I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IEEUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI?
?AAIA O?AIEA

Oeaa?/oe Ethaeieea Ieaenaiae??aia

OAeE 338.075 (477)

OI?AAE?IIss ?IIIAAOe?ssIE

A IA?AO?AeI?E AEIIII?Oe? OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue: 08.02.03 – i?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy,

ieaioaaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?eith

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aieeinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? Ean?
Oe?a?iee

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? aeiiii?/iao iaoe, i?ioani? Eaaoo?i Aaneeue
Aeieo?iae/, Aieeinueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee, i?i?aeoi?, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e o?iain?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iiieaanueea
AEaiia Aanee?aia, Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”,
eaoaae?a oai?aoe/ii? aeiiii?ee oa aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie

-eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Nooae Ieueaa ?aaai?aia,
Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, eaoaae?a
aeiiii?ee i?aei?e?inoaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Oa?iii?euenueea aeaaeai?y ia?iaeiiai
ainiiaea?noaa, eaoaae?a i?iaiicoaaiiy oa aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
aeiiii?ee

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 25 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 15-30 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.051.01 a Euea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith: 290000, i.
Euea?a, aoe.Naiaiaee, 18, aoae 115.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?eoaoo ?iai? ?aaia o?aiea ca aae?anith: 290000, i.
Euea?a, aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 24 ” ea?oiy 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani?
Iai/eoei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie

O?ainoi?iaoe?y aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ia ?eieia? canaaee ? aaaaoianiaeoiith
i?iaeaiith. Ia?inoath/a a?aenoaaaiiy aeiiii?ei — ae?iaie/eo oa
nioe?aeueii — aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a iaoi? aea?aeaae a?ae a?eueoino?
e?a?i na?oo iaoiiaeei aecia/aiiy i??i?eoaoiino? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeyoo
?icaeoeo e?a?ie. Aaeaea ?iiiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue iin?aea? aaaeeeaa
i?noea ia eeoa o eiieo?aioiiio ?eieiaiio na?aaeiaeu?, aea e a?ae?a?a?
eeth/iao ?ieue a aeiiii?/iiio ? nioe?aeueiiio i?ia?an? anueiai
noni?euenoaa. Naia oaeoi? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ni?e/eiea no??iea
aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy a?eueoino? e?a?i na?oo, a i?aeo?eiaiiy aeniei?
?iiiaaoe?eii? aeoeaiino? aeicaiey? ?i ia ao?a/aoe nai?o eiieo?aioieo
ia?aaaa.

O na?oia?e aeiiii?/i?e aeoioe? i?iaeaia iiaiaaaaeaiue ?icaeyaea?oueny c
oi/ee ci?o aoaeoeaiiai, i???ioiaaiiai ia i?eaooie oi?aae?iiy
?iiiaaoe?yie ia i?aei?e?inoaao. Ca inoaii? ?iee i?aeoe/ii a on?o
i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao na?oo c??n ?ioa?an aei oi?aae?iiy
?iiiaaoe?eieie i?ioeanaie. Aeeiai?ea iaoeiai — oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano a
no/anieo oiiaao i?ecaiaeeoue aei oaeeo aeeaieeo ci?i, ui ianeaia,
niia?eueiaia ?aaeoe?y ia ?icaeoie iaoee ? oaoi?ee ? aeeeeeai? oeei
?icaeoeii aeiiae aei ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa icia/athoue ia?inoath/a
a?aenoaaaiiy. Oiio caaaeaiiyi aoaeoeaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeiia aooe
iino?eia i???ioaoe?y ia iie?ioaiiy yeino? i?iaeoeoe??, nai?/anio ??
cai?io, i?i?i?caoe?th caian?a oiaa?ii — iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a,
aio/e?noue ? iia?euei?noue oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a. Uia aeinyaiooe ??aiy
ae?iaieoeoaa c oaeeie ia?aiao?aie, i?aei?e?inoaai iaiao?aeii iino?eii
ai?iaaaeaeoaaoe iiaaoe??, cae?enithaaoe aaeaioiaai? aei ?eieiaeo oiia
oaoi?ei — oaoiieia?/i? oa ?iiiaaoe?ei? ia?aoai?aiiy.

I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie ?eieiaiai oeio a
Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny iia?eueii aiane?aeie o?oaeiiu?a ia?ao?aeiiai
ia??iaeo, c iaei??? noi?iie, ? neeaaeiino? naiiai i?ioeano i?aai?caoe??
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaaoe?e — c ?ioi?. Oea iiynith?oueny ? ia?ic?iaeai?noth
iaoiaeee, ? iaaeineiiae?noth i?aaiai?, o?iainiai? e iiaeaoeiai? aac
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, ui coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aea/aiiy ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo noaiiaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeyoo ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie oa ?ic?iaee iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei aeoea?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a ia i?aei?e?inoaao.

Noai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie

Nueiaiaei? a?o/eciyi? aeiiii?noe i?iaiaeyoue aeineoue cia/i?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo; ?nio? ?yae ia?iaie c
iae?iaeiiii?/ii? oai??? oaoiieia?/ieo ci?i oa i?eeeaaeiiai
?iiiaaoe?eiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo. Iaeiae oe?e?nii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
?iiiaaoe?yie, yea ii?aeioaaea a iae?i- ? i?e?ioai??th ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
?icaeoeo iiee ui ia noai?aii. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ye? aeeiiai? a ?aieao
aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, i?enay/ai? ae??oaiith ?yaeo oai?aoe/ieo ?
i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo ia?aoai?aiue a
Oe?a?i? c iaoith aeaaaeaiiy c e?ece oa caaacia/aiiy iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa, oiaoi i?iaeaiai, ye?
aeieeathoue ia i?e?i??ai?, aea ? iniiaith ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeyoo
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie a oe?eiio.

Iaeiiai?oa oe? i?iaeaie ?icaeyaeathoueny o ioae?eaoe?yo cao?aeieo
aeiiii?no?a. Aei iaea?aeii?oeo niaoe?ae?no?a c aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee
iiaeia a?aeianoe: ?.Ainiooa, I.Ae?oea?a, Ae.Naoaea, ?.Oi??anoa?a,
A.Iaino?eaea, A. Oa?nna oa ?iueo. Na?aae a?o/eciyieo a/aieo —
aeiiii?no?a, ye? caeiathoueny aeine?aeaeaiiyi aeaii? i?iaeaie, ne?ae
aeae?eeoe: I.Ae?iiaa, I.Aiioo, A.Aiae?iuoea, TH.Aaaeaea, E.Aac/aniiai,
?.Aieea, ?.Aocueei, A.A?icao?aa, E.Caa?acueeo, ?.?aaiooa, I.Ca??/i?aa,
A.*aaaiiaa, A.*e?eiaa, A.Oa?a oa ?ioeo.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiaii a ?aieao Aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai?
oaie “Iieaoa i?aoe? ye noeioethaaiiy ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee:
i?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy iieaoe i?aoe? a Oe?a?i?” ? 0198U000405 a aniaeo?
noeioethth/iai aoaeoo ?iiiaaoe?e.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? anoaiiaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ?
iaoai?ci?a aeoea?caoe?? oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee.

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? a ?iaio? iaoe caaacia/oaaeinue oeyoii ae??oaiiy
ianooiieo caaaeaiue:

— anoaiiaeaiiy nooiino? ?iiiaaoe?e oa iniaeeaino? ?aae?caoe??
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee;

— aeyaeaiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy e?eoa???a aoaeoeaiino? oi?aae?iiy
?iiiaaoe?yie;

— ocaaaeueiaiiy iniaeeainoae oi?aae?iiiy ?iiiaaoe?yie a oiiaao
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee;

— i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co noaio oa ?eceeiaino? ?iiiaaoe?e a Oe?a?i?;

— aeyaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eieie aeo?aoaie;

— nenoaiaoecaoe?? /eiiee?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a;

— ?ic?iaee o?iainiai-aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio caaacia/aiiy ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?.

I?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oi?aae?inuee? ooieoe??, ye? ni?yiiaai? ia
aeoea?caoe?th oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.
Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?iiiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoa,
caeiiii??iino? ?? cae?eniaiiy a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy

Oai?aoe/iith oa iaoiaee/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaee no/ania aeiiii?/ia oai??y, iie?oaeiiii?y, aeinyaiaiiy iaoe: oai???
oi?aae?iiy, e?aa?iaoeee, oai??? aeine?aeaeaiiy iia?aoe?e; caeiie Oe?a?ie
c ieoaiue aeiiii?/ii? ?aoi?ie, Oeace oa ?icii?yaeaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa,
iinoaiiae Aa?oiaii? ?aaee oa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, noaiaea?oe
Oe?a?ie.

?ino?oiaioe aeine?aeaeaiiue: nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, noaoenoe/iee aiae?c,
a?oioaaiiy oa ?aiaeoaaiiy, ?ino?oiaioe aeiiiiao?eee.

Noaoenoe/iei aeaea?aeii ?ioi?iaoe??, yea aeei?enoiaoaaeanue a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, noaee aeine?aeaeaiiy Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo
noaoenoeee oa a?aeae?eaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, aeai? a?aeae?eo ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, Aea?aeaaiiai
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai aaainoaa Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa o ni?aaao iaoee ?
oaoiieia?e, Aea?aeaaiiai ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oiiaeo, ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiue Na?oiaiai Aaieo oa I?aeia?iaeiiai Aaethoiiai Oiiaeo.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

Iia? iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, cai?iiiiiaai?
caeiaoaa/ai iniaenoi, iieyaathoue o ianooiiiio:

— ?ic?iaeaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei iiaoaeiae i?aai?caoe?eii? iiaeae?
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ia i?iieneiaiio i?aei?e?inoa? a ?eieiaeo
oiiaao ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo, yeee a?oioo?oueny ia nenoai?
aca?iica’yce?a i?ae ae?iaieeii ?iiiaaoe?? (ia’?eo oi?aae?iiy) ?
aeuanoiy/i? oi?aaeyth/i? i?aenenoaie (aaeocue, aea?aeaaa a oe?eiio), ui
i?iyaey?oueny /a?ac ocaiaeaeai?noue ?ioa?an?a ia’?eoo ? noa’?eoo
oi?aae?iiy, a oaeiae ?eie?a i?aoe? oa oaeoi??a ae?iaieoeoaa,
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai i?iaeoeoo, ye aeaea?aea ?ano?n?a aeey ae?iaieoeoaa
?iiiaaoe??, oa ?eieo aioiai? i?iaeoeoe?? – ye niiaeeaa/a ?iiiaaoe??;

— noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? /eiieee i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a oa oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii, ui a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?
Oe?a?ie iaea?eueo nooo?aee aieea ia aoaeoeai?noue ?iiiaaoe?e ni?e/eiy?
oe?ia ? ?eceeia?noue; ?ic?iaeaii iniiai? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
ciaioaiith ?eceeo ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a ? anoaiiaeaiith oe?ie ia
?iiiaaoe?eio i?iaeoeoe?th, i?e ye?e iaea?eueo iiaii ocaiaeaeothoueny
oe?iia? ?ioa?ane ae?iaiee?a oa niiaeeaa/?a;

— anoaiiaeaii iniiai? caeiiii??iino? oi?ioaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo aeo?ao
i?aei?e?inoaa oa aecia/aii ?o /aniai-i?inoi?iao no?oeoo?o, yea aeicaiey?
noi?ioaaoe ?aoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo o?iainoaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo aeo?ao ?c
aeanieo oa caeo/aieo aeaea?ae;

— aecia/aii ?ieue oa i?noea aea?aeaae o caaacia/aii? ?iiiaaoe?eii?
aeoeaiino? noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy, yea iieyaa? a i?aeaeuaii?
?iiiaaoe?eiiai ni?eeiyooy aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie oeyoii oi?ioaaiiy
iiaeaoeiaeo ? o?iainiaeo noeioe?a, ui ia?o ca ana ni?yiiaai? ia
ae?iaiee?a iaoeii?noei? i?iaeoeoe??, oa cae?eniaiiy caoiae?a ii
aea?aeaai?e i?aeo?eioe? niiaeeaa/?a ?iiiaaoe?e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a

A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeieia?/iee i?aeo?ae aei aioee?eciaiai
oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie, iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c ?ic?aooieo ?iiiaaoe?eieo aeo?ao oa caoiaee ii onoiaiith
aai ciaioaiith ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?eceeo. ?aae?caoe?y ?ic?iaeaieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e iiaeeeaa ye ia ??ai? ie?aiiai i?aei?e?inoaa, oae ? ia
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaiiio ??ai?. ?o ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ni?eyoeia iie?auaiith
o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? o noa?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa.

Noi?ioeueiaai? a aeena?oaoe?? i?iiiceoe?? ai?iaaaeaeai? Aieeinueeei
a?aeae?eaiiyi Aea?aeaaiiai ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oiiaeo c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? a?aeai?o ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a aeey o?iainoaaiiy, a oaeiae
aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? “Ei?ioeino?ieiai? i?ia?aie ?iaanoeoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? Aieeinueei? iaeano? (ia ia??iae 1998 – 2000?ie?a)”.

Io?eiai? oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee oa iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aeei?enoai? o
iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?, cie?aia i?e aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a “?iaanoeoe?eia
ae?yeuei?noue”, “O?iainiaee iaiaaeaeiaio” oa niaoeeo?no “Iniiae
aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy” ia aeiiii?/iiio oaeoeueoao? Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a

On? iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, aeeeaaeai? o aeena?oaoe??, io?eiai? aaoi?ii
iniaenoi. C iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, iioae?eiaaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?, a ?iaio?
aeei?enoai? eeoa o? ?aea? oa iieiaeaiiy, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii iniaenoi?
?iaioe caeiaoaa/a. Eiie?aoiee aianie caeiaoaa/a a oe?e i?aoe? aeacaiee a
aaoi?aoa?ao? a ia?ae?eo iniiaieo ioae?eaoe?e ii oai? aeena?oaoe??.

Ai?iaaoe?y aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? oai?aoe/i? aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aoee aeeeaaeai? ia
I?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? c i?iaeai no?aooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?, i?iaaaeai?e
a Ee?a? o 1996 ?ioe?, XLII iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei –
aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ? nooaeaio?a Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?eneoaoo, i?iaaaeai?e o 1996?ioe?, Anaoe?a?inueeeo eiioa?aioe?yo
“?aoi?ia o?iainiai – e?aaeeoii? nenoaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee”,
i?iaaaeaieo o Aieeinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee a
o?aai? 1997 ? 1998?ieao, ?anioae?eainuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie
?ioaa?aoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie o ?a?iiaenueea ni?aoiaa?enoai”,
i?iaaaeai?e o i.Oa?iiiie? o 1998 ?ioe?, iaoeiai – iaoiaee/ieo nai?ia?ao
eaoaae?e “O?iain?a” Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Ioae?eaoe??

Ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o ?icae?e? iaa/aeueiiai
iin?aieea aeey nooaeaio?a aeiiii?/ieo niaoe?aeueiinoae, aeanyoe noaooyo
caaaeueiei ianyaii 3,0 ae?oe.a?e.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a.

Ianya aeena?oaoe?? – 155 noi??iie ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo. ?iaioa i?noeoue
10 oaaeeoeue ? 15 ?enoie?a (a?ao?e?a, noai), 10 aeiaeaoe?a, nieneo
e?oa?aoo?e ?c 193 aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

Ia?oee ?icae?e ?iaioe “Aeiiii?/ia i?e?iaea ?iiiaaoe?e oa ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo” i?enay/aii ?ice?eooth
oai?aoe/ieo iniia, noo? oa i?eioeei?a iiaiaaaaeaiue, ?iiiaaoe?e,
?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, i?iaiae?ciaaii ? ocaaaeueiaii oai?aoe/i? oa
iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeuei?no?, aec/a/aii nooue
aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?e. Aaoi? i?aee?aneth?, ui ?iiiaaoe?eia
ae?yeuei?noue — neeaaeia, aaaaoiieaiiaa iiiyooy, yea i?noeoue a nia?
??ci? i?aeoiaee.

O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaii, ui ?iiiaaoe?y – oea
i?ioean ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aoaeue-yei? iiaaoe?? aai iiaiaaaaeaiiy, iaoith
yeiai ? caaacia/aiiy iio?aa aeiiii?ee o iiaiaaaaeaiiyo ye aeiiii?/ieo
aeaaao, iaiao?aeieo aeey ?? ?icaeoeo. Aeey caaacia/aiiy ?iiiaaoe?e
iaiao?aei? a?aeiia?aei? ?ano?ne: oai?oe? ?iiiaaoe?e, caeaoi?
noai?thaaoe, iiaea?i?ciaoaaoe, oaeineiiaethaaoe, oa eai?oae, yeee
caaacia/oaaa ae oiiae oai?/i? i?aoe?. Oaeoe/ii ?iiiaaoe?y i?aaenoaaey?
niaith ?aoe?iiaeueiee aea?? i?ae ??cieie aa??aioaie iie?auaiiy
“oaoiieia?? i?eaooeo”.

??ciia?/ia eeaneo?eaoe?y ?iiiaaoe?e ni?ey? e?auiio ?icoi?iith noo?
aeaiiai yaeua. Ca nooiaiai iiaecie ?iiiaaoe?? iiae?eythoue ia: aacia?,
ye? ?aae?cothoue e?oii? aeiaoiaee ? noathoue iniiaith oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo
iieie?iue ? iai?yie?a ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee; iie?iooth/?, ye? ?aae?cothoue
ae??ai? ? na?aaei? aeiaoiaee ? ia?aaaaeathoue ia noaae?? noaa?eueiiai
?icaeoeo iaoeiai – oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano oa inaaaei?iiiaaoe??, ye?
ni?yiiaai? ia /anoeiaa iie?auaiiy canoa??eeo iieie?iue oaoi?ee ?
oaoiieia?? ? i?eioeeiiai ia ci?iththoue oaoi?ei – aeiiii?/iee ??aaiue
ae?iaieoeoaa. A?aei?iiith ?enith aeaieo ?iiiaaoe?e ? iaeneiaeueii
iiaeeea? cia/aiiy ?o oaoiieia?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?ae?a:
cia/aiiy a?aeiia?aeii ooieoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a ia’?eoo oa aaee/eie
i?eaooeo, ui caaacia/o? aeaia ?iiiaaoe?y. A aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo??
iiiyooy oaoiieia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo ? a?eueo aeine?aeaeaiei, aaee/eio ae
aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?aeo, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, c?o/ii ?ic?aoiaoaaoe c
aeei?enoaiiyi eaoaai??? aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?iiiaaoe?? (?en.1).

A?aeiia?aeii aei ?en.1, aeiiii?/iee iioaioe?ae iiaeia ?ic?aooaaoe ca
oi?ioeith:

AI = S2 — S1

aai wmetafile8? ??E???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  A
???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy? ??B?? ???&? ?MathType??a????uAy??????
Eiai aaee/eia caeaaeeoue a?ae aeo?ao ia ?aae?caoe?th iiaaoe?? (S1) oa
ia’?io i?iaeaaeo iiaiaaaaeaiiy ( e?eaa W (t)), i?e /iio:

iao S2 = min S1 wmetafile8? ???????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????AyyyH???`??E?? ???&? ?MathType??
????u?th??????

?en.1 Noaia aeeoo?aiai oeeeeo ?iiiaaoe??: O1O2 – ?ic?iaea ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaaoe??; O2O3 – aoai ?inoo; O3O4 – aoai c??eino?; O4O5 –
aoai iane/aiiy;

O5O6 – aoai niaaeo

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ca oa?aeoa?ii aeei?enoaiiy iaea?eueoi?
oaaae iio?aaothoue i?iaeoeoia? ?iiiaaoe?? ? oaoiieia?/i? ye /anoeiaee
aeiaaeie i?iaeoeoiaeo. Oea iia’ycaii ?c iaaeineiiae?noth no?oeoo?e
ae?iaieoeoaa yea i?eaaea aei ia?aein?a o ae??oaii? i?iaeai niiaeeaaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo aeaa a iaoiio noni?euenoa?

Ca?aeii ?c aeaniith i?e?iaeith, ?iiiaaoe?? aeaiaeyoue aeiiii?/io nenoaio
?c a??aiiaaaeaiiai noaio, ci?iththoue ?? i?inoi?ia? oa ooieoe?iiaeuei?
ca’ycee, oiio aenooiathoue o ?ie? aeanoaa?e?caoi?a ?eoi?/ii
ooieoe?iioth/i? aeiiii?/ii? iaeeieoe?. Oe??th ianoaaeiith ?
iiynith?oueny a?ae/oaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e o ae?iaie/iio na?aaeiaeu? oa
?iiiaaoe?eia ?ia?oi?noue noa’?eo?a ainiiaea?thaaiiy. E??i oiai iiaaoe?y
iiaeiia i?aai?/ii aeeoeny a na?aaeiaeua aeei?enoaiiy, a i?aai?caoe?eia
nenoaia iiaeiia a?aeiiaeoe naith no?ee?noue ? iiaeeea?noue
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aac iaiaaeaiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaiaaaeaiiy. Iiaeieaiiy
aeae?eaieo i?ioe??/ i?ae ooieoe?iioaaiiyi ? ?icaeoeii aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie – caaaeaiiy aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy.

sse?noue oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie aecia/a?oueny /a?ac ?o aoaeoeai?noue.
Aeena?oaio aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui an? ?acoeueoaoe ?aae?caoe??
iiaiaaaaeaiue , a?aoiaoth/e ?o a?aei?iiino? a?aeiinyoue aei iaeiiai ?c
/ioe?ueio aeae?a aoaeoo: iaoeiai — oaoi?/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai,
nioe?aeueiiai ? aeieia?/iiai. An? aeae?eai? aeaee aoaeoo a aeaye?e i???
iiaeooue aooe ae?aaeai? /a?ac nenoaio aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a, oiio a
?iaio? iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny naia aeiiii?/i?e ioe?ioe?
aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. A yeino? iniiaieo e?eoa???a
?ic?aooieo i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe aaniethoiee (?ioaa?aeueiee
i?eaooie) ? a?aeiini? (?iaeaen ?aioaaaeueiino? ?iiiaaoe?e, oa?i?i
ieoiiino?) iieacieee.

Aeo?aoe, ye? eaeooue ia ?iiiaaoe?eiee i?ioean, ae?eyoueny ia: aeo?aoe ia
iaoeiai — aeine?aei? ? aeine?aeieoeueei — eiino?oeoi?nuee? ?iaioe
(IAeAeE?), ae?iaieoeoai oa ?icai?oaiiy iiaiaaaaeaiue, aenieoaoaoe?ei?
aeo?aoe. Aoaeue — yea ?iiiaaoe?y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aecia/aiei
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ia’?io aeo?ao ia eiaeai aoai ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?ioeano.
Aeo?aoe ia IAeAeE? oa ae?iaieoeoai ? ?icai?oaiiy iiaiaaaaeaiiy a
aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ia’?aeiothoueny o eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy o
caaacia/aiiy aeeiiaiiy iiaaoe??th iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue, oiae? ye
aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe — oea iioi/i? aeo?aoe ia caaacia/aiiy ae?eiaiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy iiaiaaaaeaiiy ia i?ioyc? anueiai oa?i?io eiai neoaeae.
Aeae?eaiiy iioi/ieo aeo?ao a ie?aio eaoaai??th aea? iiaeeea?noue a?eueo
oi/ii iia’ycaoe aaee/eio aoaeoeaiino? iiaiaaaaeaiiy a oe?eiio ?c
e?euee?noth ? aeo?aoaie ia ie?ai? aeaiaioe, ui aoiaeyoue a iueiai.

Oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie ia i?aei?e?inoaao neeaaeiee ? aaaaoia?aiiee
i?ioean. Aeey aoaeoeaii? ?aae?caoe?? oi?aae?inueeiai ??oaiiy iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe an? iniaeeaino? i?io?eaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a — oeueiio
ni?ey? iiaoaeiaaia i?aai?caoe?eia iiaeaeue ae?iaie/i? nenoaie a oiiaao
?iiiaaoe?eii? no?aoaa?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo (?en.2). A aeai?e
iiaeae? ?iiiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue ?icaeyaea?oueny ye i?ioeane a
noa’?eo? oi?aae?iiy. Aoiaeaie a oeth i?aenenoaio ? iio?e ?ano?n?a (Oo),
iaiao?aeiee aeey caaacia/aiiy ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy: ethaenuee? ?ano?ne ?
eai?oae. Aeoiaeaie oe??? i?aenenoaie aoaeooue oi?aae?inuee? ??oaiiy
(OAe) c ieoaiue

?en. 2. I?aai?caoe?eia iiaeaeue ae?iaie/i? nenoaie

a oiiaao ?iiiaaoe?eii? no?aoaa?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo:

caaacia/aiiy ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a. ?iiiaaoe?ei?
i?ioeane cae?eniththoueny a ia’?eo? oi?aae?iiy (IO), ye? ? neeaaeiith
nenoaiith. Aei ia? aoiaeyoue aea? i?aenenoaie: i?aenenoaia ?iiiaaoe?e ?
ae?iaie/a i?aenenoaia, aea ?iiiaaoe?y ?aae?cothoueny, ia?aoai?thth/enue
a aioiaee i?iaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa c iiaeie aeanoeainoyie, aai naia
i?aenenoaia ae?iaieoeoaa i?eeia? iiaee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo /e iiaee noai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy. Aoiaeaie a oeth nenoaio (O? oa O?) aoaeooue ethaenuee?
?ano?ne oa eai?oae, ye? iinooiathoue c ?eie?a i?aoe? oa oaeoi??a
ae?iaieoeoaa, a oaeiae ?ioi?iaoe?eiee i?iaeoeo, ui iinooia? c
?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ?eieo.

Aaoi? aeoiaeeoue c oiai, ui iniaeea?noth oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? ? oa, ui ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane ooo
ai?iaaaeaeothoueny a oiiaao aeiiii?/ieo oa caeiiiaeaa/eo cao?aiue. Aeaia
niaoeeo?ea a cai?iiiiiaai?e eiioeaiooaeuei?e iiaeae? a?aoiaa?oueny /a?ac
nenoaio aioo??oi?o f1,…,fn oa ciai?oi?o F1,…,Fn ci?iieo
a?aeiia?aeiiai na?aaeiaeua. Oaeei /eiii, ye aioo??oi?, oae ? ciai?oi?
na?aaeiaeua aenooia? ye niaeo? aeayeeo iaiaaeaiue ? iaeii/anii
iiaeeeainoae. Aeai? aeaiaioe nenoaie aeathoue iiaeeea?noue eiiieaeniiai
i?aeoiaeo aei oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie ia i?aei?e?inoaao.

Aaaaoiaei??i?noue aioo??oi?o, ciai?oi?o, nenoaiieo oa i?aenenoaiieo
ca‘yce?a aeine?aeaeoaaiiai i?ioeano iaoiiaeththoue neeaaei?noue
i?eeiyooy oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue, iaeeaaeaiiy ??cieo iaoeiaeo
i?aeoiae?a. Oiio aeey oieeiaiiy iaaei??ii? neeaaeiino? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio? aea?aii eeoa ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei oi?aae?iiy
?iiiaaoe?yie. ?ino?oiaioaie oi?aae?iiy ca aeaiiai i?aeoiaeo ? o?iainiaa
oa e?aaeeoia nenoaia, aii?oecaoe?eia, iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea, nenoaia
oe?iiooai?aiiy oa oi?aae?iiy ?eceeii.

Ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei oi?aae?iiy ?aae?co?oueny o ieiuei?
“aeo?aoe — aoaeoeai?noue”. Aeey i?aei?e?inoaa, yea ai?iaaaeaeo?
?iiiaaoe??, ia?oi/a?aiaiai cia/aiiy ia? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo
aeo?ao ?c ?acoeueoaoaie ye a aeiiii?/iiio, oae ? a oaoiieia?/iiio
ae?ac?. Oaeei /eiii, iioei?caoe?y aeaiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ?
oeaio?aeueiith eaieith aioo??o??iiaiai oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “Iniaeeaino?
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i?” ianaiia?aae i?aee?aneaii, ui
?iiiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue a Oe?a?i? ?icaeaa?oueny c aaeeeeie
o?oaeiiuaie, c eiaeiei ?ieii ?iiiaaoe?eia e?eca noa? ana a?eueo
i/aaeaeiith, ine?eueee o 1997 ?ioe? e?euee?noue noai?aieo c?ace?a iiaeo
oei?a oaoi?ee neeaaea? 79% a?ae ??aiy 1992 ?ieo, inai?ieo o ae?iaieoeoa?
c?ace?a iiai? i?iaeoeoe?? – 58%, iiaeo i?ia?aneaieo oaoiieia?/ieo
i?ioean?a – 30%, a?aeiioaiiy nooiaiy iaoai?caoe?? ? aaoiiaoecaoe?? –
31%11 Oe?a?ia o oeeo?ao o 1997 ?ioe?. Ei?ioeee noaoenoe/iee aeia?aeiee/
Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie.- E: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1998 – 37n..
E?eca ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iaoiiaeth? niia?eueiaiiy oaii?a
iiiaeaiiy iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo oiiae?a. Aaoi? aaaaea?, ui aeey aeyaeaiiy
i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo ca’yce?a iecueei? ?iiiaaoe?eii? aeoeaiino?
aea?aeaae ia ia?oiio aoai? iaiao?aeii a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae iae?iiieaciee?a
? ?icaeyaeaoe i?e?iiieacieee aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ? eeoa ia ae?oaiio
aoai? cae?enieoe ?ioaa?oaaiiy i?e?iiieaciee?a ? ia?ao?ae aei
iae?iiiaeaeae. Oiio a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iniiaia oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny ?ic?iaoe? aoaeoeaieo i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie
ia i?aei?e?inoa? ye aaia?aoi?a ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a.

A?aeiia?aeii aei aeae?eaieo a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? eiioeaioe?e
?iaanoeoe?eiiai ieaioaaiiy, aaoi?ii i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e, ye?
iathoue aieea ia i?aai?caoe?th ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a ia
i?aei?e?inoaao: iae?iaeiiii?/i?, aaeocaa? ? oaiaeaioe??, ui ae?thoue a
?aieao aecia/aiiai i?aei?e?inoaa. A yeino? iniiaiiai iieacieea i?e
aecia/aii? caaaeueieo aeiiii?/ieo oaiaeaioe?e aeei?enoaii aaeiaee
aioo??oi?e i?iaeoeo (AAI), yeee a Oe?a?i? ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei
nei?i/aiiy. Aeey ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ieaioaaiiy iaea?eueoiai cia/aiiy a
no?oeoo?? AAI ia? aeeiai?ea oaeeo iieaciee?a ye ia?iciiae?eaiee i?eaooie
i?aei?e?inoa ? ei?ii?aoe?e ? aii?oecaoe?ei? a?ae?aooaaiiy. Ca inoaii?
?iee aaee/eia i?eaooe?a, ui iaea?aeaee i?aei?e?inoaa a?ae nai??
ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino? cia/ii nei?ioeeany, a aaee/eia
aii?oecaoe?eieo a?ae?aooaaiue c?inea. *anoea i?eaooeo o AAI a 1996 ?ioe?
noaiiaeea 17,5%, ui iaeaea o aeaa ?ace iaioa, i?ae o 1991?ioe? (33,3%)22
Oe?a?ia o oeeo?ao o 1997 ?ioe?. Ei?ioeee noaoenoe/iee aeia?aeiee /
Aea?aeaaiee eii?oao noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie. – E: Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1998 –
14n.. I?ioa ia aeeaey/enue ia c?inoaiiy iane aii?oecaoe?eieo
a?ae?aooaaiue, aaee/eia ?iaanoeoe?eii? iane, ui ni?yiiao?oueny ia
?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa caeeoa?oueny iaaaeeeith. I?e
oeueiio ciaioaiiy ?iaanoeoe?e a?aeaoaa?oueny oaeaeoa, i?ae niaae
ae?iaieoeoaa: o 1997 ?ioe? niaae ae?iaieoeoaa noaiiaea 3,2%, a ianya
eai?oaeueieo aeeaaeaiue cieceany ia 7,5% (o 1996 ?ioe? oe? iieacieee
noaiiaeee a?aeiia?aeii 10% ? 20% o ii??aiyii? c 1995 ?ieii).O neeaae?
AAI eai?oaeuei? aeaaeaiiy ciaioeeenue o 1,5 ?ace. A?aeaoeenue c?ooaiiy ?
a no?oeoo?? aeeaaeaiue — c?inea /anoea ?iaanoeoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia
?icaeoie ae?iaie/iai iioaioe?aeo: c 58% o 1995 ?ioe? aei 63% o 1996
?ioe? oa 65,1% o 1997 ?ioe?. I?ioa eeoa 45% on?o aeeaaeaiue o ae?iaie/o
noa?o ni?yiiaaii ia ?aeiino?oeoe?th oa oaoi?/ia ia?aica?i?iiy33 Oai aea,
no.16..

Ae?iaie/ee eiiieaen Oe?a?ie a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?icae?eeii ia o?e
a?oie aaeocae: 1) iaoeii?noe? aaeoc?, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue
?iaeono??aeueiee aeaeyae e?a?ie ? oyaiooue ca niaith ia?aaoaeiao anueiai
ae?iaieoeoaa aea?aeaae, ?iiiaaoe?? ooo oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaea?eueoeie
cia/aiiyie oaoiieia?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai iioaioe?ae?a, a oaeaee?noue ?
ye?noue i?ioiaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a oa?aeoa?eco? nooi?iue
?iiiaaoe?eii? n?eeiyoeeaino? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie a oe?eiio aei
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, oiio ?icaeoie aeaieo aaeocae aeoaea
aaaeeeaee aeey ?icaeoeo e?a?ie; 2) aaeoc? nioe?aeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy,
niiaeeaa/aie i?iaeoeoe?? yeeo ? ianaeaiiy ? ?iiiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue
ooo caeaaeeoue a?ae aeeoo?aiai ??aiy ianaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?; 3) aaeoc?
ianeoaiaoth/iai ae?iaieoeoaa, niiaeeaa/aie i?iaeoeoe?? yeeo ? e?ioeaa?
ae?iaieoeoaa ? ?iiiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue yeeo ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue
iia’ycaia ?c iaea?eueoith o?oaei?noth /a?ac caeoeia?noue aaeeei?
e?eueeino? e?ioeaaeo ae?iaieoeoa ? oiio neeaaei?noth ?aae?caoe??
?iiiaaoe?eii? i?iaeoeoe??.

Aiae?c oaiaeaioe?e, ui ae?thoue a ?aieao aecia/aiiai i?aei?e?inoaa
iieeeeaiee aecia/eoe iai?yiie ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, yeee ?
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei aeey aeaiiai i?aei?e?inoaa. Oiio i?ioean i?eeiyooy
oi?aae?inueeeo ??oaiue noiniaii ?iiiaaoe?e ia i?aei?e?inoa?
?icii/eia?oueny ?c aiae?co ianyao ? oa?aeoa?o ?ano?n?a, yeeie aieiae??
ainiiaea?thth/ee noa’?eo. Nthaee a?aeiineoueny eaae?iaee ? ae?iaie/ee
iioaioe?ae, iayai?noue o?iainiaeo cania?a, ii?ooaeue e?oeaic?e, aeinooi
aei iaoeiai — oaoi?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe?? oa ?eieia? iiceoe?? i?aei?e?inoaa.

Noeoii?noue aeo?aeieo, iaeiie/aieo ?ano?n?a a ii?aeiaii? c oiiaaie, ye?
caaacia/othoue ?o aeei?enoaiiy, i?eeiyoi iaceaaoe iaoeiai — oaoi?/iei
iioaioe?aeii i?aei?e?inoaa. Oi/a ca inoaii? ?iee ?iiiaaoe?eiee
iioaioe?ae a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa aeaui cieceany, ana ae i?iaeiaaeo?
caeeoaoenue ia aeineoue aenieiio ??ai?. Oae, eeoa o 1996 ?ioe? a Oe?a?i?
ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaao iae?/oaaeinue 109 iaoeiai – aeine?aeieo oa
eiino?oeoi?nueeio i?ae?icae?ee, 160,1 oen. niaoe?ae?no?a, ui aeeiiothoue
iaoeiai – aeine?aei? oa aeine?aeii eiino?oeoi?nuee? ?iaioe, ianya ?ia?o,
aeeiiaieo ieie c ii/aoeo ?ieo ( o oaeoe/ii ae?th/eo oe?iao ) noaiiaea
1,3 ie?ae. a?i., ca 1996 — 1997??. a Oe?a?i? ca?a?no?iaiii 8949
aeiaoiaee i?ioe 2896 o 1994?, oiaoi ?o e?euee?noue c?inea iaeaea o o?e
?ace44 ?ioi?iaoe?eiee atheaoaiue I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie.-
1997,?7-8.-n.33. E??i oiai, i?aeaeuo? ?iiiaaoe?eiee iioaioe?ae
a?o/eciyieo i?aei?e?inoa iayai?noue aaeeei? e?eueeino? a?eueieo
ae?iaie/eo ieiu, aaeaea noai?aiiy ? inai?iiy iiaeo ae?iaie/eo
iiooaeiinoae i?e ?aeiino?oeoe?? ? oaoi?/iiio ia?ainiauaii? ae?a/eo
i?aei?e?inoa a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny a 1,5 – 2 ?ace oaeaeoa, a no?iee
ieoiiino? aeo?ao o o?e ?ace ei?ioo?, i?ae i?e iiaiio aoae?aieoeoa?.
Aeineoue oe?ieee aeinooi iathoue i?aei?e?inoaa ? aei caeoi?ae?
ca?oaoaeieo e?oeaic?e. I?ioa o 1996 ?ioe? ia i?iieneiaeo i?aei?e?inoaa
Oe?a?ie aoei caae?yii eeoa 21 e?oeaic?th. I?e/eia oeueiai — o
a?aenooiino? o?iainiaeo cania?a oa o a?aenooiino? aeinooio aei iaoeiai –
oaoi?/ii? ?ioi?iaoe??. Aaeaea, ca aeaieie Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo
noaoenoeee ?c 2,5 oen. ianoaaeaieo o 1997 ?ioe? i?aei?e?inoa oa
i?aai?caoe?e eeoa ia 151 (6%) noai?ai? ? ooieoe?iiothoue 193
aaoiiaoeciaaieo aace aeaieo caaaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy (i?ioe 183 o 1996
?ioe?). O 1997 ?ioe? ca?a?no?iaaii 219,1 oen. ei?enooaa/?a ?ioi?iaoe??,
ui caa??aa?oueny a oeeo aeaieo55 ?ioi?iaoe?eiee atheaoaiue Aea?aeaaiiai
eii?oaoo noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie.- 1998, ?1-2.- n.36.

A?aeiia?aeii aei i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co aeena?oaio aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo,
ui aeoea?caoe?y ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? ia nueiaiaei?oi?e
aeaiue ia iiaeeeaa aac aio/ii? oa aeaaaeaii? aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee.
Aecia/aiith ?ie? oa i?noey aea?aeaae o oi?ioaaii? aeiiii?ei –i?aaiaeo
ia?aaeoiia ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? i?enay/aii ae?oaee
ia?aa?ao ?icae?eo.

Caaacia/aiiy i?aai?/iiai ii?aeiaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eii? aeoeaiino? noa’?eoo
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ?aae?co?oueny o neneoai?
aea?aeaaii? ?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee, yea ia’?aeio? aeiiii?eo,
i?aei?e?iieoeoai ? oi?aae?iiy. Aaeee? ??ciia?aeiino? a ??aiyo
nioe?aeueii – aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie oa ?ioeo e?a?i na?oo c
oaiaeaioe??th ?o iiaeaeueoiai c?inoaiiy aeiaaathoue ?ic?iaee iniaeeaeo
oi?i oa iaoiae?a aea?aeaaiiai ?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie.
Iiaeaaaeaiiy iaoeiai – oaoi?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, noaei aecia/ieeii
ye?nieo ci?i ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee i?ia?aeieo e?a?i. Oiio aeey caaacia/aiiy
iinooio a ?iiiaaoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino? ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi ? ?ic?iaea
i?eioeei?a i?aeo?eiee iaoeiai – oaoi?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, aaeaea
iaeaaaeeea?oei iai?yieii iaoeiai – oaoi?/ii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae ?
noeioethaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Ca inoaii? ?iee iaoea a Oe?a?i?
caciaea aaeeeeo caeoe?a. I?e/iio ao?aoe a?aeaoaaeeny aaeeeith i??ith ca
?aooiie cia/iiai a?aeoieo eaae??a. ?ioa, ia iaio aieth/a i?iaeaia
oe?a?inueei? iaoee — nei?i/aiiy o?iainoaaiiy. A Oe?a?i? aeo?aoe ia iaoeo
c eiaeiei ?ieii nei?i/othoueny ? aeoaea aeaeaei a?aenoathoue a?ae
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i. I?aeo?eiea iaoee ?aae?co?oueny a aea?aeaa? /a?ac
?ic?iaeo aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai – oaoi?/ii? no?aoaa??. Aeey Oe?a?ie
aea?aeaaia iaoeiai – oaoi?/ia no?aoaa?y iiaeiia ia?aaeaa/aoe nenoaio
eiie?aoieo caoiae?a i?aeo?eiee iaoee. Aaeaea eia?ea na?oiai? iaoeiai –
oaoi?/ii? eiieo?aioe?? aeiaaa? ia?aaaaeaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa cao?aoii?
i?iaeoeoe?? ? ne?iaeie o a?aenoae? a oaoiieia?/iiio ieai? e?a?ie. Oiio,
uia ia aeiionoeoe ia?aoai?aiiy Oe?a?ie o ei?enooaa/a aoi?eiieo
oaoiieia?e, iaiao?aeia aoaeoeaia aea?aeaaia i?ia?aia i?aeo?eiee iaoee ?
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue. Oaea i?ia?aia iiaeiia ia?o ca ana aecia/eoe
aea?aeaai? i??i?eoaoe o ?icaeoeo iaoee, oiaoi aecia/eoe o? iai?yiee
iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue, ye? ? iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie aeey aea?aeaae,
a oe?eiio, c oi/ee ci?o caaacia/aiiy ?? i?ia?aneaiiai ?icaeoeo a
oaoiieia?/iiio, a cia/eoue ? a aeiiii?/iiio ieai?.

?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane iia’ycai? ?c ??aiai oa oaiiaie ?icaeoeo iaoee, aea
aenie? oaiie ?icaeoeo iaoeiaiai i?ia?ano ? iaiao?aeiith, aea ia
aeinoaoiueith oiiaith ?ioaineaii? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, aeinoaoiy
ae oiiaa – ?nioaaiiy aenieiai ??aiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai nie?eiyooy. Oe?a?ia
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iecueeei ??aiai ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ni?eeiyooy – iaoea a
Oe?a?i? cia/iith i??ith i?aoeth? naia ia naaa, cia/ia /anoeia
aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaie ia aeei?enoiao?oueny o ae?iaie/eo i?ioeanao, a
cia/eoue ia aea? i/?eoaaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oiio o caaaeaiiy aea?aeaae
aoiaeeoue i?aeaeuaiiy c iaeiiai aieo iaoeiai – oaoi?/ii? aeoeaiino? a
aea?aeaa?, oeyoii ?ic?iaee i??i?eoaoieo iai?yie?a o?iainoaaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, ye? ? iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaieie ? iathoue
aenieee oaoiieia?/iee ? aeiiii?/iee iioaioe?ae, a c ?ioiai aieo –
i?aeaeueoe nooi?iue ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ni?eeiyooy a e?a?i?. Caaacia/aiiy
aeeiiaiiy oeueiai caaaeaiiy, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aeinyaa?oueny oeyoii
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a aeiiii?/i?e nenoai? aeiiii?/ieo oa i?aaiaeo noeioe?a
aeoea?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue a
Oe?a?i? noeioethth/ei caoiaeii ? i?eueaiaa iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eii?
i?iaeoeoe?? oa i?eaooe?a a?ae ?? ?aae?caoe?? o ?ici??? 50% a?ae ae?th/i?
noaaee. E??i oiai a e?a?i? ae?thoue noeioee, noai?ai? ia iniia?
aeei?enoaiiy aeioaoe?eieo oiiae?a, i?ecia/aieo aeey ?icaeoeo ?iiiaaoe?e.

I?ioa ?nioth/? noeioethth/? caoiaee ia aeoieo aaoi?a ia ? aeineoue
ae??aeie ? ia caaacia/othoue iiaiith i??ith aio/eiai i?aeoiaeo aei
?aae?caoe?? i?eioeeio ?icaeoeo ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a iaiao?aeiiio
iai?yieo. Oiio a ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny a yeino? noeioethth/iai oaeoi?o
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? cai?iaaaeeoe i?eueaiaa iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
aeioiae?a i?aei?e?inoa a caeaaeiino? a?ae ia’?io ae?iaieoeoaa ?
?aae?caoe?? iaoeii?noei? i?iaeoeoe??. Aaeaea iaeaaaeeea?oith
aeiiii?/iith iaoith ia?aaeiaeo eiiiai?e ? e?a?i ? i?aeo?eiaiiy
caeaoiino? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee aei ?ic?iaee ? ae?iaieoeoaa
iaoeii?noei? i?iaeoeoe??. Aaaaeaiiy cacia/aii? i?eueae iiaea
noeioethaaoe a?o/eciyieo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a aei ni?yioaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?ii?
ae?yeueiino? ia iaoeii?noe? aeaee i?iaeoeoe??, ui i?aeaeueoue
iaoeii?noe?noue aeiiii?ee a oe?eiio ? a e?ioeaaiio aeiaaeeo i?eaaaea aei
c?inoaiiy aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie. Aeai? iiaeaoeia? caoiaee i?aeaeuaoue
iiieo ia iaoeiai – oaoi?/io i?iaeoeoe?th, ui i?ecaaaea aei ciaioaiiy
i?ioe??//y i?ae oaiiaie iaoeiaiai oa ae?iaie/iai ?icaeoeo, i?aeaeueoue
ni?eeiyooy aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie a oe?eiio aei ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?,
ui iiaea aenooiaoe noeioeii ca?oa?aeieo ?iaanoi??a aei aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a
o ?iiiaaoe?ei? i?ioeane. Oiaoi a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? ooieoe?y
aea?aeaae i?e oi?aae?ii? ?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth iieyaa? o
aeoeaiiio aieea? ia oaeoi?e ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua ?iiiaaoe?eii?
nenoaie c iaoith caaacia/aiiy ni?eyoeeaiai noaio neooaoe?eieo ci?iieo
a?aeiia?aeiiai na?aaeiaeua. Ia neooaoe?ei? ci?ii? aioo??oiueiai
na?aaeiaeua noa’?eoo ?iiiaaoe?ii? ae?yeueiino? aea?aeaaa a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? ia aieeaa?.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? ?ice?eoi nooue oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeueii? no?oeoo?e
?iiiaaoe?eieo aeo?ao ?c a?aooaaiiyi i?inoi?iaeo oa ooieoe?iiaeueieo
?aiie ?icai?oaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?ioeano.

A oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece i?iaeaia iaiaaeaiino? eioo?a aeey ?aae?caoe??
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? noa? ua a?eueo a?ae/ooiith, oiio ?ic?aooieo
aaee/eie o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a, iaiao?aeieo aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
iiaiaaaaeaiiy, i?eae?ey?oueny iniaeeaa oaaaa. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeai?
a ?iaio?, iieacaee, ui ca iei?oiuei? neooaoe?? i?aei?e?inoaai
iaeaea?aei?oa ni?yiiaoaaoe IAeAeE? ia iie?auaiiy i?iaeoeoe?? ?
e?oeaicoaaiiy. A?aeaea/a a?ae oaeeo iai?yie?a IAeAeE? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ye aeniea. Na?aaei?e iieaciee a?aeaea/? oa?aeoa?iee aeey IAeAeE?,
ni?yiiaaieo ia iie?auaiiy oaoiieia?? ? ?ic?iaeo iiai? (?aaeeeaeueii)
i?iaeoeoe??.

Niaoeeo?eith ?ic?aooieo aeo?ao ia ae?iaieoeoai ? ?icai?oaiiy iiaaoe?? ?
aeeth/aiiy a aeaio noaooth aeo?ao ia aei?iaeo i?iaeoo, ye? ca
?ic?aooieaie aaoi?a nyaathoue 10-15% a?ae noia?ieo eai?oaeueieo aeo?ao
i?iaeoo. A?aooaaiiy aeaii? aaee/eie aeicaiey? i?aeaeueoe eiia??i?noue
caaa?oaiiy i?iaeoo. Aeei?enoaiiy aeey ?aae?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?? aaeeei?
e?eueeino? noa?iai iaeaaeiaiiy aeiaaa? a?aooaaiiy i?e ?ic?aooieo iiaii?
aa?oino? i?iaeoo caeaaeiino? i?ae aaee/eiith aeo?ao ? ia??iaeii aeeooy
iaeaaeiaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, iioeiaeueia aaee/eia aeo?ao ia cae?eniaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?ioeano a ?iaio? aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

A = AIAeAeE? + Aae?ia + Aaenie — Aiaa/ + Q , (1)

aea AIAeAeE? — aaee/eia aeo?ao ia IAeAeE?;

Aae?ia — aeo?aoe ia ae?iaieoeoai ? ?icai?oaiiy iiaiaaaaeaiiy, aei yeeo
aoiaeyoue aeo?aoe ia: caeoi?aeth iaeaaeiaiiy, aoae?aaeueii — iiioaaei?
oa ionei — iaeaaiaeaeoaaeuei? ?iaioe, ae?iaieoeoai i?iaiiai c?acea,
aei?iaeo i?iaeoo ? aeaioiaeaiiy ii/aoeiaiai eiiieaeoo;

Aaenie — aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe iiaiaaaaeaiiy;

Aiaa/ — aaee/eia aeiiii?? ia aeina?ae?, ui aecia/a?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

An = A 1 nb (2)

aea A1 — aeo?aoe ia ia?oee aeaioiaeaiee c?acie;

An — aeo?aoe ia aeaioiaeaiiy n-ai c?acea;

b — ia?aiaoa?, ui oa?aeoa?eco? oaeaee?noue ciaioaiiy na?aaei?o aeo?ao ia
aeaioiaeaiiy c?acea;

Q — ieaoa ca ei?enooaaiiy iiceeith:

Q = wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
a ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`????? ???&? ?MathType??A?
???u?????????»????-??????@?????D???u?th??????aea W —
noaaea e?aaeeooaaiiy;

A — aaee/eia iice/ee, iaea?aeaii? i?ae ?iiiaaoe?eiee i?iaeo;

O — oa?i?i ei?enooaaiiy iice/eith.

I?ioa aoaeoeai?noueoi?aae?inueeiai ??oaiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ia no?eueee
aaee/eiith ?iiiaaoe?eieo aeo?ao ne?eueee aaee/eiith ?iciiae?eo aeaieo
aeo?ao a /an?. Oiio aeey i?aaeeueii? i???ioaoe?? aeo?ao o /an? aoea
neiiiiiiaaia iiaeaeue, ca?aeii yei? aeae?eaii i’youe aoai?a o
?aae?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?iaeoo:

I aoai — aaainoaaiiy iaoeiai — aeine?aeieo ?ia?o ? ?ic?iaie ?c aeanieo
eioo?a i?aei?e?inoaa;

II aoai — ni?eueia o?iainoaaiiy ca ?aooiie iice/ee ? aeanieo eioo?a
caeoi?ae? iaeaaeiaiiy, i?e/iio eiooe ?iciiae?eythoueny i?eaeecii a
??aiiio ni?aa?aeiioai?;

III aoai — o?iainoaaiiy aoae?aaeueii — iiioaaeieo, ionei —
iaeaaiaeaeoaaeueieo ?ia?o oa aeioneo i?iaiiai c?acea iaeaea iiai?noth ca
?aooiie iice/ee;

IV aoai — o?iainoaaiiy aei?iaee i?iaeoo ? aeaioiaeaiiy ii/aoeiaiai
eiiieaeoo ?c aeanieo eioo?a i?aei?e?inoaa;

V aoai — iie?eooy aenieoaoaoe?eieo aeo?ao ca ?aooiie i?eaooeo a?ae
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaiaaaaeaiiy.

*aoaa?oee ia?aa?ao ae?oaiai ?icae?eo i?enay/aiee aiae?co ?eceeo
?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. ?ecee ? ?iiiaaoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue — aeaa
aca?iiiia’ycaieo iiiyooy, aaeaea o na?o? aeiaoiae?a ? ?iiiaaoe?e
iiaeeea?noue iaaaea/? iaaaaaoi a?eueoa, i?ae oni?oo. Ioaea, iaeiei ?c
iniiaieo aoai?a oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie ? aiae?c ? ioe?iea ?eceeiaino?
?iiiaaoe?eieo i?iaeo?a. Aiae?c ?eceeo iieeeeaiee aeaoe iaiao?aeio
?ioi?iaoe?th aeey i?eeiyooy ??oaiue i?i aeioe?euei?noue oiai /e ?ioiai
?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?iaeoo, a oaeiae ia?aaeaa/eoe caoiaee ii caoenoo a?ae
iiaeeeaeo o?iainiaeo ao?ao.

Aiae?c ?eceeo ?icae?eaii ia ye?niee ? e?euee?niee. Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi
ye?niiai aiae?co ? aecia/aiiy oaeoi??a ?eceeo, iiooioe?eieo iaeanoae ?
neooaoe?e ?eceeo. E?euee?niee aiae?c ?eceeo ia?aaeaa/a? aecia/aiiy
/eneiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee ?eceeo i?iaeoo. Ca aeiiiiiaith noaoenoe/iiai
iaoiaeo a ?iaio? ?ic?aoiaaia ?eceeia?noue ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ia
i?aei?e?inoa? “?iaeeuan?eueiao”, ui a?aeiineoueny aei i?aei?e?inoa
ianeoaiaoth/iai ae?iaieoeoaa ? ? oeiiaei o oe?e aaeoc?. Oae, o 1994
?ioe? ?iiiaaoe?eiee ?ecee ia aeaiiio i?aei?e?inoa? noaiiaea 36%, o 1995
— 69%, 1996 — 53%.

Ia aoaeoeai?noue ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e aaeeeith i??ith aieeaa?
caaaeueiee aeiiii?/iee noai ainiiaea?thth/iai noa’?eoo. Oiio aeae? a
?iaio? i?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ?eceeiaino? caaaeueii? ainiiaea?nueei?
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa /a?ac aecia/aiiy oeio o?iainiaiai noaio ca
iaoiaeii aeioe?eueiino? aeo?ao. ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui o?iainiaee noai
iaeoa?aeoa?i?oeo i?aei?e?inoa ioe?ith?oueny ye e?eoe/iee.Ii?yae ?c
?ic?aooieaie ianenoaiiiai ?eceeo a ?iaio? cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny
nenoaiiiio ?eceeo. A Oe?a?i? nenoaiiee ?ecee iaaoaa? iaeneiaeueieo
cia/aiue /a?ac aenieo iaaecia/aiino? iae?iaeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a
e?a?i?.

O?ao?e ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy “Oi?aae?iiy aoaeoeai?nth
?iiiaaoe?e” i?enay/aiee i?iaeai? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo
i?ioean?a. O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? aiae?cothoueny oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy eiaeii?
c /ioe?ueio neeaaeiaeo ?ioaa?aeueiiai ?iiiaaoe?eiiai aoaeoo, aea
iniiaiee aeoeaio c?iaeaii ia i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo ?iiiaaoe?e.
Aei ?ino?oiaio?a aieeao ia aeaiee aeae aoaeoo a?aeianai? (ca
cia/ei?noth): iioia? oe?ie, ?eceeia?noue, ??aaiue iiiaeaoeoaaiiy,oe?ie
ia ae?iaie/? ?ano?ne oa niiniae o?iainoaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e. ??aaiue
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ? oe?ia ae?iaie/eo ?ano?n?a oi/a ? ? aaaeeeaeie aaaeaeyie
aeoea?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ? i?aeaeuaiiy ?? aoaeoeaiino?,
i?ioa aenooiathoue ciai?oi?ie oaeoi?aie, ia ye? aieeaaoe ia i?e?i??ai?
iaiiaeeeai.Oiio a ianooiieo aeaio ia?aa?aoao aeine?aeaeo?oueny
noeioethth/a ?ieue oe?ie a oi?aae?ii? ?iiiaaoe?yie oa ciaioaiiy
?eceeiaino? ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a ye ei??iiee cao?ae uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy
?o aoaeoeaiino?.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy ieoaiiy i?i oa, /e a?ae?a?a? oe?ia ia ?iiiaaoe?eio
i?iaeoeoe?th iaeaaeio ?e ?ieue a no/anieo oiiaao, aaoi? caa?oa?oueny aei
?ia?o a/aieo, ye? caeiaeeny i?iaeaiith anoaiiaeaiiy oe?ie ia iiaaoe??.
Aiae?c iaea?eueo iioe?aieo iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy oe?ie ia iiaee oiaa?
aeicaieea aeena?oaioo ie?aneeoe eiei i?iaeai , ye? iiaeiii ae??ooaaoe
aoaeoeaia oe?iiooai?aiiy, oea: ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a i?iaeaaoe?a ?
iieoioe?a; a?aooaaiiy niaoeeo?ee anoaiiaeaiiy oe?ie ia iiao
i?iaeoeoe?th; a?aooaaiiy iniaeeainoae no/aniiai aoaio ia?ao?aeiiai
ia??iaeo i?e ?ic?aooieo iioeiaeueii? oe?ie iiaiaaaaeaiiy.

Aeae? a ?iaio? aiae?cothoueny i?e/eie iaa?aeiia?aeiino? oe?ie ia
?iiiaaoe?eio i?iaeoeoe?th c ?ioa?anaie ae?iaiee?a ? niiaeeaa/?a. Na?aae
aieiaieo aeae?eai?: iecueea ieaoini?iiiaei?noue an?o aa?noa niiaeeaa/?a
( ianaeaiiy, i?aei?e?inoa, i?aai?caoe?e), yea ? aa?oiath iaaeath oe?ie
iiaiai oiaa?o, ? aeniea nia?aa?o?noue (aieiaiei /eiii /a?ac aenieo
iaoa??aeii?noe?noue) i?iaeoeoe??, ui iaiaaeo? iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy
aenieeo i?eaooe?a. Aeey ae??oaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie aeena?oaioii
iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue aeoeaii? aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee
niiaeeaa/?a ?iiiaaoe?eii? i?iaeoeoe?? i?aei?e?inoa, a a ?aieao
i?aei?e?inoaa — aeoeai? caoiaee uiaei ciaioaiiy nia?aa?oino? i?iaeoeoe??
aieiaiei /eiii oeyoii ciaioaiiy iaoa??aei- oa aia?aii?noeino?
i?iaeoeoe??.

A o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? o?aoueiai ?icae?eo aeine?aeaeothoueny oeyoe
ciaioaiiy ?eceeiaino? ?iiiaaoe?e. Aaoi? aiae?co? ?nioth/? a na?oia?e
iaoeia?e aeoioe? iaoiaee iaiaaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?eceeo ? iiaeeeaino?
?o canoinoaaiiy aeey oiia Oe?a?ie. Ia?icaeiai?noue a?o/eciyiiai
o?iainiaiai oa no?aoiaiai ?eieo iaiaaeothoue iiaeeeaino? aeey iiaeieaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?eceeo, oiio aaoi? aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo, ui iaeiei ?c
iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo iaoiae?a i?i?i?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?eceeo ?
ii?aeiaiiy aeoeaieo ? ianeaieo iaoiae?a ?aaaoaaiiy ia ?eieia? neooaoe??.
Iniiai? aoaie aeaiiai i?aeoiaeo aena?oeai? o cai?iiiiiaai?e a ?iaio?
iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiei ?eceeii, ca?aeii yei? iiaeieaiiy
iaaei??iiai ?eceeo i?iaeoo a?aeaoaa?oueny o aeaa aoaie: 1) ?aaeoeoe?y
?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?eceeo aei iioeiaeueiiai cia/aiiy oeyoii
aeeaa?neo?eaoe??, noai?aiiy ?aca?ao aai ?iciiae?eo ?eceeo; 2)
no?aooaaiiy ?eceeo. ?aae?caoe?y i?iaeoo iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae, ui i?ney
no?aooaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiee ?ecee a?aeiia?aea? iioeiaeueiiio ??aith, i?e
oeueiio oiiaith aeioe?eueiino? oi?aae?iiy iiaeiia aooe ??ai?noue
a?aie/ieo aeo?ao ia i?iaaaeaiiy iie?oeee iioei?caoe?? ?eceeo ? a?aie/ii?
ei?eniino? a?ae ?? aeei?enoaiiy.

AENIIAEE

1. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui aoee i?iaaaeai? a aeai?e aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?
aeicaieeee c’ynoaaoe, ui aeeiiaiiy i?eioeeio ?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeyoo
?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie ?aae?co?oueny /a?ac nenoaio oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie.
?ic?iaea aoaeoeaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie iio?aao? aeaoaeueieo
? a?oioiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue noo? ?iiiaaoe?e ye ?acoeueoaoo ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? oa iniaeeainoae i?io?eaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a o
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?, ine?eueee, ca?aeii ?c aeaniith i?e?iaeith,
?iiiaaoe?? aeaiaeyoue aeiiii?/io iaeeieoeth ?c a??aiiaaaeaiiai noaio, ui
aeeeeea? ?o a?ae/oaeaiiy o nenoai? ?eoi?/iiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy noa’?eoo
ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa iaa?oioiao? ?iiiaaoe?eio ?ia?oi?noue inoaii?o. ?acii
c oei, caaaeueia a?ae/oaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e i?aeneeth?oueny a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? iaaecia/ai?noth oa oaeaeeici?ithaai?noth iae?iaeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee oa, a?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai, neeaaei?noth aaeaioaoe??
iiaiaaaaeaiue aei ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua.

2. Aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie
cae?enith?oueny ia iniia? iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino?, ye? a caaaeueiiio
aeiaaeeo ?ic?aoiaothoueny ye a?aeiioaiiy ei?eniiai ?acoeueoaoo
?iiiaaoe?e aei ?iiiaaoe?eieo aeo?ao. Neeaaei?noue i?ioeano ?ic?iaee oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e ii?iaeaeo? neeaaei?noue i?iaeaie ?ic?aooieo
aoaeoo (?acoeueoaoo) ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, yeee iiaeia
i?aaenoaaeoe ye aeiaooie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai, aeiiii?/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai
oa aeieia?/iiai aoaeo?a. Eiaeai ?c cacia/aieo aoaeo?a ia? nai? iieacieee
?ic?aooieo oa /eiieee aieeao, i?ioa, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaea?eueoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iio?aao? aeiiii?/iee aoaeo, ine?eueee an? ?io? ? a
aeaye?e i??? iio?aeieie a?ae iueiai. Iaeiiai?oa aeiiii?/iee aoaeo
aecia/a?oueny /a?ac ?ioaa?aeueiee i?eaooie iiaaoe??, yeee yaey? niaith
noio i?eaooeo, iaea?aeaiiai ca an? ?iee aenieoaoaoe?? iiaaoe??.
?iiiaaoe?ei? aeo?aoe ?ic?aoiaothoueny ye noia aeo?ao ia iaoeiai –
aeine?aei? oa aeine?aeii – eiino?oeoi?nuee? ?iaioe, ae?iaieoeoai ?
?aae?caoe?th iiaaoe?? oa aenieoaoaoe?ei? aeo?aoe.

3. Neeaaei?noue ? aaaaoia?aii?noue i?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie
iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue iiaoaeiae aeiiii?/ii? iiaeae? yaeua, ui
aeine?aeaeo?oueny, yea a ai?uoaaea eeoa eiioeaiooaeueii aaaeeea?
i?eioeeie. Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? a yeino? oaei?
iiaeae? aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?eieiai–i???ioiaaio i?aai?caoe?eio
iiaeaeue ae?iaie/i? nenoaie a oiiaao ?iiiaaoe?eii? no?aoaa??
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo, iniaeea?noth aeei?enoaiiy yei? ? a?aooaaiiy
an?o aca?iica’yce?a nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, aiae?c ao?aeieo ? aeo?aeieo
ia?aiao??a, iioi/iee eiio?ieue ca oiaeii aeeiiaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai
i?ioeano. E??i oiai, oaea iiaeaeue a?aoiao? ae?th neooaoe?eieo ci?iieo
ye aioo??oiueiai na?aaeiaeua (o?iainiaeo, iaoa??aeueieo, o?oaeiaeo,
iaoeiaeo ?ano?n?a i?aei?e?inoaa), oae ? ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua
(eiieo?aioe?th, niiaeeaa/?a, aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy), ui ? iniaeeai
aeooaeueiei aeey ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee.

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui neooaoe?y a Oe?a?i? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
e?ecith o noa?? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?, i?e/iio e?ecia? yaeua
i?iyaeythoueny ye a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo, oae ? o i?ioean? ?o
ao?eaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai, e??i oiai i?iyaey?oueny ?icaaeainiaai?noue
iaoeiai – oaoi?/iiai oa ae?iaie/iai i?ia?ano. I?e/eia oeueiai aieiaiei
/eiii o a?aenooiino? oe?e?nii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie,
iaa?ae?aaoeueiaaiino? iaoai?ci?a aea?aeaaii? i?aeo?eiee, aaaeeiio
o?iainiaiio noaiiaeu? i?aei?e?inoa, caaaeueiith e?ecith aeiiii?ee
aea?aeaae. E?eca ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iaoiiaeea cia/ia c?inoaiiy
aeei?enoaiiy canoa??eeo ii?aeueii ? o?ce/ii ciioaieo iniiaieo ae?iaie/eo
oiiae?a. On? oe? ianoaaeie aecia/athoue ao?aoo Oe?a?iith nai?o
eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa, a cia/eoue a?aeeeaeaiiy e?a?ie ia ieae/? noiaeeiee
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

5. E?ecia? yaeua a aeiiii?oe? na?ae/aoue, ui aac aio/ei? aea?aeaaii?
i?aeo?eiee ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? iiaeieaoe ?iiiaaoe?eio ?ia?oi?noue
i?aei?e?inoa ia iiaeeeai. I?ioa aea?aeaaia i?aeo?eiea aoaea aoaeoeaiith
eeoa i?e i?aaeeueiiio aeai?? ?ino?oiaio?a ?? ?aae?caoe??.
?iaeono??aeueiee ? iaoeiai – oaoi?/iee aeaeyae aea?aeaae aecia/a?
?icaeoie iaoeii?noeeo aaeocae ? aeoea?caoe?y ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
a aeaieo aaeocyo, oeyoii caaacia/aiiy i?aaiaeo, aeiiii?/ieo oa
o?iainiaeo oiia aeey oeueiai – iaeia c aieiaieo caaaeaiue aea?aeaaii?
iie?oeee i?aeo?eiee ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. Aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii a
?aae?caoe?? aeaiiai caaaeaiiy, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ? aaaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaeo
i?euea i?aei?e?inoaai a?aeiia?aeii aei aaee/eie ae?iaieoeoaa ?
?aae?caoe?? iaoeii?noei? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?. ?acii c oei aeaiee
cao?ae iieeeeaiee oaeiae iiaeieaoe ?icaaeainiaai?noue iaoeiai –
oaoi?/iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano.

6. A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? cia/ia i?noea i?eae?eaii ?ic?iaoe?
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei iiaeieaiiy a?ae/oaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe?e o
ae?iaie/iio na?aaeiaeu?, yea ia aeoieo aaoi?a, aieiaiei /eiii ni?e/eiaii
iecueeith aoaeoeai?noth ?iiiaaoe?e. Oae, iaa?oioiaaii, ui i?i?i?caoe?y
?iiiaaoe?eieo aeo?ao caaacia/o?oueny i?e oi?aae?ii? aeo?aoaie ye
ooieoe??th /ano: a eiaeai ia??iae ? ia eiaeiiio aoai? ?iiiaaoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? ?nio? ?aoe?iiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeanieo ? caeo/aieo
o?iainiaeo eioo?a, ui eaeooue ia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?iiiaaoe??, i?e
?ic?aooieo, e??i oiai, ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui a caeaaeiino? a?ae aaee/eie
?ioeyoe??, i?ioeaioieo noaaie oa i?ioyaeiino? ?iiiaaoe?eiiai i?ioeano
ci?ith?oueny ? aaee/eia ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ianyao caeo/aieo o?iainiaeo
eioo?a.

7. Ae??aei niiniaii i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?
? ciaioaiiy aaee/eie ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?eceeo oa anoaiiaeaiiy iioeiaeueii?
oe?ie ia ?iiiaaoe?eio i?iaeoeoe?th. A no/anieo oiiaao caoiaee ii
ciaioaiith ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?eceeo aeioe?eueii caiaeeoe aei ei?eaoaaiiy
aaee/eie ?eceeo iaoiaeaie aeoeaiiai ?aaaoaaiiy (noai?aiiy ?aca?a?a
iaia?aaeaa/aieo aeo?ao, aeeaa?neo?eaoe?y) aei aaee/eie i?eaeaoii? aeey
no?aooaaiiy ?eceeo ?c iine?aeoth/ith ?aaeoeoe??th ?eceeo aei
iioeiaeueii? aaee/eie iaoiaeii no?aooaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eiiai ?eceeo.
Iioeiaeueia oe?ia iiaaoe?? ?ic?aoiao?oueny ca i?eioeeiii anoiiiaeaiiy
i?i?iaeueii iiaeeeai? oe?ie (oe?ie i?i?eao), c oiiaith caaacia/aiiy
aaee/eie i?eaooeo aeinoaoiuei? aeey nieaoe e?aaeeoieo ciaia’ycaiue ii
?iiiaaoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino?, iie?eooy aaee/eie ?ioeyoe?? oa a?ae?aooaaiiy
o oiiae ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa.

8. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a ?aae?caoe?y i?eioeei?a aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy
?iiiaaoe?yie, aeeeaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? aoaea ni?eyoe
aeoea?caoe?? ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? a Oe?a?i? oa caaacia/eoue
?aae?caoe?th i?eioeei?a aeoiaeo aeiiii?ee e?a?ie c e?ece.

ICIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?? IIOAE?EIAAI? A ?IAIOAO:

1. Oeaa?/oe E. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aaie?anueeiai
e?aaeeoo o ?iiiaaoe?ei?e ae?yeueiino? // Aaie?anueea ni?aaa – 1999, ?2 –
N.54-55 (0,3ae?.a?).

2. Oeaa?/oe E.I. Oe?ie ? ?eieiaa oe?iiooai?aiiy (?icae?e 17) //
I?aei?e?inoai (o??ia) a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe?: iie?oeei-aeiiii?/i?
i?iaeaie. Iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee.- Eooeuee: AAeO,1997.- N.135-145
(0,5ae?.a?).

3. Oeaa?/oe E. Aeiiii?/i? i?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy i?iaeoeoiaeie ?iiiaaoe?yie
// Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO. Na??y aeiiii?/i? iaoee. – 1998, ?12. – N.72-80
(0,6 ae?. a?.).

4. Iiaeae??ueia?i A.I., Oeaa?/oe E.I. O?iainia? aniaeoe oi?aae?iiy
aoaeoeai?noth ?iiiaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a (ia i?eeeaae?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy) // ?aoi?ia
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie: CII. –
Eooeuee: AAeO,1998 – N.162-175(iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a – 0,5 ae?.a?e.)

5. Oeaa?/oe E.I. Oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?eiith ae?yeuei?noth a
n?euenueei-ainiiaea?nueeiio iaoeiiaoaeoaaii? Oe?a?ie // A?niee
Aieeinueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y aeiiii?ea. Aeione 3 – 1997?. – N.
42-46 (0,5 ae?.a?e.)

6. Oeaa?/oe E.I. I?iaeaie ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aei?e?inoaao
Aieeinueei? iaeano? // Iaoeiaee a?niee Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y aaa?ao?/i? iaoee. –1998, ?5 – N.54-55 (0,3 ae?.a?e.)

7. Oeaa?/oe E.I. O?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy ?iiiaaoe?e // ?aoi?ia o?iainiai
– e?aaeeoii? nenoaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee: CII – Eooeuee: AAeO, 1997 –
N.176-178 (0,1ae?.a?e.)

8. Oeaa?/oe E.I. Ioe?iea o?iainiaiai noaiiaeua no?aoiaeo i?aai?caoe?e //
I?iaeaie no?aooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?. Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai –
i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. – E,1996 – N.52-54 (0,1 ae?.a?e.).

9. Oeaa?/oe E.I. O?iainoaaiiy ?iiiaaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino? // O?iaine
Oe?a?ie i?e ia?aoiae? aei ?eieo: oai??y ? i?aeoeea: CII. – Eooeuee:
AAeO, 1996 – N.171-172 (0,1ae?.a?e.)

10. Oeaa?/oe E.I. Aiae?c o?iainiaiai noaiiaeua i?aei?e?inoa // Iaoa??aee
XLII iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ?
nooaeaio?a AAeO ?i. Ean? Oe?a?iee. – Eooeuee: AAeO, 1996. – N. (
0,1ae?oe.a?e)

AIIOAOe?ss

Oeaa?/oe E.I. Oi?aae?iiy ?iiiaaoe?yie a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?
Oe?a?ie.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.02.03. – “I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy,
ieaioaaiiy oa ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?eith”. – Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? ?icaeyaeathoueny iniiai? i?eioeeie i?aai?caoe??
aoaeoeaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy i?iaeoeoiaeie ?iiiaaoe?yie a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie c iaoith caaacia/aiiy ?aae?caoe?? aeeiiaiiy i?eioeeio
?iiiaaoe?eiiai oeyoo ?icaeoeo aea?aeaae. I?iaiae?ciaaii iniiai? i?e/eie
?iiiaaoe?eii? ?ia?oiino? ae?iaieoeoaa oa oeyo? ?o onoiaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy
?iiiaaoe?eiiai ni?eeiyooy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?iiiaaoe?y, ?iiiaaoe?eiee i?ioean, ?iiiaaoe?eia
aeoeai?noue, ?iiiaaoe?eia ni?eeiyooy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oeaa?/oe E.A. Oi?aaeaiea eiiiaaoeeyie a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.02.03. – “I?aaiecaoeey oi?aaeaiey, ieaie?iaaiey e
?aaoee?iaaiey yeiiiieee”. – Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei.
Eaaia O?aiea, Eueaia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniao?eaathonue iniiaiua i?eioeeiu i?aaiecaoeee
yooaeoeaiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey eiiiaaoeeyie a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea n
oeaeueth iaania/aiey ?aaeecaoeee i?eioeeia eiiiaaoeeiiiiai iooe ?acaeoey
ainoaea?noaa.

A ia?aii ?acaeaea ?aaiou aunaa/eaathony oai?aoe/aneea iniiau oi?aaeaiey
eiiiaaoeeyie a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea. Ii?aaeaeaii nooue, oa?aeoa? e
yeiiiie/aneea ooieoeee eiiiaaoeee, a/aniinoe onoaiiaeaii, /oi eiiiaaoeee
anoue enoi/ieeii ?acaeoey yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu. a aaia?aoi?ii
eiiiaaoeee yaeyaony i?aaei?eyoea. Iiyoiio enneaaeiaaiey a ?aaioa
i?iaaaeaiu ia o?iaia i?aaei?eyoee. Auaeaeaiu iniiaiua i?e/eiu
i?ioeai?a/ee iaaeaeo ooieoeeiie?iaaieai e ?acaeoeai oicyenoaaiiuo
noauaeoia ia eiiiaaoeeiiiie iniiaa, e eioi?ui ioianaii
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ?acoeueoaoia eiiiaaoeee e eia?oiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa.
A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaii iaoaieciu i?aiaeieaiey i?e/ei eiiiaaoeeiiiie
eia?oiinoe a aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoee a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo.

Ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua e?eoa?ee yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeee e eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Caia/aii, /oi iieacaoaee yooaeoeaiinoe iaoe?iu e
iiiaianiaeoiu, iiyoiio eo eiiieaeniiio aini?eyoeth niinianoaoao
iino?iaiiia a ?aaioa aea?aai yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeee. Naeaeaii iiiuoeo
?anniio?aoue aii?in oi?aaeaiey eiiiaaoeeyie a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea
/a?ac i?ecio nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaea e oi?aaeaieth. i?aaeeiaeaii
iaiauathuoth i?aaiecaoeeiiioth iiaeaeue i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu a
oneiaeyo eiiiaaoeeiiiie no?aoaaee ooieoeeiie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey,
eniieueciaaiea eioi?ie iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaiua i?eioeeiu,
niinianoaothuea iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiiai oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiie. Onoaiiaeaii iniiaiua oaeoi?u, ii?aaeaeythuea
niaoeeoeeo oi?aaeaiey eiiiaaoeeyie a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea Oe?aeiu, e
eioi?ui ioianaiu neooaoeeiiiua ia?aiaiiua aioo?aiiae n?aaeu
i?aaei?eyoey: no?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoey, aaee/eia eiathueony ?ano?nia
(oeiainiauo, iaoa?eaeueiuo, o?oaeiauo) e neooaoeeiiiua ia?aiaiiua
aiaoiae n?aaeu i?aaei?eyoey: noaiaiue ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey,
einoeoooeeiiiay n?aaea, ?uiie e iaoaieci eiieo?aioeee.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea aeenna?oaoeeiiiiai enneaaeiaaiey ?anniao?eaathony
iniaaiiinoe e iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe a
Oe?aeia a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo. Ioia/aii, /oi e?ecen eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe a Oe?aeia n eaaeaeui aiaeii noaiiaeony ana aieaa
aeoaieei. Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo i?e/ei yoiai anoue iaaeaaii?eyoiay
iae?in?aaea no?aiu a iniiaiii ec-ca ianoaaeeueiinoe yeiiiie/aneeo e
iieeoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia. Enneaaeiaaii ?ieue e ianoi ainoaea?noaa a nenoaia
noeioee?iaaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiie aini?eei/eainoe yeiiiieee e ii?aaeaeaii,
/oi a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee ooieoeey ainoaea?noaa i?e
oi?aaeaiee eiiiaaoeeyie ninoieo ai aiaae?aiee yeiiiieei – i?aaiauo
noeioeia aeoeaecaoeee eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

I?iaaaeai aiaeec aeeiaieee eiiiaaoeeiiiuo cao?ao i?aaei?eyoey. Naeaeai
auaiae ia yooaeoeaiie no?oeoo?a enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey eiiiaaoeeiiiuo
cao?ao a caaeneiinoe io a?aiaiiiai o?aiaea eo ?acaa?ouaaiey. ?ann/eoaii
o?iaaiue ?enea eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e ii?aaeaeaii, /oi a
nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ?ene eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe oeaeaniia?acii
?anniao?eaaoue eae noio ?enea eiie?aoiiai eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?aeoa,
oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaei?eyoey, aiaae?ythuaai eiiiaaoeeth, e ?enea
iae?in?aaeu (nenoaiiiai ?enea).

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea ?aaiou i?iecaaaeai iiene iooae iiauoaiey
yooaeoeaiinoe eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia. i?aaeeiaeaia noaia oaeoi?ia
aeeyiey ia ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue eiiiaaoeeiiiuo i?ioeannia: onoaiiaeaii.
/oi iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ieacuaaao oeaia eiiiaaoeeiiiie
i?iaeoeoeee e nieaeaiea ?enea eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe. N oeaeueth
onoaiiaeaiey niioaaonoaothuae oeaiu ia eiiiaaoeeiiioth i?iaeoeoeeth
i?iecaaaeai aiaeec yeci- e yiaeiaaiiuo oaeoi?ia aeeyiey ia o?iaaiue
oeaiu. Ii?aaeaeaii, /oi a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo ia?aii/a?aaeiiai aeeyiey
ia oeaiiia?iciaaiea eiaao ainoaea?noaaiiay iiaeaea?aeea iio?aaeoaeae
eiiiaaoeeiiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Aunieee o?iaaiue ?enea eiiiaaoeeiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe iaoneaaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue eiiieaeniiai iiaeoiaea e
i?iaeaiai oi?aaeaiey ?eneii. A ?aaioa i?eaaaeaia eiiieaeniay noaia
oi?aaeaiey ?eneii, eioi?ay iauaaeeiyao i?eioeeiu aeoeaiiai ?aaae?iaaiey
e ianneaiiai aiaoaoaeuenoaa, /oi iicaieyao iaeaieaa iieii aeinoe/ue
yooaeoa iioeiaeueiiai ?enea eiiiaaoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiiiaaoeey, eiiiaaoeeiiiue i?ioeann, eiiiaaoeeiiiay
aeoeaiinoue, eiiiaaoeeiiiay aini?eei/eainoue.

SUMMARY

Schkvarchuk L. Management of innovation in the crisis economy of
Ukraine. – Manuscript.

The thesis for scientific degree of Candidate of Economics by speciality
08.02.03. – “Organization of management, planing and regulation of
economic”. – Lviv State University named by Ivan Franko, Lviv, 1998.

In the thesis basic princeples of organization of effective system of
innovation management in the crisis economy have been investigated for
the realization of innovation state development. The main reasons of
national production innovation sluggishness and the ways of it
liqudation have been analised. The masures of innovation activity
stimulation have been offered.

Key words: innovation, innovation management, innovation activity,
innovation possibility.

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