2

OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AeA?AEAAIIAI OI?AAE?IIss

I?E I?ACEAeAIOIA? OE?A?IE

?ICIOOAIEI ?aai Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 351.713

OI?AAE?IIss AeA?AEAAIEIE AEAeAOEAIE

A IA?AO?AeIEO AEIIII?EAO

25.00.05 — aaeocaaa oi?aae?iiy: oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a iaoe c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

AeCTHAEE Noaiai Aeaieeiae/,

Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, i?ioani? eaoaae?e

aeiiii?/ii? oai??? oa ?noi??? aeiiii?ee.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

AAAEAE TH??e Ieeieaeiae/,

?inoeooo aeiiii?/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy IAI

Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo oaoiieia?/iiai

i?iaiicoaaiiy oa ?iiiaaoe?eii? iie?oeee;

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?AAe?NIA Aiaoie?e ?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei i?e Ee?anueeiio

iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai?
Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ciai?oi?o
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei;

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IAAEEOAIEI Ieoaeei Ieeieaeiae/

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeiiii?/ii? oai???.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee o?iainiaee ?inoeooo

?i?noa?noaa o?iain?a Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e

?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a aea?aeaae, Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 23 ” eenoiiaaea ” 1999 ?. i 14-00 aiaeei?
ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.810.02 a Oe?a?inuee?e
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: 252057, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20, aoae. 201.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca
aae?anith: i. Ee?a, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “20 ” aeiaoiy ” 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
A. I. Iiaianthe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. Ci?ie, ui a?aeaoeeny ? a?aeaoaathoueny o an?e No?aei?e ?a?ii? a
ca’yceo c ?iciaaeii N?N?, i?e?iaeii, ia caeeoeeeny iica oaaaith
aeine?aeiee?a nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a. Ieoaiiy iiooeo ? aeai?o
oeyo?a ?icaeoeo ae??oothoue aeey naaa eiaeia c iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa.
? a oeueiio ieai? iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oei ia/a ia ?o iniia?
iaa?oioiaai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? iaaaeueii iio??ai? iieiaeei aea?aeaaai.

?aae?caoe?y ??oaiue uiaei aoae?aieoeoaa naiino?eieo aea?aeaa, ye?
iiiiaieee na?oiaa ni?aoiaa?enoai, ?icoi??oueny, caaaa/o? ??ciiiai?oio
iae?o?o aea?aeaaioai?/iai ?ooo. ?acii c oei iaeiia??ii oyaeei caiiai
a?aeaoaeiaoaaoe e oe?eani?yiiaaii ?icaeaaoe iiao aea?aeaao,
cae?enithaaoe ia ae?e? ia?ao?ae a?ae aeeeoaoo?e aei aeaiie?ao??, a?ae
eeaniaiai i?aaiii?yaeeo aei i?aaiai? aea?aeaae, a?ae
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee aei ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa. Aeey
oeueiai iio??aia iiaa aea?aeaaia aeiiii?/ia ieneaiiy, ca?aeii c yeei
i?ioean oai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae aeiiiaithaaany a ia?aoiaeii aei
iiai? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie.

I/aaeaeii, ui iniaeea?noth e?eciaiai oa?aeoa?o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa ? a?aenooi?noue iaeaaeieo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a, caeaoieo
ii-iiaiio i?aai?coaaoe ?iaioo e cioneoe iaeaaeiei /eiii
ooieoe?iioaaoe aea?aeaaiee iaoai?ci, aeeth/ath/e e aeiiii?/iee. Ui ae
noino?oueny aeiiii?/ieo i?e/ei e?ece, oi c on??th iaeiicia/i?noth iiaeia
neacaoe, ui aiie eaaeaoue a noa??e nenoai?, a aeene?ei?iaoe?ei?e
i?aeoeoe? ieaioaaiiy ia?iaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa, a ?acth/eo
caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ieo i?iii?oe?yo, a no?oeoo?ieo ia?aeinao ? nenoai?
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ui ii?oooaaea an? aa?o?ni? i?iii?oe?? ? noeioee aei
aoaeoeaii? ae?yeueiino?.

On?i, ooi oaaaeii noaaeeoue ca i?ioeanaie, ye? inoaii?i /anii
a?aeaoaathoueny a e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith, noa? c?icoi?eei,
ui oni?o ia?aoai?aiue oeaio?ae?ciaaii ieaiiaiai ainiiaea?noaa o ?eieiaa
aoaea cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaoe a?ae oiai, iane?eueee oaeaeei ? oni?oii
oe? e?a?ie ciiaeooue noai?eoe iaiao?aei? aeey ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee o?neaeuei? i?aaie. A?i oaeiae aoaea caeaaeaoe a?ae oiai,
iane?eueee iinaaeia? iniae, ia yeeo iieeaaeaia a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee, ?icoi?thoue naith ?ieue.

A aiioo oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai ieaioaaiiy ia iaei naino aiai?eoe i?i
iiaeaoeiai-athaeaeaoio iie?oeeo ? i?i aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee, ine?eueee
aeei?enoaiiy oeeo iiiyoue ia?aaeaa/aei ? aeiaaaei iayaiino? i?eaaoieo
o?iain?a ?, ye iane?aeie, e?oiiiai i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o. Aei ii/aoeo
i?ioeano ia?aoai?aiue ana iaeaaeaei aea?aeaa?. Iaeiae, ?yae o?neaeueieo
ooieoe?e, ye oea ?icoi??oueny a e?a?iao c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith,
aeeiioaaeeny ia aea?aeaaiei aia?aoii, a aea?aeaaieie i?aei?e?inoaaie.
Ia??aeei oe? i?aei?e?inoaa caaacia/oaaee nai?o i?aoe?aiee?a oa ?o n?i`?
aeeoeii, iaaee/iei ianeoaiaoaaiiyi, i?ioan?eiith i?aeaioiaeith, yneyie,
aeeoy/eie naaeeaie, niaoeiaaaceiaie, iain?yie, ??ciiiai?oieie aeaeaie
nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae oiui. Aiie oaeiae a?aeiia?aeaee ca cia/io /anoeio
“aea?aeaaieo” eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue. Ine?eueee a?ae aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa aeiaaaeiny iaeiaoe i?aoe?aiee?a iaa?oue oiae?, eiee a
oeueiio ia aoei iio?aae, oi e io?oe?eiiai aac?ia?ooy ia aoei a oeeo
e?a?iao. sse iane?aeie oaei? iie?oeee, a aeaieo e?a?iao ia aoei i?ia?ai
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui a e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith
aeiiii?eith, aea?aeaai? i?aei?e?inoaa ? iaaeae? aeeiiothoue ?yae
o?neaeueieo ooieoe?e ? ana ua aeei?enoiaothoue iaaeeeoeiao /enaeuei?noue
i?aoe?aiee?a. Aeey caaa?oaiiy ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
iaiao?aeii, uia oe? i?aei?e?inoaa aeaeaaoaaee a?eueoo e?euee?noue nai?o
iaia`yce?a uiaei caaeiaieaiiy nioe?aeueieo iio?aa aea?aeaa?. I?e oeueiio
aeaeaoee i?aei?e?inoa ia ?o caaacia/aiiy ciaioaoueny, a aeaeaoee
aea?aeaae c?inoooue. Cae/aeii, ?c oeueiai ia aeieeaa?, ui aea?aeaaa ia?
acyoe ia naaa an? iaia`ycee, ye? iei? aeeiiothoueny i?aei?e?inoaaie.

Aa?oi i?aee?aneeoe, ui aaaaoi oi?i iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ? aea?aeaaieo
aeaeaoe?a ?nioaaee a i?eoiaaiiio aeae?. I?eeeaaeaie oeueiio iiaeooue
aooe caaeuai? aaethoi? eo?ne, c aeiiiiiaith yeeo iayaii iiiaeaoeiaoaaany
aenii?o ? noaneaeoaaany ?iii?o, noaneaeoaaeeny oaeiae iice/aeueieee ?
iiiaeaoeiaoaaeeny aeanieee caiuaaeaeaiue, eiio?ieue ca oe?iaie ? iecueea
iii?iaeueia ca?ia?oia ieaoiy. Ua iaei??th oi?iith iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aoa
aeao?oeeo niiaeea/eo oiaa??a i?e iioi/ieo oe?iao, ine?eueee oea
cioooaaei aaaaoueio a?aeeeaaeaoe caiuaaeaeaiiy iaa?oue i?e a?ae`?iieo
i?ioeaioieo noaaeao.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oeth nioe?aeueio oa o?neaeueio ?ieue aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa, yea i?eiaiooaaea aeanio ?ieue aea?aeaae, ? ia aeeaey/enue
ia ?nioaaiiy i?eoiaaieo iiaeaoe?a oa noaneae?e, ae?aooaai? ? yai?
caaaeuei? noie iiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue ? aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a aoee
aeoaea aenieeie, iniaeeai yeui caaaeeoe ia oa, ui a oeeo e?a?iao aeioiae
ia aeooo ianaeaiiy aoa a?aeiinii iecueeei.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa o?nii iia`ycaia c ?ic?iaeith ye oai?aoe/ieo, oae ? i?aeoe/ieo
i?iaeai aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaieo eioo?a o e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith
aeiiii?eith ? iniaeeai a Oe?a?i?. O e?a?iao, ui iine?aeiaii i?iaiaeyoue
iie?oeeo aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy athaeaeaoieo o?iain?a, noai?th?oueny
a?aeiia?aeia ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa aaca, ui ni?ey? caaacia/aiith
iioeiaeueiiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? ? aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino?.

?ao?iniaeoeaii ioe?ithth/e ia?o? iani?eea? ni?iae i?iaaaeaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i a Oe?a?i?, iiaeia neacaoe iiia?aaeiuei eeoa iaeia,
ui aoaeue-yea c oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie c i?aoaic??th ia iaoeiao iiaecio
ia? aeineoue a?aeaeaeaia a?aeiioaiiy aei ?aaeueiiai aeeooy. sseui ?
? uinue i?ea?iaeueia, oi aiii ia a iayaieo o?aaiaioao oai???, a a
eiie?aoiiio aeeoo? — ia?ao?aeiiio ia??iae? — aei yeiai i? eeane/iee
ia?eneci-eai?i?ci, a i? eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa /e iiiaoa?ecio i?yiiai a?aeiioaiiy ia iathoue.

A oiio i???ioaoe?y a ?icaeoeo ye aeiiii?ee, oae ? aeiiii?/ii? oai???,
ia ?eiie iiaeiia iine?aeiaii «ia?inoaoe» iiaeie caaaeaiiyie ? oae naii
ca?eueiyoeny a?ae ieo ii i??? ao?aoe nai?? aeooaeueiino?, ii i??? ?o
?aae?caoe??. Aeania oe? ieoaiiy ? iathoue /a?aoaaoenue ai?iaeiaae
anueiai ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ? neeaaeaoe eiai nooue.

Iaeiei c oaeeo ieoaiue, ui a ??cieo (ae?aiao?aeueii-i?ioeeaaeieo)
nenoaiao iaaoaaei iaaaeaeaaoii? oaaae ? cao/aiiy ? oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui eaoaai??y «aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee» ia aoea ia’?eoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy eieeoi?o ?aaeyinueeeo ? oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo. A iniiaiiio
?icaeyaeaeeny ieoaiiy aeo?ao noiniaii aea?aeaaiiai ? nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy, i?aeaioiaee ? inai?iiy ae?iaieoeoaa iiaeo aeae?a
i?iaeoeoe??, oo?eiaiiy aia?aoo aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy. Iaa?oue o
aioeeeeiiaaee/ieo oa aeia?aeeiaeo o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo neiaieeao ia
ciaoiaeeeiny i?noey aeey iiyniaiiy noo? oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie
aeaeaoeaie. ? oea c?icoi?ei, ai i???ioaoe?y ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio
aoea aeo?aoiith, a oiio na?aeiii aeoai?thaaoe aioeiiaea a inia?
oi?aae?iiy ? eiio?ieth ca aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie i?ooi ia cae?aany.

sse i?aaeei, i?iaeaia oi?aae?iiy aeaeaoeaie acaaae? ?icaeyaeaeany a
eiioaeno? aaeocaaiai, a ia ooieoe?iiaeueiiai i?eioeeio oi?aae?iiy, aea
iniiaieie neeaaeiaeie aoee aeaeaoee ia ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai, ia
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?i? caoiaee (ina?oo, eoeueoo?o, iaoeo, ioi?iio
caei?ia’y, o?ce/io eoeueoo?o, nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy, nioe?aeueia
caaacia/aiiy), ia iai?iio e?a?ie, ia no?oeoo?e, ui cae?eniththoue
aea?aeaaia ea??aieoeoai. Inoaii?i /anii iiyaeeiny ?yae aeaeaiue, a yeeo
?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeaie aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a Oe?a?ie o oe?eiio*, a
oaeiae iiiia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy** oa noaoo?***, i?enay/ai? ie?aiei
aniaeoai aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a.

Oae /e ?iaeoa ieoaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a o ia?ao?aeieo aeiiii?eao
?icaeyaeathoueny o i?aoeyo A. Aaeue/einueeiai, A. Aa?oey, A. Aie?eiaa,
N. Aecthaeea, A. Eaanithea, A. E?aa/aiea, A. E?aae?niaa, I. Iaaeeoaiea,
Ae. Iieicaiea, A. Nooi?i?ii?, A. Oaaeiniaa, C. Neooay, A. O?e?iaiea, A.
*a?iyea oa ?i.

Ui ae noino?oueny aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie
aeaeaoeaie a eiioaeno? ?o aieeao ia oae? aaaeeea?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane ye no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa,
noaa?e?caoe?y

_______________________

*Aaneeee I.Ae. Aea?aeaai? o?iaine Oe?a?ie: Iaa/. iin?aiee — E.: Aeua
oeiea, 1997. — 383 n.; Nooi?i?ia A. I., Oaaeinia A. I., Aiae?ouaiei A.
I. Aea?aeaaa-Iiaeaoee-a?cian: (?c na?oiaiai aeina?aeo o?neaeueiiai
?aaoethaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee). — E.: Eea?aeue, 1994. — 464 n.

** Aaaeae TH. I. Aeiiii?/ia oai??y oaoiieia?/ieo ci?i. — E.: Caiia?o,
1996. — 238 n.; Aa?oeue A., Noaiaieiaa O., Eaanithe A., oa ?i. A?ae
e?ece aei ?inoo: Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??. — E.: OAAeO, 1995. — 87 n.;
Eoaiaee A. ?. Oi?aae?iiy ina?oith. — E.: OAAeO, 1997. — 302 n.; Ioio?yi
A. Iai?iiiee athaeaeao: na?oiaee aeina?ae oa iiaeeea? oeyoe ?aoi?ioaaiiy
a Oe?a?i?. — E.: I?ina?oa,1996. — 240 n.

***A?oaiaaeuenueeee TH. Iaae?iiy ae?iaieoeoaa. sse eiai iiaeieaoe //
A?/a. — 1997. -?8. — N.58-71.; Aa?oeue A. No?oeoo?a aeiiii?ee ?
no?oeoo?ia iie?oeea ?? noaa?e?caoe?? // Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie. — 1995. — ?4.
— N.18-32.; Aie?eia A. O?iueiaa aeiiii?ea ye oaeoi? aeanoaa?e?caoe??
aeiiii?ee // Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie. — 1996. — ?9. — N.90-91.; Naaeoe I. ?.
?ioeyoe?y a Oe?a?i?: aeoiee ? no/aniee noai // Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie. —
1994. — ?2. — N.39-45.; *ae?iye A. Iiaeaeue aeiiii?ee: aea?? Oe?a?ie //
Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie. — 1995. — ?9. — N. 31-39.

aeiiii?ee, ?iciiae?e ?ano?n?a, ?iaanooaaiiy, noaneae?thaaiiy,
caeiyo?noue ?iai/i? neee, ca?ia?oia ieaoa, aea?aeaaia caai?aiaai?noue,
nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy oa ?io?, oi ia a?aei?io a?ae i?iaeaie
iaaeoiaeaeaiue (ianaiia?aae, iiaeaoee a on?e ?o ??ciiiai?oiino?) aiie ia
ciaeoee aaeaeaaoiiai iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy, ye a eieeoi?e ?aaeyinuee?e
aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo??, oae ? a no/ani?e a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo??.

sseui ae i?iaanoe iaeyae ca?oa?aeii? aeiiii?/ii? e?oa?aoo?e, ui
i?enay/aia aena?oeaiith i?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie, oi
iiaeia c?iaeoe ?yae aeniiae?a. Ii-ia?oa, aiaeia?/ia iao?e,
niinoa??aa?oueny neooaoe?y ? a eieeoi?o nioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?iao
(Iieueua, Oai?ueia, ?oioi?y oa ?i.), eiee i?iaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy
oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie ciaoiaeeoueny a aia??iiaeueiiio
noai?.

Ii-ae?oaa, ui noino?oueny iaoeiai? ? iaa/aeueii? aeiiii?/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo e?a?i, oi ooo ia a?ae/oaa?oueny
aeao?oeeoo*.

Aiae?coth/e ca?oa?aeio aeiiii?/io e?oa?aoo?o, yea noino?oueny ieoaiue
oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie, ana ae aa?oi c?iaeoe a?aeiia?aeiee
iaaiein ia oa, ui an? oe? ieoaiiy aeeeaaeathoueny a oiiaao noaei?
aeiiii?/ii? oai??? ? noaa?eueiiai aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. A oiio ieoaiiy
oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo a?ae
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith aei ?eieiaiai ??
aiaeiao iaaoaa? aeooaeueiiai cao/aiiy aeey cia/ii? e?eueeino? e?a?i
No?aeii? ? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie, Ac??, Ao?eee.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e iayaiee i?aeoe/iee aeina?ae a oi?aae?ii? aea?aeaaieie
aeaeaoeaie a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, ea??aieoeoai o?yae?a ciiaei a
nei?enoaoeny iaaieie aei?iaeaie, ye? aaea iai?aoeueiaai? a oe?e
ae?eyioe? ye ie?aieie iaoeiaoeyie, oae ? iaaieie i?aeia?iaeieie
i?aai?caoe?yie (I?aeia?iaeiee Aaethoiee Oiiae, Na?oiaee Aaie oa ?io?).

Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeina?aeo e?a?i, ui cae?enieee ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee ia? aacoiiaia cia/aiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee
Oe?a?ie, yea iiaeiia aooe ni?yiiaaia ia eeoa ia noaa?e?caoe?th
noni?eueiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, a e ia iiooee iioaioe?eieo ?aca?a?a
?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee. Naia an? oe? ieoaiiy a e?ioeaaiio i?aenoieo
aecia/eee aea?? oaie, iaoo, i?aaeiao, ia`?eo aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca`ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa i?iaiaeeeany ia eaoaae?? aeiiii?ee ? o?iain?a Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e

____________________________

* Premchand A. Public Expenditure Management.- Washington, D.C.:
International Monetary Fund, 1993. — 262 p.; Rosen Harvey S. Public
Finance. — Homewood, 1987. — 613 p.; Sandford C. T. Economics of
Public Finance: an economic analysis of government expenditure and
revenue in the United Kingdom. — Oxford — New York: Pergamon Press,
1992. — 394 p.; Tanzi Vito. Public Finance in developing countries. —
Brookfield: Gover, 1991. — 249p.

I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ? aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei Caaaeaiiai ieaio
iaoeiai? ae?yeueiino? Aeaaeai?? ca eiiieaeniei iaoeiaei i?iaeoii
“Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy oa i?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy”, oaia:
“Oaeineiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith Oe?a?ie” (?17).

Ia`?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? noai, iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a a ia?ao?aeieo aeiiii?eao, noeoii?noue aeiiii?/ieo
aca?iia?aeiinei, ye? aeieeathoue a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy, ?iciiae?eo,
iai?io, niiaeeaaiiy (aeo?a/aiiy) o?iainiaeo eioo?a a aeiiii?eao e?a?i c
ia?ao?aeiith nenoaiith, ianaiia?aae a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie
caoiae?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a aoaeoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie. O eiioaeno? i?iaeaiaoeee
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe a?aeiia?aeii aei iniiaii? oe?eueiai? i???ioaoe??
iinoaaeaii ianooiiee eiiieaen caaaeaiue:

· i?iaiae?coaaoe noai, ianooaae aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ? ?iciiae?e
?ano?n?a a oiiaao no?oeoo?ieo ci?i ? noaa?e?caoe??;

· aeyaeoe ? ioe?ieoe aieea aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia iae?iaeiiii?/i?
i?ioeane oa aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy;

· iaa?oiooaaoe iioeiaeueio athaeaeaoio nenoaio a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee ye iniiaiiai ?ino?oiaioo noaa?e?caoe?eii? iie?oeee;

· c`ynoaaoe aaeaeaaoi?noue ai?iaaaeaeoaaii? a aeeooy
athaeaeaoii-iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee aei aea?aeaaieo nenoai athaeaeaoo oa
ca?oiino?;

· aeyaeoe nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io i?e?iaeo iicaathaeaeaoieo oiiae?a;

· ?ice?eoe ci?no, oi?ie ? iaoiaee noaneae?thaaiiy;

· aecia/eoe iiaeeeaino? aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia ?aae?caoe?th
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee;

· aeine?aeeoe nioe?aeueio ? aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue aea?aeaaieo
aeaeaoe?a;

· iaa?oiooaaoe aaaeeea?noue ooieoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a.

A?iioaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaco?oueny ia i?eiouaii?, ui ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
cai?iiiiiaaieo caoiae?a uiaei oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a aeei?enoaiiy
aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a a Oe?a?i? oiiaeeeaeoue aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo
aa??aio?a oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeaoii? iie?oeee a caeaaeiino? a?ae
aeiiii?/ii? aeieo?eie aea?aeaae; a oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee ?
i?iiiceoe??, c?iaeai? a ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeaaeooue
iiaeeea?noue ?aoe?iiaeuei?oa i?ae?eoe aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie a ia?ao?aeieo oiiaao.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeany nenoaia
caaaeueiiiaoeiaeo oa niaoe?aeueieo iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy, oaeeo ye
aiae?c, neioac, ?iaeoeoe?y, aeaaeoeoe?y. Aaco aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiiaiththoue iieiaeaiiy no/anii? aeiiii?/ii? oai???, ?iaioe i?ia?aeieo
a/aieo ? oao?aoe?a a iaeano? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, aea?aeaaieo
o?iain?a. Aeei?enoai? oaeiae aeiiii?ei-aiae?oe/i? e iienia? iaoiaee,
iaoiaeeee iae?eo oaeoia?ao?/iiai iaoa??aeo, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aenia?oieo
ioe?iie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o ?ice?eoo? i?iaeai
aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaieo o?iain?a, oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie,
oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?ci?a ?aae?caoe?? athaeaeaoii? iie?oeee, a iaa?oiooaaii?
iaia’yceiaeo ia?aaeoiia uiaei aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy o?iainiaeo
?ano?n?a. O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??:

· i?iaiae?ciaaii noai aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ? aecia/aii oaiaeaioe?? ?o
?icaeoeo o e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith. Aecia/aii iniiai?
iai?yiee aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaieo eioo?a;

· ae?noaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai ia oeyoo
iioei?caoe?? aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a o eiioaeno? iae?iaeiiii?/ii?
iie?oeee;

· aeyaeaii, ui oni?oia ?aoi?ia nenoaie aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ?
iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith ?aae?caoe?? aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i. Aeaiiioaae
iaoai?cio oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai ieaioaaiiy aei oeeo i?? ia i?eca?a aei
yeeoinue na?eicieo ci?i o ?ic?iaoe? ? aeeiiaii? aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo;

· aeiaaaeaii, ui ?aoi?ia aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ciaoiaeeoueny o o?niiio
aca?iica`yceo c ?aoi?iaie o oaeeo noa?ao, ye iiiaeaoeoaaiiy,
oe?iiooai?aiiy, ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa;

· iaa?oioiaaii, ui ia aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy aieeaa? ia aaee/ia
aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a, a ?o no?oeoo?a; ui aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie cae?enith?oueny eeoa ia ??ai? aeaeea?aoe?e.
Oeaio?aeueiee o?yae ia iiaeiai canoiniaoaaoe i?yi? iaoiaee eiio?ieth ca
ae?yeuei?noth i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee, ia?aeeaaeath/e ia naaa
aaciina?aaeith a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ae??oaiiy i?noeaaeo ieoaiue;

· c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui aeey e?a?i c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith
ia?oi/a?aiaei caaaeaiiyi ? eiinie?aeaoe?y athaeaeaoo;

· anoaiiaeaii, ui noaneae?? aenooiathoue ye iaaaoeai? iiaeaoee.
O?iainoaaiiy ?c athaeaeaoo noaneae?e ne?ae i?eieieoe;

· c`yniaaii iaiao?aei?noue cai?ie nenoaie ca?oiino?, c oei, uia
caaacia/eoe i?aeaioiaeo ca?oieo iaoa??ae?a ? iaaeaiiy aaeaeaaoii?
?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aeo?aoe ae?iaieoeoaa uiaei ??cieo iineoa. Oeae ca`ycie
ia? ciaoiaeeoeny a iino?ei?e aeeiai?oe?;

· aeiaaaeaii, ui aeina?ae i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo e?a?i ia? eeoa iaiaaeaia
canoinoaaiiy, ine?eueee a Oe?a?i? iie?oeea nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
eiioeaio?o?oueny ia noai?aii? nenoaie nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny ?ic?iaeith oa
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi o i?aeoeeo /a?ac i?aoe?aiee?a I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee,
I?i?noa?noaa o?iain?a, aeaiooao?a Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, i?aoe?aiee?a
Eaa?iaoo i?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, Aaei?i?no?aoe?? I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy athaeaeaoieo eioo?a,
nei?i/aiiy iai?iaeoeoeaieo aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe??, c?iaeai? a ?acoeueoao?
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ?aoe?iiaeuei?oa
i?ae?eoe aei ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie
aeaeaoeaie a ia?ao?aeieo oiiaao.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie aoee i?aaenoaaeai? aeey ?icaeyaeo ? aeei?enoaiiy
i?e i?aeaioiaoe? ?yaeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a: Caeii Oe?a?ie “I?i
aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao Oe?a?ie ia 1998 ??e” a?ae 30 a?oaeiy 1997 ?ieo
?796/97-A?; Iinoaiiaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie “I?i iniiai? iai?yiee
athaeaeaoii? iie?oeee ia 1999 ??e (Athaeaeaoia ?aciethoe?y)” a?ae 24
eeiiy 1998 ?ieo ?57-O?V; Iinoaiiaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie “I?i iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee a Oe?a?i?” a?ae 4 a?oaeiy 1996 ?ieo
?561/96-A?; Oeac I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie “I?i nei?i/aiiy aeaeaoe?a
Aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ia 1998 ??e” a?ae 8 na?iiy 1998 ?ieo ?860/98;
Iinoaiiaa Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie “I?i Iieiaeaiiy i?i ii?yaeie
neeaaeaiiy ?aeeiiai eiooi?eno aeioiae?a ? aeaeaoe?a athaeaeaoii?
onoaiiae oa i?aai?caoe??” a?ae 16 ethoiai 1998 ?. ?164 (aeia?aeea
TH?eaee/iiai oi?aae?iiy Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ? 36-20, ?36-21 a?ae
29 /a?aiy 1999 ?.).

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoiaothoueny a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean?
?yaeo aoc?a Oe?a?ie, a oiio /ene? ? a iaa/aeueiiio i?ioean? Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaoe?y ? eaae?o?eaoe?eiith iaoeiaith
i?aoeath, yea i?noeoue i?iaaaeai? aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaiiy aeey
cae?eniaiiy iiaeo iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaieo ?ic?iaie a aeiiii?/i?e aaeoc?
iaoee, ye? caaacia/othoue ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie
aeaeaoeaie a ia?ao?aeieo oiiaao. Iaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny
aaoi?ii naiino?eii. O aeena?oaoe?? ia aeei?enoiaoaaeeny ?aea? oa
?ic?iaee, ui iaeaaeaoue ni?aaaoi?ai A. Eooeaieo, ?. Oaae?ao, A.
TH?/eoeio, ?acii c yeeie aoee iaienai? iaoeia? i?aoe?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo,
ananithcieo oa ?anioae?eainueeeo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo:
“Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a
Oe?a?ie”. — Ee?a, 1996, “I?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy ? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy”.- Ee?a, 1996; “Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy”. — Ee?a, 1997;
“?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? neoaeae a Oe?a?i?: noai, i?iaeaie oa
ia?niaeoeae”. — Ee?a, 1998, “I?iaeaie iaoeiaiai caaacia/aiiy
aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aoi?ie a Oe?a?i?” — Ee?a, 1999.

Iaoa??aee ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia eaoaae??
aeiiii?ee ? o?iain?a Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ? ai?iaaaeaeai? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean i?e
aeeeaaeaii? eo?n?a: “Athaeaeaoiee i?ioean ? oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie
o?iainaie”, “Aiae?c aea?ae oa aeo?ao o aea?aeaaiiio naeoi??”.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? a 4-o iiiia?ao?yo
(30 ae?. a?e.), o 7-ie a?ioo?ao (10,4 ae?. a?e.), a iaeiiio ca??ieeo
(10,2 ae?.a?e.) oa noaooyo (6 ae?. a?e.).

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (136 iiceoe?e) oa
aeiaeaoe?a.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 373 noi??ieao oa i?noeoue 35 oaaeeoeue (a
o./. 16 — o aeiaeaoeao) ? 9 ?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

Aeiiii?/iee ?icaeoie o e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith ia iiaea ia
aieeaaoe ia ?o iie?oeeo a iaeano? aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a. A?eueo?noue
?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia aoai? ia?aoiaeo a?ae
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee,
iiaeia a?aeianoe aei aea?aeaa ?c na?aaei?i ??aiai aeioiae?a, a oie /an
ye ia?aaaaeia /anoeia ao?eeainueeeo ? ac?enueeeo e?a?i, ui
ia?aaeeaathoue ia?ao?ae, iiaeia a?aeianoe aei aea?aeaa c iecueeei
aeioiaeii. O iaaeaeaeiio ieioeiio io?oe?eieie eieaie ?a?iiaenueeeo
e?a?i, o oiio /ene? ? Oe?a?ie, yea, aei ?a/?, ia iaea ?aaeueii?
aea?aeaaiino?, ?nioaaiiy a?aeieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, ye i?aaeei, ia
aeciaaaeiny. Aea oei /anii coaiae?iiy noaei aaaeeeaei /eiieeii iie?oeee,
ia aeeaey/enue ia oa, ui i?iaeaie a?aeiino? a e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith
aeiiii?eith ?a?iie, Ao?eee oa Ac?? a?ae??ciythoueny iaeia a?ae iaeii? ca
oa?aeoa?ii i?iyao, ca nooiaiai aino?ioe, ca iane?aeeaie oiui.

Iaae?iiy oaii?a c?inoaiiy aaeiaiai aioo??oiueiai i?iaeoeoo ?
iaa?ae’?iiith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith caaaeueii? oa?aeoa?enoeee e?a?i c
ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith (aeea. oaae. 1.1).

Ca aeaieie I?aeia?iaeiiai Aaethoiiai Oiiaeo (IAO) ia 1989 ?. aaeiaee
aioo??oi?e i?iaeoeo (AAI) ia aeooo ianaeaiiy a o?noueio
no?aeii-?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao, ye? a?aeiiaeeeny a?ae oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai
ieaioaaiiy aeiiii?ee, ioe?ithaaany i?eaeecii a 2500 aeiea??a NOA, a
uiaei eieeoiueiai N?N?, oi a 1800 aeiea??a NOA. O 1995 ?. oeae iieaciee
aeey Aieaa??? neeaa 1.471, *ao?? -4.333, Oai?ueie — 4.273, Iieueu? —
3.047, ?oioi?? — 1.566, Neiaa//eie — 3.243, ?in?? — 2.337, Oe?a?ie —
1.544. Aei ii/aoeo i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?i a?eueo?noue e?a?i, ye?
ciaoiaeyoueny a noai? ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo, ?ai?oa ia?aaoaaee a oiiaao
aeiiii?/iiai canoith, i?e/iio a inoaii? ?iee cia/ia e?euee?noue ?o o
ii??aiyii? c iiia?aaei?i ia??iaeii iia??oeea nai? noaiiaeua. Aeey oaeeo
aea?aeaa oa?aeoa?ia ia??aiiaaaa ye aioo??oiueiai, oae ? ciai?oiueiai
?eie?a.

Oaaeeoey 1.1

C?inoaiiy ?aaeueiiai AAI (1992 — 1997 p.p.)

E?a?ie199219931994199519961997E?a?ie c ia?ao?aeiith
aeiiii?eith-12.0-7.1-9.0-1.8-1.31.5Oeaio?aeueia ? no?aeia
?a?iia-3.00.24.05.83.94.3Aeaai?y-6.011.07.46.06.56.0Aieaa??y-5.7-3.72.22
.5-4.50*aoineiaa//eia-6.4*ao?y-9.02.64.84.75.0Neiaa//eia-4.14.87.36.05.0
Oai?ueia-3.0-0.82.91.51.02.0Iieueua2.63.85.07.35.35.2?oioi?y-8.8-3.04.06
.94.54.0E?a?ie
Aaeo??-31.6-14.41.51.31.72.0Anoii?y-14.8-7.84.03.03.33.0Eaoa?y-34.9-14.9
0.6-1.61.51.8Eeoaa-35.0-17.01.02.71.01.5Ni?aae?oaei?noue Iacae.
E?a?i-14.1-9.6-14.6-5.7-4.4-0.3Eacaonoai-13.0-12.9-24.6-8.9
0.71.5?in?y-44.5-8.7-12.6-4.0-5.0-1.0Oe?a?ia-13.7-14.2-23.0-11.8-9.2-2.3

Aei?a/ii cacia/eoe, ui aiae?c aeaeaoe?a o e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith
aeiiii?eith cia/ii oneeaaeith?oueny ?icoiaeaeaiiyie a oe?iao ia
i?iaeoeoe?th ? ia iniiai? oaeoi?e ae?iaieoeoaa. Oea ?icoiaeaeaiiy
coiiaeaia oaeeie /eiieeaie, ye ?aaoeueiaai? oe?ie ia i?iaeoeoe?th,
ia/?oe? ? iaaei??ii neeaaei? nenoaie iieaoe i?aoe? a aea?aeaaiiio
naeoi??, ia?aaeuei? i?ioeaioi? noaaee ? iayai?noue cia/ii? e?eueeino?
iai?iieo eo?n?a, aeaye? ?c yeeo aoee iaaeoi caaeuaieie.

O oe?eiio ?yae? e?a?i c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith ? aeai? noii?aii?
yeino?, ui iia’ycaii ye c aee?eaeaiiyi oe?i, oae ? c canoinoaaiiyi
iaa?aeiia?aeieo

ae?eniino? nenoai eeaneo?eaoe??. Ioiae, oeeo?e ii /anooe? aea?aeaaieo
aeaeaoe?a o AAI oa ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i neeaae aea?aeaaieo aeo?ao ia caaaeaee
i?aaaeeai a?aeaeaathoue ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?
ooieoe?iiaeueieo oaeoi??a o aeai?e

e?a?i?. Oa?aeoa?iith iniaeea?noth ainiiaea?nueeiai aeeooy e?a?i ia
ii/aoeiaiio aoai? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee aoea aeii?ioth/a ?ieue
aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o ye o ae?iaieoeoa?, oae ? o aeei?enoaii? a?o/eciyii?
i?iaeoeoe??. O a?eueoino? ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i c ia?ao?aeiith
aeiiii?eith oey ?ieue i?aeoe/ii ??aiioe?iia iiiiiie??, ine?eueee ia
aea?aeaai? i?aei?e?inoaa i?eiaaea? 90-95 a?aenioe?a a?ae AAI. Oeei
iiynith?oueny oie oaeo, ui ia?aaaaeia /anoeia eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue oaae
noinoaaeany aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o.

Ooieoe?iiaeueia no?oeoo?a aeaeaoe?a on?o ??ai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
oiaoi iiae?e oeeo aeo?ao ca iciaeith ?o i?ecia/aiiy, aeaco? ia
aaaeeea?noue, yea i?eae?ey?oueny a ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith
aeiiii?eith oaeei noa?ai, ye nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy ? iaaeaiiy aeeoea,
i?e/iio inoaiiy noaooy i?aaenoaaey? niaith /anoeio iieaoe i?aoe?. Oae, o
1993 ?. aeaeaoee ia nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy ? aeeoeiaee oiiae o
Aieaa???, ?oioi?? ? *ao?? (aeea. oaae. 1.2) neeaee 28-35 a?aenioe?a a?ae
caaaeueii? noie athaeaeaoieo aeo?ao i?aai?a aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy o
a?aenioeao aei AAI.

Oaaeeoey 1.2

?a?iiaenuee? e?a?ie a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae ? no?oeoo?a aeaeaoe?a
oeaio?aeueieo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy

(1993 ?. o % aei AAI)

E?a?ieIai?iiaIna?oaIoi?iiaNioe?aeueieeCaa. aeo?aoecaei?ia’ycaoeno oa
?i.(% a?ae
AAI)19931993199319931993Aieaa??y6.33.43.334.247.8?oioi?y8.19.07.924.540.
4*ao?y6.311.018.128.341.7

Oey /anoea o an?o o?ueio e?a?iao aoea cia/ii aeuith, i?ae o e?a?iao c
?eieiaith aeiiii?eith, ? aeua, i?ae /anoea aeaeaoe?a oeeo aea e?a?i ia
ioi?iio caei?ia’y ? ina?oo. Aeaye? e?a?ie c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith
ianee ? i?iaeiaaeothoue ianoe aaaeeee oyaa? a?enueeiaeo aeaeaoe?a.

Ne?ae caoaaaeeoe, ui a ?yae? iacaeaaeieo e?a?i, eio?? aei iaaeaaiueiai
aoee neeaaeiaeie N?N?, oaeeo ye Oe?a?ia, i?iaeaia i?iaaaeaiiy
aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i aeiiiaith?oueny i?iaeaiith oi?ioaaiiy naiino?eii?
aea?aeaae. Iaeia ni?aaa, eiee aeiiii?/ia ?aoi?ia ?aae?co?oueny a oaeeo
e?a?iao ye Oai?ueia, Iieueua, ye? iaee naith aea?aeaai?noue, ? cian?i
?ioa ni?aaa — Oe?a?ia, yea i?ioyaii noie?oue ia iaea nai?? aea?aeaae, a
nei??oa, aoea ?? iicaaaeaia. A oiio ia aea?aeaaiee naeoi? a e?a?iao, ui
iathoue naith aea?aeaai?noue ? ye? ?? o?eueee caeiaoaathoue,
iieeaaea?oueny iaiaeiaeiaa ?ieue.

sse a?aeiii, aea?aeaaiee naeoi? iaieio/a a?aa cia/io ?ieue a oiiaao
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee, oiaoi oai, aea o?yae oe?iei
caeo/aiee aei ni?aa ae?iaieoeoaa, aeae?eaiiy ?ano?n?a ? ?iciiae?eo
e?ioeaai? i?iaeoeoe?? /a?ac iia?aoe?? caaaeueiiai athaeaeaoo (athaeaeaoe
iaeanieo ? ?aeiiieo i?aai?a aeaaee, aaaaoi/enaeuei? iicaathaeaeaoi?
oiiaee), a oaeiae /a?ac ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa,
o?neaeueii? ooieoe?? o?iainiaeo i?aai?a ?, c?aooith, o?iainiaeo
i?aai?caoe?e. Ia caaaeath/e ia ?o cia/io ?ieue, o?iainia? ooieoe?? a
aea?aeaaiiio naeoi?? aoee i?aeii?yaeeiaai? nenoai? ieaioaaiiy, yea
aacoaaeany ia e?euee?nieo iieacieeao. Ii noo? o?iainia? ooieoe?? aoee
eeoa i?eaeaoeii eiiieaeniiai ieaiiaiai i?ioeano. O /enei oeeo ooieoe?e
aoiaeea eiio?ieue aeeiiaiiy ieai?a ii e?aaeeoo ? eaniaiio aeeiiaiith
athaeaeaoo, a oaeiae aea??ea ?aooie?a a oiiaao canoinoaaiiy
anoaiiaethaaieo aaei?i?no?aoeaieie i?aaiaie oe?i.

?eieia? ?aoi?ie ciooothoue e?a?ie c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith nei?ioeoe
aai iaa?oue onoiooe ?yae ooieoe?e aea?aeaaii? aeaaee c /anoeiaith aai
iiaiith ia?aaea/ath oeeo ooieoe?e ia?iaeaeoaaiiio i?eaaoiiio naeoi?o.
?aoi?ie iiaeii? aooe ni?yiiaai? ia ciaioaiiy noa?e aea?aeaaii?
aeaniino?, nei?i/aiiy ianyao ?ano?n?a, ui ia?a?iciiae?eythoueny /a?ac
athaeaeao, ? i?aeoe/ia ciaioaiiy, a caiaeii ? i?eieiaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo
noaneae?e aeiiaoi?i ainiiaea?noaai ? i?aei?e?inoaai.

Aa?oi cacia/eoe, ui aea?aeaaiee naeoi? a?ae?a?a? nooo?ao ?ieue ? a
oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. I?e oeueiio aea?aeaaiee athaeaeao noa?
iaeiei c iniiaieo ?ino?oiaio?a iae?iaeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee. Aea?aeaaa
iiaeiia a?aoe ia naaa ciaia’ycaiiy iaaeaaaoe noni?euei? oiaa?e oa
iineoae, ye? i?eaaoiee naeoi? ia i?iaeoeo?, aai ae?iaey? a iaaeinoaoi?e
e?eueeino?, ui ia aeinyaa? nioe?aeueiiai iioeioio. Ie??i oeueiai,
aea?aeaaa caeia?oueny ia?a?iciiae?eii aeioiae?a i?ae a?iiaaeyiaie,
aa?noaaie ianaeaiiy, ??cieie iieie?iiyie ? o.ae.

I?e i?iaaaeaii? ?aoi?i ia?aae aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii iiaeii? noiyoe oae?
caaaeaiiy:

· ciaioaiiy iae?iaeiiii?/iiai aeenaaeaino;

· i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a;

· noeioethaaiiy noaa?eueiiai aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy;

· noai?aiiy oiia, ni?eyoeeaeo aeey aeinyaiaiiy nioe?aeueieo oe?eae.

C oaaae ia aeiiii?/i? oa iie?oe/i? ianoaaeie, a oaeiae ia ii/aoeia?
oiiae, a yeeo e?a?ie c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith i?enooiathoue aei
?aoi?ie, iie?oeea a noa?? aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a iieeeeaia a?aoe eeth/iao
?ieue a i?ioean? noaa?e?caoe??.

Aeei?enoaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ye caniao noeioethaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai
c?inoaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? oaea:

· iineeaiiy i?ia?aie aea?aeaaieo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue o iaoa??aeueio
?io?ano?oeoo?o ? i?aoethaaoe ia iiiiaiaiiy ethaenueeeo ?ano?n?a, i?e/iio
no?oeoo?a a?aeiia?aeieo aeaeaoe?a iiaeiia aooe oaeith, uia aiie
iaeneiaeueii aeiiiaithaaee ?iaanoeoe?? i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o (ia?oueny ia
oaac? iiaeeea?noue cai?ciaiiy i?eaaoieo ?iaanoi??a);

· ia iniaeeai aeeneo/? ia?niaeoeae ?iicaiiiai ? aioo??oiueiai
i?eaaoiiai o?iainoaaiiy e?oiiiianooaaieo i?iaeo?a aeacothoue ia
aaaeeea?noue iioaioe?eiiai aeeaaeo a iaoe?iiaeuei? caiuaaeaeaiiy eioo?a,
ye? iaaeoiaeyoue ?c aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o;

· aea?aeaai? aneaioaaiiy (ca ?aooiie iiaeaoeiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue)
iiaeii? aeei?enoiaoaaoeny aeey i?aeo?eiee i?eaaoieo ?i?oe?aoea, ui
ni?yiiaai? ia cae?eooy i?iaaeei ia ?eieo (oaeeo, ye a?aenooi?noue
?icaeiooi? nenoaie eiia?oe?eieo aaie?a) ? ia eiiiainaoe?th
iaaecia/aiino? eii’thieoo?e;

· a?ae?aooaaiiy c athaeaeaoo ne?ae aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey e?ea?aeaoe??
iaa?iiaaeaeaieo ca iiia?aaei?e ia??iae ciaia’ycaiue o aaeainao
aea?aeaaieo aaie?a ? i?aei?e?inoa. Inoaii? ? iaiao?aeiei caoiaeii aeey
oieeiaiiy oae caaii? ??aiiaaae, yea a?aeia?aaea? a?aenooi?noue ?eie?a
eai?oaeo.

Ia?aae aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii oaeiae iiaeii? noiyoe caaaeaiiy caoenoo
iaaieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy c iecueeeie aeioiaeaie oa ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. Iaiao?aeii i?aeaeueoe aoaeoeai?noue
o?aaeeoe?eieo i?ia?ai nioe?aeueii? ii?ee (iniaeeai uiaei aeieao iain?e,
aeiiiiia ii oai?ia?, aeiiiiia aaaaoiae?oiei n?i’yi) ? caaacia/eoe ?o
aeinoaoiuei oi/ia (aae?ania) ni?yioaaiiy ia iaea?aei?o? a?oie ianaeaiiy.
Ie??i oeueiai, e?a?iai c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith ne?ae ai?iaaaeeoe
eiiieaen caoiae?a uiaei nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iaeicaaacia/aieo in?a i?ae
/an ia?aoiaeo. I/aaeaeii, e?a?iai, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia ia?aoiae? aei
?eieiaiai na?aaeiaeua, ne?ae aaanoe i?ia?aie no?aooaaiiy ii aac?ia?ooth
? nioe?aeueiiio ni?eyiith (aai ae, yeui oae? i?ia?aie aaea
ai?iaaaeaeai?, oi iio??aii ?o ci?oeieoe) ia ia??iae ?aae?caoe?? ?aoi?i.

I?iaeaia noaio iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua, yea aeeeeeaia ianaiia?aae
aee?eaeaiiyi oe?i ia aia?aiiin??, ci?uaiiyi o a?e aaaeei? i?iieneiaino?,
iaaeio?eiaiiyi ae?th/eo ii?iaoea?a, aoaea ae??ooaaoeny ii i??? oiai, ye
oe?ie ia aia?aiiin?? aoaeooue iaaeeaeaoeny aei ?aaeueieo. Iaeiae,
iaa?yae /e aaeanoueny oe?eiio ?yaeo ?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i ?, ianaiia?aae,
Oe?a?i?, icaei?iaeoe iaaeieeoi? na?aaeiaeua, ia i?eoyaath/e aeiaeaoeiaeo
athaeaeaoieo aneaioaaiue.

Iaaaaeai? aeua iio?aae a athaeaeaoieo aneaioaaiiyo i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy
?aoi?i na?ae/aoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue i?enei?aiiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy
o?aaeeoe?eieo i?ia?ai aeaeaoe?a. Iaeiae, ye nai ??aaiue, oae ? neeaae
aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a aoaea coiiaeaiee i?ioeanii ?aoi?i.

O ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo ?aoi?i ia? ci?ieoeny ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy,
aeei?enoaiiy ? ?iciiae?eo AAI. A?aeiia?aei? ci?ie iae?iaeiiii?/ieo
aa?aaao?a aoaeooue aieeaaoe ye ia aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee, oae ? ia
iaaeoiaeaeaiiy a athaeaeao. Ii i??? aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy e?a?i, ui
ia?aaeeaathoue ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae, aoaeooue nei?i/oaaoeny ?o
ia?oi?yaei? ? ae?oai?yaei? naeoi?e, ui cioneoue caa?iooeny aei
iaoyaeeeaeo caoiae?a ii caoenoo aac?ia?oieo ? caaacia/aiith
ia?aae/aniiai aeoiaeo ia iain?th (oaea yaeua niinoa??aaeiny a 70-80-?
?iee a ?yae? i?iieneiaa ?icaeiooeo e?a?i Caoiaeo).

O oie aea /an, ii i??? oni?oiiai i?inoaaiiy aia?aae ii oeyoo ?aoi?i,
aeiiii?/i?oa aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a o e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith
aeicaieeoue oeei e?a?iai nei?ioeoe nai? aeineoue aaaii? aeo?aoe ia
iniiaiee eai?oae ? caiane aac iaeii/aniiai cieaeaiiy oaii?a aeiiii?/iiai
c?inoaiiy. I?e oeueiio ne?ae c?iaeoe ?aia?eo, aeacaaoe ia oa, ui i?ae
/an ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aiie ciooai? aoaeooue i?oe ia nooo?aa
ca?eueoaiiy aea?aeaaieo eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue. Ia?aoo?, /anoea ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe o AAI e?a?i c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith neeaaea? ii??aiyii iaaaeeeo
/anoeio (aeecueei 35-oe a?aenioe?a) o ii??aiyii? c oei aea iieacieeii
aeey e?a?i c ?eieiaith aeiiii?eith (55 a?aenioe?a). Oe? iieacieee
a?aeia?aaeathoue aaaeeea?noue iaoo?aeueii? iieaoe i?aoe? (iai?eeeaae, o
aeaeyae? aeeoea, iaaee/ii-nai?oa?iiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy, ina?oe oiui) ?
?acii c oei na?ae/eoue i?i ae?oai?yaei?noue cia/aiiy a?ioiaeo aeieao.
Oaea nenoaia eiiiainaoe?? ca i?aoeth aeicaiey? aea?aeaaiei
i?aei?e?inoaai io?eioaaoe ii??aiyii aenie? i?eaooee, aea a oie aea /an
ciooo? ?o aeiea/oaaoe cia/i? noie o oi?i? iiaeaoe?a ia i?eaooee ?
iiaeaoee c iai?ioo. Oi/ ?aoi?ia ? i?eaaaea aei nei?i/aiiy aace
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy /anoee oiiaeo ca?ia?oii? ieaoe o
AAI, aiia oaeiae nei?ioeoue iaiao?aei? iio?aae o aaaaoueio aeaeao
aeaeaoe?a.

O aoaeue-yeiio ?ac? aei aeayeeo i?? athaeaeao aoaea iaoyaeaiee
i?eoiaaieie o ieioeiio noaneae?yie, iayai?noue yeeo ii an?e
a??ia?aeiino? aoaea iinooiiai aee?eaaoeny ?aoi?iith. Aeey oni?oo
i?ia?aie ?aoi?i iaiao?aeia ei?eaoaaiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oe?i oeyoii
e?aa?ae?caoe?? aioo??oi?o oe?i, ia?aoiaeo aei iiceoeaieo ?aaeueieo
i?ioeaioieo noaaie, i?iaaaeaiiy aaeaeaaoii? iie?oeee uiaei iai?iieo
eo?n?a. Aea ei?eaoaaiiy ?aaeueieo i?ioeaioieo noaaie ? iai?iieo eo?n?a
aaetho, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny caeaa?eueoiai a a?e i?aeaeuaiiy, ni?iiiaeia
aieeiooe ia ?ici?? aeioiae?a ? ?o ?iciiae?e, ui aeeee/a iio?aao a
aeiaeaoeiaeo athaeaeaoieo noaneae?yo aeey in?a, ui iieieeeny a noaiiaeu?
/enoi? o?iainiai? caai?aiaaiino?.

Aeiaeaoeiaeie i?e/eiaie aeyaeaiiy a athaeaeao? i?eoiaaieo o ieioeiio
aeioaoe?e («athaeaeaoecaoe?y» oeeo aeioaoe?e) aoaeooue ? oae? oaeoi?e,
ye iaaeaiiy e?aaeeo?a ia i?eaeaaiiy aeeoea ? iayai?noue ciai?oiuei?
caai?aiaaiino?. O e?a?iao c ieaiiaith aeiiii?eith i?ioeaioi? noaaee o
?iciiae?e? aeioiae?a i?ae n?i’yie ?ie? ia a?ae?a?aaaee. Aea?? aeae?a
a?ioiaeo caiuaaeaeaiue aeey aeiiaoi?o ainiiaea?noa ii noo? iaiaaeoaaany
aianeaie a niaoe?ae?ciaai? aea?aeaai? aaiee (iuaaei? eane), ye?
aeiea/oaaee aeoaea iecuee? i?ioeaioe ii aeaiiceoao. ?ecee, ui iia’ycaiee
c eieeaaiiyie eo?n?a ?iicaiieo aaetho, a?aee ia naaa o?iainia?
iina?aaeieee, ui caaacia/oaaei aaeee? i?eoiaai? noaneae?? i?aei?e?inoaai
aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o. Cieaeaiiy eo?no iaoe?iiaeueii? aaethoe aoei
iia’ycaii ?c cia/ieie caeoeaie aeey o?iainiaeo onoaiia a ?acoeueoao?
ia?aioe?iee ?oi?o aeoea?a. Iaeiae, c iaeyaeo ia aeiiii?/i? ? i?aaia?
i?e/eie, aiie ia iiaee ia?aiineoe oe? caeoee ia i?aei?e?inoaa. A oiio
eiiiainaoe?y oeeo caeoe?a aai ae aeeeeeaea iaiao?aei?noue o i?yieo
athaeaeaoieo o?ainoa?oao, aai cieaeoaaea ianya iaiiaeaoeiaeo
iaaeoiaeaeaiue a?ae o?iainiaeo onoaiia o athaeaeao.

Ine?eueee i?aeoe/ii aanue ciai?oi?e ai?a ooai?thaaany ? ?iciiae?eyany ia
aiaeia?/ieo oiiaao, a oie /an ye aa?o?noue a?aeiia?aeieo a?o/eciyieo
aeoea?a o ?yae? e?a?i «aeieaaeany» a ?acoeueoao? aenieeo oaii?a
?ioeyoe??, oi ye iniiaia noia ciai?oiueiai ai?ao, oae ? i?ioeaioe ii
iueiio, noaaaee /anoeiith athaeaeaoieo ciaia’ycaiue. Iane?aeeii oeueiai
noaa oaeo, ui i?iaeaia aaeeeiai ciai?oiueiai ai?ao a a?eueoino?
no?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i ia?a?inea ?c i?iaeaie ieao?aeiiai aaeaino a
i?iaeaio naiiai athaeaeaoo. I/aaeaeii, ui aoaeue-yea ciaioaiiy ?ici???a
ai?ao iie?aueoue noai ye ieao?aeiiai aaeaino, oae ? naiiai athaeaeaoo.

Aeey Oe?a?ie aea?aeaaiee ciai?oi?e ai?a neeaa ia 01.01.1997 ?. 8839.0
iei. aeie. NOA, c yeeo ai?a e?a?iai NIAe — 4205 iei.; I?aeia?iaeiei
o?iainiaei i?aai?caoe?yi — 3203.0 iei.; ca ?iicaiieie e?aaeeoieie
e?i?yie — 860.0 iei.; ?a?iiaenueeiio Nithco, ssiii?? oa ca ?ioeie
e?aaeeoaie — 571.0 iei. aeie. NOA (aeea. oaae. 1.3).

Oaaeeoey 1.3

Aea?aeaaiee ai?a Oe?a?ie o 1996-1998 ??. (ia ii/aoie ?ieo)

Ia 01.01.96Ia 01.0197Ia 01.01.98Ia 01.01.99 (i?iaiic)Ciai?oi?e ai?a iei.
aeie. NOA8217.08839.010801.011300.0Aioo??oi?e ai?a iei.
a?i.8002.26057.6*13747.015476.0Caa. ianya ai?ao

a % aei AAI40.227.337.249.5

*Aac o?aooaaiiy caai?aiaaiino? o?yaeo ia?aae IAO ii aea?aeaaieo
e?aaeeoao 1991-1995 ??. oa a?aenioeao ii ieo, ye nienaieo a?aeiia?aeii
no. 2 caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i no?oeoo?o aea?aeaaiiai aioo??oiueiai ai?ao
Oe?a?ie ca noaiii ia 1 n?/iy 1996 ?ieo ? a?aie/iee ?ici?? aea?aeaaiiai
aioo??oiueiai ai?ao Oe?a?ie ia 1996-1997 ?iee».

I?iaiico?oueny, ui ia e?iaoeue 1999 ?. aea?aeaaiee ai?a Oe?a?ie neeaaea
76810.0 iei. a?eaaiue. Eiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy iio?aao? a 1999 ?. 3473.9
iei. a?eaaiue.

Iaoith iie?oeee noaa?e?caoe?? ? oieeiaiiy ?, a ?ac? iaiao?aeiino?,
aei?aaeaiiy aioo??oiueiai ? ciai?oiueiai aeenaaeaino, yeee iioaioe?eii
i?iaieo? aeiiii?/iee niaae. Aenieee ??aaiue ?ioeyoe??, a oaeiae
aeao?oeeo noaooae ieao?aeiiai aaeaino, ye? /anoi iia’ycai? c ae/a?iaiiyi
caian?a ?iicaiii? aaethoe ? «aoa/ath eai?oaeo», aiai?youe i?i
iaiao?aei?noue a?aeiia?aeii? ia?aaoaeiae iie?oeee c iaoith a?aeiiaeaiiy
o?iainiai? noaa?eueiino?. Noaa?e?caoe?y ae?iaieoeoaa c aeiiiiiaith
ii?aeiaiiy caoiae?a athaeaeaoii-iiaeaoeiai?, a?ioiai? ? aaethoii?
iie?oeee. An? oe? caoiaee aca?iiiia’ycai?. O?eueee eeoa aei?noe? caoiaee
athaeaeaoii-iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee iioaioe?eii iiaeooue caoeiaeeoe
i?eaaoiiio naeoi?o, ine?eueee c?inoathoue i?ioeaioi? noaaee (/anoi
aeineoue a cia/ieo iieacieeao o e?a?iao, ui ?icaeaathoueny), aai ae
i?e anoaiiaeaii? eiio?ieth iaae ieie, e?aaeeo noai?i ii?iiaaiee.
Cieaeaiiy iii?iaeueiiai iai?iiiai eo?no aoaea iaoe eeoa oei/ania?
iane?aeee, yeui oe?ie ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo c?inoooue, i?aeiyaoe oaeei
/eiii ?aaeueiee eo?n. O iaio aeiaaeeao iaiao?aeia nei?i/aiiy ?ici???a
athaeaeaoo. O ia?oiio aeiaaeeo, uia ciaioeoe i?aoaic?? aea?aeaaiiai
naeoi?o ia iayai? e?aaeeoi? ?ano?ne, caiia?aoe aeo?niaiiy i?eaaoiiai
naeoi?o. O ae?oaiio aeiaaeeo — uia iaiaaeeoe noeoiiee iiieo. Ie??i oiai,
o?eueee iaei? athaeaeaoii-iiaeaoeia? caoiaee iaaeinoaoi? aeey oeueiai.
Nei?i/aiiy athaeaeaoo ia i?eaaaea aei cieaeaiiy ??aiy ?ioeyoe??, yeui
o?eueee e?euee?noue a?ioae a ia?ao ia iaiaaeaia ??aiai, yeee
a?aeiia?aea? eiio?ieueiei oeeo?ai ?ioeyoe??. sseui ??aaiue oe?i ?
ca?ia?oia ieaoa a?aeiinii ia aio/e?, oi nei?i/aiiy athaeaeaoo iiaeiii
noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny iii?iaeueiith aeaaaeueaaoe??th, c iaoith aeinyaiaiiy
?aaeueiiai cieaeaiiy iai?iiiai eo?no.

Caoiaee uiaei no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae iathoue nai?th iaoith aeiiii?/iee
?icaeoie o ia?niaeoeaiiio ieai? oeyoii noeioethaaiiy aoaeoeai?oiai
aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a. O iaaiiio niene? caoiaee iie?oeee noaa?e?caoe?? ?
a oie aea /an caoiaeaie no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae. No?oeoo?ia ?aoi?ia
iaa?yae /e iaoeia oni?o aac a?aeiia?aeieo oiia, noai?aieo i?iaeoiaieie
iae?iaeiiii?/ieie caoiaeaie, a oie /an, ye aeanoaa?e?coth/? iaoiaee ia
iiaeii? canoiniaoaaoeny. Aea nai? ii nia? caoiaee ii noaa?e?caoe??
aoaeooue iaaeinoaoi?ie, ine?eueee eeoa nei?i/aiiy athaeaeaoo ? a?ioia?
iaiaaeaiiy iiaeooue ia?aoeiaeaeaoe aeiiii?/iiio c?inoaiith. Iaeiae, oe?
caoiaee iiaeooue aooe ?ic?iaeai? oaeei /eiii, uia aeeiioth/e naith
noaa?e?coth/o ooieoe?th, aiaeii/an noeioethaaoe noa?o i?iiiceoe??
aeiiii?ee. I?e ?icaeyae? athaeaeaoii-iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee oeaio? oaaae
ia? ci?noeoeny a?ae ianooaao athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo ia iniaeeaino?
iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie ? no?oeoo?o aeaeaoe?a. Ui noino?oueny a?ioiai?
iie?oeee, oi a oeaio?? oaaae iieiythoueny ia oaiie c?inoaiiy a?ioiai?
iane ? e?aaeeoo, a i?ioean aecia/aiiy i?ioeaioii? noaaee ? ?iciiae?eo
e?aaeeo?a. ?ioeie neiaaie, ia no?eueee nai? onoaiiaee
athaeaeaoii-iiaeaoeiai? ? a?ioiai? iie?oeee, ne?eueee ?? no?oeoo?a
aieeaathoue ia aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, oi/a caaaeueiee noai ?a/ae o
aeiiii?oe? iiaea aooe ?acoeueoaoii ? iaeiiai, e ae?oaiai.

Aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith noeoiiiai iiieoo, aiie
aieeaathoue ia i?eaaoiee iiieo, a oaeiae ia noeoiio i?iiiceoe?th.
Ca?eueoaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a, aacia?a/ii, ci?ieoue no?oeoo?o
noeoiiiai iiieoo, aea ??aaiue eiai ia iaia’yceiai ci?ieoueny ia oo ae
aaee/eio. Oea caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, yeith i??ith aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee
aeo?niythoue i?eaaoi? aeo?aoe. Oaea aeo?niaiiy iaaoaa? aeaio oi?i. Ia?oa
c ieo: i?yia aeo?niaiiy, yea a?aeaoaa?oueny oiae?, eiee aea?aeaai?
aeaeaoee cai?iythoue i?eaaoi?, aoaeo/e aeineoue ??aiioe?iiith cai?iith
(iai?eeeaae, aeaeaoee ia ina?oo). Iaeiae, iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe, ui
aeaye? aeaee aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a aenooiathoue aeiiiaiaiiyi i?eaaoieo
aeaeaoe?a (iai?eeeaae, eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy a ?io?ano?oeoo?o). A
oe?eiio, aioo??oi? aeaeaoee c?inoathoue, aea iaioith i??ith, i?ae
aea?aeaai?. Ca?eueoaiiy aioo??oi?o aeaeaoe?a aieeaa? ia i?ioeaioi?
noaaee ? iai?iiee eo?n, o ?acoeueoao? /iai iiaea a?aeaooeny o?iainiaa
aeo?niaiiy i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o ? ca?eueoaiiy aioo??oi?o aeaeaoe?a ia
iaa?iaoueny iiaiith i??ith aeuei ??aiai noeoiiiai iiieoo.

Nooi?iue o?iainiaiai aeo?niaiiy caeaaeeoue a?ae oe?eiai ?yaeo oaeoi??a:
yeei /eiii ? ca ?aooiie /iai iie?eaa?oueny ca?eueoaiiy aea?aeaaieo
aeaeaoe?a, ye? aacia? onoaiiaee a?ioiai? iie?oeee ? aeanoe/i?noue iiieoo
ia a?io? ca i?ioeaioii; ?ooii?noue i?aeia?iaeiiai eai?oaeo ? ?aaeei
iai?iiiai eo?no, a oaeiae ?aaeoe?y ia i?iiiceoe?th. ?c c?inoaiiyi
aeaeaoe?a, ye? iie?eaathoueny ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy iiaeaoe?a (ioaea,
athaeaeaoiee aeao?oeeo ia c?inoa?), aac ci?i o a?ioia?e ian? ? i?e
iaaeanoe/iiio ca i?ioeaioii iiieoo ia a?io?, i?ioeaioi? noaaee ??cei
c?inoaoeiooue, ui a ii?aeiaii? c i?aeaeuaiiyi aeioiae?a, ciaioeoue
ii/aoeiaee iiooiao, caaaeaiee noeoiiiio iiieoo. A?aeiini? oe?ie
ci?iyoueny ?c ciaioaiiyi /ooo?aeo aei i?ioeaioieo noaaie aeaeaoe?a, aea
??aaiue oe?i caeeoeoueny iiia?aaei?i. sseui iiieo ia a?io? ?aaao? ia
i?ioeaioi? noaaee, oi ca?eueoaiiy noaaie aoaea ia cia/iei. A?eueoa oiai,
aiie iiaeooue iaeaea ia ci?ithaaoeny, ? i?eaaoi? aeaeaoee ia ci?iyoueny,
uia a?aeoeiaeoaaoe ca?eueoaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a. A?aeaoaeaoueny
eeoa /anoeiaa aeo?niaiiy. sse oea aieeia ia ?ioeyoe?th, aoaea caeaaeaoe
a?ae oiai, yeith i??ith a?ioiaa iana aoaea i?iyoeny, uia no?eiaoe
iiaeaeueoa c?inoaiiy i?ioeaioieo noaaie. O anyeiio aeiaaeeo ciiao
a?aeaoaeaoueny a?aeiinia ei?eaoaaiiy oe?i, ui a?aeaeaa? ci?iaio
no?oeoo?o iiieoo,

A oiiaao a?aee?eoi? aeiiii?ee /anoeia aoaeue-yeiai aeiaeaoeiaiai
aioo??oiueiai iiieoo aoaea a?aeoeiaeiaoaaoeny ca ?aooiie ?iii?oo (oiaoi
ioeueoeie?eaoi? /e eiao?oe??io, yeee oa?aeoa?eco? aieea ci?ie
?ici???a caaeainiaaiiai athaeaeaoo ia noeoiiee iiieo, aoaea iaioei a?ae
iaeeieoe?), ? aeao?oeeo iioi/ieo noaooae ieao?aeiiai aaeaino c?inoa?.
No?oeoo?a ?iii?oo ci?ieoueny ? aoaea a?aeia?aaeaoe oo /anoeio
aeiaeaoeiaeo aeaeaoe?a, yea iaaoaa? oi?ie aea?aeaaieo caeoi?aaeue ca
?oaaaeai. Iaai? aeaeaoee (ia iai?iio, i?iaeoe eai?oaeueiiai
aoae?aieoeoaa oiui) aeiaaathoue oe?ieiai i?eoyaaiiy ?iii?oo. Oea
oa?aeoa?ii aeey a?eueoino? e?a?i, ui ciaoiaeyoueny ia ia?ao?aeiiio
aoai?. Oae? caoiaee aaciina?aaeiuei aieeiooue ia oa?aeoa? ci?i
a?aeiinieo oe?i, iia’ycaieo c a?eueoeie aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie.

sseui c?inoaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny cia/iei
i?aeaeuaiiyi i?ioeaioieo noaaie, oi, a?aoiaoth/e ?ooeea?noue
i?aeia?iaeiiai eai?oaeo, ieaaath/ee iai?iiee eo?n c?inoa a i??o oiai, ye
cia/ii aeu? i?ioeaioi? noaaee caaacia/aoue aeiaeaoeiaee iio?e eai?oaeo.
Aeao?oeeo iioi/ieo noaooae ieao?aeiiai aaeaino aoaea c?inoaoe aei oeo
i??, iiee a?aeaoaeaoueny iiaia aeo?niaiiy. Aea ? oea iiaea
eiiiainoaaoeny ca?eueoaiiyi a?ioiai? iane, uia caaaeoe i?aeeii
i?ioeaioieo noaaie, ui aaciina?aaeiuei aieeia ? ia ?ioeyoe?th. I?e
o?eniaaiiio iai?iiiio eo?n?, aai eiee i?aeia?iaeiee eai?oae a?aeiinii
ia?ooeeaee, aoaea a?aeaoaaoeny /anoeiaa aeo?niaiiy. *anoeia aaniethoiiai
c?inoaiiy iiieoo aoaea a?aeoeiaeiaoaaoeny ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy ianyao
ae?iaieoeoaa aioo?? e?a?ie ca iayaiino? aeiaeaoeiaeo iiooaeiinoae a
aeiiii?oe?. Iaeiae, i?e iiaiiio caaaioaaeaii? ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae a
aeiiii?oe? iaieio/a iiaia aeo?niaiiy, i?eiaeii?, a ei?ioei/aniiio ieai?.

Ia?ao?ae a?ae o?iainoaaiiy /a?ac iiiaeaoeoaaiiy aei aeao?oeeoiiai
o?iainoaaiiy oaeiae aoaea iaoe iane?aeee o oi?i? aeo?niaiiy, oi/a
iaoai?ci oeueiai aieeao aoaea i?yi?oei, ine?eueee iniiaieie oi?iaie
o?iainoaaiiy aoaeooue a?ioiaa ai?n?y, i?eaaoi? oa ca?oa?aei?
caiuaaeaeaiiy. A aeiiiaiaiiy aei oeueiai, iaa?iiaaeaeaiee ai?a
aeiaeaoeiai oeniooeia ia c?inoaiiy i?ioeaioieo noaaie ? i?eaaaea aei
oiai, ui ianooii? aeao?oeeoe iiaeii? aoaeooue iinooiiai iie?eaaoeny ca
?aooiie aeioneo a?ioae a ia?a. I?ioyaii aeiaoiai ia??iaeo aieea ia
?ioeyoe?th ? ieao?aeiee aaeain ca?eueoaieo aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a
cia/iith i??ith aoaea caeaaeaoe a?ae oiai, iane?eueee aeiaeaoeia?
aeaeaoee aieeaathoue ia caaaeuei? oaiie ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee. *ei aeu?
oaiie c?inoaiiy, oei ieae/ee ??aaiue ?ioeyoe??, aeeeeeaii? iaaiei
ca?eueoaiiyi e?eueeino? a?ioae a ia?ao, ? ia oaeee aaaeeee oyaa?
ai?aiaeo ciaia’ycaiue, iia’ycaieo c ?nioth/ei noaiii aeao?oeeoo iioi/ieo
noaooae ieao?aeiiai aaeaino. Aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae aea?aeaaieie
aeaeaoeaie ? aeiiii?/iei c?inoaiiyi ? iaeiei ?c iae/ano?oa
iaaiai?thaaieo ieoaiue.

Caaaeueiii?eeiyoei aeo?aeiei iieiaeaiiyi ? oa, ui aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee
ni?eythoue aeinyaiaiith oe?eae aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy. Oae aiii e ?.
Aeiiii?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai ao?o/aiiy a aeiiii?eo a oiiaao
iaaoaeoeaiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?eieiaiai iaoai?cio ? aeey ?iciiae?eo
?ano?n?a, io?eioaaieo a ?acoeueoao? eiiiainaoe?eieo caoiae?a,
a?oioo?oueny, cie?aia, ia aeai?e oac?. Iaeiae, ii i??? oiai, ye
aea?aeaaiee naeoi? ii/eia? a?aoe ia naaa oa, /ei i?eaaoiee naeoi? i?a ae
caeiaoeny i?iaeoeoeai?oa, ? a?aoiaoth/e, ui niin?a o?iainoaaiiy
aeaeaoe?a iiaea iaoe iani?eyoeea? iane?aeee, ca’ycie i?ae noeoiieie
aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie ? aeiiii?/iei c?inoaiiyi noa? ana iaioa /?oeei.

Aeieacii oeueiio ? oa, ui aeai? ii oe?eiio ?yaeo i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo
e?a?i ia aeacothoue ia iine?aeiaio ei?aeyoe?th i?ae noeoiieie
aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie ? aeiiii?/iei c?inoaiiyi.

A??ia?aei?oei ? oa, ui aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy caeaaeeoue a?eueoith i??ith
a?ae no?oeoo?e aeaeaoe?a, ine?eueee aeaye? ?o aeaee a?eueo ci???ioiaai?
ia c?inoaiiy. ?icaeoie ?io?ano?oeoo?e, yeee ni?ey? i?eaaoiei
?iaanoeoe?yi, caoiaee ii caaacia/aiith ii?iaeueiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aea?aeaaii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, ina?oa aeey iie?auaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a,
ioi?iia caei?ia’y, yea ni?ey? i?aeaeuaiith i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, a
oaeiae aaei?i?no?aoeaia ? i?aaiaa nenoaia, ui iieeeeaia i?aeo?eioaaoe
ii?iaeueio ?iaioo oneeaaeiaiiai aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio — ana oea iiaeiii
ni?eyoe aoaeoeaiiio ?inoo eai?oaeo ? ?iai/i? neee ?, oaeei /eiii,
caaacia/oaaoe aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy. Iaeiae, iaa?oue aeaeaoee, ye?
caeathoueny iaio i?iaeoeoeaieie, iai?eeeaae, ia iai?iio, iiaeooue
caaacia/eoe nioe?aeueio ? iie?oe/io noaa?euei?noue, yea iaiao?aeia aeey
aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy. Nei?i/aiiy iiae?aieo aeaeaoe?a iiaea aeyaeoeny
iai?iaeoeoeaiei.

Aii??e/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiiy i?i aca?iica’ycie aeaeaoe?a ?
aeiiii?/iiai c?inoaiiy a?oioo?oueny, a iniiaiiio, ia nenoai? iae?eo ?
aiae?co, ca?aeii c yeith, c?inoaiiy aecia/a?oueny ci?iith ?ici???a
eai?oaeo o oi?i? iaoa??aeueieo aeoea?a, o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, oaoiieia?e ?
aoaeoeai?noth aeei?enoaiiy ?ano?n?a. sseui aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee
ni?eythoue ye?e-iaaoaeue ?c oeeo neeaaeiaeo, oi i/?eo?oueny iiceoeaiee
aieea ia aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy.

A oiiaao iaaecia/aiino? ynii, ui nei?i/aiiy aeaeaoe?a oneeaaeiaii
cae?eniaiiyi iai?iaeoeoeaieo i?ia?ai, ? ui a?aeaoaa?oueny a?eueo
caaaeueiee ia?a?iciiae?e a?ae iai?iaeoeoeaieo i?ia?ai aei i?iaeoeoeaieo.
?, yeui aoaa? aeineoue oyaeei i?aeo?eioaaoe oaiie c?inoaiiy a
ei?ioeioa?i?iiaiio ieai?, iioaioe?ae ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee iiaea aooe
iiai?oa aeei?enoaiee o aeiaaio?eaae?e ia?niaeoea?. ? oi/ iaea?eueo
i/aaeaei? iai?iaeoeoeai? aeo?aoe ia aeeeeeathoue noii?ao a ?o
iaaeioe?eueiino?, iai?eeeaae, iaiio??ai? aei?iaiaa?o?ni? i?iaeoe,
iaaei?aaaeaii «?icaeoo?» ooaoe, iie?eooy caeoe?a aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa, a, c ?ioiai aieo, oaeiae ia aeeeeea? noii?a?a
i?iaeoeoeai?noue ?ioeo aeaeaoe?a (aoaeoeaia i?ia?aia eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue
o aea?aeaaio ?io?ano?oeoo?o, o?iainoaaiiy ? i?aeo?eiea ?? ii?iaeueiiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy, caaacia/aiiy ina?oe ? ioi?iie caei?ia’y), aea anaiaeii
iaa?oue ?icaeyaeath/e oe? i/aaeaei? i?eeeaaee, a?aei?ii?noue i?ae
i?iaeoeoeaieie ? iai?iaeoeoeaieie aeaeaoeaie aecia/eoe cia/ii o?oaei?oa,
i?ae oea iiaea caeaoeny ia ia?oee iiaeyae.

Aea?aeaaa a?aeiiaey?oueny a?ae aaciina?aaeiueiai eiio?ieth iaae iiieoii
? i?iiiceoe??th a iniiaieo naeoi?ao aeiiii?ee, ae?? yeeo ca?ac iiaeooue
aooe ia caaaeaee ni?yiiaai? ia aaeaeaaoia aeei?enoaiiy ae?iaie/iai
iioaioe?aeo. A iai?i ia a?eueoo ainiiaea?nueeo naiaiaeo, yeo iaaea?
?eiie, aeiiii?/i? noa’?eoe iiaeii? aooe aioiaeie aei a?eueo aenieiai
?eceeo aaie?oonoaa ? iaioeo aa?aio?e caeiyoino?. C ?ioiai aieo,
aeieeiaiiy i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o ? i?eaaoii? aeaniino? a ii?aeiaii? ?c
cia/ieie eieeaaiiyie oe?i, ye? aeineoue eiia??i? ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai?,
ye i?aaeei, i?eaiaeyoue aei ianiaiai ia?a?iciiae?eo aeioiae?a ?
iaoa??aeueiiai aaaaonoaa, ui noia?a/eoue caaaeueiii?eeiyoiio
iiiyooth nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?. Oe? i?iaeaie, ye cana?ae/o?
i?aeoeea, ua a?eueoa caaino?ththoueny ii oiaeo aca?iiae?? noa?eo
no?oeoo? ? iaoiae?a c iiaith ?aaeuei?noth ?eieiaeo ?aoi?i, — ieoaiiy,
yea aeiaaa? naiai ?icaeyaeo a ia?oo /a?ao.

Aeiei??iii? ia?aaoaeiae iio?aaothoue i?aeoe/ii an? aeaiaioe noa?i?
iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie. A?aeiinii aeaeaoeiai? /anoeie athaeaeaoo ?nio?
aeae?eueea iaaeie?e?a, ye? iaiao?aeii onoiooe. ?ai?oa aeo?a/aiiy eioo?a
a?aeaoaaeiny ii oiaeo aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae, ui cao?eniaai? a ieai?, aea
a?aeiiaa a?ae ieaioaaiiy aeiaaaoeia iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei aecia/aiiy
oe?eae ? cania?a ?o aeinyaiaiiy.

Aea?aeaaa aeoeaii aa?a o/anoue a aeiiii?/ieo iia?aoe?yo oeyoii ??cieo
ciaia’ycaiue oa ?ioa?aaioe?e, ui canoiniaothoueny o oi?i? noaneae?e,
iai?yieo eiio?aeo?a ? oiiaieo ciaia’ycaiue. Iai?eeeaae, i?ioeaioi?
noaaee ? iai?ii? aaethoi? eo?ne a e?a?iao c ieaiiaith aeiiii?eith ia
o?eueee anoaiiaethaaeeny aaei?i?no?aoeaiei oeyoii, aea oaeiae
o?enoaaeeny ia caieae/aiiio ??ai? o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ieaiiaith iaoith
aeinyaiaiiy oaeaeei? (? caeaaeii? a?ae ?iii?oo) ?iaeono??ae?caoe??.

Aiaeia?/iei niiniaii aeaoaaa aeeoei ia?aaeaa/aei e?oii? iai?yi?
aeioaoe?? oei, ooi ei?enooaaany oeei aeeoeii, ? aenie?
iiina?aaeeiaai? iiaeaoee ia aenii?oa??a ? in?a, ui aeoioeththoue eiooe.
Iecueeee ??aaiue ca?ia?oii? ieaoe aoa naiai ?iaeo eiiiainaoe??th, yeo
niea/oaaee a?iiaaeyie aea?aeaa? aai aea?aeaaiei i?aei?e?inoaai ca
iaaeaiiy iaiie?eoeo oiiaeaie iain?e ? aeiiiiia aaaaoiae?oiei, a oaeiae
iecuee? oe?ie ia oiaa?e ia?oi? iaiao?aeiino?, aacieaoio ina?oo oa
ioi?iio caei?ia’y. ?ic?ea oeeo oaiae, iaa?oue yeui aoaea
noi?iaiaeaeoaaoeny i?aeaeuaiiyi ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, iniaeeai aiey/a
aaea?eoue ii a?iiaaeyiao iioeeiai a?eo ? n?i’yo c iaiiaiie?oi?ie
ae?oueie. I?eeeaaeii iioaioe?eieo, caaeainiaaieo ciaia’ycaiue
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo iiaea neoaeeoe iaaeaiiy iaoiiaeiaaieo
no?aoiaeo eiiiainaoe?e ii iai?aoeacaeaoiino? ? aeiiiiia ii aac?ia?ooth,
a oaeiae iaaeaiiy iice/eiaeo aaethoieo eioo?a i?aei?e?inoa, ia
aeiaaath/e, uia inoaii? a?aee ia naaa ?ecee, yeee iia’ycaiee c
iiaeeeaith ci?iith iai?iieo eo?n?a.

Caaaeaiiyi athaeaeaoii? ? o?iainiai? iie?oeee a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae ?
ni?eyiiy coneeeyi uiaei noaa?e?caoe??, aea a oie aea /an ia cao?eioaaoe
i?ioean iaiao?aeii? ia?aaoaeiae o?neaeueieo ?inoeooo?a, /anoeiith yeiai
? iineeaiiy naieo o?neaeueieo ?ino?oiaio?a. O athaeaeao? iiaeii? aooe
noeioee, ui ni?eythoue aeiiii?/iiio icaei?iaeaiith, cie?aia, o?, ui
caioi/othoue c?inoaiiy i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o ? ni?yiiaai? ia oaeineiiaeaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? ? oi?aae?inueei? ?io?ano?oeoo?e.

AENIIAEE

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy e ocaaaeueiaiiy eiai ?acoeueoao?a
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue a?iioaco e aeathoue i?aenoaae c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. Aoaeue-yea coneeey, ni?yiiaaia ia i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?i, aeiaaa?, aae
a?eueoa oaaae i?eae?eyeiny oi?aae?iith ci?iaie c oei, uia aeieee?
i?iaeaie iiaeia aoei ia?aaeaa/aoe ? ?ica’ycoaaoe.Oea aeiaaa? iayaiino?
no?aoaa?? aeey i?iaaaeaiiy ci?i a aeeooy. Oaea no?aoaa?y ia? aooe
?ic?iaeaia c o?aooaaiiyi aeao?oeeoo o?iainiaeo eioo?a ? ethaenueeeo
?ano?n?a; aiia iiaeiia aooe aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiith ca ci?noii c o?aooaaiiyi
??cieo iio?aa ei?enooaa/?a, oa?i?i?a iiaoaiiiai i?iaaaeaiiy a aeeooy ?,
ui ua aaaeeea?oa, iayaiino? iaoai?ci?a ia aeiaaeie aeieeiaiiy
iaia?aaeaa/aieo ianoaaei i?e iiya? iiaiai iaai?o i?iaeai. Iaiao?aeii
oaeiae iaaeaoe iaeaaeii? oaaae aa?oino? i?iiiiiaaieo ci?i ? ?o
oaoiieia?/iei iniiaai. Ieaie ae?e iiaeii? aooe aei?iaoaai? c oei, uia
aa?aiooaaoe i?e ?ica’ycaii? i?iaeai iayai?noue cai?ioiueiai ca’yceo.
Oaeiae iaiao?aeia eiiieaenia ?icoi?iiy i?e/eiiiai ca’yceo i?ae ae?yie ?
?o ?acoeueoaoaie. Aeaye? ci?ie iiaeooue aeaoe iaaaei? ?acoeueoaoe, a oie
/an ye ?io? ae?? aeaaeooue ?acoeueoaoe c aeayeei ni?ciaiiyi. Iaiao?aeii
oaeiae a?aoe aei oaaae oae? i?aai?caoe?ei? aocuee? i?noey, ye
?ia?oi?noue, i?aaia? ia?aoeiaee, coneeey, ui ni?yiiaai? ia
naiicaa?aaeaiiy, caoeno aeanii? oa?eoi???, c?o/iino? noaoon-eai ?
iaaecia/ai?noue iaeaooiueiai. Iio??aai aoaea iaaiee /an aeey cai?ie
oe?iiinoae, ye? onaithaaeeny i?ioyaii cia/iiai i?ii?aeeo /ano. O oie aea
naiee /an caaaeyee ?ia?oiino? o?iainiaa iie?oeea noa? caeeaaeieeii
a?oa?/ii? nenoaie.

2. Aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee ia iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe a /ene? oaeoi??a, ui
cae?eniththoue iaea?eueoee aieea ia a?aei?iiino? a oaiiao c?inoaiiy a
??cieo e?a?iao, aai ae o ??ci? ia??iaee /ano a iaei?e e?a?i?. Ciai?oi?
oaeoi?e aieeaathoue a iaea?eueo?e i???, aea, a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a,
i?e/eie a?aei?iiinoae a oaiiao c?inoaiiy caeeoathoueny iac’yniaaieie.
Ioiae, aei iaaii? i??e aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee ni?eythoue aeiiii?/iiio
c?inoaiith, aea iani?aaae?, aaaeeeaee ia ?o ianya, a no?oeoo?a. A
oeueiio eiioaeno? ni?iaa ?icae?eeoe eai?oaeuei? aeaeaoee ? iioi/i?
aeo?aoe iiaea aooe iiieeeiaith. O oeaio?? oaaae iiaeii? aooe
a?aei?iiino? i?ae aeaeaoeaie, ui iathoue i?iaeoeoeaiee ? iai?iaeoeoeaiee
oa?aeoa?.

Iiaeeeaei iiyniaiiyi iacae?i/aiino? ?acoeueoao?a aii??e/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue iiaea neoaeeoe oa, ui iaa?oue yeui aeaeaoee nai? ii nia?
iiaeooue ni?eyoe c?inoaiith, oi niin?a iie?eooy oeeo aeo?ao, eio?ee
iae?a? o?yae, cae?enith? cai?ioi?e aieea. Oea a?aeaoaa?oueny oiae?, eiee
i?aeaeuaiiy iiaeaoe?a noai?th? iaaaoeaiee noeioe aeey i?iiiceoe?? i?aoe?
? caiuaaeaeaiue, a oie /an, ye ca?eueoai? ?ici??e aea?aeaaieo iicee
aeo?niththoue i?eaaoi? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy. Iaeiae, iiee aeineoue
aaaeei ?icaeaae?oe ie?aii iiaeeeaee ni?eyoeeaee aieea aea?aeaaieo
aeaeaoe?a ia aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy ? cai?ioi?e aieea o?iainoaaiiy oeeo
aeaeaoe?a.

3. ?yae caoiae?a ii noaa?e?caoe?? ? no?oeoo?i?e ia?aaoaeia? oaeiae
aieeaathoue ia ??aaiue ? no?oeoo?o aeaeaoe?a. Oae, ci?ie i?ioeaioieo
noaaie aieeaathoue ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy aioo??oiueiai ai?ao; ciai?oi?e
ai?a ? aeo?aoe ia ?iii?o caeaaeaoue a?ae iai?iiiai eo?no: ?iaeaeniaai?
? aeecuee? aei ?iaeaeniaaieo aeaeaoee (iain??, ca?ia?oia ieaoa,
aeo?aoe ia caeoi?aeth oiaa??a oa iineoa) caeaaeaoue a?ae ??aiy
?ioeyoe??, a iiieo ia iaai? i?ia?aie (ioi?iia caei?ia’y, ina?oa)
iia’ycaiee c ??aiai aeioiae?a. O oie aea /an, ci?ia i?ioeaioieo noaaie ?
iai?iiiai eo?no, ?ioeyoe?y ? c?inoaiiy aeioiae?a aieeaathoue ia aeioiaee
aea?aeaae. Aaciina?aaei?e aieea ?ioeo iae?iaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ia
aeaeaoee ? aeao?oeeo athaeaeaoo aecia/eoe aaaeei, ? nei?i/aiiy aeaeaoe?a
o aeaiee iiiaio iiaea eaaei iaa?iooeny ?o ca?eueoaiiyi o iaeaooiueiio ?
i?eaanoe aei a?eueoiai aeao?oeeoo. Oeae cai?ioi?e ca’ycie ua a?eueoa
oneeaaeith? aiae?c caoiae?a aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee.

4. Aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie, ia aeaeue, ca/aieee aea?aeaaio aeani?noue ia
caniae ae?iaieoeoaa oaeei /eiii, ui nei??oa iineaaeee, i?ae iineeeee
iiaiiaaaeaiiy ? aoaeoeai?noue eiio?ieth aea?aeaae ye aeanieea cania?a
i?aei?e?inoa. Ii oiaeo i?ioeano aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue
ea??aieee i?aei?e?inoa io?eiaee a?eueoa iaia’yce?a, aea noaee iaioa
i?aeeiio?ieuei?.

5. Ia?niaeoeaa aaie?oonoaa i?aei?e?inoa oaeiae ia iineea
aeenoeeie?ioth/iai aieeao, ine?eueee aaie?anueea nenoaia c caaeiaieaiiyi
aeeiioaaea o?iainia? iio?aae i?aei?e?inoa. O oae?e neooaoe?? ca
?nioth/i? no?oeoo?e noeioethaaiiy ea??aieee i?aei?e?inoa aeei?enoiaoaaee
?ano?ne aeey oiai, uia aeoi?aoaaoe o aea?aeaae oae? oiiae, ye? a
aeicaieyee ?oi?i i?aei?e?inoaai aooe ?aioaaaeuei?oeie, aeiaeaath/enue
aeiaeaoeiaeo i?euea ? aeioaoe?e, a oaeiae anooiath/e a caia?? c
?ia?oieeaie c iaoith io?eiaiiy ? ?iciiae?eo oei/aniaeo a?ioiaeo
iaaeeeoe?a.

6. Ine?eueee ca?eueoaiiy i?eaooeo, io?eiaiiai ??cieie niiniaaie, ia
i?eaaei aei ca?eueoaiiy ianyao ?aanoeoe?e, oi ?iciiae?e ?ano?n?a ia
iie?aueany. Aeaoaa? ? aeinooii? e?aaeeoe caioi/oaaee i?aei?e?inoaa
ia?iuoaaoe aenoaineai? eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiiy, ca?eueooaaoe
oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeuei? caiane ? iaa?oue aeicaieyee i?aeaeueoe ca?ia?oio
ieaoo, ui iaaaoeaii a?aeaeeiny ia ieao?aeiiio aaeain? ? ciai?oi?e
caai?aiaaiino?. *anoeia? ?aoi?ie ci?ieee iioeaaoe?th, aea oea
a?aeaoeiny ca ?aooiie ana a?eueo c?inoath/i? iae?iaeiiii?/ii?
ia??aiiaaae i?ae iiieoii ? i?iiiceoe??th. Oaeineiiaiaiiy nenoaie
noeioethaaiiy aoei iaiiaiei ? ia noi?iaiaeaeoaaeiny noai?aiiyi iiaeo
?ino?oiaio?a eiio?ieth ? aieeao.

7. I?e cia/ieo ci?iao oiia oi?a?ae? aeieea? aaeeea eiia??i?noue ni?ia
canoiniaoaaoe e?aei? caniae. Ia?oee aoai ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo ?icii/aany
a oiiaao, eiee aea?aeaaa aieiae?ea a?eueo?noth i?aei?e?inoa ?
eiio?iethaaea ?aaoethaaiiy ? aeaea/o e?oeaic?e. I?e a?aenooiino? i?aa
aeaniino?, noeioee, ui iiai?noth ci???ioiaai? ia io?eiaiiy i?eaooeo,
i?ecaiaeyoue aei iaaaoeaieo ?acoeueoao?a, caioi/oth/e ea??aiee?a
iioaioe?eieo ia’?eo?a i?eaaoecaoe?? ceiaaeeaaoe nai?i iiiiiieueiei
noaiiaeuai o i?aaiaii? i?eoyaoe caniae ? eiio?aeoe o ei?eneeaeo oe?eyo.
Iiee ia aoaea aianaia yni?noue o a?aeiineie i?ae aea?aeaaieie
i?aei?e?inoaaie, o?yaeii ? aaie?anueeith nenoaiith ? iiee ia aoaea
noai?aia iiaa iiaeaoeiaa nenoaia, noaiiaeua iioeaaoe?? aoaea caeeoaoeny
iaaecia/aiei.

8. Noa?a o?neaeueia nenoaia ia a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.
Aeaeaoee, eio?? iathoue oe?ieee aieea ia ?iciiae?e ?ano?n?a,
iio?aaothoue nei?i/aiiy ? ia?ai???ioaoe?? ia iia? oe?e?. I?e oeueiio
iiaeaoeiaee ?aaeei iaiao?aeii ia?aaoaeoaaoe o a?aeiia?aeiino? c iiaeie
?aae?yie ? c o?aooaaiiyi ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a.

9. A ei?ioeioa?i?iia?e ia?niaeoea? ia?aaeueii aiai?eoe i?i ci?ie
o?neaeueieo onoaiia, iniaeeai a oi?aae?ii? iiaeaoeiaith nenoaiith ? a
athaeaeaoieo i?ioeaaeo?ao. A?eueoa oiai, no?oeoo?ia ia?aaoaeiaa iiaeiia
i?iaiaeeoeny iiaoaiii, uia iiaeia aoei caaacia/eoe iaiao?aeiee ca??
aeioiae?a ? aeeiiaiiy iaiao?aeieo ooieoe?e. Ia iaeaeeae/o ia?niaeoeao
iaiao?aeii aoaea ?ic?iaeoe aeaye? oei/ania? o?neaeuei? ?ino?oiaioe c
iaoith caaacia/aiiy noaa?e?caoe?eieo coneeue ? iieaaoaiiy ia?aoiaeo
aei aeiiii?ee noeioethaaiiy i?iiiceoe??, oiaoi c oei, uia aea?aoe /an
aeey aeinyaiaiiy a?eueoeo aaaeaieo aeiaaio?eaaeeo oe?eae ia?aaoaeiae
nenoaie o?neaeueieo ?ino?oiaio?a. Athaeaeaoi? ? iiaeaoeia? caoiaee
oaeiae ciaaeiaeyoueny aeey nai?/aniiai caaacia/aiiy ni?aaaaeeeaino?
a ?iciiae?e?. Oea ? i?iaeaia, yea aeieeia a ?acoeueoao? i?ioeano
ei?eaoaaiiy ? yea aeiaaaoeia ??oaiiy a ?ioa?anao noai?aiiy nioe?aeueii?
aace i?aeo?eiee ?aoi?i, iniaeeai a oeo e?a?iao, aea ye ? ?ai?oa, aino?i
noiyoue ieoaiiy nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino? ? aa?iii??.

10. Aeacai? ci?ie oai?aoe/ii iiaeooue cae?enieoeny a ?acoeueoao? iaei???
?aaeeeaeueii? ?aoi?ie aai ae a?eueo-iaio iinooiiai. Ne?ae a?aeaeaaaoe
nia? ca?o a oiio, ui nenoaie, ye? aeiiaaeaaia ?nioaaee a oiiaao ieaiiai?
aeiiii?ee, ?icaeaaeeny i?ioyaii aaaaoueio e?o ? ?o ia?aoai?aiiy ia? aooe
oaeiae iinooiiaei. A?eueoa oiai, ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aeaiiioaae
iaoai?cio oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai ieaioaaiiy aei oeeo i?? ia i?ea?a aei
yeeoinue na?eicieo ci?i o ?ic?iaoe? ? aeeiiaii? aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo.
Ia aeeaey/enue ia aeneiaethaai? iai??e ci?ieoe nenoaio, nai? ci?ie
aeyaeeeny iacia/ieie.

11. Aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy ia i?eaaaea aei oni?oo, yeui ia
a?aeaoaeaoueny cia/iiai iie?auaiiy aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo. Nenoaia
neeaaeaiiy o?iainiaeo ieai?a, oi?aae?iiy aeaeaoeaie ? ia caniaii
caioi/aiiy io?eioaa/?a athaeaeaoieo eioo?a oi?ioethaaoe nai? athaeaeaoi?
iiaaaeaiiy c aeinoaoiueith aio/e?noth a ?aieao aeaieo iaiaaeaiue ? c
iaoith iaeaoaeoeai?oiai aeei?enoaiiy cania?a ? oieeiaiiy ao?ao, a eeoa
neoaeeoue caniaii eiio?ieth ? iae?eo aneaioaaiue, ui cao?eniaai? a
ieai?.

12. Ia?ao?ae a?ae oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai eiio?ieth aei iai?yiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
?eieiaeie caniaaie iioyaia ca niaith iaiao?aei?noue ?ioiai o?neaeueiiai
i?aeoiaeo, ine?eueee aeaiee oaeoi? aieeaa? ia aeiiii?/io iiaaae?ieo. Ui
ae noino?oueny iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee, oi ?yae e?ie?a iiaeia aoaea
cae?enieoe iaaaeii. Ii-ia?oa, ii oiaeo iiaeaoeiai? ?aoi?ie iaiao?aeii
onoiooe aeene?ei?iaoe?eia iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o, yeee ii
noo? i?aeaea?oueny iiaeaoeiaei oo?aoiei naieoe?yi ?, oaeei /eiii,
ni?eyoe i?enei?aiiio ?icaeoeo i?eaaoiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Oaeiae
iaiao?aeii onoiooe iiiaeeio iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea ? iniaeeaeo i?ea?ea?a
aeey ??cieo eaoaai??e noa’?eo?a iiiaeaoeoaaiiy c oei, uia c naiiai
ii/aoeo anoaiiaeoe ni?aaaaeeea? i?aaeea a?e. Aiaeia?/iei niiniaii,
nii/aoeo iaiao?aeii aaeeoe caoiaee uiaei caoenoo aeioiaeii? aace,
iniaeeai ia ia?oiio aoai?, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieei ??aiai
oe?iiai? ?ioeyoe??.

13. Ae?ae aaaeeeaith aeiiaith ? ?icaeoie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ?,
cie?aia, nenoaie iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a aeey ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue a
eiioaeno? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, ye? ia?aaeaa/athoue iia? i?ioeaaeo?e
aeeiiaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa. Ia oaeo i?aai?caoe?eio
ia?aaoaeiao i?aeooue ?iee, ine?eueee iio??aia eiiieaenia ?ai?aai?caoe?y
? ia?ai?aeaioiaea, a oaeiae i?aea?? a?aeiia?aeieo eaae??a. Iaeiae, oaea
ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? iiaeia aaeeoe iaai? e?iee ii ci?oeiaiith nenoaie
iiaeaoeiaeo i?aai?a o ?o ?iaio? c ?nioth/eie, a iniiaiiio, aea?aeaaieie
i?aei?e?inoaaie. Iaiao?aeia noai?aiiy aoaeoeai?oi? nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy. Oea iniaeeai aaaeeeai uiaei aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, ye?,
io?eiaaoe a?eueoa naiaiaee ? iath/e iiaeeea?noue nei?enoaoeny nai?i
iiiiiieueiei noaiiaeuai, iiaeooue ceiaaeeaaoe ?acoeueoaoaie i?ioeano
e?aa?ae?caoe??.

14. Onoaiiae, aei caaaeaiue yeeo aoiaeeoue neeaaeaiiy athaeaeaoo,
iiaeii? iaa/eoeny aeanieie neeaie i?iaiaeeoe ioe?ieo aeiiii?/ii?
aoaeoeaiino? i?ia?aie aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a, a ia i?inoi niiae?aaoeny ia
??oaiiy oeaio?aeueieo ieaiiaeo i?aai?a. Ine?eueee ia oea iio??aai aoaea
/an ? aeieeia iaaaciaea iiaeo iiieeie o ?iciiae?e? ?ano?n?a, eiio?ieue
ca aeaeaoeaie ? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue iiaeii? aooe iineeai? aaea ia
ii/aoeiaiio aoai?. A ca’yceo c oei, ui oi?aae?inueeiio aia?aoo
ciaaeiaeoueny ia?aaoaeiaoaaoeny o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei iiaeo ooieoe?e, oi
eiia??ii, ui aeieeia iaaia iaaecia/ai?noue. Oea iiaea iaaaoeaii
a?aeaeoeny ia aeayeeo e?eoe/ii aaaeeeaeo noaooyo aeaeaoe?a, cie?aia,
oaeeo ye aenieoaoaoe?y, ?aiiio, a oaeiae iaaeaiiy nioe?aeueieo aeieao.
Noai?aiiy aaeaeaaoii? nenoaie nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e aeey ?ica’ycaiiy
iiaeo i?iaeai ia?aaeaa/a? ia?aaoaeiao ?nioth/i? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy ? no?aooaaiiy, noai?aiiy iiaeo oi?i ? iaae/ie. C oei, uia,
c iaeiiai aieo, ia aeeoe ca ?aiee athaeaeaoieo iaiaaeaiue, a, c
ae?oaiai, ?icaeaaoe i?aeoeeo ia?aaiai??a uiaei ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, yea
aaco?oueny ia ?eieiaeo i?eioeeiao, iaiao?aeii ana a?eueoa i???iooaaoeny
a nioe?aeueieo aeieaoao ? i?eueaao ia iaeceeaeaii?o? a?oie ianaeaiiy.
Oea iioyaia ca niaith iaiao?aei?noue cia/ii? ?ai?aai?caoe?? ?nioth/eo
oi?aae?inueeeo iaoai?ci?a, ye? iniiaothoueny ia iaaeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiio
i?aeoiae? aei nioe?aeueieo aeieao.

15. Iio??aii ?aoi?ioaaoe i?aai?caoe?ei? caoiaee ii o?iainoaaiith
athaeaeaoiiai aeao?oeeoo, ?aaoethaaiith ? eiio?ieth ca a?ioiaeie
iia?aoe?yie aeey oiai, uia i?eaanoe oe? iaoai?cie o a?aeiia?aei?noue c
aeiiaaie ?eieo. Aeao?oeeoe aaea ia iiaeia aoaea o?iainoaaoe c
aeiiiiiaith e?aaeeoii-a?ioiaiai ?aaoethaaiiy, ine?eueee iaaeeeoeiaa
e?ea?aei?noue oaea ia aoaea aaoiiaoe/ii in?aeaoe ia ?aooieao o aaieao o
?acoeueoao? aeiooaii? aeoioeyoe??. A oiio aeey io?eioaaiiy eioo?a
aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue ia?aaeyaeo i?ioeaaeo? ? iaoiae?a ae?yeueiino? o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c oeei aei?noeei athaeaeaoiei iaiaaeaiiyi. Onoaiiae oaea
ia ciiaeooue o?eiaoe e?oii? eiooe ia ?aooieao o aaieao, ia aeeaey/enue
ia cia/io caai?aiaai?noue aaie?anueei? nenoaie, ine?eueee ?ic?ea i?ae
i?ioeaioieie noaaeaie ii e?aaeeoao ? aeaiiceoao ca?eueoeoueny ?
aea?aeaaa aoaea ieaoeoe aei?iae/a ca nai? e?aaeeoe. Iaiao?aei?noue
nei?i/aiiy aeo?ao aeiaaa? aoaeoeai?oeo oi?i oi?aae?iiy a?ioiaeie
iia?aoe?yie. O a?eueo caaaeueiiio ieai? iaiao?aeii i?eieieoe i?aeoeeo
aca?iieo iaieaoaae?a i?ae ??cieie a?aeiinoaaie ? aea?aeaaieie
i?aei?e?inoaaie.

16. Ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? athaeaeao, ye iniiaiee ?ino?oiaio
noaa?e?caoe?eii? iie?oeee iiaeiai aooe aeei?enoaiee aeey aeeo/aiiy
caeai? e?ea?aeiino? ?c aeiiii?ee, aai, i?eiaeii?, ia iiaeiai ni?eyoe
ca?eueoaiith ??aiy e?ea?aeiino?; caaacia/oaaoe ?ano?ne aeey
?aeiino?oeoe?? ?aooe naeoi??a aeiiii?ee.

17. Ie??i aeacaii? ?ie? athaeaeaoii? iie?oeee a ai?iouea? c
?ioeyoe??th, athaeaeao iiaeiai oaeiae a?aoe ?ieue o i?aeo?eiaii?
i?eeiyoiiai ??aiy ae?iaieoeoaa. I?ia?aia-i?i?ioi aeeth/a? caaacia/aiiy
ae?iaieoeoaa oiaa??a, ye? i?eaeaathoueny ia ca?ia?oio ieaoo, ? ui
iaiao?aei? aeey aaciaiai niiaeeaaiiy ia ii/aoeiaiio ia??iae? ii i???
oiai, ye noai?ththoueny ?eiee e ?nio? cia/iee nooi?iue iaaecia/aiino? c
i?eaiaeo iaia’yceiaiai ni?aa?aeiioaiiy oe?i. Ia ne?ae oaeiae aeiioneaoe
iaaeoi aaeeeee ?ic?ea o ??ai? ca?ia?oii? ieaoe, yea niea/o?oueny ??ciei
i?aoe?aieeai ye o aea?aeaaieo, oae ? a ?ioeo i?aei?e?inoaao.

18. Athaeaeao ciooaiee aoaea acyoe ia naaa cia/io /anoeio aeo?ao,
iai?eeeaae, ii iai?io aea?aeaaieo oe?iieo iaia??a ia aeoeae, ui ia
caae?yi? a iia?aoe?yo aaie?anueei? nenoaie, ? oea, iaiaaii, i?eaaaea aei
i?aeaeuaiiy athaeaeaoieo aeo?ao ia i?ioeaioi? aeieaoe. Aea, i/aaeaeii,
ia?aaoaeiaa o?iainiaiai naeoi?o ? aeieeiaiiy aeeoo?ai? oa
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeii? aaie?anueei? nenoaie iiaeiii eoe ane?ae ca
ia?aaoaeiaith i?aei?e?inoa ? oe?iiai? ?aoi?ie, a ia ia?aaeoaaoe ?i.

19. I?eaaoecaoe?y e?oiieo aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa ia
iaia’yceiai ia?aaeaa/a? athaeaeaoi? aeaeaoee o /enoiio aeaeyae?. Iaeiae,
oea aoaea caeaaeaoe a?ae aaeaino eiie?aoiiai i?aei?e?inoaa, ? a?ae oiai,
/e aeyaeoueny /enoa aa?o?noue aeoea?a aeaiiai i?aei?e?inoaa aeineoue
iiceoeaiith aaee/eiith, ui aeeeeea? ?ioa?an o i?eaaoieo ?iaanoi??a.
Cae/aeii, ?c no?oeoo?ii? oi/ee ci?o, i?eaaoecaoe?y ? eeth/iaith aeiiaith
?, iiaeeeai, i?eeaeaoueny i?oe ia iaai? aeaeaoee ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai? c
oei, uia i?ioean i?eaaoecaoe?? i?oia.

20. Aeaeaoee ia noai?aiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo oaeiae
c?inoooue. Cie?aia, cia/ii a?eueoa ethaeae aoaea io?eioaaoe aeiiiiia
ia aac?ia?ooy ? nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy. A na?aaeiueioa?i?iiaiio ieai?
aeieaoe ia nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy ? caoeno iiaeii? aooe aaeaioiaai? o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ? iio?aaaie ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, aeey
yei? aeanoeaa, ii-ia?oa, ca?eueoaiiy ?ic?eao o ??aiyo aeioiae?a ?,
a?aeiia?aeii, aeieeiaiiy oaei? neooaoe??, a ye?e aeaye? a?oie ianaeaiiy
ciiaeooue nai? i?i naaa iioo?aoaaoeny, ?, ii-ae?oaa, ca?eueoaiiy
aeiiii?/ii? iacaaacia/aiino?, ui aeiaaaoeia a?eueoi? oaaae aei
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ? ai?ioueae c oaia?noth.

21. Iio??aii caaacia/eoe aoaeoeaiee iaaeyae ca ia?a?iciiae?eii ?ano?n?a
aeey noai?aiiy aaeaeaaoii? iieoiii? ni?iiiaeiino? a aeiiii?oe? ?,
cie?aia, aeey iaaeiiouaiiy iaaeoi ??ceiai iaae?iiy ?aaeueii? ca?ia?oii?
ieaoe, a?ae yei? caeaaeeoue ieaoini?iiiaeiee iiieo ia iniiai? oiaa?e
oe?ieiai aaeeoeo, ye? ae?iaeythoueny a e?a?i?. Iaiao?aeiee oaeiae
iaaeyae ca no?eioaaiiyi niaeoeyoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e, ye? ni?iiiaei?
i?ae??aaoe i?ioean ia?aoai?aiue. A?aeiia?aeia iie?oeea a iaeano?
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a ii?aeiaii? c iaiaaeaiiyie iiiiiieueii? aeaaee
i?aei?e?inoa aeicaieeoue nei?ioeoe aeaeaoee ia i?ia?aie nioe?aeueii?
i?aeo?eiee. Oaea nei?i/aiiy iaaecae/aeii iaiao?aeia aeey oiai, uia
aea?eueieoe ?ano?ne aeey no?oeoo?ii? ia?aaoaeiae aeiiii?ee.

22. Ia?ao?ae aei oi/i?oi? nenoaie aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo, ye i?aaeei,
aaaea aei nei?i/aiiy i?eaooeo, ui iaeeaaea?oueny iiaeaoeii, oiio ui,
ii-ia?oa, ca?ac ?c oaeiai i?eaooeo aeeo/athoueny oae? aeaeaoee, ye
i?ioeaioi? aeieaoe, ui ?ai?oa ia i?aeeyaaee aeeo/aiith, ?, ii-ae?oaa,
?eieiaa nenoaia aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo aaaeaoueny ?icoiii, oiaoi c
iaeyaeeith ia iioaioe?ei? aeo?aoe, ye? oaeiae i?aeeyaathoue aeeo/aiith.
Aeey oiai, uia i?eieieoe a?ic?th iiaeaoeiai? aace, iaiao?aeii aanoe
no?ia?o? i?aaeea aooaaeoa?nueeiai iae?eo aeey oe?eae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy.
I?eeiyooy iiai? iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie c ieae/eie noaaeaie oaeiae
iaiao?aeii aeey noeioethaaiiy i?eaaoiiai naeoi?o. Oi/a iiaeaoeia? noaaee
iiaeii? aooe ?aeeieie ye aeey i?eaaoiiai, oae ? aeey aea?aeaaiiai
naeoi?o, ana ae iaiao?aeii ia?aaeaa/eoe iniaeea? caoiaee aeey oiai, uia
caaacia/eoe aaeaeaaoi? a?ae?aooaaiiy ?c eioo?a aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoa.

23. Ni?iae i?ecoieieoe iia??oaiiy o?neaeueii? neooaoe??, iai?eeeaae,
oeyoii iiaeaeueoeo nei?i/aiue aeaeaoe?a ia oaoi?/ia ianeoaiaoaaiiy ?
iioi/iee ?aiiio oa ?ioeo aea?aeaaieo aneaioaaiue, i?e oeueiio aei?noei
oo?eioth/e ca?ieaoo ieae/a iaaiiai ??aiy ? a?aeeeaaeath/e aeae?eaiiy
eioo?a ia cae?eniaiiy no?oeoo?ieo ci?i a aeiiii?oe? (iniaeeai o
ae?iaie/iio naeoi?? ? aaie?anuee?e ni?aa?), oi iiaeooue iiaeeaeoe
aeai?an?th ? cao?eiaoe no?oeoo?io ia?aaoaeiao. Aeieeia caieiaia eiei, a
yeiio c?inoath/a noaaoeyoe?y ? iineeaia iie?oe/ia iai?oaeai?noue
aoaeooue ?i?oe?thaaoe iaeia iaeiiai. Oe?eeii c?icoi?ei, ui oaeee ee?iao
iaa?yae /e aeicaieeoue i?eoyaoe oae iaiao?aeiee cao?aeiee eai?oae
iaa?oue ca oiiae ni?eyoeeaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa i?i ?iicaii?
?iaanoeoe??.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

Iiiia?ao??

1. ?iciooaiei ?. A. Aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee a ia?ao?aeieo aeiiii?eao. — E.:
OAAeO, 1998. — 244 n.

2. ?iciooaiei ?. Oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie a ia?ao?aeieo
aeiiii?eao. — E.: Iniiae, 1993. — 223 n.

3. ?iciooaiei ?. Iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea ? aeiiii?/i? ?aoi?ie.-
E.:OAAeO,1996. — 119 n.

4. ?iciooaiei ?. A., Oaae?a ?. I. Aea?aeaai? o?iaine: oi?ioaaiiy ?
aeei?enoaiiy ia i?noeaaiio ??ai?. — E.: OAAeO, 1997. — 104 n. —
Aaoi?nueeeo — 39 n.

A?ioo?e

5. ?iciooaiei ?. Eiio?ieue ? oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie a
Aano???. — E.: ?AeON, 1993. — 13 n.

6. ?iciooaiei ?., TH?/eoei A. ?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia?? o o?iainao. — E.:
?AeON, 1994. — 43 n. — Aaoi?nueeeo — 22 n.

7. ?iciooaiei ?. Athaeaeaoiee i?ioean. — E.: OAAeO, 1997. — 60 n.

8. ?iciooaiei E. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey ia?aoiaea
i?aaei?eyoee ia iieiue oicyenoaaiiue ?an/ao. — E.: ?EIE?, 1989. -27 n.

9. ?iciooaiei E. A. Ia?ano?ieea iaoaiecia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae
i?aaei?eyoee Oe?aeineie NN?. — E.: ?anioaeeeaineee einoeooo iiauoaiey
eaaeeoeeaoeee i?e Niaaoa Ieieno?ia ONN?. — 1989. — 27 n.

10. ?iciooaiei ?. Aeina?ae ia?aaoaeiae ainiiaea?nueeiai iaoai?cio. — E.:
Ciaiiy,1990. — 16 n.

Noaoo? oa oace aeiiia?aeae ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo

11. ?iciooaiei ?. Aea?aeaai? o?iaine Oe?a?ie // No/ania aeiiii?/ia
oai??y ? aea?aeaai? o?iaine. — E.: OAAeO. — N. 126-169.

12. ?iciooaiei ?. Oeyoe oa niiniae oieeiaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a //
No/ania aeiiii?/ia oai??y ? aea?aeaai? o?iaine. — E.: OAAeO. — N. 170 —
191.

13. ?iciooaiei ?. I?eueae i?e iiiaeaoeoaaii? // No/ania aeiiii?/ia
oai??y ? aea?aeaai? o?iaine. — E.: OAAeO. — N. 192 — 213.

14. ?iciooaiei ?. I?iaeaia ?aaoethaaiiy noaneae?e o ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie // Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??:
“I?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ? i?noeaaiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy”. — E.: OAAeO, 1996. — N. 126-128.

15. ?iciooaiei ?. Aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee ? iie?oe/ia aiey // Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy”. — E.: OAAeO, 1997. — N. 185-188.

16. ?iciooaiei ?. I?iaeaia nei?i/aiiy athaeaeaoieo aeioaoe?e ? noaneae?e
// A?niee OAAeO. — 1996. — ?1. — N.47-52.

17. ?iciooaiei ?., TH?/eoei A. Aei i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo nenoaie aea?aeaaieo
oe?iieo iaia??a // A?niee OAAeO. — 1996. — ?2. — N. 35-40. —
Aaoi?nueeeo -3 n.

18. ?iciooaiei ?.,TH?/eoei A. Iaoiaeieia?/i? caoaaaeaiiy noiniaii
?iaanoeoe?eiiai i?ioeano a Oe?a?i? // A?niee OAAeO. — 1996. — ?3. N.
73-75. — Aaoi?nueeeo — 1 n.

19. ?iciooaiei ?., Eooeaiei A., TH?/eoei A.”O?iue” aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i a
Oe?a?i? // A?niee OAAeO. — 1998. — ?2. — N.39-51. — Aaoi?nueeeo — 6 n.

20. ?iciooaiei E., TH?/eoei A. No?oeoo?a e aeeiaieea ?acaeoey
iae?iaa?aaaoia AAI // Oeiainiaua ?uiee. — 1997. — ?4. — N.65-66. —
Aaoi?nueeeo — 1n.

21. ?iciooaiei ?. Iaa?aaeii: noa?aioeie //Iuetha?e (NOA), No/ani?noue. —
1991. — ?3. — C. 95-102.

22. ?iciooaiei ?. Iaieieii?aeueiee neiae?ii // No/ani?noue. — 1992. —
?1. — N. 88 — 97.

23. ?iciooaiei ?. Aaaao? oaae aoaathoue a?aeiyeaie// No/ani?noue. -1992.
— ?10. — N. 82-90.

24. ?iciooaiei ?. Oeyoe ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a // Ca??iee
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie. — E.: OAAeO, 1998. — N. 347-348.

25. ?iciooaiei ?. A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i o?iainia? ?ano?ne i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
aeaaee // A?ai?. — 1998. — Eenoiiaae. — N. 49-59.

26. ?iciooaiei ?. Aoaeoeai?noue aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia ioi?iio
caei?ia`y // Oe?a?inuee? iaaee/i? a?no?. — 1997. — ?2-3. — N.46-47.

27. ?iciooaiei E. A. Ia?ano?ieea i?aaiecaoeeiiiie no?oeoo?u e ?aaiou
i?aaiia oi?aaeaiey // Iiaay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie no?aiu. — E.:
Aeii iieeoi?inaauaiey i?e OeE Eiiia?oee Oe?aeiu, 1989. — N. 3-15.

28. ?iciooaiei E. A. Iiauoaiea o?iaiy oa??eoi?eaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey //
Iiaay nenoaia oi?aaeaiey yeiiiieeie no?aiu. — E.: Aeii iieeoi?inaauaiey
i?e OeE Eiiia?oee Oe?aeiu, 1989. — N. 16 — 26.

AIIOAOe?ss

?iciooaiei ?. A. Oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeaeaoeaie a ia?ao?aeieo
aeiiii?eao. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a iaoe c
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 25.00.05 — aaeocaaa
oi?aae?iiy: oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith. — Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeaii ?ao?iniaeoeaiee aiae?c aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a a
oiiaao no?oeoo?ieo ci?i ? noaa?e?caoe??, aeine?aeaeaii aieea
aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a ia aeiiii?/ia c?inoaiiy, i?eaaaeai? aea?aeaai?
nenoaie athaeaeaoo ? ca?oiino?, ?icaeyiooi i?iaeaie aeiiii?/ii? ?
nioe?aeueii? aoaeoeaiino? aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a, i?iaiae?ciaaii noai
aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a, ?o no?oeoo?e a e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith
oa aecia/ai? oaiaeaioe?? ?o ?icaeoeo, aeacai? iniiai? iai?yiee
aoaeoeaiiai ?iciiae?eo ? ia?a?iciiae?eo aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a.

O ?iaio? ocaaaeueiaii ca?oa?aeiee aeina?ae oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie
aeaeaoeaie, aeieacaii, ui aeaiiioaae oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai ieaioaaiiy aei
inoaiiueiai /ano ia i?ea?a aei yeeoinue na?eicieo ci?i o ?ic?iaoe? ?
aeeiiaii? aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, aei iioei?caoe?? aea?aeaaieo
aeaeaoe?a.

C`yniaaii, ui aei iaaii? i??e aea?aeaai? aeaeaoee ni?eythoue
aeiiii?/iiio c?inoaiith, aea iani?aaae? aaaeeeai ia ?o ianya, a
no?oeoo?a. O oeueiio eiioaeno? ni?iaa ?iciiae?eo eai?oaeueieo ? iioi/ieo
aeaeaoe?a iiaea aooe iiieeeiaith. O oeaio?? oaaae iiaeii? aooe
a?aei?iiino? i?ae aeaeaoeaie, ye? iathoue i?iaeoeoeaiee ?
iai?iaeoeoeaiee oa?aeoa?.

Iaa?oioiaaia ia`?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?ie nenoaie
aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a, yea ia? noaoe aaaeeeaith oiiaith ?aae?caoe??
aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i o oe?eiio. I?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?ie uiaei aea?aeaaieo
aeaeaoe?a ciaoiaeeoueny o o?niiio aca?iica`yceo c ?aoi?iaie a oaeeo
noa?ao ye iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, oe?iiooai?aiiy, ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoa ? o.ae. Aeiaaaeaii, ui oni?oi?noue ?aoi?ie o noa??
aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a caeaaeeoue a?ae iai???a iaaii? e?a?ie caa?aaoe
i??o i?yii? o/ano? aea?aeaae o ae?iaieoeoa?, aeae?eaii? ?ano?n?a ?
?iciiae?eo e?ioeaai? i?iaeoeoe??. Ia iaio aaaeeeaeie oiiaaie oni?oo ?
no?eioaaiiy ??aiy aea?aeaaieo aeaeaoe?a o aeiionoeieo c iae?iaeiiii?/ii?
oi/ee ci?o ?aieao, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aea?aeaaieo i?ia?ai,
ci?oeiaiiy ?ie? aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a o iiina?aaeeiaaiiio noeioethaaii?
aeiiii?/iino? i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a ? caeo/aiiy oeo ?iaanoeoe?e, ye?
i?aeaeuothoue i?iaeoeoeai?noue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aea?aeaaa, oi?aae?iiy, ia?ao?aeia aeiiii?ea,
aea?aeaai? o?iaine, aeaeaoee, iiaeaoee, ?iaanoeoe??, aoaeoeai?noue.

AIIIOAOeEss

?iciooaiei E. A. Oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiuie ?anoiaeaie a ia?aoiaeiuo
yeiiiieeao. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a iaoe ii
ainoaea?noaaiiiio oi?aaeaieth ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 25.00.05 — io?aneaaia
oi?aaeaiea: oi?aaeaiea yeiiiieeie. — Oe?aeineay Aeaaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey i?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee aeai ?ao?iniaeoeaiue aiaeec ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia
a oneiaeyo no?oeoo?iuo eciaiaiee e noaaeeecaoeee, enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia ia yeiiiie/aneee ?ino, i?eaaaeaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiua nenoaiu athaeaeaoa e io/aoiinoe, ?anniio?aiua i?iaeaiu
yeiiiie/aneie e nioeeaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia,
i?iaiaeece?iaaii ninoiyiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, eo no?oeoo?u a
no?aiao n ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieeie e ii?aaeaeaiu oaiaeaioeee eo ?acaeoey;
oeacaiu iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey yooaeoeaiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey e
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa.

A ?aaioa iaiauai ca?oaaaeiue iiuo oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuie
?anoaeaie, aeieacaii, /oi aeaiiioaae iaoaiecia oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
ieaie?iaaiey aei iineaaeiaai a?aiaie ia i?eaae e eaeei-eeai na?ueaciui
eciaiaieyi a ?ac?aaioea e auiieiaiee ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa, e
iioeiecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia.

Aeieacaii, /oi aei ii?aaeaeaiiie noaiaie ainoaea?noaaiiua ?anoiaeu
niinianoaotho yeiiiie/aneiio ?inoo, ii aeaenoaeoaeueii, aaaeai ia eo
iauai, a no?oeoo?a. A yoii eiioaenoa iiiuoea ?acaeaeaiey eaieoaeueiuo e
oaeoueo ?anoiaeia iiaeao auoue ioeai/iie. A oeaio?a aieiaiey aeieaeiu
auoue ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ?anoiaeaie, eioi?ua eiatho i?iaeoeoeaiue e
iai?iaeoeoeaiue oa?aeoa?.

Iainiiaaia iauaeoeaiay iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey ?aoi?iu nenoaiu
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia, eioi?ay aeieaeia noaoue aaaeiui oneiaeai
?aaeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i a oeaeii. I?iaaaeaiea ?aoi?iu
ioiineoaeueii ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia i?aauaaao a oaniie acaeiinayce
n ?aoi?iaie a oaeeo noa?ao eae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea, oeaiiia?aciaaiea,
aeayoaeueiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e o. ae. Aeieacaii, /oi
oniaoiinoue ?aoi?iu a noa?a ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia caaeneo io
aeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie no?aiu nie?aoeoue noaiaiue i?yiiai o/anoey
ainoaea?noaa a i?iecaiaenoaa, auaeaeaiee ?ano?nia e ?ani?aaeaeaeiee
eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee. Ia iaiaa aaaeiuie oneiaeyie oniaoa yaeyaony
naea?aeeaaiea o?iaiy ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia a aeiionoeiuo n
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey ?aieao, iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?ia?ai, oe?aieaiey ?iee ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaiia a
iiin?aaeiaaiii noeioee?iaaiee yeiiiie/iinoe /anoiiai naeoi?a e
i?eaea/aiee oao eiaanoeoeee, eioi?ua iiauoatho i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

Naeaeaiu auaiaeu, /oi ia?ii?eyoey ii noaaeeecaoeee e no?oeoo?iie
ia?ano?ieea oaeaea aeeytho ia o?iaaiue e no?oeoo?o ?anoiaeia. Oae,
eciaiaiey i?ioeaioio noaaie aeeytho ia ianeoaeeaaiea aioo?aiiaai aeieaa;
aiaoiee aeiea e ?anoiaeu ia eiii?o caaenyo io iaiaiiiai eo?na:
eiaeaene?iaaiiua e aeecee e eiaeea?iaaiiui ?anoiaeu (iainee, ca?aaioiay
ieaoa, ?anoiaeu ia caeoieo oiaa?ia e oneoa) caaenyo io o?iaiy eioeyoeee,
a ni?in ia ii?aaeaeaiiua i?ia?aiiu (io?aia caei?iauey, ia?aciaaiea)
naycai n o?iaiai aeioiaeia. A oi aea a?yiy, eciaiaiea i?ioeaioiuo noaaie
e iaiaiiiai eo?na, eioeyoeey e ?ino aeioiaeia aeeytho ia aeioiaeu
ainoaea?noaa. Iaiin?aaenoaaiiia aeeyiea ae?oaeo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo
iieacaoaeae ia ?anoiaeu e aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa ii?aaeaeeoue oyaeaei, e
nie?auaiea ?anoiaeia a aeaiiue iiiaio iiaeao eaaei ia?aoeoueny eo
aeaeueiaeoei aic?anoaieai a aoaeouai e i?eaanoe e cia/eoaeueiiio
aeaoeoeeoo. Yoa ia?aoiay naycue aua aieueoa oneiaeiyao aiaeec
ia?ii?eyoee yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee.

Enneaaeiaaii, /oi yeiiiie/aneea ?aoi?iu, e niaeaeaieth, cao?iioee
ainoaea?noaaiioth oi?io nianoaaiiinoe ia n?aaenoaa i?iecaiaenoaa oaeei
ia?acii, /oi nei?aa ineaaeee, iaaeaee oneeeee iieiiii/ey e
yooaeoeaiinoue eiio?iey ainoaea?noaa, eae nianoaaiieea n?aaenoa
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia?niaeoeaa aaie?ionoaa i?aaei?eyoee ia eiaea
aeenoeeieeie?othuaai aeeyiey, iineieueeo aaieianeay nenoaia n
oaeiaieuenoaeai oaeiaeaoai?yea oeiainiaua iio?aaiinoe i?aaei?eyoee. A
oaeie neooaoeee i?e nouanoaothuae nenoaia noeioee?iaaiey ?oeiaiaeeoaee
i?aaei?eyoee eniieueciaaee ?ano?nu aeey oiai, /oiau auoi?aiaaoue o
ainoaea?noaa oaeea oneiaey, eioi?ua au ?ac?aoaee eo i?aaei?eyoeyi auoue
?aioaaaeueoiuie, aeiaeaaynue aeiiieieoaeueiuo eueaio e aeioaoeee, a
oaeaea anooiay a naiai? n ?aaioathueie, aeiaeaaoueny iieo/aiey e
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo a?aiaiiuo aeaiaaeiuo eceeoae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ainoaea?noai, oi?aaeaiea, ia?aoiaeiay yeiiiieea,
ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainu, ?anoiaeu, iaeiae, eiaanoeoeee,
yooaeoeaiinoue.

ABSTRACT

Ivan V. Rozputenko. The Management of Public Expenditures in Transition
Economies. — Manuscript.

The Tresis for a Doctor of Sciences Degree (Public Administration) by
Speciality 25.00.05 — Management of Specific Sector of Public
Administration: Economic Policy. — Ukrainian Academy of Public
Administration, Office of the President of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1998.

In the Thesis the state of Public Expenditures under conditions of
structural changes and stabilisation is analysed. The influence of
Public Expenditures on economic growth is also analysed, national
systems of budgeting and of reporting are described. Problems of
economic and social efficiency of Public Expenditures are reviewed. The
state of Public Expenditures, their structure in the countries with
transition economy is analysed and the main trends of their development
are defined; the main directions of the efficient distribution and
redistribution of Public Expenditures are marked.

In this work the experience of foreign countries in administration of
Public Expenditures is generalised. It has been proven that dismantling
of central planning did not bring serious changes in developing and
execution of National Budget and optimisation of Public Expenditures. It
is revealed that to certain extend Public Expenditures promote economic
growth, but what is important is not their amount but a structure. In
this context an attempt to distribute capital and current expenditures
could be mistakable.

Differences between expenditures of productive and non-productive
character should be in focus of attention.

The objective necessity of reforming the system of Public Expenditures
which has to be an important condition of implementation economic
reforms in general is explained. The reform is closely tied with
reforms in such spheres as taxation, pricing, operations of state
enterprises etc. It is proved that the success of reforms in Public
Expenditures sphere depends on intentions of a country to save the share
of direct government involvement in production, allocation of resources
and distribution of finished product. Not less important condition of
success is keeping the level of Public Expenditures within
macroeconomically reasonable limits on particular level enhancing the
efficiency of Public Programmes, strengthening of the role of
Governmental bodies in indirect stimulating of efficiency of private
sector and attraction of those investments which raise productivity.

Key words: State, administration, management, transition economy,
Public Finance, expenditure, taxes, investment, efficiency.

Похожие записи