ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio a?aeai?o
ieaoiee?a iiaeaoe?a aeey ia?aa??ie.

6. I?aaia? a?aeiineie i?ae iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith ? ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a
iiaeooue ia?a?inoe a eiioe?eo, yeui ia cae?enieoe caoiaee uiaei
iie?ioaiiy i?io?eaeoe/ii? ?iaioe, ni?yiiaaii? ia caaacia/aiiy i?aa
ieaoiee?a.

7. Oni?o ia an?o cacia/aieo iai?yiao oe?eeii caeaaeeoue a?ae noai?aiiy
nenoaie ye?niiai aeiai?o, i?aeaioiaee ? nai?/aniiai i?aeaeuaiiy
eaae?o?eaoe?? eaae??a, i?iaeoiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy noeioe?a o ea?’???,
iieao? i?aoe?, i?ioeae?? i?ioan?iiaeuei?e aeaa?aaeaoe?? i?aoe?aiee?a
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae oiui.

Ony oai??y oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae ?icaeyaea?oueny a
aeena?oaoe?? ianaiia?aae ?c iiceoe?? i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy ?ioa?anai ia?iaeo
Oe?a?ie, oaeei /eiii, uia aeia?inia?niei a?aeiioaiiyi ?? i?aoe?aiee?a
aei aeeiiaiiy nai?o iaia’yce?a caaithaaoe aeia??o ? aeeiiaoe caaaeaiiy
cai?o iiaeaoe?a aei athaeaeaoo.

Aeiaeaoee a ae?aa?aiao i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue aeniiaee, c?iaeai? o
aeena?oaoe?? uiaei aecia/aiiy iai?yie?a oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1. A?eion A.O. I?iaeaie ?aae?caoe?? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee a no/anieo
oiiaao //A?niee Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. – 1998. — ? 3. – N.119-127.

2. A?eion A.O. Iioei?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith a Oe?a?i?
//A?niee Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie – 1998. — ? 4. – N. 111-114.

3. A?eion A.O. I?aeaioiaea oao?aoe?a aeey iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae
//Eiiaiaei?: a?niee aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey Oe?a?ie. – 1999. — ? 1. –
N. 25-28.

4. A?eion A.O. Noaiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie iio?aao? iaoeiaiai
caaacia/aiiy //A?niee iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae Oe?a?ie. – 1998. — ? 19. –
N.15.

5. A?eion A.O., E?nianueea I.E. I?aaia? caoiaee uiaei caa?aaeaiiy
aei?iaioe?iieo iaoae?a oa eai?iiy, ae?ia?a c ieo oa ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy o noa?? ?o ia?ao //Iaoeiaee a?niee Oe?a?inueeiai
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo. – 1998. – ? 1. – N.128-129.

6. A?eion A.O. Cei/eii?noue o noa?? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ia??iaeo
o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a o no?oeoo?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie //Iaoeiaee
a?niee Oe?a?inueeiai o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo. – 1998. – ? 1. –
N.136 — 139.

7. A?eion A.O. I?noea no/anii? iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee na?aae /eiiee?a
aeao?i?caoe?? aeiiii?ee //Iaoeiaee a?niee Oe?a?inueeiai
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai ?inoeoooo. – 1998. – ? 2. – N.16 — 19.

8. Oeiia? ae?? i?aoe?aieea iiaeaoeiai? iie?oe?? (i?e?oe??): Iaa/.
iin?aiee /A?eion A.O., *aaai A.I., Oai?ae
A.I., AEa??eia I.TH., Ei/aoia A.?., I?ioeaiei O.I.; I?ae ?aae.
A.O.A?eiona. — E.: Eiain, 1997. – 93 n. ?icae?ee 1,3.

9. I?aeia?iaei? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie — e?ei?iieia?/iee aniaeo:
Iaa/aeueii-i?aeoe/iee iin?aiee /A?eion A.O., Aooaiei E.?., Iiiiae/ A.I.,
Eoe?o A.A., Ie?iiaiei A.I., Neoiee I.A.; I?ae ?aae. Oaeoia A.?.,
Iaeueieea I.A., Iiiiae/a A.I. — E.: I?aaia? aeaea?aea,
1997. – 168 n. ?icae?e 4.

10. A?eion A.O. Cei/eii?noue o noa?? canoinoaaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa o ia??iae o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a o no?oeoo??
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie. Iaoeia? aeiiia?ae? I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? “O?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane a ainiiaea?noa? ?aa?ii?a
No?aeii? ?a?iie”(i. ??i?iue, 10-12 aa?aniy 1997 ?.). — E.: IAEI
“Oe?oeii?iaeo” — 1997. – N. 55-56.

Aiioaoe?y

A?eion A.O. Oi?aae?iiy iiaeaoeiaith neoaeaith a Oe?a?i?. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 25.00.05 – aaeocaaa
oi?aae?iiy: oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith. – Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith oi?ioaaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie
a Oe?a?i? oa ?? aieeao ia i?aai?caoe?th ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai?
neoaeae. Oeyoii ii??aiyiiy iniia oeeo i?ioean?a ?c caeiiii??iinoyie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo nenoai ? a?aeiia?aeieo neoaea ?icaeiooeo
e?a?i aecia/ai? eeth/ia? iai?yiee iioei?caoe?? caaaeaiue ? no?oeoo?e
iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae a Oe?a?i?. Aianai? i?iiiceoe?? ?c oeeo ieoaiue
ni?eeiyo? ? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao. Iaa?oioiaaii
iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoiai caeiiiaeaa/iai caaacia/aiiy oi?aae?iiy
ae?yeuei?noth iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae uiaei noai?aiiy nenoaie i?iaiicoaaiiy
iaaeoiaeaeaiue aei athaeaeaoo, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? eiio?ieth,
?icoe?aiiy aace iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ca ?aooiie naeoi?o o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee,
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo ?iaioe c eaae?aie oa ieaoieeaie
iiaeaoe?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?neaeueia aeinoaoi?noue, iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ? aeao?i?caoe?y
aeiiii?ee, iioei?caoe?y ae?yeueiino? iiaeaoeiai? neoaeae, ?iaioa c
ieaoieeaie iiaeaoe?a.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aaeion A.O. Oi?aaeaiey iaeiaiaie neoaeaie a Oe?aeia. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 25.00.05 – io?aneaaia
oi?aaeaiea: oi?aaeaiea yeiiiieeie. — Oe?aeineay Aeaaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey i?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth oi?ie?iaaiey iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a
Oe?aeia e aa aeeyiey ia i?aaiecaoeeth aeayoaeueiinoe iaeiaiaie neoaeau.
Iooai n?aaiaiey iniia yoeo i?ioeannia n caeiiiia?iinoyie
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaeiaiauo nenoai e niioaaonoaothueo neoaea ?acaeouo
no?ai ii?aaeaeaiu eeth/aaua iai?aaeaiey i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaiai
iaania/aiey i?ioeanna niaa?oainoaiaaiey oi?aaeaiey iaeiaiaie neoaeaie.
Aianaiiua i?aaeeiaeaiey ii yoei aii?inai iaoee io?aaeaiea a ?yaea
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia. Iainiiaaii iaiaoiaeeiinoue aeaeueiaeoaai
?acaeoey caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai iaania/aiey oi?aaeaiey iaeiaiauie i?aaiaie a
/anoe nicaeaiey nenoaiu i?iaiice?iaaiey iinooieaiee a athaeaeao,
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eiio?iey, ?anoe?aiey aacu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ca
n/ao oaiaaiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee, aiaae?aiey ie?iaiai iiuoa ?aaiou n
eaae?aie e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oeneaeueiay aeinoaoi/iinoue, iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea e
aeaoaiecaoeey yeiiiieee, iioeiecaoeey aeayoaeueiinoe iaeiaiaie neoaeau,
?aaioa n ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaia.

SUMMARY

Victor T. Bilous. State Tax Administration in Ukraine. – Manuscript.

This Thesis for a Candidate of Sciences in Public Administration, by
Speciality 25.00.05 — Branch Administration: economic administration —
Ukrainian Academy of Public Administration, Office the President of
Ukraine, Kyiv. 1998.

The key directions of the law-organizing guaranteeing process of the Tax
Service Administration in Ukrainian were pointed out by studying the
main regularities connected with formation of Ukraine tax policy and
establishment of tax service, comparison that took the market way of
development.

The Parliament and the Cabinet of Ministers in Ukraine positively
accepted suggestions on these problems.

They were taken into consideration in a number of legislative acts
concerning the formation of the tax service or the basis of tax
inspections and tax militia.

Some bills have been developed that had a positive influence on the tax
service activity as a whole.

A number of directions connected with legislative assurance of tax
militia activity were further developed such as the formation of
investigation division, a department for defining nondirect methods of
recording tax evasion, international links and cooperation and providing
new forms and methods in training tax militia staff.

A conclusion has been made that the essence of the tax service activity
improvement the ways of its providing are conditioned by implementation
of market self-regulation, the necessity of legal optimization of
economic state administration that must be based of stimulating
financial, monetary, foreign economic and tax policies, the main
objective must be the economic development of the state.

The main directions have been determined in combining the efforts of the
tax service institutions and new formations – tax militia divisions.

The primary functional directions of the tax service activity were
formulated such as:

— development of monitoring methods and localization of shadow economy
forming sources;

— widening of tax base by means of directing of general efforts of Tax
administration to localise the most dangerous and criminogenous income
sources of hidden sector of shadow economy;

— establishing of centralized system of obtaining, storing and
developing information on businesses income in order to stop mass
unsuccessful examinations and substantialless intrudance into business
activity;

— providing steps to reduce employers’ expenses and state expenses for
fulfillment of taxation in the way decreasing tax record and
simplifying the mechanism of calculation.

The analysis of law relations between the tax service and tax payers
was pointed out that they may lead to a conflict.

That’s why it is necessary to educate people in law to guarantee their
constitutional rights: the right for information and help, to appeal to
pay no more than in accordance with a law etc.

A number of new forms and methods of training and advancing improving
professional skills of Tax administration staff are provided on the
basis of learning of world-wide experience in this sphere.

The necessity to apply reasonable stimulation with making a career,
salary conditions effective counteraction to professional degradation of
tax administration staff and provision of its professional growth,
creation of data bank of qualified specialist for tax service are
defined.

Key words: fiscal sufficiency, taxation and revealing of shadow economy,
optimization of Tax Service activity, agent work with taxpayer.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 30.12.98 ?. Oi?iao 60o90 /16. Iai?? ae?. aia?ao

Iaae?oeiaaii ia ??cia?ao?. Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 1.0. Iae?e. aeae. a?e. 1.2.
Oe?aae 100. Cai. ? 1033.

?aaeaeoe?eii aeaeaaie/ee a?aeae?e OOA? AeIA Oe?a?ie Ee?anueea iae.,
i. ??i?iue, aoe. E. Ia?ena, 31.

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