OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAI?ss AeA?AEAAIIAI OI?AAE?IIss

I?E I?ACEAeAIOIA? OE?A?IE

EAEAOI?EIAA Na?oeaia Aiae???aia

OAeE 351.851

Oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii

aeui? ina?oe a NOA

25.00.05 — aaeocaaa oi?aae?iiy: oi?aae?iiy ina?oith

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e

Aeaaeai?? iaoe aeui? oeiee Oe?a?ie

EOAIAEE Aieiaeeie? ?ea??iiiae/,

Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy

i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, ?aeoi?.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

NAAA* Aaeeia Ieoaee?aia,

Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e eia?ee;

aeieoi? iaaeaaia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EICAEIA A?oae?e Aiae??eiae/,

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
iaaeaaia?ee oa ineoieia??.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee e?iaa?noe/iee oi?aa?neoao
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a iaaeaaia?ee, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny »28» aa?aniy 1999 ?. i 14 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.810.02 a Oe?a?inuee?e Aeaaeai??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252057,
Ee?a — 57, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie (252057,
Ee?a — 57, aoe. Aaeaia Iioue?, 20).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee »27» na?iiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee A.I.Iiaianthe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. A oiiaao no/anii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae,
oaeineiiaeaiiy ?? ina?oiuei? neeaaeiai? ae??oaeueiiai cia/aiiy iaaoaa?
ieoaiiy ?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?aae?iiy ina?oith. I?eeiyoa ? c’?caeii
iaaeaaia?/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a Oe?a?ie Aea?aeaaia iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia
»Ina?oa» (»Oe?a?ia OO? noie?ooy») aecia/eea oae? no?aoaa?/i?
caaaeaiiy oeueiai i?ioeano: ci?ia oa?aeoa?o oi?aae?iiy a iai?yi? eiai
aeaiie?aoecaoe??; ci?ia oeio oi?aae?iiy a iai?yi? eiai
aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??; oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oi?aae?iiy; ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?aai?caoe?eieo, i?aaiaeo,
aeiiii?/ieo ? o?iainiaeo iaoai?ci?a oi?aae?iiy ina?oith.

Ine?eueee oai?aoe/ia inieneaiiy neeaaeieo i?iaeai oi?aae?iiy ina?oith a
iao?e e?a?i? ia?aaoaa? eeoa ia ii/aoeiaiio aoai?, aeioe?eueiei ?
iaiao?aeiei ? aea/aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy iaaeaaiue aeniei?icaeiaieo e?a?i
o oe?e aaeoc?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Caa?iaiiy aei aeina?aeo NOA o noa?? oi?aae?iiy
ina?oith, cie?aia aeuith, iiynith?oueny ?yaeii i?e/ei. Ii-ia?oa,
?nioth/a nenoaia oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a NOA ia?
aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiee oa?aeoa?. Aiia oaeoe/ii ? aioeiiaeii
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ina?oith, yeo ie iaee
i?ioyaii aaaaoueio aeanyoee?oue. Aiae?c aia?eeainueei? nenoaie
oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith aea? ciiao ia o?eueee e?aua ona?aeiiethaaoe
i?ioean aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy, ui a?aeaoaa?oueny a iaoiio
ina?oiueiio na?aaeiaeu? nueiaiaei?, aea e ia?aaeaa/aoe eiai iiceoeai? oa
iaaaoeai? iane?aeee.

Ii-ae?oaa, ci?ia oa?aeoa?o oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a Oe?a?i? a
iai?yi? eiai aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ie?
a?iiaaenueeeo no?oeoo? a oi?aae?ii? aeueie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie. I?e
oeueiio aeieea? ?yae aeooaeueieo ieoaiue noiniaii iaae ? e?eoa???a
o/ano? i?aai?a a?iiaaenueeiai a?yaeoaaiiy a i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy,
i?aeii?yaeeiaaiino? e iaoai?cio ?o ni?ao/ano? c aea?aeaaieie aeeiiaa/eie
i?aaiaie oa i?aaiaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ui aa?ooue o/anoue a oi?aae?ii?
aeueie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie. Aaaeeeaei oaeiae ? anoaiiaeaiiy e
i?aeo?eiaiiy aaeaino i?ae ianyaii iiaiiaaaeaiue ? ??aiai
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? an?o o/aniee?a i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy caeeaaeaie aeui?
ina?oe. Ia ii/aoeo ia?aoiaeo a?ae aea?aeaaiiai aei
aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueeiai oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a Oe?a?i?
iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe na?oiaee aeina?ae o ae??oaii? niaeo?a iiae?aieo
ieoaiue, cie?aia aeina?ae Niieo/aieo Ooao?a, aea o/anoue a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?a a oi?aae?ii? aeueie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie ? aecia/aeueiith
i?ioyaii onueiai ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo aia?eeainueei? aeui? ina?oe.

O?aoy i?e/eia, ui coiiaeea aea?? o ?ie? ia’?eoa iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aia?eeainueeo nenoaio oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith,
iia’ycaia c oei, ui a?aeiia?aeii aei Eiinoeoooe?? NOA eiaeiiio ooaoo
iaaeaii i?aai e a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue i?aai?ciaoaaoe naith aeanio nenoaio
ina?oe e oi?aaeyoe iath. Aeaiee oaeo ? i?e/eiith ?nioaaiiy ??cieo
iiaeaeae oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith ia ??ai? ?aa?iio (ooaoo) a iaaeao
iaei??? e?a?ie. Aea/aiiy oeueiai niaeo?a oei?a ? oe?iiei a oiiaao iiooeo
iioeiaeueii? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith ia ??ai? ?aa?iio a
Oe?a?i?.

?aoi?ioth/e i?aai?caoe?ei?, i?aaia?, aeiiii?/i? oa o?iainia? iaoai?cie
oi?aae?iiy aeuith oeieith, iaiao?aeii oaeiae iaeneiaeueii a?aoiaoaaoe
na?oiaee aeina?ae, cie?aia aeina?ae Niieo/aieo Ooao?a, ui iin?aeathoue
iaeia c i?ia?aeieo i?noeue o na?o? ca nai?i ??aiai ?icaeoeo. Ne?ae
aeae?eeoe aea? a?oie caeiaooe?a, ye? aeioe?eueii aea/aoe oa
aeei?enoiaoaaoe a oiiaao oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeuith
oeieith oa ?icaeoeo oai??? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a Oe?a?i?:
i?aeoeeo oi?aae?iiy aeueie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie — oea iaa?oioiaai?
iaoeith e aei?aaaeai? aeeooyi iaoiaee, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny a
oi?aae?ii? aeuith ina?oith a NOA, oa oai?aoe/i? iaaeaaiiy aia?eeainueeeo
o/aieo o oae?e iaoeia?e aaeoc?, ye oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith, ui
aeoeaii ?icaeaa?oueny a NOA ai?iaeiaae /ioe?ueio aeanyoe?a ?ie?a. Ca
oeae ia??iae aia?eeainueeeie a/aieie aeine?aeaeaii aaeeeo e?euee?noue
i?iaeai c oai??? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith, a caeiaoo? ?acoeueoaoe
a?aeia?aaeaii a iaoeiaeo ?iaioao, ui ? oe?iiei iaoa??aeii ye aeey
oai?aoee?a aaeoc?, oae ? aeey i?aeoee?a. Iacaia?a/iei ? aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy, yea a?ae?a?a? nenoaia i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c oi?aae?iiy
ina?oith aeey oni?oiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai iaoai?cio. O
Niieo/aieo Ooaoao i?ia?aie i?aeaioiaee aaei?i?no?aoi??a aeui? ina?oe
ooieoe?iiothoue oaea iiiaae 30 ?ie?a. C iaeyaeo ia oa, ui a Oe?a?i? oeae
iai?yiie i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a o nenoai? aeui? oeiee eeoa ii/eia? na?e
?icaeoie, oe?ii?noue iciaeiieaiiy c? ci?noii ? i?eioeeiaie iiaoaeiae
oaeeo i?ia?ai ia aeeeeea? noii?ao.

Ioaea, aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy aeuith
ina?oith a NOA coiiaeaia oai?aoe/iith e i?aeoe/iith cia/ou?noth
aia?eeainueeiai aeina?aeo a aeai?e aaeoc? a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy
oi?aae?iiy ina?oiueith noa?ith a Oe?a?i?.

?acii ?c oei iaeyae a?o/eciyieo i?aoeue, a yeeo ciaeoee nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ??ci? aniaeoe aia?eeainueei? aeui? ina?oe, na?ae/eoue, ui
a?ae/eciyieie iaoeiaoeyie ia aoa cae?eniaiee eiiieaeniee, nenoaiiee
aiae?c oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a NOA. E??i oiai, iaiao?aei?noue
aeine?aeaeaiiy naia oeueiai niaeo?a i?iaeai coiiaeaia iayai?noth
iaoi/ii? oa iiaa?oiaai? ?ioi?iaoe?? o a?o/eciyi?e iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??
a?aeiinii no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a Niieo/aieo Ooaoao,
oei?a oi?aae?iiy oa ?ioeo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaiiai i?ioeano.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeuith
ina?oith a NOA coiiaeaia:

oai?aoe/iith e i?aeoe/iith cia/ou?noth aeina?aeo NOA a oiiaao
?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a Oe?a?i?;

?icaeoeii a?o/eciyii? iaoee oi?aae?iiy ina?oith;

a?aenooi?noth nenoaiieo a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeaeaiue ?c oe??? i?iaeaie.

A?aoiaoth/e iayai?noue nooo?aeo ? i?eioeeiiaeo a?aei?iiinoae i?ae
oi?aae?iiyi aia?eeainueeeie aea?aeaaieie oa i?eaaoieie aeueie
iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie, noa?o aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiaaeaii
aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe.

Cacia/aia coiiaeei aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy — »Oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei
naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA».

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeaia
aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeiny a iaaeao ieaio
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie ca oaiaie: »Aea?aeaaia oi?aae?iiy ina?oith a
Oe?a?i?» oa »Iniiai? iai?yie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
ina?oith a Oe?a?i?»(? 07).

Ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy — nenoaia oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui?
ina?oe a NOA.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a cae?eniaii? nenoaiiiai aiae?co oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aecia/aii? iaoe iaiao?aeii ?ica’ycaoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

i?iaiae?coaaoe noai aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie a oai??? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy;

c’ynoaaoe oaeoi?e, ui aecia/athoue oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaieie caeeaaeaie aeui? ina?oe a NOA;

?ice?eoe iniiai? oe?e? e ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy aia?eeainueeith aeuith
oeieith;

aeine?aeeoe no?oeoo?o nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui?
ina?oe a NOA (ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iniiai? ??ai? aaei?i?no?oaaiiy
aia?eeainueeith aea?aeaaiith aeuith oeieith, ?o aioo??oith
i?aai?caoe?th, ooieoe?? oa iiaiiaaaeaiiy i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy aeaieo
??ai?a, i?iaiae?coaaoe ca’ycee i?ae i?aaiaie oi?aae?iiy a iaaeao
eiaeiiai ??aiy oa i?ae ??aiyie);

aeae?eeoe e iaa?oiooaaoe iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeueie
iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie a NOA;

anoaiiaeoe oa?aeoa? ? i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui?
ina?oe a Niieo/aieo Ooaoao;

aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui?
ina?oe a NOA, aecia/eaoe iiceoeai? oa iaaaoeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aia?eeainueei? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiith aeuith ina?oith,
i??i?eoaoe no/anii? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee a aaeoc? aeui? ina?oe;

c’ynoaaoe ia?niaeoeai? iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy iiceoeaieo caeiaooe?a
aia?eeainueeiai aeina?aeo a aaeoc? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a Oe?a?i?.

Iniiai? aeaea?aea aeine?aeaeaiiy. O i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?iaiae?ciaaii aeecueei 300 aeaea?ae, ?c ieo iiiaae 200 — aiae?enueeith
iiaith. Na?aae ieo:

iaoeia? i?aoe? (iiiia?ao??, noaoo?, aeena?oaoe??) oe?a?inueeeo ?
?in?enueeeo o/aieo, i?enay/ai? ieoaiiyi ?icaeoeo aeui? ina?oe NOA;

iiiia?ao?? oa iaoeia? noaoo? ca?oa?aeieo iaoeiaoe?a c i?iaeaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy;

aia?eeainuee? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy (Chronicle of Higher Education,
Journal of Higher Education, The Almanac of Higher Education oa ?io?);

noaoenoe/i? oa aiae?oe/i? iaoa??aee aia?eeainueeeo i?aai?caoe?e ii cai?o
?ioi?iaoe?? c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo aeui? ina?oe;

noaoenoe/i? ca??ee c ina?oe THIANEI;

aia?eeainuee? caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe (oaaea?aeuei? oa ooaoi?) c aeui? ina?oe;

aeieoiaioe Aeaia?oaiaioo ina?oe NOA, ooaoieo ? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith;

noaoooe aia?eeainueeeo oi?aa?neoao?a ? eieaaeae?a;

iaoa??aee a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e c aeui? ina?oe;

iaa/aeueiii?ia?aiiaa aeieoiaioaoe?y aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
Niieo/aieo Ooao?a, ye? cae?eniththoue i?aeaioiaeo oao?aoe?a ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth »Oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith».

A?eueo?noue aeaea?ae (iiiaae 160) aoei io?eiaii /a?ac aeiaaeueio
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?io ia?aaeo »?ioa?iao».

Caaaeueia a?iioaca aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia
i?eiouaii?, ui aea/aiiy aeina?aeo aeniei?icaeiaieo e?a?i o noa??
oi?aae?iiy ina?oith ? aaaeeeaith ? ei?eniith ni?aaith aeey ?icaeoeo,
?aoi?ioaaiiy ? aaeineiiaeaiiy ina?oe a Oe?a?i?. Caaaeueia a?iioaca
eiie?aoeciaaia o ?yae? /anoeiaeo, a naia:

aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeaeae oi?aae?iiy ina?oith ?ioeo e?a?i, ?o iiceoeaieo ?
iaaaoeaieo noi??i, ? iaiao?aeiei o aaeineiiaeaii? oe?a?inueei? iiaeae?
oi?aae?iiy ina?oith;

aea/aiiy ca?oa?aeieo iaoeiaeo aeinyaiaiue o aaeoc? oi?aae?iiy ina?oith
aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaee?au? na?oia? caeiaooee a oe?e noa?? aeey
?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? oai??? oi?aae?iiy ina?oith;

iciaeiieaiiy c i?ia?aiaie i?aeaioiaee aaei?i?no?aoi??a ina?oe, ye?
?aae?cothoueny a ca?oa?aeieo ina?oi?o nenoaiao ? ei?eniei aeey ?ic?iaee
iaoiaeeee i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a aeaii? niaoe?aeueiino? a Oe?a?i? oa
ao?eaiiy oe??? iaoiaeeee a aeeooy;

aeei?enoaiiy no/anieo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo aeaea?ae ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i o
cae?eniaii? iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ia o?eueee ?icoe?th? iiaeeeaino?
a/aieo aeey iiooeo ina?oiuei? ?ioi?iaoe??, aea e ?ethno?o? oeyoe oa
niiniae ?icaeoeo ?ioi?iaoe?eieo ina?oi?o ?ano?n?a a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa:

cae?eniaii nenoaiia aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui?
ina?oe a NOA;

iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? ?nioth/? a NOA iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie
aeueie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie ia ??ai? ooaoo (oeaio?ae?ciaaia e
aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaia);

aena?oeaii ?ieue a?iiaaenueeino? a oi?aae?ii? aea?aeaaiith aeuith
ina?oith NOA oa ?? ?icaeoeo;

anoaiiaeaii a?iiaaenueei-aea?aeaaiee oa?aeoa? ? i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA (aeaiie?ao??, nioe?aeueii?
aeaoa?i?iaoe??, aoiai?caoe??, i?aaiai? i??i?eoaoiino?, iaoeiaino? oa
eiiiaoaioiino?, ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aeinoaoiino? oa cai?ioiiai ca’yceo) ;

aecia/ai? iiceoeai? (aeaiie?aoe/iee oa?aeoa?, aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaia
iiaeaeue, iaoai?ci ni?ao/ano? e i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy a no?oeoo?? oi?aae?iiy
i?aai?a ??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy, iaoai?ci ae?aaeeoaoe??) oa iaaaoeai?
(a?aenooi?noue oeaio?ae?ciaaieo iaoai?ci?a aeey ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai cia/aiiy, aenieee ??aaiue eiioe?eoiino? e iaaeie?ee, ui
iia’ycai? c o/anoth a oi?aae?ii? a?iiaaenueeeo no?oeoo?) oa?aeoa?enoeee
aia?eeainueei? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiith aeuith oeieith;

aeyaeai? oaiaeaioe?? iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo aeine?aeaeoaaii? nenoaie
(iineeaiiy ?ie? ea??aieo ?aae, i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy i?ioan?iiae?cio
o/aniee?a oi?aae?iiy, oaeineiiaeaiiy eiio?iethth/eo iaoai?ci?a, ?icaeoie
nenoaie i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith oa oai???
oi?aae?iiy aeuith oeieith);

oaaaeaii o a?o/eciyiee iaoeiaee ia?a cia/io e?euee?noue iiaeo
iaeno/ani?oeo aeieoiaio?a, ui noinothoueny oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a
NOA (caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe, noaoenoe/i? oa aiae?oe/i? iaeyaee, io?oe?eia
aeieoiaioaoe?y);

i?iaiae?ciaaii iaa/aeuei? i?ia?aie aia?eeainueeeo caeeaae?a aeui? ina?oe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth »Oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith»;

i?i?ethno?iaaii aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeeainoae aeiaaeueii?
?ioi?iaoe?eii-eiii’thoa?ii? ia?aae? »?ioa?iao» aeey iiooeo ina?oiuei?
?ioi?iaoe??.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy:

iiceoeaieo iaaeaaiue aia?eeainueeiai aeina?aeo o noa?? oi?aae?iiy aeuith
ina?oith a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy ina?oe a Oe?a?i?;

?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaea/aie oa ea??aieeaie aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a Oe?a?ie o oi?ioaaii? iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai, ieai?a,
eo?n?a oa a?ae?ia?ao?/ieo aac aeey i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth »Oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith» aai »Iaiaaeaeiaio aeui?
ina?oe»;

aeaea?aeiciaa/i? aace aeena?oaoe?? ina?oyiaie — iaoeiaoeyie oa
i?aeoeeaie, ye? oe?eaaeyoueny i?iaeaiaie oi?aae?iiy aeuith oeieith.

Ia aeaiee /an ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeei?enoaii a
i?ioean? aeeeaaeaiiy ieoaiue c oi?aae?iiy ina?oith a Oe?a?inuee?e
Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie, ui iaaiai?thaaeeny ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e nioe?aeueii? ?
aoiai?oa?ii? iie?oeee Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, aena?oeai? ia ui??/i?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? »Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy» iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai ia?niiaeo, neooa/?a, ani??aio?a,
aeieoi?aio?a Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie (Ee?a, 1997 ?.); iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Iaoea ? ina?oa” Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (Ee?a,
1997 ?.); i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Eiioeaioe?y
aoiai?cio a noaiiaeaii? oa ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii? iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe”
(Iaeana, 1997 ?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aena?oeai? a oanoe iaeiiin?aieo iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo (/ioe?e c yeeo —
noaoo? a i?ia?aeieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo, aea? — o ca??ieeao iaoeiaeo
i?aoeue oa iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?e).

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (194 iaeiaioaaiiy, c
ieo 134 — aiae?enueeith iiaith), 21 aeiaeaoeo. O ?iaio? ai?uaii
aeaa’youe ?enoie?a ? o?noue oaaeeoeue. Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? —
225 noi??iie, c ieo ianya iniiaiiai oaenoo — 175 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue, nooi?iue aeine?aeaeaiino? ia?aii?
i?iaeaie, aecia/aii ia’?eo, iaoo, caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eoi
eiai iaoeiao iiaecio e i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, aena?oeaii aniaeoe ai?iaaoe??
oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e — »Oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a NOA ye i?aaeiao
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy» — aeeth/a? aeaa i?ae?icae?ee. Ia?oee c ieo
i?enay/aii c’ynoaaiith oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae i?ciaiiy
oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith. Aecia/aii, ui cae?eniaiiy aiae?co oi?aae?iiy
aeuith ina?oith iio?aao? aeei?enoaiiy iecee iaoeiaeo i?aeoiae?a ?
iaoiae?a. A naia: iaoiaeo oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co, yeee aeeth/a?
ocaaaeueiaiiy, nenoaiaoecaoe?th iaoa??aeo oa eiai e?eoe/iee aiae?c;
iaoiaeo neioaco; nenoaiiiai iaoiaeo, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? ?icaeyae
i?aai?/ieo neeaaeiaeo oe?eiai a ?o aca?iiae??; ii??aiyeueiiai iaoiaeo,
yeee aeiaaa? c?noaaeaiiy iiaeaeae ? aeaiaio?a oe?eiai oa eiai
oa?aeoa?enoee; ?ioi?iaoe?eii-iiooeiaeo iaoiae?a.

I?e iiaoaeia? noaie aeine?aeaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith, ca
iniiao acyoi canaaee oai??? oi?aae?iiy, aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, oai???
ooieoe?iiaeueieo nenoai oa i?aai?caoe?eii? oai???, i?aaii??i?noue
aeei?enoaiiy yeeo iaa?oioiaaii a aeena?oaoe??. O ?acoeueoao? io?eiaii
oaeee ii?yaeie aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith:
i?e?iaea TH oe?e? TH ooieoe?? TH no?oeoo?a TH i?ioean TH i?eioeeie.
Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui o iiaeai?e noai? ia? i?noea iine?aeiaia e aei?noea
aeaoa?i?iaoe?y aeaiaio?a oi?aae?iiy. Oea icia/a?, ui ci?ia iaeiiai
aeaiaioa aeaii? nenoaie iaia’yceiai ia? aecaaoe aaeaeaaoi? ci?ie a ?ioeo
aeaiaioao.

Iiaeaeueoee ?icaeyae oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? aace aeine?aeaeaiiy
oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith cae?eniaii a?aeiia?aeii aei iiaeaii? noaie.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aecia/aiiy oe?eae oi?aae?iiy aeuith oeieith aeeth/a?
aeae?eaiiy aieiaii? iaoe, ca?aaee yei? noai?th?oueny nenoaia oi?aae?iiy,
oa aeiiii?aeieo oe?eae, aeinyaiaiiy yeeo ni?ey? aeinyaiaiith aieiaii?.
I?e oi?aae?ii? aaaaoi??aiaaeie nenoaiaie, aei yeeo iaeaaeeoue ? aeua
ina?oa, oe?e? aeueo ??ai?a oi?aae?iiy oi?ioeththoueny oe?oa, i?ae
ieae/eo. Ii?yae ?c oeei ia? i?noea ???a?o?/i?noue (i?aeii?yaeeiaai?noue
oe?eae ieae/iai ??aiy aeuei) ? aca?iica’ycie oe?eae (iaiao?aei?noue ?o
aca?iii? i?aeo?eiee).

I?e aeyaeaii? oa cae?eniaii? aiae?co ooieoe?e oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith
ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe, ui a?aeiia?aeii aei ci?noo, oa?aeoa?o e ianyao ae?e
ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith iiae?eythoueny ia caaaeuei? oa
niaoeeo?/i?; a?aeiia?aeii aei iai?aaeaiino? e ci?noo ?aae?caoe?? — ia
aioo??oi? oa ciai?oi?. Ciai?oi? ooieoe?? ni?yiiaai? ia caaeiaieaiiy
iio?aa ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy – nenoaie aeui? ina?oe; aioo??oi? – ia
caaacia/aiiy iio?aa naii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy a naiiaaeineiiaeaii?,
i?aeaeuaii? nai?? ae??aino?, aoaeoeaiino?, ocaiaeaeaiino?,
aaeaioeaiino?.

Aiae?c no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith aeeth/a? aecia/aiiy iniiaieo
i?aenenoai oa aeaiaio?a aeaii? nenoaie ii aa?oeeae? oa ai?eciioae?. Ii
aa?oeeae? oaeeie i?aenenoaiaie a nenoai? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith ?
??ai? aaei?i?no?oaaiiy, a aeaiaioaie — a?aeiia?aei? ?i i?aaie, ye?
cae?eniththoue oi?aae?iiy aeuith oeieith ia oeeo ??aiyo. Iiae?e ii
ai?eciioae? iia’ycaiee c o/anoth a oi?aae?ii? aeuith ina?oith i?aai?a
??ciiai iioiaeaeaiiy (aea?aeaaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo, naiia?yaeoaaiiy).

C’ynoaaiiy oe?eae, ooieoe?e ? no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith aea?
iiaeeea?noue aeey icia/aiiy iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia’?eoa. Cacia/eii, ui i?e an?e ??ciiiai?oiino? iiaeaeae oi?aae?iiy
aeuith ina?oith o na?o? an? aiie caiaeyoueny aei aeaio ?noi?e/ii
noi?iiaaieo — oeaio?ae?ciaaii? oa aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaii?. Aecia/aii, ui
oi?aae?iiy aeuith oeieith a iaaeao e?a?ie ? aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiei, yeui
a?eueoa /anoeia aeaaeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue o noa?? aeui? ina?oe iaeaaeeoue
aei eiiiaoaioe?? i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy aeueie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie
?aa?iiaeueiiai aai i?noeaaiai ??aiy. Ca oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
a?eueoa /anoeia aeaaeieo iiaiiaaaeaiue o noa?? aeui? ina?oe iaeaaeeoue
aei eiiiaoaioe?? i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy aeueie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie
oeaio?aeueiiai ??aiy. Caaaeyee nai?i iiceoeaiei ?enai eiaeia c iiaeaeae
oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith ciaoiaeeoue i?noea a no/aniiio na?o?.
Aiaeii/an ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui i?ae aieeaii iiaeo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia, i?ioeano ?ioa?iaoe?iiae?caoe??
noni?eueiiai aeeooy, ?ioaa?aoe?? ina?oiuei? noa?e oe? aea? iiaeae?
oi?aae?iiy (oeaio?ae?ciaaia e aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaia) aeyaeythoue
oaiaeaioe?th aei eiiaa?aaioe??. ?iaeoa eaaeo/e, o na?o? o?eaa? iiooe
iioeiaeueii? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy ina?oith, a iniia? yei? ia? aooe
ae?aeaeoe/ia ii?aeiaiiy iiceoeaieo oeaio?ae?ciaaieo oa
aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaieo canaae.

Aena?oeaiiy oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae i?ciaiiy oi?aae?iiy aeuith
ina?oith caaa?oo?oueny ?ice?eooyi i?eioeei?a, ui iathoue eaaeaoe a
iniia? oeueiai i?ioeano. Aei ieo, cie?aia, a?aeianaii i?eioeeie:
nioe?aeueii? aeaoa?i?iaoe??, aoiai?caoe??, aeaiie?ao??, i?aaiai?
i??i?eoaoiino? e caeiiiino?, o?iainiai-aeiiii?/ii? ?aoe?iiaeueiino?,
iaoeiaino? e eiiiaoaioiino?, ?ioi?iaoe?eii? aeinoaoiino?, cai?ioiiai
ca’yceo, ianooiiino? e ia?niaeoeaiino?, aiae?oe/iiai i?iaiicoaaiiy oa
iia?aoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? — »Aeua ina?oa NOA ye ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy» —
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaoeia? i?aoe?, ui iathoue aaciina?aaei? a?aeiioaiiy
aei aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. Cie?aia, ?iaioe A.Aoeueoniia,
O.Aaa??aeiai?, O.Aai?a??ai?, N.Eieaai, A.Eiiae?aoiaa, I.I?e?o?ia,
E.I?aiaai?, Ae.Nieoena, a yeeo aena?oai? iniiai? ?ene oa i?eioeeie
oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a NOA; noaoo? oa iiiia?ao?? Ae.A?eeueyina,
O.Eoe??ai?, I.I?e?o?ia, Ae.Eaocaee, I.Iae Eaioia, TH.Oae?iiai?-*oaa?ai?,
i?enay/ai? ooieoe?iioaaiith aia?eeainueeeo oaaea?aeueieo i?aai?a
oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith; iaoeia? i?aoe? E.Aaenoaeia, ?.?ia?aia,
TH.*a?iaoeueeiai oa ?ioeo, o yeeo aiae?co?oueny ooaoiee ??aaiue
oi?aae?iiy aia?eeainueeeie aeueie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie; ?iaioe
A.Aain?iii, E.Eoeana, N.Iae Aeaeaea, A.Iaoiaii, A.?icianuee?,
I.Naeae?ia, ?.?o?iiaa oa ?ioeo, ui oi?eathoueny i?iaeai
aioo??oiueiai oi?aae?iiy caeeaaeaie aeui? ina?oe NOA; iiiia?ao?? oa
noaoo? ?.Aoeao, I.Aeieaeaiea, E.Iaea??e, A.N?a??oeaaa, A.*aueo?ia,
A.*ia?oie, A.Oaoiaoeiaa, ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy yeeo noaee ieoaiiy
eiio?ieth ca ye?noth aeui? ina?oe oa i?ioean ae?aaeeoaoe??
aia?eeainueeeo aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a; i?aoe? Ae.Aiea, A.A?ee?iiia,
?.Iiaaea, O.Iae Oaaaa?oa oa ?ioeo, i?enay/ai? aeine?aeaeaiith oeyo?a ?
i?iaeai ?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?aae?iiy aeuith oeieith a NOA.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui a ?yae? ?icaeyiooeo ?ia?o oe?a?inueeeo ? ?in?enueeeo
o/aieo: no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith NOA a?aeia?aaeaia
aea?aaeaioii no?oeoo?? oi?aae?iiy na?aaeiueith oeieith, ui ia
a?aeiia?aea? ae?eniino?; a?aenooi?e ooieoe?iiaeueii-no?oeoo?iee aiae?c
oi?aae?iiy aeuith oeieith NOA; i?e aena?oeaii? ieoaiue aioo??oiueiai
oi?aae?iiy caeeaaeaie aeui? ina?oe aeine?aeaeo?oueny eeoa iaeei oei
aioo??oiueiai aaei?i?no?oaaiiy aia?eeainueeeie aeueie iaa/aeueieie
caeeaaeaie, a naia »?aaea ii?eoi?a — i?aceaeaio oi?aa?neoaoo», ui ia ?
ni?aaaaeeeaei aeey an?o aea?aeaaieo aeueo caeeaae?a ina?oe. E??i oiai,
aiae?c iie?oeee aia?eeainueeiai o?yaeo o noa?? aeui? ina?oe
iaiaaeo?oueny na?aaeeiith 80-o ?ie?a OO no., aeai? i?i i??i?eoaoe oa
caoiaee oaaea?aeueiiai o?yaeo uiaei ?icaeoeo aeui? ina?oe a NOA o 90-o
?ieao o a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? a?aenooi?.

Io?eiai? aeniiaee i?aeoaa?aeeee iaiao?aei?noue cae?eniaiiy nenoaiiiai
aiae?co oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a NOA.

?icae?e ae?oaee — »Ooieoe?iiaeueii-no?oeoo?iee aiae?c oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA» — neeaaea?oueny c i’yoe
i?ae?icae?e?a.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? anoaiiaeai? oaeoi?e, ui aecia/athoue
oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a
NOA. Aei oaeeo oaeoi??a a?aeianaii: caeaaei?noue oa?aeoa?o oi?aae?iiy
aeuith ina?oith a?ae i?eioeei?a ?nioaaiiy aia?eeainueeiai noni?euenoaa;
caeaaei?noue oe?eae oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a?ae ia’?eoeaieo aeiia
noni?euenoaa oa aeieo?eie i?aaey/i? ia?o??; caeaaei?noue no?oeoo?e
oi?aae?iiy aeuith oeieith a?ae no?oeoo?e ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy. O
i?ae?icae?e? cae?eniaii aiae?c oeeo oaeoi??a.

Ca?aeii c? noaiith i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, ianooiiei e?ieii noaei
aecia/aiiy iaoe oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a NOA, yeo noi?ioeueiaaii ye
caaacia/aiiy ??aiiai aeinooio aei aenieiye?nii? aeui? ina?oe an?i
a?iiaaeyiai Niieo/aieo Ooao?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaoa aeinyaa?oueny
oeyoii: oi?ioaaiiy iie?oeee a aaeoc? aeui? ina?oe ia iniia? ?aaeueieo
iio?aa noni?euenoaa; noai?aiiy oiia aeey ?aae?caoe?? aeaii? iie?oeee oa
ni?eyiiy ?icaeoeo nenoaie aeui? ina?oe; cae?eniaiiy eiio?ieth ca
aeeiiaiiyi aeaii? iie?oeee. Aeey eiaeiiai c ia?ae?/aieo caaaeaiue o
i?ae?icae?e? ioa?aeoa?eciaaii ooieoe??, oeyoii aeeiiaiiy yeeo
aeeiiothoueny aecia/ai? caaaeaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? »No?oeoo?ia i?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeueie
iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie» a?aeia?aaeai? e ioa?aeoa?eciaai?
aaei?i?no?aoeai? ??ai? (oaaea?aeueiee, ooaoiee, ??aaiue eieaa?aeueiiai
ie?oao, ??aaiue aeuiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo), ui ooai?ththoue
aa?oeeaeueiee iiae?e aeine?aeaeoaaii? nenoaie, ca’ycee i?ae ieie oa ?o
aeaiaioaie. Aeey eiaeiiai ??aiy c’yniaai? caeiiiaeaa/? canaaee
oi?aae?iiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaai? aioo??oiy i?aai?caoe?y oa ooieoe??
a?aeiia?aeieo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo i?aai?a. Cie?aia, aeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
aena?oeai? aeey oaaea?aeueiiai Aeaia?oaiaioo ina?oe, Neoaeae c
i?neyna?aaeiuei? ina?oe, ooaoieo ?aae c aeui? ina?oe, ?aae aee?aeoi??a
eieaa?aeueieo ie?oa?a, ii?eoinueeeo ?aae ? i?aai?a aioo??oiueiai
oi?aae?iiy aia?eeainueeeo aea?aeaaieo aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
(aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ?aaee, aeaaeai?/iiai naiaoo, ?aaee
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oa ?ioeo).

?icaeyae oaaea?aeueiiai ??aiy oi?aae?iiy aeiiiaiaii ?ioi?iaoe??th i?i
?yae o?yaeiaeo i?aai?caoe?e c i?iaeai aeui? oeiee (Neoaeao iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa aaeineiiaeaiiy ina?oe, Iaoe?iiaeueio ?aaeo c iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? i??i?eoao?a o noa?? ina?oe, Iaoe?iiaeueio a?ae?ioaeo
ina?oe, Iaoe?iiaeueiee ?inoeooo oi?aae?iiy, o?iainoaaiiy e iie?oeee a
aaeoc? ina?oe, Iaoe?iiaeueiee oeaio? noaoenoeee).

I?e cae?eniaii? aiae?co ooaoiiai aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ??aiy oa ??aiy
eieaa?aeueiiai ie?oao ?icaeyioo? ?nioth/? a NOA aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaia oa
oeaio?ae?ciaaia iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie caeeaaeaie aeui? ina?oe
c iiaiei ? aeaoaeueiei iienii ?o aioo??oiuei? aoaeiae, oa?aeoa?enoee oa
i?eioeei?a ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

O i?ioean? aiae?co aeyaeaii caeaaei?noue oeio aioo??oiueiai oi?aae?iiy
a?ae oeio oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiith aeuith oeieith ia ooaoiiio ??ai?, a
ioaea e iayai?noue aeaio iiaeaeae aioo??oiueiai aaei?i?no?oaaiiy (c
?aaeith ii?eoi?a oa aac ia?). Aeaoaeueiee iien oa?aeoa?enoee cae?eniaii
aeey ianooiieo aaei?i?no?aoeaieo i?ae??ai?a: ?aaea ii?eoi?a — i?aceaeaio
— naiao — aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aaea — i?iaino — aeaeaie — ea??aieee
aeaia?oaiaio?a — caa?aeoaa/? eaoaae? — ?aaea
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo.

O i?ae?icae?e? »Ae?aaeeoaoe?y aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ye
oeaio?aeueiee aeaiaio nenoaie oi?aae?iiy ye?noth aeui? ina?oe»
?icaeyiooi no?oeoo?o aia?eeainueei? nenoaie ae?aaeeoaoe?? oi?aa?neoao?a
? eieaaeae?a, c’yniaaii noaio i?iaaaeaiiy ae?aaeeoaoe?? oa aena?oeaii
?ieue, yeo a?ae?a?athoue o oeueiio i?ioean? i?aaie aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa
a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??. O ?acoeueoao? noaa?aeaeo?oueny, ui oa?aeoa?
ae?aaeeoaoe?? aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a o NOA ?
a?iiaaenueei-aea?aeaaiei uiaei oi?ie aeeiiaiiy oa
aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueeei uiaei oi?ie eiio?ieth.

O i?ae?icae?e? »?ieue a?iiaaenueeino? a oi?aae?ii? aea?aeaaiith aeuith
ina?oith oa ?? ?icaeoeo» cae?eniaii aiae?c a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e,
ui ooieoe?iiothoue o noa?? aeui? ina?oe NOA, a?aeiia?aeii aei oaeeo
cai?iiiiiaaieo eeaneo?eaoe?e: aeaee a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e caeaaeii
a?ae ooieoe??, yea ? aieiaiith a ?o ae?yeueiino? (eii?aeeiaoe?ei?
i?aaie, ae?aaeeoaoe?ei? aaaionoaa, i?aai?caoe??, ui ni?eythoue ?icaeoeo
aeui? ina?oe); aeaee a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e caeaaeii a?ae iaae ?o
?ioa?an?a (caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei?, ?aa?iiaeuei?); aeaee a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e caeaaeii a?ae oiai, ?ioa?ane yei? a?oie caeeaae?a /e in?a
aiie i?aaenoaaeythoue (anioe?aoe?? c aeui? ina?oe, anioe?aoe??
aeeeaaea/?a, anioe?aoe?? aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai aia?aoo caeeaae?a aeui?
ina?oe oa ?io?).

O i?ae?icae?e? ?ice?eoi ai?eciioaeueiee iiae?e nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA oa iaoai?ci i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy e
ni?ao/ano? a oi?aae?ii? aea?aeaaieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?a, yeee
a?aeia?aaeaii a noai?:

Oaaea?aeueiee ??aaiue Aeaia?oaiaio ina?oe NOA

Aia?eeainueea ?aaea c ina?oe

Ooaoiee ??aaiue ?aaea ?aaaio?a ?aaoethth/i-eii?aeei. ?aaea
Eiinoeueoao.-eii?aeei. ?aaea

Aeaia?oaiaio c aeui? ina?oe aai i?ae?icae?e c aeui? ina?oe
aeaia?oaiaioo ina?oe ooaoo

??aaiue eieaa?aeueiiai ie?oao ?aaea ie?oao

Aeeiiaa/ee aia?ao ?aaee ie?oao

??aaiue iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo ?aaea ii?eoi?a

Aaei?i?no?aoe?y caeeaaeo

?en. 2.1. Noaia i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a oa
i?aai?a a?iiaaenueeiai oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a
NOA.

O i?ae?icae?e? i?noeoueny oaeiae aeaoaeueia ?ioi?iaoe?y uiaei
ae?yeueiino? 20 aia?eeainueeeo anioe?aoe?e c aeui? ina?oe.

O i?ae?icae?e? »I?aeaioiaea oao?aoe?a c oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith ye
aecia/aeueiee oaeoi? oni?oiiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii?
nenoaie» cae?eniaii aiae?c aia?eeainueeeo iaa?noa?nueeeo ?
aeieoi?nueeeo iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai ca niaoe?aeuei?noth »Oi?aae?iiy
aeuith ina?oith». Anoaiiaeaii, ui ?nioth/a a NOA nenoaia i?aeaioiaee
oao?aoe?a c oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith ni?yiiaaia ia aeeiiaiiy aeaio
iniiaieo ooieoe?e — i?aeaioiaeo aaei?i?no?aoi??a-i?aeoee?a aeey aeueo
iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a oa i?aeaioiaeo iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai iioaioe?aeo
aeaii? aaeoc?.

Ooieoe?iioaaiiy oe??? nenoaie ? iniiaith aeey caaacia/aiiy i?ioan?eiiai,
eiiiaoaioiiai e aenieiye?niiai oi?aae?iiy caeeaaeaie aeui? ina?oe a NOA.
Aei iiceoeaieo oaeoi??a aia?eeainueei? nenoaie i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c
oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith, cie?aia, ne?ae a?aeianoe iaoai?ci iiaoaeiae
oeeo iaa/aeueieo i?ia?ai o aeaeyae? aeie?a (iniiaiiai, ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth, iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai, ia aea??), ui aeicaiey? ia
o?eueee iaaeaaaoe iaiao?aeiee aeey aeaii? niaoe?aeueiino? ooiaeaiaio
ciaiue oa iaae/ie, a e a?aoiaoaaoe aaaaoianiaeoi?noue, i?eoaiaiio aeai?e
niaoe?aeueiino?, ui a?aeiia?aea? iio?aaai oe?ieiai niaeo?a oao?aoe?a
aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ia?niiaeo aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

?icae?e o?ao?e — »No?aoaa?y oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA» — ? aaaeeeaei aeiiiaiaiiyi aei
an?o iiia?aaei?o no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy,
ine?eueee a iueiio ia iniia? iaeaaaeeea?oeo io?oe?eieo aeieoiaio?a
Aeaia?oaiaioo ina?oe NOA (»No?aoaa?/iee ieai ?icaeoeo ina?oe ia
1998-2002 ??.») oa caeiiiaeaa/iai aeoa Eiia?ano NOA »Iii?aaee 1998 ?.
aei Caeiio i?i aeuo ina?oo 1965 ?.» ?icaeyioo? i??i?eoaoe no/anii?
iie?oeee oaaea?aeueiiai o?yaeo o noa?? aeui? ina?oe. Anoaiiaeaii, ui
aieiaia iaoa aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a NOA
eiie?aoeciaaia ia no/aniiio aoai? a aeaio i??i?eoaoieo oe?eyo —
i?aeaeuaii? aeinooio aei aeui? ina?oe oa iie?ioaii? yeino? aeui? ina?oe.

Aieiaiee oeyo aeinyaiaiiy ia?oi? oe?e? — oea aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
?iciiae?eo oa iaaeaiiy o?iainiai? aeiiiiiae nooaeaioai. Iniiai? niiniae
iie?ioaiiy yeino? aeui? ina?oe — i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy i?aeaioiaee
anooiiee?a ? i?ioan?iiae?cio aeeeaaea/?a. O?yaeii e?a?ie aecia/aii ?yae
ea?aeeiaeueieo caoiae?a, ?aae?caoe?y yeeo ni?yiiaaia ia aeinyaiaiiy an?o
cacia/aieo oe?eae.

Iayai?noue aaciina?aaeiueiai, aei?noeiai ca’yceo i?ae oe?eyie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith oa eiai no?oeoo?ith, ? i?e/eiith
ci?i, ui iathoue a?aeaooeny a aaei?i?no?aoeai?e nenoai?. Oiio
a?aeiia?aeii aei aecia/aieo oe?eae o nenoai? oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei
naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA ?icaeaa?oueny ?yae oaiaeaioe?e, aieiaieie
na?aae yeeo ?: iineeaiiy ?ie? a?iiaaenueeeo ea??aieo ?aae a oi?aae?ii?;
i?aeaeuaiiy i?ioan?eiiai ??aiy o/aniee?a i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy;
oaeineiiaeaiiy eiio?iethth/eo iaoai?ci?a o i?ioean? ea?oaaiiy
aea?aeaaieie caeeaaeaie aeui? ina?oe.

AENIIAEE

I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy e ocaaaeueiaiiy eiai ?acoeueoao?a
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue a?iioaco e aeathoue i?aenoaae c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. Oa?aeoa?enoeee nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a
NOA aecia/athoueny iniiaieie canaaeaie iiaoaeiae aia?eeainueeiai
noni?euenoaa, eiai ?noi???th, i?eioeeiaie oa ?aa?iiaeueieie
iniaeeainoyie. Aieiaia iaoa oeueiai oi?aae?iiy — caaacia/aiiy aeinooio
aei aenieiye?nii? aeui? ina?oe an?i a?iiaaeyiai Niieo/aieo Ooao?a.

2. No?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiith aeuith ina?oith a NOA ?
i??ai?aeaeueiith, oiaoi aeeth/a? ai?eciioaeueiee ? aa?oeeaeueiee
iiae?ee. Ai?eciioaeueiee iiae?e iia’ycaiee c o/anoth a oi?aae?ii?
aea?aeaaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?a oa i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy.
Aa?oeeaeueiee iiae?e aeeth/a? /ioe?e aaei?i?no?aoeai? ??ai?
(oaaea?aeueiee, ooaoiee, ??aaiue eieaa?aeueiiai ie?oao oa ??aaiue aeuiai
iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo).

3. Oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a NOA ia oaaea?aeueiiio ??ai? ?
aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiei. Iniiaia i?n?y Aeaia?oaiaioo ina?oe NOA — oea
caaaeueiino?aoaa?/ia ieaioaaiiy ina?oiueiai ?icaeoeo oa ni?eyiiy eiio.
Aei iniiaieo cania?a, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny Aeaia?oaiaioii ? eiai
i?ae?icae?eii — Neoaeaith c i?neyna?aaeiuei? ina?oe — aeey aeeiiaiiy
aeaii? i?n??, iaeaaeaoue: o/anoue o oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oiuei?
iie?oeee oa aecia/aii? ?? caeiiiaeaa/eo canaae, ?iciiae?e oaaea?aeueieo
oiiae?a, eiio?ieue ca ae?yeuei?noth ae?aaeeoaoe?eieo aaaionoa.
Aeaia?oaiaio ina?oe aaciina?aaeiuei ia ao?o/a?oueny a ae?yeuei?noue
i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiith aeuith ina?oith ieae/eo
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo ??ai?a ? iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

4. Ooaoiee ??aaiue oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?nioaaiiyi e?eueeio aaei?i?no?aoeaieo iiaeaeae —
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? ? aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaii?. Ca oeaio?ae?ciaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
a ooaoao ooieoe?iiothoue ?aaee ?aaaio?a, ye? ea?othoue ?icaeoeii aeui?
ina?oe a oe?eiio oa aaciina?aaeiuei oi?aaeythoue ae?yeuei?noth eiaeiiai
aea?aeaaiiai aeuiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo a iaaeao ooaoo. Ca
aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiiai — ooaoi? eii?aeeiaoe?ei? ?aaee cae?eniththoue
eii?aeeioaaiiy ?icaeoeo aeui? ina?oe a ooao?, ia ao?o/ath/enue o
aioo??oith ae?yeuei?noue naieo caeeaae?a oa i?aai?a ?o aioo??oiueiai
oi?aae?iiy.

5. O iaaeao aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaii? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy ia ??ai? ooaoo
aeyaeaii aeaa oeie oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiith aeuith ina?oith. Ia?oee,
i?aaenoaaeaiee eiinoeueoaoeaii-eii?aeeioth/eie ?aaeaie, ia? aenieee
nooi?iue aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??. Ae?oaee, ui cae?enith?oueny
?aaoethth/i-eii?aeeiaoe?eieie ?aaeaie, aeeth/a? iaai? ?ene
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy.

6. Iayai?noue i?noeaaiai ??aiy oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiith aeuith ina?oith —
??aiy ie?oao — i?eoaiaiia eeoa oi?aae?iith eieaaeaeaie e eeoa o oeo
aeiaaeeao, eiee eieaaeae? ooaoo ia’?aeiai? a ie?aio a?ae oi?aa?neoao?a
nenoaio, ia /ie? yei? noi?oue ooaoia ?aaea eieaaeae?a. O oaeeo ooaoao
eieaaeae? a?aeianai? aei iaaieo eieaa?aeueieo ie?oa?a, ui ea?othoueny
?aaeaie oeeo ie?oa?a. Oei ?o oi?aae?iiy aecia/a?oueny oeiii oi?aae?iiy
nenoaiith eieaaeae?a ooaoo ? ?, ye i?aaeei, aiaeia?/iee oeio oi?aae?iiy
ooaoiith oi?aa?neoaonueeith nenoaiith.

7. Oei aioo??oiueiai oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie aeueie iaa/aeueieie
caeeaaeaie caeaaeeoue a?ae oiai, yeei ? oi?aae?iiy ia ??ai? ooaoo —
oeaio?ae?ciaaiei /e aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiei. O ia?oiio aeiaaeeo aeu?
iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee oi?aaeythoueny aaciina?aaeiuei ooaoiith ?aaeith
?aaaio?a, o ae?oaiio — iathoue aeaniee i?aai oi?aae?iiy — ?aaeo
ii?eoi?a. No?oeoo?a aioo??oiueiai oi?aae?iiy, ii/eiath/e c ??aiy
i?aceaeaioa, ? iiae?aiith aeey iaio aeiaaee?a ? aeeth/a? aeeiiaa/?
i?aaie (aaei?i?no?aoeaia ?aaea), i?aaie naiia?yaeoaaiiy (aeaaeai?/iee
naiao, ?aaea i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo) oa eiinoeueoaoeai?
?aaee.

8. ?ieue a?iiaaenueeino? NOA a oi?aae?ii? aeuith ina?oith ?
aecia/aeueiith. Ae?yeuei?noue a?iiaaenueeeo ina?oi?o anioe?aoe?e o
aaeoc? aeui? ina?oe ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ye iaeei c iniiaieo oaeoi??a ?
oeyo?a ?icaeoeo aia?eeainueei? aeui? oeiee.

9. Nenoaia i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c aeui? ina?oe a NOA oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
aenieei ??aiai ?icaeiooino?, iayai?noth aaeeei? e?eueeino? i?ia?ai
aeaiiai i?io?eth, ??ciiiai?oi?noth ci?noo e aeaiaio?a oeeo i?ia?ai,
ao?aeieo oa aeo?aeieo e?eoa???a.

10. Oa?aeoa? oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiith aeuith ina?oith a NOA a oe?eiio oa
ia eiaeiiio c ??ai?a aaciina?aaeiuei aecia/a?oueny ye
a?iiaaenueei-aea?aeaaiee, ine?eueee oi?aae?iiy cae?enith?oueny
a?iiaaenueeeie no?oeoo?aie. I?aaie ae aea?aeaaii? aeaaee — ooaoi?
aeaia?oaiaioe aeui? ina?oe /e i?ae?icae?ee c aeui? ina?oe ooaoieo
aeaia?oaiaio?a ina?oe — ? aeeiiaa/eie i?aaiaie aeaieo a?iiaaenueeeo
no?oeoo? ? i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny ?i o nai?e ae?yeueiino?.
A?iiaaenueei-aea?aeaaiee oa?aeoa? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a NOA
aeaoa?i?io?oueny oaeiae iaoai?ciii caaacia/aiiy yeino? aeui? ina?oe a
NOA — ae?aaeeoaoe?eiiai i?ioeano, yeee ? a?iiaaenueei-aea?aeaaiei uiaei
oi?ie cae?eniaiiy oa aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueeei uiaei oi?ie eiio?ieth iaae
iei.

11. Oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a NOA aaco?oueny ia i?eioeeiao:
aeaiie?ao??, nioe?aeueii? aeaoa?i?iaoe??, aoiai?caoe??, i?aaiai?
i??i?eoaoiino?, iaoeiaino? oa eiiiaoaioiino?, ?ioi?iaoe?eii?
aeinoaoiino? oa cai?ioiiai ca’yceo.

12. Oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA ia? iiceoeai? oa
iaaaoeai? ?ene. Aei iiceoeaieo ne?ae a?aeianoe:

eiai aeaiie?aoe/iee oa?aeoa?, yeee caaacia/o?oueny aecia/aeueiith
o/anoth a oi?aae?ii? a?iiaaenueeino?;

ia?aaaae aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaii? iiaeae?, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue aeey aio/eiai
?icaeoeo aeui? ina?oe c o?aooaaiiyi i?noeaaeo iniaeeainoae ? iio?aa,
noeioethaaiiy i?noeaai? ?i?oe?aoeae;

i?i?iaeueia iaiao?aeia, aeaath?ie?aoeciaaia ?ieue aea?aeaae a ?icaeoeo
aeui? ina?oe;

iaoai?ci ni?ao/ano? e i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy a no?oeoo?? oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaieo aeeiiaa/eo i?aai?a, i?aai?a a?iiaaenueeiai oi?aae?iiy oa
naiia?yaeoaaiiy;

iaoai?ci ? oa?aeoa? ae?aaeeoaoe?eiiai i?ioeano, ui ia?aaeaa/a? caeo/aiiy
oe?ieiai caaaeo oao?aoe?a aei oe??? ni?aae.

Iaaaoeaieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ?:

a?aenooi?noue oeaio?ae?ciaaieo iaoai?ci?a aeey ae??oaiiy ieoaiue
caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai cia/aiiy (aeanaa?aaaoe?y aeui? ina?oe,
anoaiiaeaiiy aea?aeaaieo ina?oi?o noaiaea?o?a oiui) oa caiia?aaiiy
aeeaieiio ?icoiaeaeaiith a ??aiyo ?icaeoeo nenoai aeui? ina?oe a ??cieo
?aa?iiao e?a?ie;

?nioaaiiy iaaieo i?iaeai aioo??oiueiai oi?aae?iiy aeueie iaa/aeueieie
caeeaaeaie, iia’ycaieo c o/anoth a iueiio a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?a (aenieee
??aaiue eiioe?eoiino?, a?aenooi?noue aaeaino i?ae ??aiai iiaiiaaaeaiue
oa ??aiai a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? oa ?io?).

Iayai?noue iiceoeaieo ? iaaaoeaieo ?en a oi?aae?ii? aea?aeaaiei
naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue eiai
iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy ia iniia? ii?aeiaiiy iiceoeaieo noi??i
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith oa caeiaooe?a
?nioth/i? aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaii?.

No/aniiio i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiith aeuith ina?oith a NOA
i?eoaiaii? oae? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo:

iineeaiiy ?ie? ea??aieo ?aae aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a (?aae ?aaaio?a
o ooaoao c oeaio?ae?ciaaiei a?yaeoaaiiyi ? ?aae ii?eoi?a o ooaoao c
aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiei oi?aae?iiyi aeuith ina?oith);

i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy i?ioan?iiae?cio o/aniee?a i?ioeano oi?aae?iiy aeuith
ina?oith;

oaeineiiaeaiiy eiio?iethth/eo iaoai?ci?a;

?icaeoie nenoaie i?aeaioiaee aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ia?niiaeo aeui? oeiee oa
oai??? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith.

Io?eiai? aeniiaee noiniaii iiceoeaieo ? iaaaoeaieo iniaeeainoae,
i?eoaiaiieo oi?aae?iith aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA,
aeathoue i?aenoaae aeey aeneiaeaiiy ianooiieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
iaoeiaiai oa i?aeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy caeiaooeo ?acoeueoao?a o no/anieo
oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a Oe?a?i?, a naia:

1. Aeeiai?ci oa ea?aeeiaeuei?noue ci?i o noni?euenoa? aeiaaa? noai?aiiy
aeeiai?/ii? ? aio/ei? nenoaie aeui? ina?oe, caeaoii? aei
naii?aaoethaaiiy oa naiia?aeiiaeaiiy. A Oe?a?i? i?e iayaiino? 1064
caeeaae?a aeui? ina?oe (c ieo 932 — aea?aeaai?) oea iiaeeeai eeoa ca
oiiae aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith e ?icoe?aiiy
aaoiiii?? aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a. I?e oeueiio iaeaaaeeea?oith
oiiaith ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaii? iiaeae? ? aaeaeaaoia
?iciaaeoaaiiy ooieoe?e i?ae ??cieie noa’?eoaie oi?aae?iiy aeuith
ina?oith oeaio?aeueiiai, ?aa?iiaeueiiai e i?noeaaiai ??ai?a oa ??aiy
aeuiai iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo.

2. Oi?aae?iiy caeeaaeaie aeui? ina?oe a iaaeao ?aa?iio iiaea aooe
aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiei aai oeaio?ae?ciaaiei a?aeiia?aeii aei iieaciee?a oa
iio?aa eiie?aoii? oa?eoi???.

3. O nenoai? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a Oe?a?i? ia? aooe caaacia/aiee
oaeee iaoai?ci ni?ao/ano? e i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo aeeiiaa/eo,
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?a oa i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ca yeiai
cae?enithaaany a aca?iiee eiio?ieue ae?yeueiino? an?o o/aniee?a
oi?aae?iiy.

4. I?ioean aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy oa ?icoe?aiiy aaoiiii??
caeeaae?a aeui? ina?oe ia? a?aeaoaaoeny c iaeii/aniei noai?aiiyi
iiooaeii? caneoaiaoth/i? ia aeia??o caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueii? nenoaie
eiio?ieth ? ioe?iee yeino?. Aecia/aeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oaei?
nenoaie iiaeii? aooe a?iiaaenueei-aea?aeaaiee oa?aeoa? cae?eniaiiy
ae?aaeeoaoe?? oao?aoeyie ca aea?aeaaii-a?iiaaenueeiai eiio?ieth
ae?yeueiino? ae?aaeeoaoe?eieo no?oeoo?.

5. Iio?aaothoue oaeiae ci?ie i?eioeeie iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee a aaeoc?
aeui? ina?oe. A?aee?eoee ae?aeia iiaeiai aooe aacith aeey iaaiai?aiiy
i?iaeai aeui? oeiee oa caeo/aiiy aei o/ano? a oeueiio a?iiaaenueeino?.
Iayai?noue cai?ioiiai ca’yceo ia? noaoe iaiao?aeiith oiiaith
ooieoe?iioaaiiy aeeiiaa/eo ? caeiiiaeaa/eo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy aeuith
ina?oith.

6. Iiaeiia iie?auoaaoenue ye?noue oa i?aeaeuoaaoenue aoaeoeai?noue
oi?aae?iiy aeueie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie. Ae??oaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie
aaa/a?oueny a:

?icaeoeo nenoaie i?aeaioiaee aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai ia?niiaeo aeui? oeiee;

caeo/aii? aei oi?aae?iiy i?aaenoaaiee?a aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a
(aeeeaaea/?a, nooaeaio?a, neoaeaiaoe?a) ? a?iiaaenueeino?;

i?aeaeuaii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? aaei?i?no?aoe?? aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a, iaoeiai-iaaeaaia?/iiai ia?niiaeo ia?aae a?iiaaenuee?noth.

7. ?icaeoie a?o/eciyii? nenoaie i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a c oi?aae?iiy
aeuith ina?oith ia? cae?enithaaoeny ca o?ueiia iai?yiaie: i?aeaioiaea
nenoaiieo aiae?oee?a c aeui? ina?oe, i?aeaioiaea
aaei?i?no?aoi??a-i?aeoee?a oa i?aeaioiaea oai?aoee?a o noa?? oi?aae?iiy
aeuith ina?oith.

8. Iaiao?aeii caaacia/eoe ?icaeoie oai??? oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a
e?a?i? oa iineeeoe aieea ?? iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo i?aeoiae?a ? iaoiae?a
ia ooieoe?iioaaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaieo no?oeoo? on?o ??ai?a oi?aae?iiy
aeuith ina?oith. ?ioeie neiaaie, aecia/aeueieie i?eioeeiaie
ooieoe?iioaaiiy no/anii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aeueie iaa/aeueieie
caeeaaeaie a Oe?a?i? iathoue noaoe i?eioeeie iaoeiaino? oa
eiiiaoaioiino?.

I?iiiiiaaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ia ?ica’yco? an?o ieoaiue aeaii? i?iaeaie. C
o?aooaaiiyi ?? neeaaeiino? e aaaaoia?aiiino? ia?niaeoeaieie iai?yiaie ??
iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iathoue noaoe: aea?aeaaia iie?oeea a aaeoc?
aeui? ina?oe, caeiiiaeaa/a caaacia/aiiy ?icaeoeo aeui? ina?oe,
o?iainoaaiiy aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a, ?icaeoie
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? aace oi?aae?iiy aeuith oeieith oa ??
i?aeoe/ii? iaoiaeieia??.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II I?AOeUe

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Eaeaoi?eiaa N.A. I?aeaioiaea oao?aoe?a c oi?aae?iiy ina?oith a NOA
// A?niee Oe?a?inueei? Aeaaeai?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie (aeae? A?niee OAAeO). — 1997. — ? 2. — N. 149-152.

2. Eaeaoi?eiaa N.A. Oeie nenoai oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith ia ??ai?
ooaoo o NOA // A?niee OAAeO. — 1998. — ? 3. — N. 193-198.

3. Eaeaoi?eiaa N.A. ?ieue a?iiaaenueeino? a oi?aae?ii? aeuith ina?oith a
NOA // A?niee OAAeO. — 1999. — ? 1. — N. 215-224

4. Eaeaoi?eiaa N.A. I?aeaioiaea aaei?i?no?aoi??a aeui? ina?oe a
oi?aa?neoaoao NOA // Ina?oa ? oi?aae?iiy. — 1998. — Oii 2. —
? 4. — N. 169-172.

5. Eaeaoi?eiaa N.A. I?aai?caoe?y oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a NOA // Ca.
iaoe. i?aoeue AI aeui? oeiee Oe?a?ie » Iaoea ? ina?oa». — Ei. ?. —
Ee?a, 1997. — N. 260-262.

6. Eaeaoi?eiaa N.A. I?aai?caoe?ei? oa oi?aae?inuee? canaaee
iaaeaaia?/ii? ina?oe a NOA // Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? »Eiioeaioe?y aoiai?cio a noaiiaeaii? oa
?icaeoeo i?ioan?eii? ina?oe». — Ee?a, 1997. — N. 148-152.

AIIOAOe?ss

Eaeaoi?eiaa N.A. Oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe c
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 25.00.05. — aaeocaaa
oi?aae?iiy: oi?aae?iiy ina?oith. — Oe?a?inueea Aeaaeai?y aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

O ?iaio? c’yniaai? oa ?ice?eo? iaenooo?a?o? oa?aeoa?enoeee, i?eoaiaii?
no/ani?e nenoai? oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiith aeuith ina?oith a NOA,
cae?eniaii aiae?c ?? oe?eae, ooieoe?e, no?oeoo?e.

O aeena?oaoe?? c’yniaaii, ui no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy aia?eeainueeith
aea?aeaaiith aeuith oeieith ? i??ai?aeaeueiith. ?? aa?oeeaeueiee iiae?e
aeeth/a? /ioe?e aaei?i?no?aoeai? ??ai? — oaaea?aeueiee, ooaoiee, ??aaiue
eieaa?aeueiiai ie?oao oa ??aaiue iaa/aeueiiai caeeaaeo. Aeey eiaeiiai
??aiy cae?eniaii aiae?c eiai iniaeeainoae, a?aeiia?aeieo ea??aieo
i?aai?a oa ca’yce?a i?ae ieie.

Aena?oeaii ai?eciioaeueiee iiae?e aeine?aeaeoaaii? nenoaie, iia’ycaiee c
o/anoth a i?ioean? oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieo, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?a ?
i?aai?a naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

Aecia/ai? e ioa?aeoa?eciaai? ?nioth/? oeie oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaieie
aeueie iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie (oeaio?ae?ciaaiee ? aeaoeaio?ae?ciaaiee).

Anoaiiaeaii oa iaa?oioiaaii, ui oi?aae?iiy aea?aeaaiith aeuith ina?oith
a NOA iineoue a?iiaaenueei-aea?aeaaiee oa?aeoa?.

Aeyaeai? iaenooo?a?o? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeano i?aeaioiaee oao?aoe?a o
Niieo/aieo Ooaoao ca niaoe?aeuei?noth »Oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith».

Aecia/ai? i??i?eoaoe oaaea?aeueii? iie?oeee a aaeoc? aeui? ina?oe ia
no/aniiio aoai? oa iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaiei naeoi?ii aeui? ina?oe a NOA.

C’yniaai? iiceoeai? oa iaaaoeai? ?ene aeine?aeaeoaaii? nenoaie oa ia ?o
iniia? aeneiaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aeei?enoaiiy aia?eeainueeiai
aeina?aeo a oiiaao ?aoi?ioaaiiy oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith a Oe?a?i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oi?aae?iiy aeuith ina?oith, aaei?i?no?aoeai? ??ai?,
a?iiaaenuee? i?aaie, ea??aia ?aaea, iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy, oe?e?, ooieoe??
oa no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Eaeaoieeiaa N.A. Oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiui naeoi?ii aunoaai
ia?aciaaiey a NOA. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaoe
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 25.00.05 — io?aneaaia
oi?aaeaiea: oi?aaeaiea ia?aciaaieai. — Oe?aeineay Aeaaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey i?e I?aceaeaioa Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1999.

A ?aaioa ii?aaeaeaiu e ?ane?uou iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee,
i?enouea nia?aiaiiie nenoaia oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiui aunoei
ia?aciaaieai a NOA, inouanoaeai aiaeec aa oeaeae, ooieoeee, no?oeoo?u.

A aeenna?oaoeee onoaiiaeaii, /oi no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey aia?eeaineie
ainoaea?noaaiiie aunoae oeieie yaeyaony ie?aieaeaeueiie. Aa
aa?oeeaeueiia aeaeaiea aeeth/aao /aou?a aaeieieno?aoeaiuo o?iaiy —
oaaea?aeueiue, ooaoiue, o?iaaiue eieaaeaeueiiai ie?oaa e o?iaaiue
o/aaiiai caaaaeaiey. Aeey eaaeaeiai o?iaiy inouanoaeai aiaeec aai
iniaaiiinoae, niioaaonoaothueo ?oeiaiaeyueo i?aaiia e naycae iaaeaeo
ieie.

Inaauaii ai?eciioaeueiia aeaeaiea enneaaeoaiie nenoaiu, eioi?ia
ii?aaeaeaii o/anoeai a i?ioeanna oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo,
iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiia e i?aaiia naiioi?aaeaiey.

Ii?aaeaeaiu e ioa?aeoa?eciaaiu nouanoaothuea oeiu oi?aaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuie aunoeie o/aaiuie caaaaeaieyie (oeaio?aeeciaaiiue e
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiue).

Onoaiiaeaii e iainiiaaii, /oi oi?aaeaiea ainoaea?noaaiiui aunoei
ia?aciaaieai eiaao iauanoaaiii-ainoaea?noaaiiue oa?aeoa?.

Auyaeaiu iaeaieaa nouanoaaiiua oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeanna iiaeaioiaee
niaoeeaeenoia a Niaaeaiaiiuo Ooaoao ii niaoeeaeueiinoe »Oi?aaeaiea
aunoei ia?aciaaieai».

Ii?aaeaeaiu i?ei?eoaou oaaea?aeueiie iieeoeee a noa?a aunoaai
ia?aciaaiey ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia e iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiui naeoi?ii aunoaai ia?aciaaiey a NOA.

Onoaiiaeaiu iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua /a?ou enneaaeoaiie nenoaiu
e ia eo iniiaa i?aaeeiaeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ioiineoaeueii eniieueciaaiey
aia?eeaineiai iiuoa a oneiaeyo ?aoi?ie?iaaiey oi?aaeaiey aunoei
ia?aciaaieai a Oe?aeia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oi?aaeaiea aunoei ia?aciaaieai, aaeieieno?aoeaiua
o?iaie, iauanoaaiiua i?aaiu, ?oeiaiaeyuee niaao, iiaeaee oi?aaeaiey,
oeaee, ooieoeee e no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey.

SUMMARY

Kalashnikova S. A. Administration of public sector of higher education
in the USA. — Manuscript.

The Thesis for a Candidate of Science Degree (Public Administration) by
Speciality 25.00.05 — Management of Specific Sector of Public
Administration: Management of Education. — Ukrainian Academy of Public
Administration, Office of the President of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The thesis is devoted to the analysis of the system of administration
of public higher education in the USA.

Actuality of the scientific investigation is determined by: theoretical
and practical significance of American experience in the conditions of
reforming the system of higher education administration in Ukraine;
development of national science of education administration; absence of
native scientific investigations about higher education administration
in the USA.

While constructing the scheme of the research the methodological
principles of theories of management, public administration, functional
systems and of organization were taken as the basic ones. All the above
methodological approaches were grounded and motivated. It resulted in
following scheme for the investigation: nature TH goals TH functions TH
structure TH process TH principles.

The next tasks were accomplished in the thesis:

it was analysed state of the researched issue in the theory of public
administration;

the factors were determined, which define the characteristics of
administration of public higher education in the USA;

the main goals and functions of American system of administration of
higher school were elaborated and described;

it was researched the structure of administration of higher school in
the USA;

the models of administration of public higher education institutions in
the USA were distinguished and described;

it was scientifically grounded the role of the public in administration
of higher school in the USA;

American training programs by speciality »Higher Education
Administration» were analysed;

both positive and negative properties of the system of higher education
administration in the USA and the trends of its development were
determined.

As a result of the research it was established that the structure of
administration of public higher education in the USA is pyramidal. It
has two divisions — vertical and horizontal.

The vertical division includes four administrative levels (the federal
level, the state’s level, the level of collegiate district, the level of
higher education institution).

The horizontal division is determined by participation of public
government, public and self-government bodies in administration of
public higher education.

The type of administration of higher education in the USA is
decentralizated.

On states’ level there are two models of higher education administration
— decentralizated and centralizated.

Type of administration on public higher education institution level is
defined by state’s type of administration. So there are two models of
the administration — with a board of trustees and without it.

The role of the public in administration of American public higher
school is dominant.

The character of administration of public sector of higher education in
the USA is public and state.

The positive qualities of the system are: democratical character of
administration, its decentralizated model of administration, the role of
the state and the public in its functioning and development, the
mechanism of participation of different bodies in administration
process.

As for the negative qualities of the system, the main one is the absence
of centralizated methods for solving national issues in higher
education.

American system of higher education administration has some trends
today: strengthening role of administrative boards; increase of
professional level of participants of the administration; development of
methods of control; development of higher education administrators
training system.

On the basis of results of the investigation it was recommended:

to change the type of higher education administration in Ukraine towards
direction of decentralization;

to provide participation of different bodies (state, public and
self-government ones) in administration of higher educational
institutions;

to create complete and reliable system of accreditation in Ukraine;

to develop higher education administrators training system;

to develop national theory of higher education administration.

The key words: higher education administration, administrative levels,
public bodies, administrative board, models of administration, goals,
functions and structure of administration.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 19.08.1999 ?. Oi?iao 14,5o21,5

Oe?. 100 i?ei. Ae?oe. »ANO — Ianoa?». Cai. ? 100? — 2008.

i. Ee?a, aoe. Eiinoyioei?anueea, 73. Oae. 417-81-60.

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