IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

OeAIO? AeINE?AeAEAIUe IAOEIAI-OAOI?*IIAI IIOAIOe?AEO OA ?NOI??? IAOEE
?iai? A.I.AeIA?IAA

A?NIA Eaii?ae Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 330.341.1(477): 001

OI?AAE?IIss IAOEIAI-OAOI?*IEI ?ICAEOEII I?IIENEIAINO? OE?A?IE O 70-80-?
?IEE:

O?IEE ?NOI???

07.00.07 — ?noi??y iaoee ? oaoi?ee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? inoi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e anana?oiuei? ?noi??? Oa?eianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaiai/iiai
oiiaa?neoaoo iiaii A.N.Neiai?iaee AIIAeA??A ?ai? Ieaen?eiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/
a?aeae?eo iaoiaeieia?? oa nioe?ieia?? iaoee Oeaio?o aeine?aeaeaiue
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo oa ?noi??? iaoee ?iai? A.I.Aeia?iaa, /eai
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.07 — ?noi??y
iaoee ? oaoi?ee IIII???IEI Aaeaioei ?aaiiae/

aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?ceee
iaoae?a Iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo Oe?a?ie “Ee?anueeee
iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie
NEAeI?AIEI Na?a?e ?aaiiae/

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee ?inoeoooo
?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie IETHU Ieeiea ?iiaiiae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao aoae?aieoeoaa
? a?o?oaeoo?e

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «28» aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 10 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.189.01 o Oeaio?? aeine?aeaeaiue
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo oa ?noi??? iaoee ?iai? A.I.Aeia?iaa IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252032, Ee?a, aoeueaa? Oaa/aiea, 60.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? OeAeI?I IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 2 » eeiiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
E.N.EiaaiiaaCAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? aeeth/a? anooi, i’youe ?icae?e?a (a ieo 12
i?ae?icae?e?a, 19 oaaeeoeue, 7 a?ao?e?a, ae?aa?aia, noaia), aeniiaee,
nienie aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e (37 noi??iie, 444 iacae). ?? ianya 386
noi??iie.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeiei??ii? ci?ie aaiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? o na?o? c
ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a iaoiiaeee i?eioeeiiao iiaecio ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa. I?ia?aeia i?noea a ?aoi?ioaaii? Oe?a?inueei? iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaae, yeiaeoaeaeoiio iiaeieaii? e?eciaiai noaio ? caaacia/aii?
noaa?eueiino? noni?euenoaa caeia? oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii
i?iieneiaino?. Oeae i?ioean iaoiiaeth? iaeei c aieiaieo i?eioeei?a
oi?ioaaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? ae??ai? aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee,
aea i?noyoueny ei?aii onio iaaa?acaeia oe?a?inueeiai noniieuenoaa —
aeiiiii/ii, nioeiaeueii, aeieiai/ii, aeaiia?aoi/ii, oiiae i?aoei oa
aeeooy, aeoiaaiiy iaoeiiiaeueii? aiaeiinoi, eoeueoo?e. Aea/aiiy
icia/aii? oaie aaaaoi a /iio aeiiiiiaea ciaeoe aiaeiiaiaei ia aieth/i
ieoaiiy no/aniinoi. Aieiaia c ieo — yeith iiaeiia aooe iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia
iie?oeea Oe?a?inueei? iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae, ye iie?oeea ciaaaiiy c
e?a?iaie aeaeaeiai i aeecueeiai ca?oaiaeaey ca ?aaeicaoeith
iaoeiiiaeueieo iioa?ania.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e?iaee oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii
i?iieneiaino? ?ice?eaa? niaoeeo?eo aeei?enoaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
aeinyaiaiue, iane?aeee ?o canoinoaaiiy ia ei?enoue /e oeiaeo ethaeei?.
Aeia?iaoo e?a?ie, ?? oeeaieiciaaiinoue i?yii iia’ycaii c
oaoi?ei-oaoiieia?/ieie ia?aoai?aiiyie o i?iieneiaino?, ?? ni?iiiaei?noth
aieeaaoe ia ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai ca?aeii c aeiiii?/ieie ?
iie?oe/ieie ?ioa?anaie aea?aeaae. Na?aae aaaeeeaeo i?iaeai, o ca’yceo c
oeei, oeaio?aeueia i?noea caeia? ?iiiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue. Aiia
ioiieth?, ianaiia?aae, iaoeo, aieiaia ooieoe?y yei? iieyaa? o ?icaeoeo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai i?ia?ano oeyoii ae?iaieoeoaa iiaiai
ciaiiy, ?iaio? ii caaacia/aiith iiceoeaieo iieaciee?a o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e noa??.

O aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae o ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i? niinoa??aaeanue
noia?a/eeaa neooaoe?y i?ae iaeiie/aiei iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ? ae?iaie/ei
iioaioe?aeii ? ??aiai nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. Aieiaia
i?e/eia, ye aaea aeiaaaeaii, iieyaa? o iaa?aeiia?aeiino? oi?aae?iiy
aeei?enoaiiyi aeinyaiaiue IOI ? iiaeeeainoyie IO?.

C iaaieo i?e/ei iaoea oa ?iiiaaoe?? a ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?ii ia
caaacia/eee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo a?iiaaeyinueeeo aaeocae i?iieneiaino?
a?aeiia?aeii aei oiaee IO?, ?aei?noue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano. Oea ieoaiiy iaa?aeae?eueia a?ae
ona?aeiieaiiy oiai, ye aeei?enoiaoaaany a Oe?a?i? ?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee
oa ?ioaeaeooaeueiee iioaioe?ae, ?ano?ne.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii
i?iieneiaino? ye i?ioean, ui a?aeia?aaea? i?aai?/iee ? i?aai?caoe?eiee
ca’ycie iaoee, oaoi?ee ? ae?iaieoeoaa, ni?yiiaaiee ia ye?ni?
ia?aoai?aiiy a no?oeoo?? ae?iaie/eo nee a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeeeainoae
IO?. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oi?ie ? iaoiaee ?aae?caoe?? iaoeiaeie
onoaiiaaie, i?aei?e?inoaaie, aea?aeaaieie no?oeoo?aie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
? i?iieneiai-ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo ca?aeii c i?eioeeiaie oi?ioaaiiy ?
?aae?caoe?? i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?iiaeo aeineiaeaeaiiy. 70-80-ie ??. iicia/aii ae?oaee
aoai IO?, ui ioiieea oaanue naio. C ii/aoeo 70-o ?ieia ?icaeiooi e?a?ie
aeaeaei nyaioee a oaeeo iai?yieao, ye aeaeo?iiiea, iiai iaoa?iaee,
aiioaoiieia??. Ana oea iinoaaeei aeiiae aei ?icaeoeo ia o?eueee oi?i
?aeiaiiy iaoee ? ae?iaieoeoaa, aea ? iio?aae o caeiaooo? ye?nii iiaeo
ciaiue. E?aa?iaoeea, ye aeua nooi?iue iaoai?caoe?? oa aaoiiaoecaoe??
ae?iaie/eo i?ioean?a, aenooieea ii?aeioaaeueiei eaioethaii c
?ioi?iaoe?eiei aniaeoii. Ia ai?eiio aeei?enoaii? aeinyaiaiue IO? o
?icaeiooeo e?a?iao caniiaai? a?eueo i?iaeoeoeai? oaoiieia??, aeinyaiooi
c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiinoi i?aoei oa nioeiaeueiiai caoenoo ethaeeie,
aeeeth/aii nioe?aeuei? iio?yn?iiy. Oea iaoiaeieia?/ia aeciaiiy ? iaaeoi
aaaeeeaei aeey ona?aeiieaiiy iaiao?aeiino? aea/aiiy nioe?aeueieo
iane?aee?a IO? a ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i?. 70-80-? ??. a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
noaee aoaiii iinooiiaiai iia??oaiiy ?? aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua oa
nioe?aeueieo oiia ianaeaiiy, ui a?aoo?-?aoo i?ecaaei aei e?eciaiai noaio
noni?euenoaa ? nioe?aeueiiai aeaooo, yeee caaa?oeany ci?iith
aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie. O aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ??ci? aniaeoe
icia/aii? oaie ia?aaoaaee a oeaio?? oaaae oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a,
a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a, iaoeiciaaoe?a, i?aaenoaaiee?a ?ioeo aaeocae iaoee.
Eiiieaeniee, i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee oa?aeoa? iaoeiai? i?aoe? iaoiiaea
i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co ?ia?o c ??cieie iaoiaeieia?/ieie i?aeoiaeaie aei
aea/aiiy iiae?e ? yaeu o ?aaeyinueeiio noni?euenoa?. Ie??i oiai, c
ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a i?ae aieeaii ao?oeeaiai ?icaeoeo iaoeiciaanoaa
noi?iiaaia iiaa ia?aaeeaia ii a?aeiioaiith aei ?iiiaaoe?e o noa?ao
noni?euenoaa, i?iieneiaino? cie?aia. Aieiaiith iaoiaeieia?/iith
iniaeea?noth ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai aiaeico i?aoeue a/aieo ??cieo aaeocae
iaoee (ca aeiyoeii aeena?oaoeieieo aeineiaeaeaiue) ? ioiieaiiy iei
eioa?aoo?e, yea a noeoiiinoi aiaeia?aaea? aeiiiii/ii, nioeiaeueii,
oieinionueei, iieioe/ii oa iioi ieoaiiy.

Ia?oa a?oia ?ia?o, ye? i?aeeyaathoue ?noi??ia?ao?/iiio aiae?co, oea
i?aoe? ?noi?ee?a Oe?a?ie, ui aeeoee c ae?oeo aei 1991 ?.. Aeioooia
aeei?enoaiiy oieueee iiceoeaiiai oaeoaaeo c?iaeei ?o aeineiaeaeaiiy
oaiaeaioeieieie a iiaeoiaeao aei oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii
i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ca?eueoaiiy eiai iaoei?ieino? ? ciioeiaiiy
iaoa?iaeueii-oaoii/ii? aace. Oaaaa aeineiaeieeia aoea caa?iooa ia oi
noi?iie IOI, ui iia’ycaii c iiceoeaieie caeiaooeaie. Aiie ia iiaee
aena?oeeoeoe, ye aeei?enoiaoaaany iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee iioaioe?ae o
ai?iii-i?iieneiaiio eiiieaen?, ye oea a?aeaeaaeinue ia ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii? noa?e. A ?iaioao a?aenooi?e ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?c
aeina?aeii ?ica’ycaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?iaeai a ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao,
ia ?ice?eoi iane?aee?a aeei?enoaiiy ii?aeueii ? o?ce/ii canoa??eeo
oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?e, i?e/ei, ui aaee Oe?a?io aei aeieia?/ii? e?ece. Oea
aeanoeaa ? aeine?aeaeaiiyi c ?noi??? Oe?a?inueei? ?N?, ie?aieo
i?aei?e?inoa ? aaeocae.

Aei ae?oai? a?oie aeaeaiue, aiae?c yeeo iaie i?iaaaeaii, a?aeianaii
?iaioe a/aieo-iaoeiciaaoe?a oa ?noi?ee?a iaoee, a yeeo aena?oeththoueny
iie?oeei-aeiiii?/i? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ? iaea?eueo caaaeuei?
caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo ethaenueeiai ciaiiy, ocaaaeueiththoueny
?noi?e/i? caeiiii??iino? IOI .

Aea??eiaee aiae?c iieacaa, ui o?eueee ca 1994-1997 ?iee o ca??ieeao
“Iaoea ? iaoeiciaanoai”, “?icaeoie iaoee oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
iioaioe?aeo a Oe?a?i? oa ca ei?aeiiii”, iaoa??aeao OV? Ee?anueeiai
neiiic?oio c iaoeiciaanoaa oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy (16-19
aeiaoiy 1996 ?.) iioae?eiaaii iiiaae 90 i?aoeue, ui ii’ycai? c oaiith
iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae i?aoeue ia?oi? a?oie ?iaioe iaoeiciaaoe?a oa ?noi?ee?a
iaoee i?eaa?oathoue oaaao eiai?oeaiei i?aeoiaeii, ui ia aoaeoue ?o
iaoiaeieia?/ii? ? i?iaiiciai? oe?iiino?. Iieiaeaiiy ia?aaaaeii?
a?eueoino? aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? a?oioothoueny ia aea/aii?, ocaaaeueiaii?
?aaeueiiai noaio ni?aa, iiaeooue aooe o?ieaie, ui iaee a canai?oe o?,
ooi ia? a?aeiioaiiy aei ?ic?iaee ? i?iaaaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? (iaoeiai-oaoiieia?/ii?) iie?oeee. A ieo c?iaeaii
oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy ?aeiinoi iaoeiai-oaoii/iiai i nioeiaeueiiai
i?ia?ano, c aaaaoueio ieoaiiue ? ii??aiyiiy c aeina?aeii ca?oa?aeieo
e?a?i. C ?ia?o a/aieo oe??? a?oie iiaeia aeaanoe, ui ci?ie oiia
ainiiaea?thaaiiy aeiaaathoue ci?ie iaoiaeieia?/ieo ? iaoiaee/ieo iniia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio, ia?aaeyaeo oai?aoe/ieo ?
i?aeoe/ieo iieiaeaiue uiaei ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino?
i?aei?e?inoa.

Iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui nenoaiaoeciaai? o aeaeaiiyo ae?oai? a?oie
iniiai? canaaee iaoeiciaanoaa, ?ice?eooy aca?iica’yceo IOI c
aoaeoeai?noth ae?yeueiino? i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa ? ia’?aeiaiue,
i?aeaioiaee ? aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a aeooae?cothoue aenoioo?
aaoi?aie oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy o ca’yceo c
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie ia?aoai?aiiyie a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?inuee?e
aea?aeaa?.

Iaei??th c oa?aeoa?ieo iniaeeainoae ?ia?o oeiee oe?a?inueeeo
iaoeiciaaoe?a c ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a ? a?aeaoe ia ?aae?? a iio?aaao
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ia ia?ao?aeiiio
aoai? c a?aooaaiiyi ?? aecia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei aaiiie?oe/iiai
iieiaeaiiy o na?oiaiio ni?aoiaa?enoa?. Aeooaeueiei aeey nueiaiaeaiiy
Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae ? oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy uiaei
i?iaeai ia?aoai?aiiy iaoeiai? nenoaie a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe??
noni?euenoaa, caa?aaeaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo, iaoeiaeo oe?e,
ci?ie i??i?eoao?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, aecia/aiiy iiaeo
eiioeaiooaeueieo i?aeoiae?a aei ooieoe?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee
(ia?aaaaa iaaea?oueny a?eueo ?ieiio iiiyooth “iaoeiai-oaoiieia?/ia
iie?oeea”). A ?iaioao iieacaii, ye iioaioe?aeuei? iiaeeeaino? iaoeiai?
aaeoc? Oe?a?ie iiaeooue ni?eyoe ?e yeiaeoaeaeoa ?ioaa?oaaoenue aeey
ie?aeiiai i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c e?a?iaie aeecueeiai ?
aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey.

Aei o?aouei? a?oie i?aoeue iaoeiaoe?a, ye? aiae?co? caeiaoaa/,
a?aeianaii ?iaioe, ui aeeoee c ae?oeo i?ney 1991 ?. . Oea, ye i?aaeei,
i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo aeiiii?no?a ia?aaaaeii noaoaeiiai oa?aeoa?o.

A oeeo ioae?eaoe?yo e?eoe/ii ioe?iaii aeaoi?iaoe??, aeiaie, o?aaeeoe?? a
noa?? iie?oe/iiai aieeao ia i?ioeane oi?aae?iiy aeei?enoaiiyi
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai, ae?iaie/iai ? eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo. A/ai?
iaa?oioiaothoue iayai?noue a Oe?a?i? eieinaeueieo iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ano?n?a aeey iiaeieaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a iaoeiai-ae?iaie/i?
ae?yeueiino?, iiaeeeainoae oni?oiiai ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai,
aeiaiaeyoue iaiao?aei?noue ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?ia?aeieo aaeocae Oe?a?ie ia
ei?enoue nioe?aeueieo iio?aa ?? ianaeaiiy oeyoii ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i.
*anoeia aaoi??a i?iiiio? eii?thaaoe ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae c iaoith
iiaeieaiiy o?oaeiiu?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy. A ioae?eaoe?yo ?ice?eaathoueny
no/ani? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, nooue i?iieneiai?
iie?oeee ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, aea oeyoii aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
i?iieneiaiai ?icaeoeo caaacia/othoueny eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noue ae?ia?a,
aeii?ioth/? iiceoe?? ia na?oiaeo ?eieao, caoeno ?ioa?an?a
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieea. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui aeey Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae
ia ia?ao?aeiiio aoai? aei ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iaiao?aeii iaeneiaeueii
a?aoiaoaaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo
i?ioean?a, nooi?iue ?icaeiooino? aea?aeaaiiai ? a?iiaaenueeiai
?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo, iaea?aeaaeaiiy aeaniino?. I?e/eie aeieia?/iiai eeoa
a Oe?a?i? iaa?oiooaothoueny oeaiith iie?oeeith ?aaeyinueeiai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

O i?aoeyo, ye? i?enay/ai? noaio iaoeiai? aaeoc?, iaa?oioiaothoueny
iane?aeee ciaoe?iaiiy aeinyaiaiue a?o/eciyieo iaoeiaoe?a a ieioeiio, ye
oea iiaea a?aeaeoenue ia oainao Oe?a?ie oa?eoe a eiei oaoiieia?/ii
?icaeiooeo e?a?i. I?iaiicothoueny iai?yiee i?aeia?iaeiiai
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? iaoeiai? nenoaie oeyoii
aeoea?caoe?? ??cieo oi?i.

Aei /aoaa?oi? a?oie aeaeaiue, eio?? aiae?co? aaoi? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
a?aeianaii /enaeuei? i?aoe? ?noi?ee?a, o?einio?a, aeiiii?no?a,
nioe?ieia?a, th?eno?a, iie?oieia?a inoaii?o ?ie?a ieioeiai aeanyoee?ooy,
ye? aeeoee c ae?oeo a Iinea?, a oaeiae ia?aeeaaeai? ioae?eaoe?? a/aieo
aeaeaeiai ca?oa?aeaey , ui c’yaeeenue ia ?oaaae? 80-90-o ?ie?a .

?iaioai ia?oiai ia??iaeo, ye? oi?eioeenue noaio ni?aa o i?iieneiaino?
Oe?a?ie iiaeia aeaoe oo ae ioe?ieo, ui ? i?aoeyi oe?a?inueeeo
aeine?aeiee?a ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo. A i?aoeyo e?ioey 80-o ??.
?ice?eaa?oueny aiethioa?eci o ieaioaaii?, oeai?noue o aeai?? i??i?eoao?a
?icaeoeo iaoee ? i?iieneiaino?, ui i?ecaaei noni?euenoai aei e?ece,
ioe?iea iiaeeeainoae aeieaoe a?aenoaaaiiy a?ae ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i a
aeiiii?/i?e ? nioe?aeuei?e noa?ao.

I’yoo a?oio e?oa?aoo?e ioiieththoue ?noi?e/i?, o?einionuee?,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?aoe? a/aieo, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a
oe?a?inueeiai ca?oa?aeaey . Aaoi?e oeeo aeaeaiue iaiaaathoueny iieacaoe,
ye iie?oeea i?aaey/i? a N?N? ia?o?? iaaaoeaii aieeioea ia aeei?enoaiiy a
Oe?a?i? ?? ae?iaie/iai, eaae?iaiai, iaoeiaiai iioaioe?aeo, aaia?ao?/iiai
iieiaeaiiy, iaae?, ?iia??i?noue noai?aiiy e?aueo oiia aeeooy aeey
ethaeae. Ioe?ithth/e iaaaoeai? iane?aeee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?
iie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o, ia?aaaaeia ?o a?eueo?noue aaa/aea iiaeeea?noue
aeinyaiaiiy aenieiai ??aiy aeeooy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oeyoii i?aaeeueiiai
?ica’ycaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy. A i?aoeyo, ye? aeeoee c ae?oeo
i?ney 1991 ?. aaoi?e iaiaaathoueny aeiaanoe, ui oeaia eaae?iaa iie?oeea
a iacaeaaei?e Oe?a?i? aaeueio? ?aoi?ie o noa?? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue.

Oinoa a?oia ?ia?o, eio?? aiae?cothoueny a iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii?,
i?aaenoaaeaia aeieoi?nueeeie ? eaiaeeaeaonueeeie aeena?oaoe?yie .
Iacaaaeath/e ia i?eaiiaeueii ocaaaeueiaiiy a?oiaieo iaoa?iae?a oa aeaieo
?ioeo aeaea?ae, ?noi?eeai ia aaeaeinue aeeoe ca ?aiee cae/iiai ia oie
/an ieneaiiy: oi?aae?iiy ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi IOI iaei aooe iiaeii?yaeeiaaia
caaaeaiiyi aeinyaiaiiy, ianaiia?aae, aeiiiii/ieo iieaciee?a.
Aeei?enoaiiy e?eoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a c ae?oai? iieiaeie 80-o ?ie?a iaaeaei
iiaeeea?noue oi?eiooenue i?e/ei iaae?iiy ?ioa?ano i?aoe?aiee?a aei
?ioaineo?eaoe??, iia??oaiiy ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/iiai ee?iaoo a o?oaeiaeo
eieaeoeaao, iiaooiaeo oiia oiui.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiaiith iaoith ? aena?oeaiiy oiia ?
niaoeeo?ee ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? o i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie a ia??iae
70-80-o ??., iane?eueee ?? ??aaiue a?aeiia?aeaa iio?aaai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano noni?euenoaa a?aeiia?aeii aei
iiaeeeainoae IO?. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeiaaa? aea/aiiy ianooiieo ieoaiue:
i?eioeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy, aiae?c ? ioe?iea nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii a oiiaao ieaiiai? aeiiii?ee, niaoeeo?ea
i?aai?caoe?eieo canaae iaoeiai? aaeoc?; ?ano?ni? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei?
iiaeeeaino? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo a yeiio i?iyaey?oueny
nioe?aeueiee aoaeo, ye?nia noi?iia i?iieneiaino?, eiai ?iia??i?noue
aieeaaoe ia ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai noni?euenoaa;
niaoeeo?ea ? aoaeoeai?noue oi?i ? iaoiae?a ?aae?caoe?? aeinyaiaiue IOI a
oiiaao ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy, iane?eueee aiie
a?aeiia?aeaee aeiiaai ?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa,
ni?yiiaaiiai ia aeinyaiaiiy nioe?aeueiiai aoaeoo; oaiaeaioe?? oa
i??i?eoaoe iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? o
i?iieneiaino?; c’ynoaaiiy i?e/ei iaae?iiy i?anoeaeo oi?aae?inueei?,
?iaeaia?ii? oa iaoeiai? i?aoe? ye iaeiiai ?c noaa?e?coth/eo oaeoi??a
nioe?aeueiiai naiiii/oooy ethaeeie; no?oeoo?i? ia?aaoaeiae oi?aae?iiy
i?iieneia?noth oa ?? ?aoi?ioaaiiy, ye can?a noai?aiiy ia?aaeoiia
?icaeoeo iiceoeaieo c?ooaiue a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e noa??;
iniaeeaino? iiiaeaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace i?iieneiaino?;
aaeineiiaeaiiy cania?a oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth; aoaeoeai?noue
caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia aeaiie?aoecaoe?th oi?aae?inueeeo canaae o
i?iieneiaino?; nioe?aeueia ooieoe?y eaae??a i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa o
no?oeoo?? ae?iaie/eo nee.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia oa oai?aoe/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa ia? eiiieaeniee, i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee oa?aeoa?, ??
ooiaeaiaioaeuei? iieiaeaiiy aeieeaathoue c oaeeo iaoe, ye ?noi??y
Oe?a?ie, ?noi??y iaoee ? oaoi?ee, aeiiii?ea, iaoeiciaanoai, iie?oieia?y,
nioe?ieia?y. Aena?oeaiiy ia?aii? oaie aeiaaa? canoinoaaiiy iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeieoeueeeo i?eioeei?a ia’?eoeaiino?, ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iiai ?
nenoaiiiai aiae?co, eia?/iino?, ye? iaaeathoue iiaeeea?noue iaea?eueo
aaeaeaaoii a?aeia?aceoe i?ioeane ?noi?e/ii? ?aaeueiino?.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiao aeena?oaoe?? neeaee a?o?ai?
aeieoiaioe Oeaio?aeueiiai Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a aeaaee ?
oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?inueei? ?N? (OeAeAAIAO) ca 1971-1985 ??. ?
Oeaio?aeueiiai Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie
(OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie) ca 1971-1989 ??.. Aei oaenoo aeena?oaoei? oaaaeaii
aeieoiaioe a?eueoa 60 iienia ic 42 oiiaeia iaeaea 130 ci?aa. Ia?aaaaeia
a?eueoinoue oeeo aeieoiaioia aeine?aeieeaie o 70-80-? oa ia ii/aoeo 90-o
?ie?a aei iaoeiaai ia?ao ia oaiaeeeanue. C ieo i?ine?aeeiaothoueny
noa’?eoeaii /eiieee, ui iaoiiaeee ii?ooaiiy ?aeiino?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano.

Aea/aiiy aeieoiaioia OeAeAAIAO i OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie aeiiiiiaei caeiaoaa/aa?
aeyaeoe ia?oee ?iaaiue nenoaie oi?aaeiiiy IOI a ?anioaeioei, aei?noea
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy oeueiai i?ioeano a i?iieneiaino? O?N? iie?oeoe?
Oeaio?o. *ioei aee?aneth?oueny iaoaiici ooieoeiiioaaiiy aia?aoo
oi?aae?iiy ? nooue eiiaiaeii-aaeiiiino?aoeaieo iaoiaeia eiai ?iaioe. C
a?o?aieo aeieoiaioia oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a aeaeii, ui
ia?niaeoeaa oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoii/iei ?icaeoeii i?iieneiaino?
?anioae?ee o 70-80 ??. aecia/aeanue aeeeth/ii iinoaiiaaie OeE EI?N i
?aaee Iiiino?ia N?N?.

Oe?ii?noue aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaenoaaeee i?ioieiee can?aeaiue,
aeiiia?aei? caienee, eenooaaiiy ?aaee I?i?no??a O?N?, Aea?aeieaio
?anioae?ee, i?i?noa?noa eaaei? oa oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? O?N?. O?yae, ye
? Aea?aeieai O?N?, aeeiioaaa ?ieue o?ainoi?ioth/iai i?aaio, yeee
io?eioaaa a?aeiia?aei? ?icii?yaeaeaiiy Oeaio?o ? OeE Eiiia?o?? Oe?a?ie,
a?aeaeaaaa aeac?aee i?i?noa?noaai, ?ioi?ioaaa oeaio?aeuei? ia?o?ei? ?
ainiiaea?nuee? i?aaie uiaei no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae i?iieneiainoi,
ia?aaaaeiiai ?icaeoeo aaeocae aaaeei? ? aoa?eueii? i?iieneiainoi,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?e oeyoii ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?
eai?oaeueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa oiui. O OeAeAAIAO ia aeyaeaii i? iaeiiai
aeieoiaioo, yeee ae cana?ae/ea, ui o?yae ?anioae?ee, (ye ? OeE Eiiia?o??
Oe?a?ie — aeieoiaioe OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie) aeoiaeea c aoaeue-yeeie
i?iiiceoe?yie uiaei ci?ie i??i?eoaoo ?icaeoeo iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, aaaeei?,
o?i?/ii? i?iieneiaino? ia ei?enoue aaeocae, ye? iaee i?aoethaaoe ia
caaeiaieaiiy aeeoo?aeo iio?aa ianaeaiiy, uinue no?oeoo?ii ciiieoe o
eaae?e, oa?/ia?e i?iieneiainoi ia ei?enoue eiai caaeiaieaiiy a oiaa?ao
ianiaiai aaeeoeo, ianoa/a eio?eo aiae/oaaeanue a noniieuenoai c eiaeieie
?ieii. Aea?aeieai ?anioae?ee, ye na?ae/aoue aeieoiaioe, aoa noaoenoii,
eiinoaooaaa noai a aaeocyo i?iieneiaino?, iaaeneeaa ?ioi?iaoe?? aei
ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a. C oeeo aea a?o?a?a aeoyaiooi aiaeiiinoi, c
yeeo iiaeia iiaa/eoe, ye ?ic?iaeyeanue aaia?aeueia noaia oi?aae?iiy
ia?iaeiei ainiiaea?noaii ?anioae?ee a?aeiia?aeii aei ??oaiue, ye?
ia?iaeaeoaaeenue a Iinea?, iaeiie/oaaany eiiieaen aeiiiii/ieo,
oaoiieiai/ieo, nioeiaeueii-aeieiai/ieo, aeaiia?ao?/ieo i?iaeai. Cia/ia
/anoeia aeieoiaio?a Aea?aeieaio O?N? ?ice?eaa? iaa?aeiia?aei?noue
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iiiaeaiiy aoa?eueii?, eaaei?, oa?/iai? aaeocae ? oeo,
ui i?aaenoaaeai? noa?aie iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, o?i?/ii? oa ?ioeo aeae?a
i?iieneiaino?, nioe?aeueii-iiaooiaeie oiiaaie i?aoe?aiee?a. A?o?ai?
aeieoiaioe i?i?noa?noa eaaei? oa oa?/iai? i?iieneiaino? O?N?
a?aeia?aaeathoue noai?o ?o ca?oi?noue i?i noai ni?aa ia i?aei?e?inoaao ?
a aaeocyo a oe?eiio, i?e/eie iacaaeia?eueii? ?iaioe ii ai?iaaaeaeaiith
aeinyaiaiue IOI, aeinyaiaiith nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a.

O OeAeAAI Oe?a?ie aeei?enoai? aeieoiaioe can?aeaiue Iie?oath?i ?
Nae?aoa??aoo OeE Eiiia?o?? Oe?a?ie, ?ioi?iaoe?? a?aeae?e?a
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, iaoee ? o/aiaeo caeeaae?a, eenooaaiiy oeaio?aeueiiai
?anioae?eainueeiai i?aaio c OeE EI?N ? ?aaeith I?i?no??a N?N?,
aaeocaaeie i?i?noa?noaaie O?N? ? N?N?, aea?aeaaieie ? i?noeaaeie
i?aaiaie, i?aei?e?inoaaie ? onoaiiaaie. Oe?iieie ? iioi?iaoei?, yei
iaaeneeaee aei OeE iaeanii i Ee?anueeee iinueeeii ia?oi?, ainiiaea?nueei
i?aaie, AI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooe iaoeiaiai i?ioieth, a oaeiae o?yae O?N?. C
oeueiai ae aeaea?aea aiaeia?aia iioi?iaoeiy i?i noai ni?aa ia
i?iieneiaeo iiaei?e?inoaao c ?aaeicaoei?th i?ia?ai IOI, iaeiie/aiiy
i?iaeai o nioeiaeuei?e noa?i.

Iaaio /anoeio aeieoiaio?a neeaee iaoa??aee aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a
A?iieoeueei?, Aei?i?iiao?ianueei?, Aeiiaoeueei?, Caii??cueei?,
Ee?anueei?, Eoaainueei?, Euea?anueei?, Iaeanueei?, Noinueei? oa
Oa?e?anueei? iaeanoae. A iniiaiiio oea i?ioieiee ieaioi?a ? can?aeaiue
ath?i ia?o?eieo eii?oao?a, cai??a ie?aieo ia?aeiieo ia?oi?aai?caoe?e. C
ieo iiaeia iiaa/eoe ye o? /e ?io? ieoaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ieaio
ae??ooaaeenue aaciina?aaeiuei ia i?aei?e?inoaao ? a onoaiiaao.

O aeine?aeaeaii? ia?aii? oaie aeei?enoai? ui??/i? Ca?oe AI Oe?a?ie ca
1972-1991 ??., iaoa??aee a?eueo i?ae 30 iaeiaioaaiue aacao ? aeo?iae?a
ca 1972-1998 ??. Aiae?c iaoa??ae?a ?aaeyinueei? i?ane ? ia??iaeo i?ney
1991 ?. caaaa/aiee aeaieie ?c caei?aeiiiiai aeina?aeo. Aeieoiaioaeueio
iniiao iaoeiai? i?aoe? aeiiiaieee noaoenoe/i? ca??ieee 1976-1991 ??., c
yeeo io?eiaii a?aeiiino? i?i aeeiai?eo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo
ia?aoai?aiue a O?N?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. A iueiio aeiaaaeaii: i?ae IOI, ye
ye?niith noi?iiith i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ? nioe?aeueiith noa?ith ?
i?aai?/iee aca?iica’ycie; nioe?aeuei? ?aae?? noni?euenoaa oi?iothoueny
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith iie?oeeith ? a?aeiia?aeathoue ?? ??aith; oi?aae?iiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii i?iieneiaino? a Oe?a?i? ia iiaei caaacia/eoe
?aei?noue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano c
i?e/ei oeaieo i??i?eoao?a iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee; ?aii?oaaiiy
?aeeii? i?e?iaee ? caaaeueii? caeiiii??i?no? oaeeo eaoaai??e, ye
nioe?aeueia ni?yiiaai?noue ? nioe?aeueia ?acoeueoaoeai?noue
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino? ii?iaeaeo? noia?a/iino?, noa?
iaei??th c i?e/ei ianoaa?eueiino? noni?euenoaa; ia a?aei?io a?ae ?ia?o
iiia?aaeiee?a, ye? aea/aee i?iaeaio aeei?enoaiiy aeinyaaiue IOI o
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie ia aoai? IO?, a iaoeia?e i?aoe? a?eueo a?oioiaii
iieacaii, /iio i?aeoe/ia cae?eniaiiy caaaeaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai
?icaeoeo ia i?ecaaei aei iaeaaeieo ci?i o nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e,
aeieia?/i?e, aeaiia?ao?/i?e noa?ao; aeine?aeaeaiiyi ?ice?eaa?oueny
i?ioean i?enei?aiiy IOI o i?iieneiaino? ye oie, ui iiaeiai eiie?aoii
aecia/aoe ??aaiue caaeiaieaiiy nioe?aeueieo iio?aa ianaeaiiy;
iieiaeaiiy, ui io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? iaoeiaiai iiooeo, noi?ioeueiaai? c
iiceoe?e iaiao?aeiino? aoiai?oa?iiai inieneaiiy ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai IOI
ia ei?enoue ethaeeie noni?euenoaa, ci?oeiaiiy aaoi?eoaoo Oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae o na?oiaiio ni?aoiaa?enoa?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ? ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeniiaee
? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??, ui io?eiai? a ?acoeueoao? iaoeiaiai iiooeo,
caeeoathoueny iaaeoi aeooaeueieie aeey Oe?a?inueei? iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaae. Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?ice?eaa? caeiiii??iino?, ui aeiooothoue
noi?ioethaaoe noaaeaiiy aei oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii
i?iieneiaino?, ye aei o??? aaeoc? noni?euenoaa, yea aa?aioo? ?ica’ycaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo, aeaiia?ao?/ieo,
eoeueoo?ieo ? aeooiaieo i?iaeai noni?euenoaa.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iaienaii?
iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a, a iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i?e ?iaio? nenoaie aeui? oa
na?aaeiuei? niaoe?aeueii? ina?oe, o aeeeaaeaii? aoc?anueeeo eo?n?a c
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, anana?oiuei? ?noi???, ?noi??? iaoee ? oaoi?ee, aaaaeai?
aei oaeeo eo?n?a, ye iie?oieia?y, i?aaia? aeenoeeie?ie, oi?aae?iiy
i?iieneiaei ? nioe?aeueiei ?icaeoeii.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaii a aeaio
iiiia?ao?yo ? iaa/aeueiiio iin?aieeo aaoi?a. C oaie aeena?oaoe??
iioae?eiaaii a?eueoa 20 ?ia?o caaaeueiei ianyaii iiiaae 30 ae.a.
Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae? iie?oe/ii? ?noi???
oa caaaeueii? aeiiii?/ii? oai??? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, eaoaae? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa anana?oiuei?
?noi??? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai?
A.N.Neiai?iaee, a?aeae?eo ?noi??? iaoee Oeaio?o aeine?aeaeaiue
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo oa ?noi??? iaoee ?iai? A.I.Aeia?iaa IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aenoioo? caeiaoaa/ai, aeiiia?aeaeenue ia
aeaa’yoe iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo: aeaio ?aa?iiaeueieo i?aeaoc?anueeeo
(Oa?e?a, a?oaeaiue 1993 ?., ea?oaiue 1994 ?.); i’yoe I?aeia?iaeieo:
Neiaiaeainueeee Aaeeeaeaiue (ea?oaiue 1995 ?.); «?ieue aoc?a o ae??oaii?
i?iaeai aacia?a?aii? ina?oe oa aeoiaaiiy iniaenoino?» (Oa?e?a, o?aaaiue
1995 ?.); 3-io Eiia?an? I?aeia?iaeii? Anioe?aoe?? Oe?a?i?no?a (Oa?e?a,
na?iaiue 1996 ?.); “O?ainoi?iaoe?y iaoeiaeo nenoai o e?a?iao c
ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith ? ?ieue iaoee o noni?euenoa?, yea ci?ith?oueny”
(Ee?a, aeiaoaiue 1998 ?.) oa ?i.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee,
aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ice?eoa
iaoeiaa iiaecia ? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue, oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy,
oa?aeoa? ai?iaaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaiai iiooeo.

O ?icae?e? 1 “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy”
aeena?oaio eeaneo?eoaaa ? c?iaea aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e, ui a?aeiineoueny aei
i?iaeaie, aeaa oa?aeoa?enoeeo aeaea?aeueii? aace. Aecia/ea
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei aena?oeaiiy ia?aii? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ?icae?e? 2 “I?eioeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoee ? oi?aae?iiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii i?iieneiaino? a oiiaao ieaiiai? aeiiii?ee”
iieacaia niaoeeo?ea i?aai?caoe?eieo canaae iaoeiai? aaeoc? Oe?a?ie ye
neeaaeiai? /anoeie iaoee ?aaeyinueeiai oeio. O?iiieia?/ii
?ice?eaa?oueny, ye eoei noaiiaeaiiy ? ci?oeiaiiy nenoaie
oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy oaeith niaoeeo?/iith oi?iith aeooiaiiai
?icaeoeo, yeith ? iaoea. Ca?iaeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?ieo aeey ?aaeyinueeiai
ia??iaeo oi?i ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaei ni?eyoe oaoi?/iiio i?ia?ano o
aoa?euei?e ? iaoeiiaoae?ai?e i?iieneiaino?, aia?aaoeoe?, ?aeiino?oeoe??
iaoaeo?a?eiiai ae?iaieoeoaa. Noaia “eaai?aoi??y —
i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueea ath?i — aeine?aeia ae?iaieoeoai”, ui
ca?iaeeeanue o 30-? ?iee, iiceoeaii aieeioea ia ?icaeoie aaaaoueio
iai?yie?a iaoee, iiaeo oaoiieia?e, ui aeanoea? eiaeiiio aoaio IO?.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? IO? aaaaoi aaeocae i?iieneiaino? ia iaee naiai
iaoeiaiai iioaioe?aeo, oiio a AI Oe?a?ie ii/aee ?ioaineaii ?icaeaaoeny
iai?yiee aeine?aeaeaiue, ui iaee i?eeeaaeiee oa?aeoa?. O ?icae?e?
iieacaii, ye c?inoaee na?aaeiuei??/i? oaiie i?e?inoo aeo?ao ia iaoeo c
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, a/aieo, ui a?aee?eaaei oeyo aaci?aoeaaeaioiiio
c?inoaiith iaoeiaeo onoaiia. Caaaeaiee iieaciee ?noioii ia?aaeuoaaa
i?e??no /enea caeiyoeo a ?ioeo aaeocyo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa.

C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy iaoeith o 1961 ?. noai?aii
Aea?aeaaiee Eii?oao ?aaee I?i?no??a N?N? c eii?aeeiaoe??
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueeeo ?ia?o, yeee o 1965 ?. ia?aeiaiiaaii ia
Aea?aeaaiee Eii?oao ?aaee I?i?no??a N?N? c iaoee ? oaoi?ee (AeEIO). A?i
ae?iaeya ??oaiiy a?aeiia?aeii aei ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeeo ieai?a N?N?,
?aae?caoe?th yeeo cae?enithaaee a ?anioae?eao aeaaeai?/iee, aaeocaaee ?
aoc?anueeee naeoi?e iaoee, ?iciiae?eya eiooe c athaeaeaoo ia ?o
aeeiiaiiy. Iaeiei c e?ieia, yeei ia?aaeaa/aeinue iie?auaoe oi?aaeiiiy
IOI, aoei noai?aiiy ia ii/aoeo 70-o ?ieia i’yoe, a iioii i oinoiai
iaoeiaeo oeaio?ia AI Oe?a?ie. Eiaeiee c ieo ioiiethaaa nai?i aieeaii
aeaeieueea iaeanoae, a yeeo i?aoethaaee oieiaee. ?icoe?thaaeanue ia?aaea
iaoeiaeo onoaiia. O?eueee ca 1976-1980 ??. noai?aii 5 iiaeo aeaaeai?/ieo
?inoeooo?a, 20 aini?ic?aooieiaeo i?aai?caoe?e aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/i?
aace. Anueiai o 1981 ?. a AI O?N? ia?aoiaoaaeinue 78 iaoeiaeo onoaiia,
68 i?aei?e?inoa aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/i? aace. Ooo i?aoethaaei 81,5 oen.
/ieia?e, a oiio /ene? 14,5 oen. iaoeiaeo ni?a?ia?oiee?a.

Oaeineiiaethaaeanue ia?aaea aaeocaaeo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?
i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?nueeeo i?aai?caoe?e a Oe?a?i?. O 1975 ?. a ieo
i?aoethaaei 60 oen. iaoeiaeo ni?a?ia?oiee?a, a oiio /ene? iaeaea 800
aeieoi??a ? 10 oen. eaiaeeaeao?a iaoe. Noaany a?ae/ooiee i?ia?an o
?icai?oaii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe o aocao. C’yaeeenue aaeocaa? ?
i?iaeaii? eaai?aoi???, ca?iaeeeanue nai???aeia aeey aoco no?oeoo?a
oi?aae?iiy aeine?aeaeaiiyie, iioe?eeenue oi?ie i?aai?caoe?eieo ca’yce?a
c iaoeiaeie onoaiiaaie aeaaeai?/iiai, aaeocaaiai naeoi??a iaoee,
ae?iaieoeoaii.

Ca?eueoaiith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo ni?eyea aea?aeaaia
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia iie?oeea. C?inoaiiy eaae?iaeo, o?iainiaeo oa
iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a aoei ni?yiiaaia ia ?icaeoie yaea?ii? aia?aaoeee,
eini?/ii? oaoi?ee, eaaioiai? aeaeo?ii?ee, ?aeaoiaoaeoaaiiy,
caa?thaaeueii? oaoi?ee, aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoa??ae?a oa ?i., aea aianie
Oe?a?ie aoa aeineoue aaaiiei. ?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? iaoeiai? aaeoc?
ia iio?aae ai?iii-i?iieneiaai eiiieaeno aeey Oe?a?ie noaee
iaoe?iiaeueiith ai?ae?noth.

Aena?oeth?oueny aeeiai?ea o?iainoaaiiy iaoee ca 1950-1985 ??. c
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, aeiaeaoeiaeo eioo?a a?ae aeeiiaiiy
ainiaeiaia??ieo ?ia?o. Iieaco?oueny, ui aenoaineaia c?inoaiiy ?ano?n?a
ni?eyei i?aai?caoe?ei?e iiaea?iecaoe?? ? aeai?o iiaeo iai?yie?a
aeine?aeaeaiue i?ae aieeaii noi?iiaaieo o ea??aieo i?aai?a aea?aeaae
oyaeaiue i?i IOI. O 70-? ?iee ia ci?io aei?noeei aaei?i?no?aoeaiei
iaoiaeai oi?aae?iiy noaee caeo/aoeny aeiiii?/i? — aini?ic?aooiie,
aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaia o?iainoaaiiy, iaoa??aeueia noeioethaaiiy. Aeiiii?/i?
iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy ia?aaeaa/aee iayai?noue iacaeaaeieo iaei??? a?ae
iaeii? th?eaee/ii ??aiii?aaieo noi??i.

Ia?ao?ae a?ae oi?aae?iiy i?aai?caoe?yie aei oi?aae?iiy ?ic?iaeaie
(i?ia?aiaie) i?eca?a aei noaa?aeaeaiiy i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai i?eioeeio
ieaioaaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy. Iaoea Oe?a?ie (?aa?iiaeueia o neeaae? N?N?)
ae?inea o oeae ia??iae o a?aeiinii naiino?eio aaeocue, yea iaea naith
ae?iaie/o ? oa?eoi??aeueio no?oeoo?o c i?eioeeiaie, iaoiaeaie ? i?aaiaie
oi?aae?iiy, ui ioiiethaaea nai?i ia?aoai?thth/ei aieeaii on? noa?e
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eaathoueny ?ene ? iniaeeaino? iaoee,
iaa?oioiaothoueny iio?aae o e?euee?niiio c?inoaii? iaoeiaoe?a, iineeaiiy
ca’ycee i?ae iaoeiaeie onoaiiaaie ? i?aei?e?inoaaie, iaiao?aei?noue
noai?aiiy aeaaeai?/ieo ?inoeooo?a, ui iia’ycai? c iiaeie iai?yieaie IOI.
Ia?niaeoeaia cia/aiiy iaea ci?ia i?io?eth ?inoeooo?a AI Oe?a?ie a
iai?yieo a?eueoi? aca?iiae?? c ooiaeaiaioaeueieie i?e?iaeie/eie
aeine?aeaeaiiyie ia iniia? ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo
canaae iaoee i?i oaoi?eo. Aeey 70-80-o ??. oa?aeoa?iith ?enith iaoeiai?
aaeoc? Oe?a?ie noaa ?? ?aa?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie, i?yiee aeo?ae ia
ae?iaieoeoai, noai?aiiy aeine?aeii-ae?iaie/i? no?oeoo?e, i?aeneeaiiy
i?aeaaeocaaeo aca?iiae?e, ni?yioaaiiy aaeocaaeo ?inoeooo?a ia
ae?yeuei?noue o iaoeiaeo ? IAI.

O ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi i?eioeeie ooieoe?iioaaiiy no?oeoo?e aaeocaaiai
naeoi?o iaoee a Oe?a?i?, ui i?aea?aeii/ee i?i?noa?noaai aaeocae, ia yeee
iieeaaeaii aea/aiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeoaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo cania?a
? oaoi?ee, i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?, o?ce/ieo iiaeeeainoae i?aoe?aieea ?
iaeaaeiaiiy. I?aai?caoe?eia aoaeiaa i?iieneiai? iaoee ?icaeaaeanue a
oiiaao noia?a/iinoae i?ae i?aaiaiiyi iaaeeceoe ?? aei ae?iaieoeoaa oa
aaaeaiiyi i?enoinoaaoe iaoeo aei nenoaie oi?aae?iiy o oeaio?ae?ciaai?e
aea?aeaa?, cina?aaeeoe ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? iaiaaeai? iaoeia? neee o
iaaaaaoueio aeinoaoiuei aaeeeeo ?inoeoooao. Iaoith noaei iaeaaiaeaeaiiy
?o ca’yce?a c i?iieneiaeie i?aei?e?inoaaie, iaaeeaeaiiy
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe aei iio?aa i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa.
Iaeaaaeeea?oei ?ino?oiaioii oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aaeocaai? iaoee noaee
aea?aeaai? ieaie ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee. Oae noai?thaaeanue o e?a?i? nenoaia
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaoeiaeie i?aai?caoe?yie c a?aeiia?aeieie
?inoaioe?yie a aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ainiiaea?nueeeo ? ia?o?eieo no?oeoo?ao
Oeaio?o ? a Oe?a?i?. Ia?aianaiiy ia iaoeo niinia?a oi?aae?iiy
ae?iaieoeoaii oaeoe/ii aeeeth/aei o/anoue a/aieo a ioe?ioe? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?o iiaeeea?noue aieeaaoe ia aea?? iai?yie?a ? ianya
?oiueiai o?iainoaaiiy. I?eeeaaei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aoai?eeeny o
naiino?eiee naeoi? iaoeiai? nenoaie, ui aeiioneaa iiaoaeiao ia?aae?
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?inoeooo?a o a?aeiia?aeiino? c aaeocaaith
no?oeoo?ith i?iieneiaino?.

Cae??ieaiiy ?inoeooo?a ca iaaieie aeaeaie ae?iaieoeoa icia/aei ?oith
aocueeo niaoe?ae?caoe?th. Iaoeia? onoaiiae c aaeocaaeo ia?aoai?thaaeeny
o a?aeii/?. I?i?noa?noaa oa a?aeiinoaa ana a?eueoa i?eoyaaee ?inoeoooe
aei ae??oaiiy oi?aae?inueeeo caaaeaiue, noai?thaaee eaiee, ye? aoee
i?iaeiaaeaiiyi aai aeiiiaiaiiyi aei aia?aoo i?i?noa?noa. Aaeee?
?inoeoooe noaaaee iiiiiie?noaie oe?eeo iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a, aeeeth/aeany
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiieo?aioe?y — ?oo?eia neea i?ia?ano. ?icaeoie
i?ioean?a, eio?? iaea ae??ooaaoe aaeocaaa iaoea, noaa oaeei no??ieei, ui
oe?e? eieaeoeae, ye? iia?eueii iiiaethaaee nai? oaoiieia?/i? caniae,
ii/aee a?aenoaaaoe a?ae na?oiai? iaoee ? a iiaeaeueoiio ua a?eueoa eiai
iiaeeaethaaee.

C na?aaeeie 70-o ??. i?ae aieeaii aeiiii?/iiai canoith oaiie ?inoo
?ano?n?a a iaooe? iii?oii cieceeeny. Iicia/eeenue oae? iaaaoeai?
oaiaeaioe??, ye “noa??iiy” iaoeiaeo eaae??a, iiiiiie?ci, ae??aiioai’y.
??cei c??n ianya i?eeeaaeieo ?ic?iaie ia oeiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueiei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi. Aaeocaaee iaoeiaee iioaioe?ae ae?iaeya oe?iiino?, ye?
aai ia a?aeiia?aeaee aeiiaai /ano, aai ia caaeaaeaeenue noni?euenoaii.

Iai?ee?ioe? 70-o ??. iiaeeeaino? aenoaineaiiai ?icaeoeo iaoee oa
noni?euenoaa aoee ae/a?iai?. Ia?ao?ae aei ?ioaineaieo iaoiae?a o
iaoeia?e aaeoc? aaeueioaaany noia?a/iinoyie a no?oeoo?? ? i?aai?caoe??
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei. Oea caoceei nioe?aeueiee i?ino?? aeey iiiaeaiiy
iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a. ?ano?ni? iiaeeeaino? ia aoee eiiiainiaai? iiaeie
iiaeeeainoyie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii
iaoee.

O 70-80-? ??. eiiieaeni?noue i?iaeai ?aae?caoe?? no/aniiai IOI aeiaaaea
o/ano? aenieieaae?o?eiaaieo niaoe?ae?no?a ??ciiai i?io?eth:
aeaeo?iiuee?a, iaoaiaoee?a, iaoai?e?a, o?cee?a, aeiiii?no?a,
nioe?ieia?a. A aaaaoueio iaoeiaeo onoaiiaao ?o ia aenoa/aei, a ia
i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao iaa?oue ia aoei. Aeina?ae ?icaeoeo iaoeiaiai
iioaioe?aeo iieacaa, ui iiaeeeaino? aenoaineaiiai ?inoo
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo nei?ioeeeny, caoceany nioe?aeueiee
i?ino?? aeey iiiaeaiiy iaoeiaeo iai?yie?a. ?ano?ni? iaiaaeaiiy ia aoee
eiiiainiaai? iiaeie iiaeeeainoyie nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
?icaeoeo iaoee.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aiee ?noi?e/iiio aiae?co oi?aae?iiy
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii a oiiaao ieaiiai? aeiiii?ee. A iueiio
iieacaii, ye iai?ee?ioe? 20-o — ia ii/aoeo 30-o ??. noaa?aeaeoaaany
i?eioeei ieaioaaiiy iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino?. I?ae aeeeth/ii aei?noeei
eiio?ieai c aieo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ia ae?eyieao nioe?ae?noe/iiai
aoae?aieoeoaa eiioeaio?oaaeenue iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? neee. I?ioean
oi?aae?iiy iaoeith a Oe?a?i? iinooiiai aoa i?aeii?yaeeiaaiee aea?aeaaiei
ieaiai ?acaeoeo i?iieneiaino?. Iai?ee?ioe? 30-o ??. AI Oe?a?ie aoea
i?aeii?yaeeiaaia ?aae? I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie. Eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaia
nenoaia aaeueioaaea ?icaeoie aaaeeeaeo aeey noni?euenoaa iai?yie?a
aeaaeai?/ii? iaoee (caai?iia aaiaoeee, e?aa?iaoeee). Iacaaaeath/e ia
oea, a/ai? Oe?a?ie aeinyaee cia/ieo iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?acoeueoao?a ?
caeiaoee na?oiao ia?o?noue o aeayeeo i??i?eoaoieo aeey ?aaeyinueei?
aea?aeaae iai?yieao. ?o i?aoey aeinoieii ioe?ithaaeanue. Na?aae ?ioeo
eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a i?aoey iaoeiaoey iin?aeaea ia?oa i?noea.

Iai?ee?ioe? 60-o ??. aoea ai?iaaaeaeaia aini?ic?aooieiaa nenoaia
i?aai?caoe?? ?ia?o ii noai?aiith, inai?iith ? ai?iaaaeaeaiith iiai?
oaoi?ee ia iniia? ainiiaea?nueeeo aeiaiai??a. Oea ni?eyei
cina?aaeaeaiith nee ia i??i?eoaoieo iai?yieao IOI, aea iaei aieeioei ia
i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? oaoi?ee, yea noai?thaaeanue.

Nenoaia ieaioaaiiy iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ui neeaeanue o 30-? ??.,
caa?aaeany ii noo? aei 60-70-o ??., eiee IO? aenoioea iio?aae aeae?eeoe
aei ie?aiiai eeano cia/i? ?iaioe, ye? io?eiaee iacao iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo
i?ia?ai. O ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino? i?ia?aii? aeine?aeaeaiiy iineee
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee oa?aeoa? ? e?ioeaaei ?acoeueoaoii aoee ci???ioiaai?
ia ?aae?caoe?th a aaaaoueio aaeocyo ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa. Aiie
aeeiioaaeenue aeey i?aei?e?inoa iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, /i?ii? iaoaeo?a??,
aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino?, i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy, o?i?/ii? ? oa?/iai?
i?iieneiaino? oa ?ioeo aaeocae.

Neaae?noue iieiaeaiiy i?i ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy i?ia?ai i?iyaeeanue i?e
ni?ia? ?o o?iainoaaiiy. A?aeii/? aa?’??e aeyaeeenue na?eiciith
ia?aoeiaeith ia oeyoo ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? o iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e ?
ae?iaie/?e noa?ao. Ia?aaeaa/aeinue, ui c?ooaiiy ia e?aua c’yaeyoueny c
ooieoe?iioaaiiyi IIOE. Iniiaiei ?ino?oiaioii oi?aae?iiy ?o
ooieoe?iioaaiiyi, ye ia?aaeaa/aeinue, iaa aooe ?aeeiee ieai ?ia?o ?
caoiaee uiaei iia?aoeaii? eii?aeeiaoe?? aeine?aeaeaiue, ?ic?iaie ?
ae?iaie/i? ae?yeueiino?.

Aeina?ae oi?ioaaiiy ? ?aae?caoe?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai iieacaa, ui
a oiiaao ?aaeyinueei? nenoaie i?aai?caoe?? iaoee ia aeineoue ii?aeiaoe
coneeey ?ic??ciaieo a?aeiinoa aeey aeeiiaiiy caaaeueii? oe?eueiai?
i?ia?aie. Iio??aii aoei ci?ieoe iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aei aecia/aiiy
no?aoaa?? oi?aae?iiy IOI c eiioeaio?aoe??th nee ? cania?a ia
i??i?eoaoieo iai?yieao ?icaeoeo ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiieaeno
?aa?iio, ae??oaii? eiai ia?oi/a?aiaeo nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai.

Aaaeeeaei aniaeoii iaoiaeieia?? aiae?co iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?acaeoeo o
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae noaei ?icai?oaiiy ?ia?o c i?iaiicoaaiiy. C
ii/aoeo 70-o ??. c iaeaaaeeea?oeo i?iaeai ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ?
ie?aieo eiai aaeocae ii/aee ?ic?iaeyoe iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?iaiice ia
o?eaaeee ia??iae, ye? iiaeii? aoee neeanoe aaco aeey aeai?o iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yie?a oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano. Ia?aaeaa/aii caoiaee aeey
?o iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy oeyoii noai?aiiy iino?eii iiiaethaaii?
?ioi?iaoe?eii? aace ieaioaaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo c aecia/aiiyi
i??i?eoao?a. Aeieoiaioii, a yeiio aoei c?iaeaii ni?iao ia’?aeiaoe oe?
aeiiae, noaea Eiiieaenia i?ia?aia, yeo aia?oa ii/aee ?ic?iaeyoe o 1972
?. ia 20 ?ie?a. Oaeee i?aeo?ae ci?ithaaa aeoeaioe ae?yeueiino? iaoeiai?
aaeoc? Oe?a?ie ia iaeaooi?, oi/a ? aenoaaa ?yae i?iaeai iaoiaeieia?/iiai
ieaio. A?aenooi?noue niaoe?aeueiiai i?aaio oi?aae?iiy ?icaeoeii iaoee ?
oaoi?ee a ianooaaao ?anioae?ee (ye AeEIO a N?N?) caoaeoaaea iiaeeeaino?
a aaeoc? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee, iaiaaeoaaea ?ioa?an aei i?iaiiciaeo
iaoa??ae?a. I?eeiyooy iai?ee?ioe? 70-80-o ??. iinoaiia o Oeaio?? ? a
?anioae?oe? ?aaeueieo ?acoeueoao?a ia aeaei. Eiioeaioe?y aei?noeiai
ieaioaaiiy o noa?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo aaea aei cai?ci?eiai
iiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?e, oaoi?ee ? iaeaaeiaiiy, aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe??
i?aoe?.

O ?icae?e? 3 “?ano?ni? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie o 70-80-? ?iee” ?ice?eo?
e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? ia?aiao?e, nioe?aeueiee noaoon iaoeiai? aaeoc?.
Iieacaii, ye ?iciiae?eyeenue o?iainia? ? eaae?ia? ?ano?ne, e?euee?noue
iaoeiaeo onoaiia a Oe?a?i? ca aeaaeai?/iei, aoc?anueeei ? aaeocaaei
naeoi?aie iaoee. Iaa?oioiao?oueny, ui o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae
iaoeiaee iioaioe?ae ?anioae?ee c eiai ?ano?nieie iiaeeeainoyie aoa
ni?iiiaeiee ?ica’ycoaaoe caaaeaiiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo
a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia no/aniino?. ? oea ia caaaeath/e ia oa, ui o 70-?
— ia ii/aoeo 80-o ??. aeniei?icaeiooa o i?iieneiaiio a?aeiioaii? Oe?a?ia
c ?? aeinyaiaiiyie ca caaaeueiinenoaiiei e?eoa???i caeiaea anueiai
aeaa’yoa i?noea na?aae ?anioae?e N?N? ii ?icaeoeo iaoee.

O ?icae?e? iaa?oioiaothoueny i?e/eie iaai?iiy aeei?enoaoe ia i?aeoeoe?
?ic?iaee oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a c iaeia?niaeoeai?oeo oaoiieia?e, ye?
io?eioaaee aeciaiiy ? ai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue ca ei?aeiiii, aea ai?ei
ii?aeiaii iaoe?iiaeueio niaoeeo?eo ? na?oiaee aeina?ae c
aeaeaeiaeyaeiith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith iie?oeeith.

Ia’?eoeaiith ioe?ieith ??aiy iaoeiai-eaae?iaiai iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie ?
iaeiei ?c nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a ? iieaciee iaoeiaoe?a c a/aieie
nooiaiyie. I?e ?inoeoooao Aeaaeaii? iaoe Oe?a?ie ia ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a
ooieoeiiioaaee ?aaee ii caoenoo aeieoi?nueeeo i eaiaeeaeaonueeeo
aeena?oaoeie. O 70-oe iaoeiaeo Iinoeoooao AI O?N? ui?i/ii iaa/aeinue
iiiaae 2100 anii?aioia, a oiio /enei 40% c aiae?eaii aiae ae?iaieoeoaa.
A Iinoeoooi i?iaeai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, iai?eeeaae, oeueiio ni?eyea
aeiyeueiinoue iaoeiaeo oeie oa ?o ea?iaieeia a/aieo A.I.Iieiuoea,
A.I.Ai?eniaa, TH.C.Aaaaneiia, A.I.Iiaiiieea, O.I.Eioey?aanueeiai,
A.E.Oi?oea oa ii. Iiaeaioiaea iaoeiaoeia aeui? eaaeioieaoei? ni?eyea
oiio, ui a Iinoeoooao AI Oe?a?ie c 1972 ii 1990 ??. eieueeinoue
aeieoi?ia iaoe c?inea c 658 aei 1911, eaiaeeaeaoia iaoe — aiaeiiaiaeii c
4345 aei 10399 /ieiaie.

C e?ioey 70-o — ia ii/aoeo 80-o ?? i?inoaaeothoueny i?e/eie neaaeiai
i?eieeao na?aeeo nee a iaoeo, iiaaoi?nueeeo ?aeae, iii?oiiai noa??iiy
eaae??a. A ?inoeoooao AI Oe?a?ie o 1977 ?. ia aoei aeieoi??a iaoe
iieieoa 33 ??., o a?oe? aei 37 ??. — anueiai 12 /ieia?e. O 1985 ?.
na?aaei?e a?e aeieoi??a ooo neeaaeaa 57 ? eaiaeeaeao?a iaoe 43 ?iee. A
N?N? — a?aeiia?aeii — 53 ? 43 ?iee. I?iaiicoaaeinue, ui iaa?oue i?e
5%-io iiiiaiaii? iieiaeeie niaoe?ae?noaie o 1995 ?. /aoaa?oa /anoeia
a/aieo Aeaaeai?? iaea aooe iain?eiiai a?eo. A?aenooi?noue iioeaaoe?? oa
noeioeo aei i?aoe? a/aieo a?ae?a?aea ae??oaeueio ?ieue a oiio, ui
iai?ee?ioe? 80-o ??. a AI Oe?a?ie ia aenoa/aei a/aieo ? niaoe?ae?no?a
aeey ?ic?iaee iiaeo iai?yie?a, iieiae? iaoeiaoe? ii/aee caeeoaoe
?inoeoooe Aeaaeai??.

Cia/iee iaoa??ae ?icae?eo ?ice?eaa? i?eioeeie ? ?acoeueoaoeai?noue
?iaioe ?Oe oa IIOE ye eiioeaio?aoi??a iniiaii? /anoeie ?ia?o c
i?enei?aiiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oaoiieia?/ieo ?ic?iaie, caeo/aiiy aei
ni?ai?aoe? ca?oa?aeieo ia?oia??a. O 1986 ?. c iaoeiaeie onoaiiaaie ?
i?aei?e?inoaaie Oai?ueie, Iieueu?, *aoineiaa//eie oeeaaeaii
aeainoi?iii?o aeiaiai??a c 43 oai, c O?I, ?oae??th ? O?aioe??th — c 6
oai.

A aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii ?acoeueoaoeai?noue ?iaioe aaeocaaiai naeoi?o
iaoee. O 70-? ??. ia i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie noai?aii ?icaaeoaeaio
ia?aaeo caaiaenueeeo eaai?aoi??e, eiino?oeoi?nueeeo ath?i,
aeine?aeii-aenia?eiaioaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e. O 1977 ?. a ieo i?aoethaaei
anueiai 4 aeieoi?a ? 584 eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe. Iaoai?/ia aeeth/aiiy oeeo
no?oeoo?ieo iaeeieoeue o 1985 ?. aei 167 AI ? IAI ia iiaeieaei
neaae?noue aaeocaaiai naeoi?o. ?icae?e i?noeoue ii??aiyiiy
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeiie aaeocaaiai naeoi?o c aeaaeai?/iei ? aoc?anueeei.

O ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi nioe?aeuei? aniaeoe iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oai?/ino? o
aocao, ?acoeueoaoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? a/aieo oa ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo
i?aoe?aiee?a o iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ? oai?/eo ia’?aeiaiiyo, anioe?aoe?yo,
nithcao oa ?ioeo oi?ioaaiiyo. Iieacaia noia?a/eeaa ae?yeuei?noue ?aae
ni?eyiiy IOI.

O ?icae?e? 4 “Iiiaeaiiy iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace i?iieneiaino?”
aeiaaaeaii, ui i?iieneia?noue Oe?a?ie ia iaea nioe?aeueii? i???ioaoe??.
Ia ii/aoeo 70-o ??. o?ii?/ia a?aenoaaaiiy o ae?iaieoeoa? oiaa??a
ianiaiai aaeeoeo aeeeeeaei iacaaeiaieaiiy ianaeaiiy ?anioae?ee,
ia?icoi?iiy ca?oa?aeieo ainoae. Oaoeoecaoe?y ?iaeono??ae?caoe?? a
Oe?a?i? aeeeeeaia aiethioa?enonueeeie i?aeoiaeaie a ieaioaaii? ?
i?iaaaeaii? ?aeiino?oeoe?? oa oaoi?/iiai ia?ainiauaiiy i?aei?e?inoa aeey
aeieaaee /aaoio, noaei, ae?iaieoeoaa o?oa, eieno, o?i?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? ?
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy. A aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiao?oueny, /iio aei 1988 ?. ia
a?aeaoaaeinue no?oeoo?ieo ci?i o i?iieneiaino?, ni?yioaaiiy ?? ?iaioe ia
caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ianaeaiiy. C oeeo i?e/ei, iai?eeeaae, eiaeia o?aoy
aeeoeia ia?oiai ?ieo aeeooy ciaoiaeeeanue ia iaaee/iiio iae?eo c
i?eaiaeo oai?ia, ui iia’ycai? c a?aenooi?noth caaeainiaaiiai oa?/oaaiiy,
yea iiaeiia caaacia/eoe i?iieneia?noue, /eiaei ae?oae iaei a?aeoeeaiiy
a?ae a?eiaeo ii?i o?ce/iiai ?icaeoeo.

Cia/ia i?noea o ?icae?e? caeiathoue a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe, ocaaaeueiaiiy
yeeo oa?aeoa?eco? caaaeueio ea?oeio iane?aee?a iiiaeaiiy
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace a aaeocyo i?iieneiaino?. A i?iieneiainoi
Aiiieoeueei? iaeanoi, a no?oeoo?i yei? iiiaae 50% iiaei?e?inoa oa?/iai?,
eaaei? oa i?noeaai? i?iieneiainoi, caieieaiiy c oaiiaie
aoaeiaaeueii-iiioaaeieo ?iaio c ?aeiino?oeoe??, cai?ciiea aaaaeaiiy aei
aeith/eo iiooaeiinoae aaei aei iaeiie/aiiy ciioaieo iniiaieo oiiaeia. Ia
na?aaeeio 80-o ??. ?o ciin noaiiaea iiiaae 40%. Ic 79 ia’?eoia, ia yeeo
aoei ?icii/aoi ?aeiino?oeoeith i oaoii/ia ia?aica?i?iiy ua iai?eeiioei
60 — ia ii/aoeo 70-o ??., o 1985 ?. ?iaioe caaa?oaii oieueee ia 2/3 c
ieo. C i?e/ei cai?ci?eiai aaaaeaiiy aei ae?? iiooaeiinoae niiaeeaa/ai
iaaeiaeaii i?iaeoeoe?? ia aeanyoee i?eueeii?a ea?aiaaioe?a. Aiaeia?/ia
noaiiaeua niinoa??aaeinue a oe?eiio ia i?aei?e?inoaao i?i?noa?noa
oa?/iai?, eaaei?, iaoaeo?a?eii?, aoa?eueii? oa ?ioeo aaeocae
i?iieneiaino? ?anioae?ee. I?i?noa?noaa ia iaee iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo
ieai?a, ye? aa?aiooaaee a caaacia/aiiy aoae?aieoeoaa ne?iaeiieie,
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieie, o?iainiaeie ?ano?naie ? iiooaeiinoyie.

O Eoaainuee?e iaeano? ia na?aaeeio 80-o ??. aaeinue aoae?aieoeoai 400
ia’?eo?a, aeey caaa?oaiiy yeeo iaiao?aeii aoei ua 10 ?ie?a. O 1985-1986
??. ooo ?icii/aoi caaaeaiiy ua 70 ia’?eo?a. ?acii c oei, a iaeano?
iieiaeia ae?th/eo oaoo i?ioyaii 30 ?ie?a ia ?aeiino?othaaeanue,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? ia ieo aoea iecueeith, no?eioaaany ?icaeoie
nioe?aeueii? noa?e. O?eueee o AI «E?aniiaeiiaoa?eey» ?
“Naa?aeeianueeaio?aoeeo» 30 oeny/ n?iae noiyee a /a?c? ia io?eiaiiy
aeeoea.

Iath/e ?icaeiaio i?iieneiao ?io?ano?oeoo?o, n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai
?anioae?ee ia caaeiaieueiyeinue o o?aeoi?ao, neeinicae?aeueieo ?
ao?yeicae?aeueieo eiiaaeiao, a aaoiiia?eyo. C oeeo i?e/ei ia
caaacia/oaaeenue iio?aae i?iaanoe n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? ?iaioe a
noene? no?iee ? aac ao?ao. Oa?/iaa i?iieneia?noue iani?iiiaeia aoea
ia?a?iaeyoe i?iaeoeoe?th n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa. ?? iio?aae a
oaoi?/iiio iaeaaeiaii? caaeiaieueiyeenue o?eueee ia 10-16%.

A?oioiaiei aiae?cii i?aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui i???ioaoe?y i?iieneiaino? ia
ae?iaieoeoai cania?a ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?? i?e?oa?ecaoe?th iaaaoeaii
a?aeaeeanue ia ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e noni?euenoaa. Aea?oueny
ii??aiyiiy, ye a N?N? ? NOA eoia ?iciiae?e ?ano?n?a i?ae aaeocyie
ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa ? ai?iii-i?iieneiaei eiiieaenii.

Ie?aiei i?ae?icae?eii ?icaeyaea?oueny, ye a ?anioae?oe? ?ica’ycoaaeanue
nioe?aeueia i?iaeaia iaoai?caoe?? oa aaoiiaoecaoe??, ?iaioecaoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?e aaei aei ca?eueoaiiy
i?aoethth/eo ia aaaeeeo ? iaeieaae?o?eiaaieo, oe?aeeeaeo aeey caei?ia’y
?iaioao a o?i?/i?e ? iaooiia?a?iai?e, i?eeaaeiaoae?ai?e, eaae?e,
i’yniiiei/i?e, oa?/iia?a?iai?e i?iieneiaino?, a /i?i?e iaoaeo?a??. O
oeeo aaeocyo, a oaeiae o aoa?euei?e iaoooaaeanue aca?iiiia’ycai?noue
aeiiii?/aieo, nioe?aeueieo, aeieia?/ieo, aeaiia?ao?/ieo ?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?acoeueoao?a. A ieo iii?oii ca?eueoeeanue e?euee?noue
i?aoethth/eo ae?iie. O 1976 ?. 275 oen. ae?iie (13,6% on??? e?eueeino?
i?aoethth/eo oe??? eaoaai???) aoei caeiyoi ia ?iaioao, aea
caaaciaai?noue oe?aeeeaeie ?a/iaeiaie ia?aaeuoaaea a?aie/ii aeiionoei?
ii?ie o 7-40 ?ac?a.

C ii/aoeo 70-o ??. oaooa?? Aeiiaano a?eueoa iieiaeie ?ia?o aeeiioaaee
a?o/io. Aiane?aeie iacaaacia/aiiy iaeaaeieo oiia i?aoe? o 1980 ?.
ii??aiyii c ia?oei ia??iaeii na?aae aoaeaeii?a iioe?eeenue
ciai?eoiieaiiy, oaieia? oaea?e, o 2-3 ?ace c??n ae?iaie/ee o?aaiaoeci,
caaeaaeue oaooa??a. Caaaeuei? oiiae i?aoe? iaaaoeaii aieeaaee ia
caei?ia’y, aeiaaie?ooy oaooa??a. ?acii c i?iaeaiaie aeeoea, iecueeei
??aiai iaaee/iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy, ?ioeie nioe?aeueieie i?iaeaiaie oea
aeeeeeaei a ieo iacaaeiaieaiiy, i?ecaaei iai?ee?ioe? 80-o ??. aei
iiaeeaeaiiy noia?a/iinoae i?ae ia?o?eieie i?aaiaie ? o?oaeiaeie
eieaeoeaaie.

I?ioyaii 80-o ??. e?euee?noue ?ia?oiee?a ? neoaeaiaoe?a a i?iieneiaino?
nei?ioeeanue ia 100 oen. /ieia?e. ?acii c oei, e?euee?noue ?ia?oiee?a,
i?aoey yeeo iaea aooe iaoai?ciaaia a ia?oo /a?ao, o 1989 ?. neeaaeaea
a?eueoa 1 iei. 135 oeny/ /ieia?e. Iieaciee e?eueeino? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie,
caeiyoiai ia?aaaaeii ?icoiiaith ? o?ce/iith i?aoeath, iai?ee?ioe? 80-o
?ie?a cia/ii iinooiaany iieacieeo ?icaeiooeo e?a?i.

O niaoe?aeueiiio i?ae?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ye aeaaei? i?aaie
?aii?oaaee i/aaeaei? ii?ooaiiy ? caoai? iane?aeee aeey caei?ia’y ethaeae
i?e caaaeaii? ia’?eo?a aia?aaoeee, iaoaeo?a??, iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, ?iaio?
o?i?/ieo i?aei?e?inoa. Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?nue AAN aoea i?ecia/aia aeey
aia?aiiinoa/aiiy niiaeeaa/?a no?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i ? iiaoaeiaaia a
aanaeiao Aei?i?a ? I?aaeaiiiai Aoao. C ?o iiyaith aeiee aeao?oeeo
aiaeieo ?ano?n?a aei 6 ei3 ui??/ii. Ia aoiiieo ia’?eoao Oe?a?ie aei 1990
?. ui??/ii ae?iaeyeinue aeecueei 3 iei. i3 ?aae?iaeoeaieo a?aeoiae?a.
Aea aeey ieo ia aoei caaaeaii noaoe?iia?ieo noiaeu-iiaeeueiee?a. Aonoioa
?ici?uaiiy ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie aoea o 8 ?ac?a
a?eueoith, ai?ae a oe?eiio ii eieeoiueiio N?N?. Eioo?a ia aei?aaeaiiy
iane?aee?a ?iaeono??ae?caoe?? oa?eoi??? ?anioae?ee, ye iieacaa aiae?c,
aoei iaaeinoaoiuei. O 1988 ?. a i?iieneiaino? iaeaea iieiaeia aeaea?ae
aeeeaeaiiy aaciiiae?aieo ?a/iaei ia aoea iniauaia ieeiaacii/enieie
onoaiiaeaie. Eiaeia /aoaa?oa c ieo — iani?aaia aai i?aoethaaea
iaaoaeoeaii. Oe?a?ia ia aeeiioaaea I?aeia?iaeio Eiiaaioe?th i?i
o?aina?aie/ia caa?oaeiaiiy iia?o?y.

O ?icae?e? 5 “Aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth”
?ice?eaathoueny iai?yiee ? iaoiaee ?ai?aai?caoe?? oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth. Iieacaia ?iaioa Aea?aeieaio ? o?yaeo O?N? a
oeueiio iai?yieo. ?icii/aaoe c aenia?eiaio?a ia ii/aoeo 60-o ??., o 1977
?. i?aei?e?inoaa aaea 15 i?i?noa?noa aoee oe?oiiai?. Ca oeei c?inea
/enaeuei?noue oi?aae?ioe?a a o?yaeiaeo no?oeoo?ao, o AI c??n aia?ao
oi?aae?iiy ii??aiyii c naiino?eieie i?aei?e?inoaaie. Ia?aaaaeia
e?euee?noue ia’?aeiaiue eaaei?, oa?/iai?, e?niai? oa aea?aaiia?iaii?
i?iieneiaino? cia/ii iia??oeea iieacieee ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui oe?oiiaiiy i?iieneiaino?, yea caniiaaia ia ?aea?
oeaio?ae?caoe??, anooieei a noia?a/i?noue c eia?eith ?noi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo, eiee iaiao?aeii aoei aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aeioe?eueiino?
oeueiai i?ioeano, a?aooaaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo. Aeathoueny ii??aiyiiy,
ye a oiiaao ?icaeiooeo e?a?i a?aoiaothoueny iiaeeeaino? ae??aieo aai
na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa iaoe ia?aaaao iaae aaeeeeie
i?aei?e?inoaaie-iiiiiie?noaie.

?icae?e aena?oeth?, ye ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaia ea??aieoeoai N?N? iaiaaaeinue
aei?aaeoe noaiiaeua a i?iieneiaino? i?eeiyooyi caeii?a N?N? i?i o?oaeia?
eieaeoeae (1984 ?.), i?i i?aei?e?inoai (ia’?aeiaiiy) — 1987 ?. ?ice?eoi
?iaioo o 80-? ??. ii nei?i/aiith i?i?noa?noa oa ?o ia?niiaeo. O?yaeii
?anioae?ee ia?aaeaa/aeinue o 1990 ?. /enei i?i?noa?noa nei?ioeoe ?c 46
aei 20-25.

Ia ai?th/e caeiaoaaoe o?iee c ?oei?aii? iie?oeee nooe?eueieo
aenia?eiaio?a, ae?iaeyoe iaoiaeieia?/i? ? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei
ioe?iee ooieoe?iioaaiiy AI, ia?o?eii-aea?aeaaia ea??aieoeoai N?N?
?icii/aei a na?aaeei? 80-o ??. aenia?eiaio c ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi
aini?ic?aooieo ? naiio?iainoaaiiy. Iieacaii, ye eaiii?caoe?y oeueiai
aenia?eiaioo i?enei?eea ?icaeoie e?eciaeo yaeu a Oe?a?i?.

A aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaii ioe?iee ae?yeueiino? NI ?c ca?oa?aeieie
ia?oia?aie, eiiia?aoeaieo, aeoe?iia?ieo, i?aiaeieo i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo
aaeocae Oe?a?ie, ui ii/aee i?aoethaaoe iai?ee?ioe? 80-o ??.

A ie?aiiio i?ae?icae?e? ocaaaeueiaiiyi oe?ieiai eiea aeaea?ae,
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeaieo iaaaaeaii ye?nio ? e?euee?nio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
eaae??a i?iieneiaino? oa ?o nioe?aeueio ooieoe?th. Ocaaaeueiai? aeai? ii
iaoeiiaoae?aiiio eiiieaeno, i?aei?e?inoaai aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? ?
i?aenoaaith noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui nioe?aeueiee ii?o?ao ea??aiee?a
na?aaeiuei? eaiee a ieo ia a?aeiia?aeaa aeiiaai IO?. ?ice?eaa?oueny
eiiieaen i?e/ei ? oaeoi?e, ye? aeaoi?ioth/a aieeaaee ia niaoe?ae?noa,
iiieaeaiiy eiai nioe?aeueiiai noaoono ? i?anoeaeo. Iieacaii, ui noai?aia
ca eeane/iei c?aceii aei?noea iiiaieeaoo?ia nenoaia eiio?ieth ca
aeeiiaiiyi ieai?a ae?iaieoeoaa iani?iiiaeia aoea aeieaoe aaaee
?aaeyinueeiai ieaioaaiiy.

A aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii, ye i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo a
?anioae?oe? iaaeaa caaaeueiii?eeiyoee i?aeia?iaeiith i?aeoeeith iieaciee
a?aeiioaiiy i?aoeacaeaoieo in?a c aeuith ina?oith aei on??? iane ?iai/i?
neee. E?euee?noue nooaeaio?a aeueo o/aiaeo caeeaae?a o ?ic?aooieo ia 10
oen. i?aoeacaeaoieo in?a ciaioeeanue c? 170 o 1970 ?. aei 154 o 1990 ?.
? ii??aiyiiy c ca?oa?aeieie e?a?iaie, yea ia ia ei?enoue Oe?a?ie.

Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui iiaeaeueoa inieneaiiy oaiaeaioe?e a ina?o?, ye iaei???
?c aieiaieo oiia iaoe?iiaeueii? iiaooiino?, ia? noi?iaiaeaeoaaoenue
a?aeiia?aeieie ae?yie aea?aeaae. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui c 1960 ?. a i?e
eaoano?io?/ii iaaeaa i?e?iaeiee i?e??no ianaeaiiy. O 1970 ?. a?i aoa o 2
?ace, o 1980 — a?eueo i?ae o 4, o 1985 — o 4,7, a o 1990 ?. a?eueo i?ae
o 22 ?ace iaioee. Aaea o 80-? ??. Oe?a?ia noaea naiith «noa?ith»
?anioae?eith N?N?. Aea?oueny ii??aiyiiy c ?ioeie e?a?iaie ? e?eoa??yie
THIANEI.

Ocaaaeueithth/ee iaoa??ae ?icae?eo uiaei nenoaie i?ioan?eii-oaoi?/ii?
ina?oe ?ice?eaa? noai ?? iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace, ci?no ? ye?noue
i?aeaioiaee ?ia?oiee?a ianiaeo i?ioan?e, iane?eueee oea a?aeiia?aeaei
aeiiaai IO?. Noi?ioeueiaai? ia?aaeoiiae ?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oe, ui iiaeooue
aa?aiooaaoe noaa?e?caoe?th noni?euenoaa, nioe?aeueiee caoeno iieiaeeo
ethaeae, i?aeaeuaiiy caaaeueii? ? i?ioan?eii? eoeueoo?e eaae??a.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
yeeo caeiaoaa/ aeiineoue ia caoeno.

1. Aeina?ae ?icaeoeo iaoeiai oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie o
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae iieacaa, ui aecia/aeueiei /eiieeii aeey
ni?eeiyooy iiaeiie i?iieneia?noth iiaeiii noaoe noai?aiiy ae?eiaiai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio, ui iino?eii oi?io? iiieo
ae?iaieoeoaa ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/io i?iaeoeoe?th. Iaoea ia??iaeo, yeee iaie
aea/a?oueny, ia?aoai?thth/ei aieeaii ioiieea on? noa?e
ia?iaeiiainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. ?ano?ne, ye? aiia iiaeeiaea,
c?iaeee ?? /eiieeii iaaii? aaeoc? i?iieneiaino?. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
cana?ae/eei, ui i?aai?caoe?eia no?oeoo?a iaoee ?icaeaaeanue a oiiaao
i?ioe??//y i?ae i?aaiaiiyi iaaeeceoe ?? aei ae?iaieoeoaa oa i?aaiaiiyi
i?enoinoaaoe aei aei?noei? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy c aieo aea?aeaaieo
i?aai?a, neiioeaio?oaaoe iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee iioaioe?ae o aaeeeeo
oi?ioaaiiyo. I?iaieioaiiy i?i ia?ao?ae aei ?ioaineaieo oi?i
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iaoee ia iiaei aooe ?aae?ciaaii c i?eioeeiiaeo i?ioe??/
a no?oeoo?? oa i?aai?caoe?? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, iacaeaoiino? a/anii
ciaeoe iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee ? aeciaoe oi?aae?inueeo ooieoe?th iaoee,
aeoeaio ?? neeo, yea aieeaa? ia an? aiee ae?iaie/iai aeeooy.

2. Nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy iaoeiaeie onoaiiaaie c i?ii?aeieie
no?oeoo?aie a aea?aeaaii-ia?o?eieo i?aaiao iiaeiia aoea caaeiaieueiyoe
aeiiae oe??? nenoaie. A oae?e neooaoe?? eiioeaioe?y aei?noeiai
ieaioaaiiy aeyaeeanue iacaeaoiith noeioethaaoe i?ia?an aeania noa?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?acaeoeo. Ni?iae o 70-80-? ?iee oaeineiiaeeoe nenoaio
ieaioaaiiy iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o noai?aiiyi iaoai?cio
i?ia?aiii-oe?eueiaiai ieaioaaiiy ? oi?aae?iiy aoee ni?yiiaai? ia
aeinyaiaiiy ?ioaa?aoe?? on?o noaae?e iaoeiai-ae?iaie/iai oeeeeo. Iaeiae,
a?aeii/? aa?’??e aeyaeeenue iacaeieaiieie i?e ??cieo oi?aae?inueeeo
?iiiaaoe?yo. Iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee iioaioe?ae ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie,
caeiath/e iaeia c oeaio?aeueieo i?noeue a ?? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e ?
i?iieneia?e iie?oeoe?, nenoaiaoe/ii caciath/e ci?i o no?oeoo?? ?
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?iao oi?aae?iiy, ia ni?eya ia?aoai?aiith iaoee o
aieeaiaee /eiiee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano.

3. Oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie
caeeoeeinue iica iaaeaie aieeao iaoeiai? aeoiee ? ia ni?eyei
?ica’ycaiith aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo, aeieia?/ieo ? aeaiia?ao?/ieo
i?iaeai a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeeeainoae IO? ? ??aiy ?icaeiooeo e?a?i c
i?e/ei iaaei??ii? oeaio?ae?caoe?? ? aeai?o oeaieo i??i?eoao?a. Aac
iaoeiaiai noi?iaiaeaeaiiy nenoaia oi?aae?iiy aeyaeeanue iacaeaoiith
?icoiii aieeaaoe ia i?ioeane iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo, ia?aaeaa/aoe
o?ae ia’?eoeaieo i?ioean?a na?oiaiai i?ia?ano, iiia?aaeeoe iiyao
iaoa?iaeueii? iniiae e?ece. A Oe?a?i? aoei ciaoooaaii iiaeeeainoyie, ye?
a?aee?eea IO? aeey aeei?enoaiiy ?? aeinyaiaiue a ?ioa?anao ethaeeie.
Iaaeineiiae?noue nioe?aeueieo ?inoeooo?a iaaeaaaea aea?aeaa? iiaeeeaino?
oi?ioaaoe aeei?enoaiiy oeeo aeinyaiaiue ia ei?enoue aaaeei?
i?iieneiaino?, ?? i?e?oa?ecaoe?? ia oeiaeo aaeocae, ye? i?aoethaaee ia
caaeiaieaiiy nioe?aeueieo iio?aa ianaeaiiy. Ia?iuoaaiiy ae?iaie/eo
iiooaeiinoae ia caaeiaieueiyei a oaoi?oe? eaaeo ? oa?/iao
i?iieneia?noue, n?euenueea ainiiaea?noai. Iieaciaa nenoaia oe?iiinoae ?
oyai? i??i?eoaoe i?ia?ano ni?eyee ?icaeoeo iaaa/aii? a ?noi???
oaiaeaioe?? aeia?aaeaeaiiy ia?iuoaaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa ca?aaee ae?iaieoeoaa
ii??aiyii c ae?iaieoeoaii oiaa??a ianiaiai aaeeoeo.

4. ?iaeono??ae?caoe?y oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie i?iaieoaaea i?iieneiaa
ae?iaieoeoai ia aenoaineaiee eiai ?icaeoie. I?iaaaeaiiy ?aeiino?oeoe?? ?
eai?oaeueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ia ?? oa?eoi??? cae?enithaaeinue aac /?oei
aeaaaeaieo ieai?a, ye? a oi?ioaaee iaoa??aeuei? ia?aaeoiiae aeey
caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa noni?euenoaa. Aea?aeaai? ?iaanoeoe?? a ?icaeoie
i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie ia ia?aaeaa/aee noai?aiiy oiia aeey aioo??oiuei?
no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae ae?iaieoeoaa. Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith
iioei?caoe?? i?ioean?a oi?aae?iiy i?iieneia?noth aoei aecia/aii
niaoe?ae?caoe?th ? eiioeaio?aoe?th ae?iaieoeoaa aac a?aooaaiiy aeoiie
a/aieo-aeiiii?no?a. Oaea no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa ? cina?aaeaeaiiy a
ca?eueoaieo ae?iaieoeoaao aaeeei? e?eueeino? niaoe?ae?no?a ia aeeeth/aea
aenoaineaiiai ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino?. Aoei ?aii?iaaii na?oiaee aeina?ae:
yeui ?aoi?ie ia noi?iaiaeaeoaaeenue aioo??oiueith no?oeoo?iith
ia?aaoaeiaith, e?a?ie ia iiaee aeeoe c ia?ei ceeaeaiiy, noai?eoe
aoaeoeaia ainiiaea?noai ? oa?eoe aei “eeoao” aeniei?icaeiooeo e?a?i.

5. Iecuee? oaiie aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy o i?iieneiaino? cia/iith i??ith
aeeeeeai? o?eaaeeie oa?i?iaie cae?eniaiiy ?iaanoeoe?eieo i?iaeo?a
aoae?aaeueieie i?aai?caoe?yie, oaoi?/iee ??aaiue ? iiooaeiino? yeeo ia
a?aeiia?aeaee aeiiaai IO?. Oea ? na?ae/aiiyi oiai, ui ieaie
eai?oaeueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ? aaaeaiiy ?aeiino?oeoe?? i?iieneiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa ii?iaeaeai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith iie?oeeith, yea ia
a?aeaeaaea i?aai?/iiai aca?iica’yceo i?ae ?iaanoeoe?eiith iie?oeeith ?
iioeiaeueiith no?oeoo?ith i?iieneiaino?.

6. Iaaaoeaiee aieea ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeinyaiaiue IOI a aaeoc?, ye?
i?aoeththoue ia caaacia/aiiy yeino? aeeooy ianaeaiiy, aoa aaaaoi a /iio
ni?iaieiaaiee iaiaaeaiith iaoiaeieia?/iith i?aeaioiaeith ea??aieo
eaae??a, ye? ae?iaeyee ? ao?ethaaee iaoeiai-oaoi?/io iie?oeeo, ?o
iacaeaoi?noth ona?aeiieoe, ui aeo?aoe ia iiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?e ?
/eiieeii, yeee i?enei?th? aeinyaiaiiy aeiiii?/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai,
aeaiia?ao?/iiai aoaeoo, noeioeth? ?icaeoie ethaenueeiai /eiieea,
aa?aioo? noaa?euei?noue noni?euenoaa a oe?eiio. Oaoiieia??, ye?
ai?iaaaeaeoaaeenue, ia iaoiiaeee io?eiaiiy ii?yae c aeiiii?/iei
nioe?aeueiiai aoaeoo, ia iaiaaeeee iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ae?? oaoi?ee ia
ethaeeio. ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia aeoeneoaaei ?ia?oiee?a c ae?iaieoeoaa, a
iaaiaee, aeiaaaei ca?eueoaiiy aeeai? neee. C oeeo i?e/ei o
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae oaoiieia?/i? oaeineiiaeaiiy, ui iia’ycai? c
?aeiino?oeoe??th ? ia?aica?i?iiyi i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie, ia ?icaeioee
niin?a ae?iaieoeoaa ia iniia? ?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?aoe? ? iaoei?ieeo
oaoiieia?e, ia ni?eyee iii?oiiio ca?eueoaiith caeiyoino? aeiiii?/ii
aeoeaieo a?iiaaeyi ia o?ce/iith, a ia?aaaaeii ?icoiiaith i?aoeath. Aiie
ia i?ecaaee aei iieaaoaiiy i?aoe? ethaeae, caa?aaee ?o/i? aaaee? ?
iaeieaae?o?eiaai? ?iaioe, iaaacia/i? oiiae i?aoe? cia/ii? /anoeie
i?aoe?aiee?a i?iieneiaino?, a oiio /ene? ? ae?iie.

7. Aeieia?caoe?y IOI ia noaea ia?aaeoiiaith ?ica’ycaiiy a Oe?a?i?
i?iaeai nioe?aeueiiai ? aeaiia?ao?/iiai ieaio. Oiiae aeieia?/ii? aaciaee
aenoaaee iaiao?aei?noue cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aei?noeiai ?oaaaeo ia oeyoo
noeo?eiiai ?icaeoeo ae?iaie/eo nee. A?aenooi?noue aoiai?oa?ii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca iane?aeee aoiiecaoe?? oa?eoi??? ?anioae?ee,
eai?oaeueiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo i?aei?e?inoa
aaeocae iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, /i?ii?, o?i?/ii?, aia?aaoe/ii? oa ?ioeo aeae?a
i?iieneiaino? aaea aei iaeiie/aiiy canoa??eeo aia?ai?ieeo iiooaeiinoae,
aacainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a ? eiiaeei, iaaaoeaiiai aieeao
ia aeiae?eey ? caei?ia’y ianaeaiiy.

8. A?aenooi?noue ae??ai? caeiiiaeaa/i? aace a Oe?a?i? aeeeth/aea
aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? NI, noai?aieo ia ?? oa?eoi???, a iai?yieo
?icaeoeo ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, i?aeiyooy oaoi?/iiai ? oaoiieia?/iiai
??aiy ae?iaieoeoaa.

9. Aaeocaaa nenoaia aeui?, na?aaeiuei? niaoe?aeueii? ina?oe, yea
caaacia/oaaea i?iieneia?noue eaae?aie, aiooaaea niaoe?ae?no?a, ui iiaee
i?aoethaaoe a oiiaao eiiaiaeii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? nenoaie. Ciaoe?iaiiy
ina?oe noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue a?aeaie?eaiiyi ?o ia ae?oai?yaei? ?iaioe,
aeeeeeaei nioe?aeueio iacaaeiaieai?noue cia/ii? /anoeie aeioneiee?a
o/aiaeo caeeaae?a. O na?aeiiino? oeo, ooi ae?iaeya ??oaiiy, ?
niaoe?ae?no?a, ye? ?o ni?eeiaee aeey aeeiiaiiy, aoei oyaiei, ui iaoeia?
ciaiiy oa ?ioi?iaoe?y ? ia o?eueee /eiieeii i?ioan?eiiai c?inoaiiy, a ?
oai?aoe/iith iniiaith i?ia?ano ae?iaieoeoaa. Oea iaeia c aieiaieo
i?e/ei, /iio ea??ai? eaae?e aeyaeeenue ia ia ??ai? no/anieo ciaiue,
?aii?oaaee na?oiaee aeina?ae c ieoaiue aeei?enoaiiy IOI aeey
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoeiai? i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?, aioo??oi?o ci?i o no?oeoo??
i?iieneiaiai ae?iaieoeoaa, oi?ioaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo i?aoe?aiee?a.
Ieneaiiy ea??aieo eaae??a on?o ??ai?a ia ni?yiiaoaaeinue ia aoiai?noe/io
ae?yeuei?noue, ona?aeiieaiiy eiiieaeniiai aieeao oaoiieia?e ia
aeiiii?/i? ?acoeueoaoe ? nioe?aeueii-iiaooia? oiiae.

10. Iaaeaiiy naiaiaee ae?iaie/ieeai o aeai?? oi?i i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe?
oeyoii eiiia?oaaiiy, aeoe?iioaaiiy ? i?aiaee i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoa
Oe?a?ie, a ae?yeueiino? a/aieo oa ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a o
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ? oai?/eo ia’?aeiaiiyo, anioe?aoe?yo, nithcao oa ?ioeo
oi?ioaaiiyo, ui caii/aoeiaaia iai?ee?ioe? 80-o ??., ii/aei
cae?enithaaoenue ia ca?aaee aeania i?eaaoecaoe??, a ca?aaee i?aoe?aiee?a
i?aei?e?inoa, ie?aieo a/aieo oa ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieo ?ia?oiee?a.
Aieiaiith ia?aaeoiiaith aeinyaiaiiy ae?iaie/ieeaie aeiiii?/iiai ?
nioe?aeueiiai c?inoaiiy noaa nioe?aeueiee eai?oae, yeee ca aaaaoi
aeanyoee?oue aoa ao?eaiee o eieaeoeai?e i?aoe? nioe?ae?noe/iiai
i?aei?e?inoaa. Ii/aoeii, oeaio?ii ia?aoai?aiue noaa i?aoe?aiee
i?aei?e?inoaa, iaoeiaaoeue, ?iaeaia?, a ia aeaniee. A?eueia ia?aiiy
o?oae?aieeaie oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy o aeaeyae? i?aiaee, eiiia?aoea?a
caaacia/oaaei aa?aio?? caa?aaeaiiy ca ieie ?iai/eo i?noeue, noaei iaeiei
?c aaaiieo cania?a aeinyaiaiiy aoaeoeaii? ?iaioe o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a ?
ethaeae ?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?aoe?. Oea ? aaaiiei a?aoiaioii ia i?aeo?eieo
oiai, ui ia aoai? ci?ie ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei aea?aeaaia, eiiia?aoeaia,
i?aiaeia oa ?io? oi?ie aeaniino? ia aaaeooue aei oiniaeaiiy, ii?ooaiiy
?aeiino? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee, ?? nioe?aeueii? ooieoe??. Oaeee
i?aeo?ae a?aeia?aaea? aaioi?noe/ia noaaeaiiy aea?aeaae aei nioe?aeueiiai
iaaeaaiiy, yeei ? noi?iiaaiee eieaeoea, ii?aeiaiiy i?aoe?aieea c
aeani?noth ? ?acoeueoaoaie eiai i?aoe?, ni?ey? i???ioaoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa
ia caaeiaieaiiy nioe?aeueieo iio?aa noni?euenoaa.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o ianooiieo ?iaioao:

1. Aania E.I. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann a i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu: iiuo
e i?iaeaiu ia?oeeiiai aeeyiey. — Oa?ueeia: Iniiaa, 1990. — 134 n.

2. A?nia E.I. Iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia iie?oeea a Oe?a?i?. Ieioea. No/ania.
Iaeaooi?. — Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1997. — 178 n.

3. A?nia E.I. ?noi??y iaoee ? oaoi?ee. C iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a aei e?ioey
aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy. — Oa?e?a: OAeIO, 1998. — 168 n.

4. A?nia E.I. Ia?o?eia ea??aieoeoai iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei i?ia?anii a
Oe?a?inuee?e ?N? // Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee aeo?iae. — 1986. — ?3. —
N.67-75.

5. A?nia E.I. Aeina?ae ?iaioe ia?oi?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?inueei? ?N? ii
i?aeaeuaiith yeino? i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe?? // Oe?a?inueeee ?noi?e/iee
aeo?iae. — 1987. — N.49-57.

6. A?nia E.I. Nioeeaeueiia ieaie?iaaiea o?oaeiauo eieeaeoeaia //
Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eenoie i ia?aaeiaii i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneii iiuoa.
— Aui.1. — Oa?ueeia, 1987. — 3 n.

7. Aania E.I., Iieiineee E.E. Iiiainiaiiue ?aaeei ?aaiou //
Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eenoie i ia?aaeiaii i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneii iiuoa.
— Aui.5. — Oa?ueeia, 1987. — 4 n.

8. Aania E.I. Ia?ano?ieea aac ianoa?a? // Iieeoeea e a?aiy. — 1991. — ?
15. — N.51-53.

9. Aania E.I., Oaceaaa E.E. Iaeioi?ua aii?inu iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
?acaeoey iauanoaa e i?iaeaiu eo aiieiuaiey // Aanoiee Oa?ueeianeiai
iieeoaoie/aneiai einoeoooa. — 1992. — ? 6. — N.90-98.

10. A?nia E.I., Eaeeiianueeee A.A., Iiaeieuenueeee I.E. Aei ieoaiiy i?i
aeaye? i??i?eoaoe Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae (iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? oa
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? aniaeoe) // A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai iie?oaoi?/iiai
?inoeoooo. — 1993. — ? 18. — N.98-108.

11. A?nia E.I. Iaoea ye oaeoi? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae //
A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai iie?oaoi?/iiai ?inoeoooo. — 1993. — ? 18. —
N.122-125.

12. A?nia E.I., Eaeeiianueeee A.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i aoaeoeai?noue aieeao
Eiiia?o?? Oe?a?ie ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee ?icaeoie o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a //
A?niee Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. — 1994. — ? 381. —
N.93-102.

13. A?nia E.I. Nioe?aeueii-aeaiia?ao?/i? i?iaeaie ina?oe ? oi?ioaaiiy
eoeueoo?e iieiae? a oiiaao iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? ?aaiethoe??. — A ca.:
?aa?iiaeueia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y «Iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie
aoiai?oa?ecaoe?? i?aeaioiaee niaoe?ae?no?a», 20-21 ea?oiy 1994 ?ieo. —
Oa?e?a: Oa?e?anueeee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? A.N.Neiai?iaee,
1994. — N.44-47.

14. Aania E.I. Auaeathueeny eiino?oeoi? niaaoneiai oaieino?iaiey. — A
na.: Aunieea oaoiieiaee a iaoeiino?iaiee. Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?.
iao/i.-i?aeo. eiio., 28 naioya?y — 2 ieoya?y 1994 a. — Oa?ueeia: OAIO,
1994. — N.8-10.

15. Aania E.I. E aii?ino i nicaeaiee aiaiii-yeiiiie/aneie iiue no?aiu a
aiaeu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu: acaeyae n 90-o aiaeia. — A na.:
Aeooaeueiua aii?inu Aaeeeie Ioa/anoaaiiie aieiu. — Oa?ueeia: OAO, 1995.
— N.40-49.

16. Aania E.I., Caiieiaa A.E., Eaeeiianeee A.A. Iieiaeaaeue e i?iaeaiu
ia?aciaaoaeueiiai o?iaiy eaae?ia Oe?aeiu: nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneea
aniaeou. — A na.: Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey ee/iinoe. —
Oa?ueeia, 1995. — N.348-357.

17. A?nia E.I. ?noi?e/ia iaoea Oe?a?ie: aeaye? i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiue.
A ca.: Oe?a?iiciaanoai. ??? I?aeia?iaeiee Eiia?an Oe?a?i?no?a. Oa?e?a,
26-29 na?iiy 1996 ?. — E.: I?aeia?iaeia Anioe?aoe?y Oe?a?i?no?a:
?inoeooo Oe?a?iiciaanoaa, 1997. — N.188-193.

18. Aania E.I. Iao/ii-oaoie/aneay ?aaiethoeey e ie?oaeathuee ie?. A na.
Enoi?ey iaoee e oaoieee / Ii?icia A.A., Ieeieaaiei A.E. e ae?. —
Oa?ueeia: OAIO, 1997. — N.128-142.

19. A?nia E.I., Caiieiaa A.E. Aaca nioe?aeueii? noa?e, eoeueoo?e
aea?aeaae. — A ca: Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeiiai neiiic?oio “Iaoea ?
oaoiieia?? a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee: i?iaeaie eiia?oe?ae?caoe??,
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa oa ?iiiaaoe?eiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo”. (Ee?anueeee neiiic?oi
c iaoeiaciaanoaa oa iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy. 16-19 aeiaoiy 1996
?.). — E., 1997. — N.110-111.

20. A?nia E.I. Iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia iie?oeea a Oe?a?i?. A ca.: Iaoea ?
ina?oa. Ei.1. — E.: O?auaoee, 1997. — N.9-12.

A ?iaioao, ye? iaienai? caeiaoaa/ai o ni?aaaoi?noa?, eiio iaeaaeaoue
ie?ai? ocaaaeueiaiiy, aeniiaee.

A?nia E.I. Oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie
o 70-80-? ?iee: o?iee ?noi???. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.07 — ?noi??y iaoee ? oaoi?ee. — Oeaio?
aeine?aeaeaiue iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai iioaioe?aeo oa ?noi??? iaoee ?iai?
A.I.Aeia?iaa IAI Oe?a?ie. — Ee?a, 1999.

A ?noi?e/iiio aeine?aeaeai? aena?oeaii oaiaeaioe?? oa i??i?eoaoe
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie. Iieacaii iniaeeaino?
oi?aae?inueei? ooieoe?? iaoee, ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao
iie?oe/ii? ? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie N?N?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Oe?a?ia, iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia iie?oeea, iaoea,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee iioaioe?ae, oi?aae?iiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/iei ?icaeoeii,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia i?ia?aia, i?iieneia?noue, ?iiiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue,
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie.

Besov L.M. The managment of scientific and technological development of
the Ukrainian industry in 70–80: The lessons of history. — Manuscript.

Thesis for a Doctor’s degree by speciality 07.00.07 — History of Science
and technics. — G.M.Dobrov’s Centre of Research on Scientific and
Technological Potential and History of Science, National Academy of
Science of Ukraine. — Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis includes the research of the trends and priorities of the
scientific and technological development of the Ukrainian industry and
analyses the peculiarities of the management function of science and the
innovation activity in the conditions of political and economic system
of the USSR.

Key words: Ukraine, scientific and technical policy, science, scientific
and technological potential, management of scientific and technological
development, scientific and technological ?rigram, industry, innovation
activity, social and economic development.

Aania E.I. Oi?aaeaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneei ?acaeoeai i?iiuoeaiiinoe
Oe?aeiu a 70-80-a aiaeu: o?iee enoi?ee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie aeieoi?a enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.07 — Enoi?ey iaoee e oaoieee. Oeaio? enneaaeiaaiee
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai iioaioeeaea e enoi?ee iaoee eiaie A.I.Aeia?iaa IAI
Oe?aeiu. — Eeaa, 1999.

A enoi?e/aneii enneaaeiaaiee inaauaiu oaiaeaioeee e i?ei?eoaou
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe Oe?aeiu. Iieacaiu
oa?aeoa?iua iniaaiiinoe oi?aaeai/aneie ooieoeee iaoee, eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneie e iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu NNN?.

?ane?uou i?eioeeiu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaoee e oi?aaeaiey
iao/ii-oaoie/aneei ?acaeoeai a oneiaeyo ieaiiaie yeiiiieee.
I?ineaaeeaaaony ca?iaeaeaiea e iniaaiiinoe nenoaiu oeaio?aeeciaaiiai
oi?aaeaiey yoei i?ioeannii. Iieacaii, ii/aio ieaiiaue iaoaieci
oi?aaeaiey iaoeie a?e e caiicaeaeiio iaiiaeaieth oaoiieiaee, oaoieee e
iai?oaeiaaiey. Aeieacaii, /oi nenoaia oi?aaeaiey noa?ie
iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey ieacaeanue ianinoiyoaeueiie nicaeaaaoue
oneiaey aeey ooaa?aeaeaiey iao/ii-oaoie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eae iniiau
yeiiiie/aneiai i?ei?eoaoa.

Inaauaiu iiiuoee caiaieoue ae?noeea aaeieieno?aoeaiua iaoiaeu oi?aaeaiey
iaoeie yeiiiie/aneeie, aiaae?eoue i?ia?aiiii-oeaeaaie i?eioeei
ieaie?iaaiey e oi?aaeaiey, i?aiaeieaoue iaaino?aaiaaiiinoue
i?iiuoeaiiinoueth iao/iie i?iaeoeoeee. Ionoaaaiea o?iaiy iaoei?ieinoe
i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa Oe?aeiu io o?iaiy ?acaeouo no?ai, eae
iieacaei enneaaeiaaiea, ii?iaeaeaii iaoiaieai naiaa?aiaiii
eniieueciaaoue eiathueany caaeaeu iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo iiaoanoa.

Enneaaeiaaiea iiaeoaa?aeaeaao ioeai/iinoue i?ei?eoaoia ia
i?aeiouanoaaiiia ?acaeoea oyaeaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ?ani?aaeaeaiea
?ano?nia a oua?a a?aaeaeaineei io?aneyi. Iiaeoaa?aeaeaii, /oi iieeoeea
ianuuaiey oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie iiuiinoyie eiaea
iai?aaeaiiinoue ia aeinoeaeaiea yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae aac
i?iaiice?iaaiey nioeeaeueiiai yooaeoa. I?ei?eoaou ainoaea?noaaiiuo
eiaanoeoeee ia iieo/eee iai?aaeaiiinoe ia nioeeaeueiua iio?aaiinoe e
i?iaeaiu, nicaeaiea i?ia?anneaiuo oaoiieiaee, iaania/eaathueo oneiaey
io?aneyi i?iiuoeaiiinoe ?aaioaoue ia eo oaeiaeaoai?aiea e ?ac?aoaiea.

Aaaeiaeoae iniaaiiinoueth enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea noaei iaiiaeaiea
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneie aacu eeth/aauo naeoi?ia eiaeono?ee Oe?aeiu.
Iao/ii iaiainiiaaiiua ieaiu eiaeono?eaeecaoeee a? oa??eoi?ee
niinianoaiaaee eiee/anoaaiiiio ia?aueaaieth e iaeiieaieth oaoiieiaee n
nio?aiaieai oiiaei-, iaoa?eaei- e yi?ai?ieinoe i?iecaiaenoaa,
i?iaioee?iaaee yenoaineaiia ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ia?aueaaiea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae a ioaeaeueiuo io?aneyo ia nii?iaiaeaeaeinue
i?iaiice?iaaieai yeieiai-yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueii-aeaiia?aoe/aneie
yooaeoeaiinoe. Cao?aoiay iiaeaeue ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaoneiaeea
oaeoaeaiea yeieiae/aneiai e?ecena. Aeieacaia ia?aaeueiinoue no?aieaiey
i?aiaeieaoue yeieiae/aneee e?ecen o?aaeeoeeiiiuie iaoiaeaie ia ianoiii
o?iaia. I/aaeaeiui yaeyaony auaiae i oii, /oi a iaoiaeieiae/aneeo
iiaeoiaeao e i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe eaae?u anao o?iaiae ia
iniciaaaee iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeaeaoue acaeiinaycue yeiiiie/aneeo,
nioeeaeueiuo, yeieiae/aneeo e iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo oaeoi?ia.

?ai?aaiecaoeey oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoueth a 70-80-a
aa. ia eiaea iai?aaeaiiinoe ia eciaiaiey, niiniaiua noeioee?iaaoue a?
iio?aaiinoue e aini?eyoeth iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee. Yoa nenoaia
ia i?iyaeea aeaeinoe e iia?aoeaiiio aeaeieciaiaieth aioo?aiiae
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie no?oeoo?u a oneiaeyo iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna.
Aiaea/aiea a aeiaaeueioth IO? aeaeia i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iaania/eaathueo
?ac?aaioeo e auione oe?ieiai niaeo?a iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey aeey
a?aaeaeaineeo io?aneae ia noaei aeiieie?othuei i?eioeeiii i?iiuoeaiiiai
?acaeoey. E oaeei io?aneyi ioianaii e?aeoth e ieuaaoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue,
naeueneia oicyenoai. Inaauaii ia?aua oaae a aeayoaeueiinoe a?aiaeiuo,
aeoeeiia?iuo, eiiia?aoeaiuo oi?ie?iaaiee, nioeeaeueiua iineaaenoaey eo
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Iieacaii, ii/aio niaianoiua n ca?oaaaeiuie ia?oi??aie
i?aaei?eyoey a Oe?aeia ieacaeenue iayooaeoeaiuie a iai?aaeaiee ?acaeoey
eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia.

?ane?uoa nioeeaeueiay ooieoeey oi?aaeai/aneeo, eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneeo
?aaioieeia e ?aai/eo ianniauo i?ioannee. Iaiauaieai enoi/ieeia e aeaiiuo
nioeeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee iieacaii, ianeieueei eo i?ioanneiiaeueiay
iiaeaioiaea niioaaonoaiaaea iio?aaiinoyi i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
yoaia IO?. Ia yoie iniiaa aeieacaii, /oi nenoaia ia?aciaaiey oi?ie?oao
?aaioieea a niioaaonoaee n iio?aaiinoyie IOI, i?ieeaaeuaaao iooue e
iauae e i?ioanneiiaeueiie eoeueoo?a, ?acaeoeth niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa ia
aaca eioaeeaeooaeueiiai o?oaea e iaoei?ieeo oaoiieiaee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Oe?aeia, iao/ii-oaoie/aneay iieeoeea, iaoea,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneee iioaioeeae, oi?aaeaiea iao/ii-oaoie/aneei ?acaeoeai,
iao/ii-oaoie/aneay i?ia?aiia, i?iiuoeaiiinoue, eiiiaaoeeiiiay
aeayoaeueiinoue, nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea.

I?aei. aei ae?oeo 9.06.1999 ?. Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai??

Oi. ae?oe. a?e. 2,0. Oe?aae 100. Cai. ?

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