euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao

Etha/ee Aieiaeeie? Eaii?aeiae/

OAeE 631.12

Oii?yaeeoaaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue o
ainiiaea?noaao Ia?aaeea?iaooy

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.08.01 — Aeiiii?ea i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ? ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? caieaaii?yaeiiai i?iaeooaaiiy Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa aa?ii?iieneiaiai
eiiieaeno Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Eacuei?? Iaaei Aiaoiae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e caieaaii?yaeiiai i?iaeooaaiiy.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

?aaioo ?iiai Aiae??eiae/,

?inoeooo ?aa?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie,

aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee a?aeae?eo ?aa?iiaeueii?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee oa oa?eoi??aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy;

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Nooiaiue Ieoaeei A?eai?iae/,

Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a caiaeueiiai
eaaeano?o.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
caieaaii?yaeiiai i?iaeooaaiiy, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 30 na?iiy 1999 ?ieo i 14ii aiae. ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 36.814.02 o Euea?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 292040, Euea?anueea
iaeanoue, AEiae?anueeee ?aeii, i. Aeoaeyie.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 24 eeiiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

?icaeoie aa?a?iiai naeoi?a aeiiii?ee ia?ic?eaii iia`ycaiee ?c
aeei?enoaiiyi caie? ye aieiaiiai caniao ae?iaieoeoaa o n?euenueeiio
ainiiaea?noa?. ?c ia?aoiaeii e?a?ie aei aaaaoioeeaaeii? aeiiii?ee ?ieue
caie? cia/ii c?inoa?. Oea iia`ycaii ?c ci?iaie a caiaeueieo a?aeiineiao,
iiyaith ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? aeaniino? ia caieth oa
i?aai?caoe?? ?o aeei?enoaiiy. O ca`yceo c oeei aaeeea oaaaa nueiaiaei?
i?eae?ey?oueny iaoeiai-iaoiaee/iei ?ic?iaeai uiaei oi?ioaaiiy
caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy oa oii?yaeeoaaiiy
caiaeue a ieo.

Ca ia??iae cae?eniaiiy caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie ia Ia?aaeea?iaoo? Euea?anueei?
iaeano? aeaia ieoaiiy ia aeine?aeaeoaaeinue, a ?ic?iaee ie?aieo
iieiaeaiue c aeaii? oaie, ye? aena?oeththoueny a i?aoeyo ?ioeo aaoi??a,
iathoue niaoeeo?eo oeo ?aa?ii?a, aeey yeeo aiie i?iaiaeeeenue.

Iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue c aeaii? oaie iaoiiaeaia
cieaeaiiyi aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue, iia??oaiiyi
aeieia?/iiai noaio a?oio?a, iiieeeaie, aeiiouaieie a i?ioean? oi?ioaaiiy
iiaeo caieaaieiae?iue oa caieaei?enooaaiue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa ? iecueeei ??aiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a
ieo.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aaaaoi??/ia i?aeoeea ?ici?thaaiiy iiaeo caiaeue c
iaoith ca?eueoaiiy ianya?a ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoe?? ia aei?aaaeaea naaa,
ine?eueee oea i?ecaaei aei caeo/aiiy a ?ioaineaia caiea?ianoai
iecueei?iaeth/eo caiaeue, ?icaeoeo a?ic?eieo i?ioean?a, aeaa?aaeaoe??
a?oio?a ?, ye iane?aeie, cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue.
Oiio no/ania caieaaii?yaeeoaaiiy iiaeiii ni?yiiaoaaoenue ia iaa?oioiaaia
aeeo/aiiy ii?ooaieo ? iecueeii?iaeoeoeaieo i?ieo caiaeue c ?ioaineaiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ia?ia?oeo oa i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy ?iaeth/eo caiaeue oeyoii noai?aiiy iiaeo aenieiaoaeoeaieo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy e oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy oa
oii?yaeeoaaiiy caiaeue. Ia aeaeue, nueiaiaei? a?eueoa oaaae
i?eae?ey?oueny ieoaiiyi ii?iaoeaii-caeiiiaeaa/iai ?aaoethaaiiy
caiaeueieo a?aeiinei, i?eaaoecaoe?? caiaeue ? ia?a?iciiae?eo ?o i?ae
caieaei?enooaa/aie oa aeanieeaie caie?, a ?acoeueoao? /iai ?aae?caoe?y
caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie i?ioiaeeoue i?e iaaeinoaoiueiio caaacia/aii?
iaoeiaeie ?ic?iaeaie uiaei i?aai?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy oa ioi?iie caiaeue.

Oaeei /eiii, iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo iieiaeaiue oa
iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo i?eioeei?a oi?ioaaiiy caieaei?enooaaiue oa
caieaaieiae?iue ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy, a oaeiae oaeineiiaeaiiy ?o
i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e, iaa?oiooaaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?ici???a,
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy oa oii?yaeeoaaiiy caiaeue ?
aecia/a? aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oaeaee? oaiie ?aae?caoe?? caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie, ye iieacaea i?aeoeea,
iiaeeea? ca oiiae caaacia/aiiy ?? iaiao?aeieie iaoeiaeie ?ic?iaeaie a
aaeoc? ?aaoethaaiiy caiaeueieo a?aeiinei, i?aai?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy,
oii?yaeeoaaiiy oa ioi?iie caiaeue. Oai?aoe/i? iniiae a aeaiiio iai?yi?
aoee caeeaaeai? oaeeie a?aeiieie a/aieie: I.A.Aiae???oeiei,
O.I.Iaaaceiueeiaei, I.I.I??oeiei, N.A.Oaea/?iei, I.Ae.Ooe?ee?iei. Oaeiae
aaeeeee iaoeiaee aeeaae o ae??oaiiy oeeo ieoaiue, cie?aia a oiiaao
?aae?caoe?? caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie, aianee Ae.?.Aiaoeiae/, A.A.Ai?ea/oe,
A.Ae.Aooeoeye, Ae.N.Aeia?ye, I.A.Ae?icaeye, ?.A.?aaioo, I.A.Eacuei??,
?.?.Ieoanthe, I.A.Ieoeae, E.ss.Iiaaeianueeee, I.ss.Iai/oe, I.A.Nooiaiue,
A.I.O?aoye, ?.?.O?eiueei oa ?i.

Cia/io oaaao o nai?o aeine?aeaeaiiyo a/ai? i?eae?eythoue ieoaiiyi
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue. A?eueo?noue iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a ?aae?ciao?oueny a i?aeoeoe? i?iaaaeaiiy caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie.
Iaeiae ui?ac aeieeathoue iia? i?iaeaie, ye? aeiaaathoue oaeineiiaeaiiy
oa iiooe?a a?eueo aoaeoeaieo oeyo?a ae??oaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaia oa ci?no
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeathoue oaiaoeoe? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
eaoaae?e caieaaii?yaeiiai i?iaeooaaiiy Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo «?icaeiooe oai?aoe/i? iniiae ? iaa?oiooaaoe
iaoiaee/i? i?eeiie iioei?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy ? aii?yaeeoaaiiy caiaeue»
(?a?no?aoe?eiee iiia? 0193U29519) oa Cao?aeiiai IAe? caieaono?ith oa
caiaeueiiai eaaeano?o Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
«?ic?iaeoe iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
i?aai?caoe?? ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa ioi?iie caiaeue a oiiaao
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee» (?a?no?aoe?eiee iiia? 0198U005603). O/anoue
caeiaoaa/a o aeeiiaii? iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o eaoaae?e c aea?aeaaii?
oaiaoeee a?aeia?aaeaia o iaoeiaeo ca?oao eaoaae?e caieaaii?yaeiiai
i?iaeooaaiiy oa iaoeiaeo ca?oao Cao?aeiiai IAe? caieaono?ith oa
caiaeueiiai eaaeano?o Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae oii?yaeeoaaiiy caiaeue ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?o aeei?enoaiiy a iiaeo oi?iao
caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue Ia?aaeea?iaooy Euea?anueei?
iaeano?.

Aeoiaey/e ?c iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, a ?iaio? noaaeyoueny oae? iniiai?
caaea/?:

aea/eoe oa iiaeeaeoe ?icoi?iiy noo? aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa
oii?yaeeoaaiiy caiaeue a iiaeo oi?iao ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

aeaoe ioe?ieo ?iciiae?eo caiaeueiiai oiiaeo Ia?aaeea?iaooy Euea?anueei?
iaeano? i?ae caieaei?enooaa/aie oa aeanieeaie caie?;

i?iaanoe aiae?c ? aecia/eoe ??aaiue aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a ??cieo
eaoaai??yo ainiiaea?noa;

aecia/eoe i??i?eoaoi? ?ici??e caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ca oaeoe/iith i?iaeoeoeai?noth
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a no/anieo oiiaao;

oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ?ici???a
caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo)
ainiiaea?noa a aeaiiio ?aa?ii?;

?ic?iaeoe iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy ? aeaoe iaa?oiooaaiiy
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei oi?ioaaiiy caieaei?enooaaiue oa
caieaaieiae?iue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia oa?eoi??? n?euenueei? ?aaee;

oaeineiiaeeoe iaoiaeeeo iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ici?uaiiy aeaiaio?a i?inoi?iai?
no?oeoo?e caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue a iiaeo oi?iao
ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

oeyoii canoinoaaiiy aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy ?ic?iaeoe
iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy aaeocae ?ineeiieoeoaa ?
oaa?eiieoeoaa a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao aeaiiai
?aa?iio.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe i?iaaaeaieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, ui aecia/athoue iaoeiao iiaecio, iieyaathoue o
ianooiiiio:

iaa?oioiaaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue o
ainiiaea?noaao i?e eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiio i?aeoiae? aei ?ici?uaiiy
aaeocae ?ineeiieoeoaa;

oaeineiiaeaii iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy uiaei oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia
oa?eoi??? n?euenueei? ?aaee;

oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ?ici???a naeyinueeeo
(oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa noiniaii aeaiiai ?aa?iio;

?ic?iaeaia aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue caaea/? c iioei?caoe??
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue, ia iniia? ??oaiiy yei? aecia/aii iioeiaeueia
ii?aeiaiiy aaeocae a ainiiaea?noa?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai?: i?iaeoieie i?aai?caoe?yie – a i?ioean?
?ano?oeoo?ecaoe?? iaaea?aeaaieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
oa i?aai?caoe?? iiaeo caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue i?e
iaa?oiooaaii? ?o ?ici???a oa oii?yaeeoaaii? oa?eoi???; caieaaii?yaeieie
i?aaiaie – i?e ?ic?iaoe? noai oa ?aaoethaaii? i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo
caieaaieiae?iue oa caieaei?enooaaiue; ea??aieeaie
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, a oaeiae caieaei?enooaa/aie oa
aeanieeaie caie? – a i?ioean? iioei?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue,
oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu oa i?e ?ici?uaii? iin?a?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a ainiiaea?noaao.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeine?aeaeaii i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i? oa
nioe?aeuei? oiiae ?aa?iio, aea/aii niaoeeo?eo caiaeueieo a?aeiinei a
iueiio, i?iaiae?ciaaii ?acoeueoaoe ?aae?caoe?? caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie oa
ie?aneaii iiaeaeueo? iai?yie ?? i?iaaaeaiiy uiaei oi?ioaaiiy ??cieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy oa
oii?yaeeoaaiiy caiaeue a ieo.

A ?iaio? iaa?oioiaaii iniiai? iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy aoaeoeaiiai
aeei?enoaiiy oa oii?yaeeoaaiiy caiaeue, oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa a i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie; i?iaaaeaii
aiae?c ? c?iaeaia ioe?iea ??aiy aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a ainiiaea?noaao
Ia?aaeea?iaooy; anoaiiaeaii ei?aeyoe?eio caeaaei?noue i?ae
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ieie /eiieeaie, i?iaeoeoeai?noth aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue
oa ?ici??ii caieaei?enooaaiiy; iaa?oioiaaii ?ici?uaiiy aeaiaio?a
i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue; ia i?eeeaae?
oeiiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ai?iaiaaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy aeaiaioa?ieo
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieo oa?eoi??aeueieo iaeeieoeue (AEAOI);
oaeineiiaeaii iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo
caieaaieiae?iue oa caieaei?enooaaiue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa ia iniia? AEAOI; oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo
iioeiaeueieo ?ici???a naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa oa
ooi/iaii ?aoe?iiaeuei? ?ici??e ainiiaea?noa ??cieo ae?iaie/eo oei?a oa
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy; ia iniia? aeaieo uiaei ae?yeueiino? ae?iaie/iai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai eiiia?aoeao ?i.Oaa/aiea Ieeiea?anueeiai
?aeiio Euea?anueei? iaeano? ?ic?iaeaii aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue
caaea/? c iioei?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue, ia iniia? ?ica`yceo yei?
aecia/aii iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy aaeocae n?euenueei-ainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa a iueiio.

O ni?aaaoi?noa? iioae?eiaaii 1 noaooth ianyaii 0,25 ae?oeiaaiiai a?eooa.
Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a noaiiaeoue 0,20 ae?oeiaaiiai a?eooa.

I?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oaeoe/iee
noai oa oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao, a oaeiae noeoii?noue ca`yce?a
? caeiiii??iinoae /eiiee?a, ye? aecia/athoue ??aaiue aeei?enoaiiy oa
niiniae oii?yaeeoaaiiy caiaeue.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? caiaeueiee oiiae Ia?aaeea?iaooy Euea?anueei?
iaeano? oa n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? i?aei?e?inoaa ??cieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy e aeaniino? ia caieth, ye? ?icoaoiaai? a iaaeao aeaii?
ciie.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeieia?/iith ? oai?aoe/iith
iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ae?aeaeoe/iee iaoiae i?ciaiiy, iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, iaoeia? i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo
a/aieo. ?ic?iaea i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia Caeiiao oa Iinoaiiaao Aa?oiaii? ?aaee
Oe?a?ie, ??oaiiyo Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, Oeacao I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie, ??oaiiyo Aea?aeaaiiai Eii?oaoo Oe?a?ie ii caiaeueieo ?ano?nao
oa ?ioeo ii?iaoeaii-caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao. A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy
canoiniaoaaeenue oae? iaoiaee, ye noaoenoeei-aeiiii?/iee,
?ic?aooieiai-eiino?oeoeaiee, aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iee,
aano?aeoii-eia?/iee, ?noi?e/iee, aenia?eiaioaeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy oa ?i.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. I?i iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeiiia?aeaeinue ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1997-1998?.?.) oa
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?aaeao Euea?anueeiai o?e?aeo ?inoeoooo caieaono?ith
OAAI (1997-1998?.?.). Ie?ai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a?aeia?aaeai? a
iaoeiaeo ca?oao eaoaae?e caieaaii?yaeiiai i?iaeooaaiiy oa Cao?aeiiai
IAe? caieaono?ith oa caiaeueiiai eaaeano?o EAeAO ca 1997??e.

I?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu oa
iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy aaeocae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa
a ainiiaea?noa? i?eeiyo? aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaie/iio
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio eiiia?aoea? ?i. Oaa/aiea Ieeiea?anueeiai
?aeiio Euea?anueei? iaeano?.

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue iioae?eiaai? a 4-o noaooyo, c
ieo 3 iaeiiin?ai? ? 1 o ni?aaaoi?noa?. Caaaeueiee ianya ioae?eaoe?e
noaiiaeoue 1,15 ae?oeiaaiiai a?eooa, a oiio /ene? aaoi?a – 1,10
ae?oeiaaiiai a?eooa.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??

Anooi

?icae?e 1. Oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa oii?yaeeoaaiiy
caiaeue a no/anieo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy. 1.1.Iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy
i?eioeei?a ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue. 1.2.Oai?aoe/i? iniiae
iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e oa?aeue oa iin?a?a a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao. 1.3.Aeieiai-aeiiii?/i? iniiae oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie
caieaei?enooaaiue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa.
1.4.Iaoiaeieia?y oa iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue.

?icae?e 2. Aiae?c oa ioe?iea noaio aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a
n?euenueeiain-iiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao Ia?aaeea?iaooy.
2.1.Iniaeeaino? i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo oiia oa ioi?iia caiaeue
Ia?aaeea?iaooy. 2.2.Aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueiiai oiiaeo Ia?aaeea?iaooy a
i?ioean? i?iaaaeaiiy caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie. 2.3.Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy
caiaeue a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao. 2.4.Aiae?c i?ioeano
oi?ioaaiiy caieaaieiae?iue oa caieaei?enooaaiue a oiae? ?aae?caoe??
caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie.

?icae?e 3. I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a oiiaao
noaiiaeaiiy aaaaoioeeaaeii? aeiiii?ee. 3.1.Aoaeoeai?noue ?ici?uaiiy
aaeocae ?ineeiieoeoaa i?e eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiio i?aeoiae?.
3.2.Iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy caieaei?enooaaiue (caieaaieiae?iue)
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy.
3.3.Iioei?caoe?y i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e caieaei?enooaaiue.
3.4.Iioei?caoe?y aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao.

Aeniiaee. I?iiiceoe??. Nienie aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Aeiaeaoee.

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 176 noi??ieao, i?noeoue 17 oaaeeoeue – 11
noi??iie, 20 ?enoie?a — 10 noi??iie, 14 aeiaeaoe?a — 21 noi??iea, nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e – 153 iaeiaioaaiiy — 14 noi??iie.

Iniiaiee ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? ?ice?eoi aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iaoo oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy,
iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue eiai i?iaaaeaiiy, aecia/aii iaoeiao iiaecio
? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – «Oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy oa
oii?yaeeoaaiiy caiaeue a no/anieo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy» –
?ice?eaa-thoueny iiiyooy oa ci?no aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nue-eeo i?aei?e?inoaao, iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo
caieaaieiae?iue oa caieaei?enooaaiue, oii?yaeeoaaiiy ?o oa?eoi??? a
oiiaao ?aae?caoe?? caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie.

C iiyaith ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa aeaniino? ia caieth iaa?aea
aeooaeueiino? oe?ea iecea aaaeeeaeo ieoaiue uiaei oii?yaeeoaaiiy ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a iiaeo caieaei?enooaaiiyo
oa caieaaieiae?iiyo, a oiio iaiao?aeii /?oei aeae?eyoe iniiai? i?eioeeie
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue oa aeine?aeaeoaaoe oeyoe ?o
oaeineiiaeaiiy a oiiaao ?aae?caoe?? caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie. Na?aae ieo
iiaeia aeae?eeoe ianooii?: 1) i??i?eoao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
(i?iaeoeoeaiiai) aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue; 2) caaacia/aiiy aeniei?
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo caiaeue; 3) caaacia/aiiy
e?oaiia?ao i?aai?/ieo ?a/iaei; 4) ioi?iia caiaeue; 5) iie?auaiiy
caiaeue. Aeniea aoaeoeai?noue eiaeiiai ?c i?eioeei?a caaacia/o?oueny i?e
eiiieaeniiio ?o a?aooaaii? o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa?.

A ieioe? ?iee iiiyooy aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue iaei eeoa
aeiiii?/iee oa?aeoa?, aac a?aooaaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a
oaoiieia?/iiai ao?o/aiiy ethaeeie a i?e?iaeo c iaoith i?aeei?eoe nia?
an? i?ioeane, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a i?e, ia inienethth/e oiai, ui
iia??oaiiy aeieia?/iiai noaio a?oio?a a i?ioean? o?eaaeiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?o aeei?enoaiiy iicia/a?oueny ia cieaeaii?
aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a. Oiio no/ania ?ioaineaia caieaei?enooaaiiy
iiaeiii ni?yiiaoaaoenue ia caa?aaeaiiy oa a?aeoai?aiiy no?eeeo
aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a ye iaae?eii? iniiae aenieiaoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy
caiaeue a n?euenueei-ainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao.

Cieaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? caiaeue /anoi ni?e/eiy?oueny iecueeith
no?ee?noth aa?ieaiaeoaoo?a aei iaaaoeaieo i?e?iaeieo oa aio?iiiaaiieo
yaeu. Aiane?aeie oeueiai niinoa??aathoueny cia/i? ao?aoe i?iaeoeoe??.
Iei? iac??ei ieoaiiy aeeo/aiiy iaeii?iaeoeoeaieo caiaeue ?c
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ia?ao ? ia o?eueee c aeieia?/ii? oi/ee ci?o,
aea e c aeiiii?/ii?, ine?eueee ia?iaeyoe oe? caie? iaaea?aeii, aaeaea ?o
a?aeaea/a ia ieoiiao? cao?aoe. Aaeeea cia/aiiy a oeueiio aniaeo? ia?
ieoaiiy oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e oa?aeue oa iin?a?a a ainiiaea?noaao.
Ae??ooaaoe eiai iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii naia a ia??iae ?ai?aai?caoe??
?nioth/eo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy, eiee ci?iththoueny noa?? iaae?
caieaei?enooaaiue ? oi?io?oueny iiaa i?inoi?iaa no?oeoo?a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oa?eoi???.

Aaaaoioeeaaei? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy iio?aaothoue niaoeeo?/ii?
i?aai?caoe?? oa?eoi???, aea caeeoathoueny iniiai? ?? i?eioeeie:
?aoe?iiaeueiee ?ici?? ainiiaea?noaa (ieiua n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue), yeee ae caaacia/oaaa iiaeeea?noue aenieiaoaeoeaiiai
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, eiiiaeoiiai ?ici?uaiiy caiaeue, c?o/iiai ?ici?uaiiy
ainiiaea?nueeiai oeaio?o ? oa?eoi??? caieaei?enooaaiiy.

A ieioe? ?iee iioei?caoe?y i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oa?eoi??? iaea, a iniiaiiio, aeiiii?/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy, a ieoaiith oi?ioaaiiy eaiaeoaoo?a ye noaa?eueiiai
i?inoi?iaiai aaceno i?eae?eyeanue iaaeinoaoiy oaaaa. Aiane?aeie oeueiai
noi?ioaaeanue iacaaeainiaaia no?oeoo?a n?euenueeiain-iiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue a ainiiaea?noaao, i?aeaeueeanue a?ic?eia iaaaciaea,
i?enei?eeenue i?ioeane aeaa?aaeaoe?? a?oio?a oa ?io? iaaaoeai? yaeua,
ye? cieceee aoaeoeai?noue caieaei?enooaaiiy. Oiio i?e oii?yaeeoaaii?
oa?eoi??? aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue o ci?i? aeiiii?/ieo i??i?eoao?a ia
i?e?iaei?.

A?aoiaoth/e neeaaeio aeieiai-aeiiii?/io neooaoe?th, ui neeaeany
nueiaiaei? a aa?a?iiio naeoi??, iaoiaeieia?y aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue ni?yiiaaia ia ia iineeaiiy
aieeao ethaeeie ia i?e?iaeo, a iaaiaee — ia eiai ciaioaiiy /a?ac
aa?iii?caoe?th aca?iica’yce?a i?ae i?e?iaeieie oa aeiiii?/ieie yaeuaie,
i?ioeanaie n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa c iaoith io?eiaiiy
iaeneiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo.

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ieoaiue oii?yaeeoaaiiy ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue ?aae?co?oueny oeyoii
eiiieaeniiai canoinoaaiiy aaaaoueio iaoiae?a aeiiii?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
oa AII.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – «Aiae?c oa ioe?iea noaio aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao Ia?aaeea?iaooy» — aea/aii
i?e?iaei? oa?aeoa?enoeee caiaeueiiai oiiaeo Ia?aaeea?iaooy, i?iaaaeaii
aeaoaeueiee aiae?c ? c?iaeaia ioe?iea ??aiy aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao, i?ioean?a ?iciiae?eo caiaeue
i?ae caieaei?enooaa/aie oa aeanieeaie caie?, i?aai?caoe?? iiaeo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy.

Aiae?c caiaeueiiai oiiaeo Ia?aaeea?iaooy iieacaa, ui aei ?ioaineaiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa caeo/ai? aaeee? ieiu?
iecueei?iaeth/eo caiaeue (3454 aa, aai 3% i?ieo caiaeue), ye? c iaoith
a?aeiiaeaiiy ?o iiia?aaeiueiai noaio iaiao?aeii ia?aaiaeeoe a ?io?
oa?aeaey. A ?acoeueoao? ?ioaineaiiai aeei?enoaiiy oeeo caiaeue
niinoa??aathoueny aaeee? ao?aoe aoiono a a?oioao Ia?aaeea?iaooy, a
na?aaeiueiio 1o/aa ca ??e.

Aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueiiai oiiaeo Ia?aaeea?iaooy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
ca?eueoaiiyi iieaciee?a ?ici?aiino? oa inai?iino? oa?eoi???, ye? ca 1992
– 1997?iee ca?eueoeeenue a?aeiia?aeii ia 8 oa 16% ? nyaioee a?aeiia?aeii
40 oa 61 a?aenioea. Aeeiai?ea ?ici?aiino? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
oa?aeue, iaaiaee, ia? oaiaeaioe?th aei ciaioaiiy. Ca oeae aea ia??iae
aiia ciaioeeanue ia 9% ? ia nueiaiaei? noaiiaeoue 66 a?aenioe?a.

Ia?oee aoai ?aae?caoe?? caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie ia Ia?aaeea?iaoo?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iia?eueieie oaiiaie. sseui ia ii/aoeo 1993 ?ieo o
aeaniino? oa iino?eiiio ei?enooaaii? a?iiaaeyi ciaoiaeeany eeoa 1%
anueiai caiaeueiiai oiiaeo, oi ia ii/aoie 1998 ?ieo – aaea 22%. A
oe?eiio, o Euea?anuee?e iaeano? niinoa??aa?oueny aiaeia?/ia oaiaeaioe?y,
yea aiai?eoue i?i a?aeiia?aei?noue ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiy caiaeueii?
?aoi?ie ?? oe?eyi. I?e oaeiio ia?a?iciiae?e? caiaeue i?ae
caieaei?enooaa/aie oa aeanieeaie caie? noai?th?oueny iiaiioe?iia ?eieiaa
na?aaeiaeua, a yeiio aoaeooue aecia/aoeny a?eueo aoaeoeai? oi?ie
ainiiaea?thaaiiy, a iecueeiaoaeoeai? iinooiiai a?aeie?aoeiooue.

Aiae?c ?iciiae?eo caiaeue i?ae ??cieie eaoaai??yie ainiiaea?noa
na?ae/eoue, ui a ainiiaea?noaao noni?eueiiai naeoi?a ieoiia aaaa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue iaeiaioa ? noaiiaeoue 75,8%, a
naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noaao – 87,1% ? iaea?eueoa a
iaeiiin?aieo ainiiaea?noaao a?iiaaeyi – 96,8%. Ioaea, aeanieee
iiainoai?aieo i?eaaoieo aa?ioi?ioaaiue ciaioothoue ieiu?
ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue aei i?i?ioio, ca?eueooth/e oei naiei
ieoiio aaao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue a ainiiaea?noa?.

I?ioean i?iaaaeaiiy caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie ia Ia?aaeea?iaoo?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cieaeaiiyi iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa oa i?iaeoeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
caiaeue. A na?aaeiueiio c eiaeiei ?ieii ?aioaaaeuei?noue ciaioo?oueny ia
36,1%, a aa?o?noue aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa — ia 7,1 oen. a?i.
c ?ic?aooieo ia 100 aa ??ee?.

Ei?aeyoe?eiee aiae?c i?ae iieacieeaie i?iaeoeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
caiaeue oa iieacieeaie ?aioaaaeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa noni?eueiiai naeoi?a
iieacaa, ui i?ae ieie ?nio? aeineoue u?eueiee i?yiee ca`ycie (r=0,791),
? ca aeiiiiiaith eiao?oe??io?a e?i?eiiai ??aiyiiy ?aa?an??

( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 1 )

aecia/aii, ui i?e ca?eueoaii? aa?oino? aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ia 1oen. a?i.
c ?ic?aooieo ia 100aa ??ee? ?aioaaaeuei?noue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ca?eueoo?oueny ia 4,36%, ?
iaaiaee. I?e aa?oino? aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa iaioa i?ae
21,6oen. a?i. c ?ic?aooieo ia 100 aa ??ee? aeei?enoiaoaaoe caie?
iaaoaeoeaii, ine?eueee cao?aoe ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoe?? ia?aaeuothoue
ae?o/eo a?ae ?? ?aae?caoe??.

Aiae?c caaaeueii? aeeiai?ee iieaciee?a o?iaeaeiino? iniiaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? iieaco?, ui ?o oaiaeaioe?y
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny cieaeaiiyi o an?o eaoaai??yo ainiiaea?noa.

A na?aaeiueiio ca 1992 – 1997 ?iee aiia ciaioeeanue iaeaea oaea?/?.
Iaei??th c i?e/ei oeueiai yaeua ? aeieia?/ii iacaaeainiaaia no?oeoo?a
iin?aieo ieiu a ainiiaea?noaao, yea a?aeia?aaea? eeoa neooaoe?th ia
?eieo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? i?iaeoeoe?? ? i?ye ia ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith ?iaeth/ino? caiaeue oa oi?ioaaiith aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai
aa?ieaiaeoaooo.

Aiae?c i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy caieaei?enooaaiue (caieaaieiae?iue)
i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue
?nioth/eo naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa Ia?aaeea?iaooy ia?
ieiuo 10-20aa, a iniaenoeo i?aeniaieo ainiiaea?noa – 0,25-0,6aa. Ne?ae
cacia/eoe, ui e?euee?noue naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa ia
Ia?aaeea?iaoo? ieiuath a?eueoa 50 aa noaiiaeoue 1/3 caaaeueii?
e?eueeino? ?o ia Euea?auei?.

Oeyoii ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co caeaaeiino? i?ae oaeoe/iith o?iaeaei?noth
ca?iiaeo eoeueoo? oa ieiuath caieaei?enooaaiue noni?eueiiai naeoi?a
Ia?aaeea?iaooy iiaoaeiaaii ??aiyiiy ia?aaiee ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo

( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 2 )

aea Oo – ?ic?aooieiaa o?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?, oe/aa;

O – ieiua ??ee? a ainiiaea?noa?, aa,

Aeei?enoiaoth/e aeaia ??aiyiiy, aecia/eee i??i?eoaoi? ?ici??e ?o
caieaei?enooaaiue, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny a iaaeao 900 — 1100aa.

Oaeei aea oeyoii aeey aecia/aiiy i??i?eoaoieo ?ici???a caieaei?enooaaiue
naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa ciaeaeaii ia?aiao?e ??aiyiiy
ia?aaiee ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo, yea ia? ianooiiee aeaeyae:

( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 3 )

aea Oo – o?iaeaei?noue ca?iiaeo eoeueoo?, oe/aa;

O – ieiua ??ee? a ainiiaea?noa?, aa.

Ioaea, ?o i??i?eoaoi? ?ici??e ca aeaieie oaeoe/ii? o?iaeaeiino? ca?iiaeo
eoeueoo? noaiiaeyoue a?ae 3 aei 5 aa. Ia iaoo aeoieo, oae? ?ici??e
caieaei?enooaaiue naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa a ia?niaeoea?
ia ciiaeooue caaacia/eoe aenieee ?icaeoie aeaii? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy.
Oiio iei? iaiao?aeii i?eae?eyoe iaea?eueoo oaaao iie?auaiith
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ii? aace oa i?aeaeuaiith ??aiy aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue
ye iniiaieo /eiiee?a, ui aecia/athoue ?o ?ici??. Ae??oeaoe oe? aaaeeea?
ieoaiiy, iiaeia aoaea aeinyaoe iioeiaeueieo ?ici???a caieaei?enooaaiue
naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa, ye? caaacia/aoue
aenieiaoaeoeaiee ?o ?icaeoie.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – «I?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a
oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy aaaaoioeeaaeii? aeiiii?ee» — iaa?oioiaaii
aoaeoeai?noue eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeei?enoaiiy
caiaeue a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao, oaeineiiaeaii
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy oa iaa?oioiaaii iniiai? i?eioeeie
oi?ioaaiiy caieaei?enooaaiue ? caieaaieiae?iue iiaeo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa ?ici?uaiiy i?inoi?iaeo aeaiaio?a caieaei?enooaaiue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeee
aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo ?ici???a naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa
oa iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy aaeocae n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai
ae?iaieoeoaa a aa?ii?aei?e?inoaao oeyoii iiaoaeiae ? canoinoaaiiy
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae caaea/.

Ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a aa?a?ieo i?aei?e?inoaao
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e iaaeinoaoiueiio a?aooaaii? i?e?iaeieo oiia. Aaeee?
noaoe/i? n?aici?ie caeiathoue cia/i? ieiu? caiaeue c ??cieie i?e?iaeieie
oiiaaie, a ?acoeueoao? /iai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? eoeueoo?e /anoi
?ici?uothoueny ia caieyo, iai?eaeaoieo (neaaii?eaeaoieo) aeey ?o
ae?iuoaaiiy, iioeiaeaeoth/e oei naiei ?iaeth/ee oa? a?oio?a. Iieacieee
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oaeiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue oa ?o ?iaeth/?noue c eiaeiei
?ieii ciaioothoueny. A oaeiio aeiaaeeo c iaoith aoaeoeai?oiai
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a eiaeiiio ainiiaea?noa? aeioe?eueii i?iaeooaaoe
iaaaeee? ca ieiuath n?aici?ie, ye? a ?ici?uoaaeenue ia caieyo c
iaeiaeiaeie a?oioiaeie a?aei?iaie, iaei??? oaoiieia?/ii? a?oie oa c
?ioeie iiae?aieie aaieiiiiiaioaie. Aeey oeueiai iaiao?aeii ?icae?eyoe
oa?eoi??th ia ae?eyiee iaeii??aeiiai aeei?enoaiiy ? aecia/aoe ??aaiue
?ioaineaiino? n?euenueei-ainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa ia ieo. Oiio
i?iiiio?oueny i?iaiaeeoe eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ia ?aeiioaaiiy oa?eoi??? ca
iaoiaeeeith, ?ic?iaeaiith Cao?aeiei IAe? caieaono?ith oa caiaeueiiai
eaaeano?o Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo, yeith
ia?aaeaa/a?oueny aeae?eyoe caiaeuei? ae?eyiee c iaeiaeiaeie i?e?iaeieie
oiiaaie – aeaiaioa?i? eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/i? oa?eoi??aeuei? iaeeieoe?
(AEAOI). A iaaeao oeeo ae?eyiie an? aaieiiiiiaioe iathoue aooe
i?aaenoaaeai? iaeiaioeie eaae?o?eaoe?eieie eaoaai??yie (iaeii??aei?noue
?aeue?oo, a?oioe iaei??? aa?ia?oie, iaeiioeii? oiiae caieiaeaiiy oa
?i.).

A i?ioean? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai i?iaeooaaiiy ia caieyo
aa?a?ii-aeoe?iia?iiai ainiiaea?noaa «Ae?oaeaa» Noa?inaia??nueeiai ?aeiio
aeae?eaii 35 aeaiaioa?ieo eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/ieo oa?eoi??aeueieo
iaeeieoeue ? ia ?o iniia? noi?iiaaii 5 n?aici?i. Aeei?enoiaoth/e aeai?
/anoeiai? aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee caiaeue, oeyoii iiaoaeiae oa ?ica`yceo
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? o?ainii?oii? caaea/? anoaiiaeaii neeaae
oa ni?aa?aeiioaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a n?aici?iao, a
?acoeueoao? /iai, ca ?aooiie noai?aiiy iaaaeeeeo aocueeiniaoe?ae?ciaaieo
n?aici?i, ca?eueoaiiy ieiu iin?ao aenieii?iaeoeoeaieo eoeueoo? oa
iioeiaeueiiai ?ici?uaiiy ?o a?aeiinii i?e?iaeieo aeanoeainoae caiaeue
ainiiaea?noaa, aa?o?noue aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa c?inea,
ii??aiyii c oaeoe/iith, ia 31,9oen. a?i., aai ia 89a?i./aa. Ioaea,
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue na?ae/aoue: i?e ?ici?uaii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a ainiiaea?noaao a iaaeinoaoi?e i???
a?aoiao?oueny a?oioiaee iie?ea, eiai aeanoeaino? oa
i?e?iaeii-aeieia?/iee noai.

Oaeei /eiii, aeua aoaeoeai?noue caieaei?enooaaiiy aeinyaa?oueny a oiio
aeiaaeeo, eiee iai?yi n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aecia/a?oueny, aeoiaey/e ?c caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo eiie?aoii?
aeinenoaie, a ia oiae?, eiee i?e?iaei? aeanoeaino? caiaeue
i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny caaeiaieaiith iio?aa ethaeeie.

I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy caieaaieiae?iue oa caieaei?enooaaiue ia no/aniiio
aoai? ?aae?caoe?? caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie i?ioiaeeoue aeineoue aeoeaii, ?
oeueiio ieoaiith i?eae?ey?oueny /e ia iaeaaaeeea?oa oaaaa. Aea, ia
aeaeue, ia nueiaiaei? iaia? caaaeueiii?eeiyoi? noaie oi?ioaaiiy
caieaaieiae?iue oa caieaei?enooaaiue n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa. Oiio oea ieoaiiy, a oaeiae uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue /anoi ?icaeyaeathoueny ie?aii, a oie /an eiee
i?ioean i?aai?caoe?? ??cieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ni?yiiaaiee naia ia
noai?aiiy aenieiaoaeoeaiiai caieaei?enooaaiiy. A ?acoeueoao? oaei?
?ica?aeiino? a?i ia?, a iniiaiiio, nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaee oa?aeoa?, a
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i? /eiieee a?aoiaothoueny iaiiai?noth.

Oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo caieaaieiae?iue oa caieaei?enooaaiue, ye iieacaea
i?aeoeea, aeineoue aeiaaio?eaaeee i?ioean, a oaeineiiaeaiiy ?o
i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e iiaea a?aeaoaaoenue iane?i/aiii. Iei? ia?ao?ae
a?ae e?oiieo eieaeoeaieo ainiiaea?noa aei ae??ai?oeo a?aeaoaa?oueny
oeyoii cia/ieo ci?i o i?inoi?ia?e no?oeoo?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei?
oa?eoi???: iiae??aiaiiy noi?iiaaieo i?ioyaii aeanyoe??/ue iie?a n?aici?i
ia caiaeuei? /anoee ?ici??ii a?ae iaeiiai aei o?ueio aaeoa??a; oaioe/iee
ia?a?iciiae?e caiaeue i?ae caieaei?enooaa/aie oa aeanieeaie caie? oiui.
E?ioeaaei ?acoeueoaoii oaeiai i?ioeano ? cieaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo oa
aeieia?/ieo iieaciee?a caieaei?enooaaiiy, ine?eueee ii?ooeeenue iaae?
iie?a n?aici?i, ye? ? iaeiei ?c iniiaieo ?oaaae?a, ui cao?eiothoue
aiaeio a?ic?th. Ia aeio?eiothoueny aeiiae uiaei /a?aoaaiiy
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a n?aici?iao, ia? i?noea oe?ea iecea
?ioeo /eiiee?a, ui cieaeothoue aoaeoeai?noue caieaei?enooaaiiy.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aaaaea?ii, ui aeey i?aai?caoe?? iiaiai
caieaaieiae?iiy /e caieaei?enooaaiiy iiia?aaeiuei iaiao?aeii noi?ioaaoe
no?eeo i?inoi?iao no?oeoo?o n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? oa?eoi???, ia
iniia? yei? iiaeiii noai?thaaoenue aenieiaoaeoeaia caieaei?enooaaiiy.
Iniiaith aeey oeueiai iiaeooue noaoe aeae?eai? aeaiaioa?i?
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/i? oa?eoi??aeuei? iaeeieoe? (AEAOI). A oaeiio
aeiaaeeo aeey noai?aiiy iiaiai caieaei?enooaaiiy /e caieaaieiae?iiy
aeae?ey?oueny iaeia aai aeae?eueea AEAOI, ye? iiaeooue ia`?aeioaaoenue a
iaeei caiaeueiee ianea. E?euee?noue oa?eoi??aeueieo iaeeieoeue aeey
i?aai?caoe?? iiaiai ainiiaea?noaa iaoiiaeth?oueny eiai ?ic?aooieiaith
ieiuath.

C iaoith i?aai?caoe?? naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa
?aoe?iiaeueieo ?ici???a ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo
?ici???a ?o caieaei?enooaaiue aeey oiia Ia?aaeea?iaooy oeyoii iiaoaeiae
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?. Iiaeaeue aeeth/a? a naaa iniiai?
/eiieee, ye? ? aecia/aeueieie aeey oi?ioaaiiy iioeiaeueieo ?ici???a
iiainoai?thaaieo caieaei?enooaaiue. Nthaee a?aeianaii:
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? oiiae ?aa?iio, iayai?noue o?oaeiaeo oa
iaoa??aeueii-a?ioiaeo ?ano?n?a ainiiaea?noaa, ianya o?oaeiaeo oa
iaoa??aeueii-a?ioiaeo cao?ao a ?ineeiieoeoa? ? oaa?eiieoeoa?,
ia?niaeoeaiee ae?iaie/ee iai?yi ainiiaea?noaa, i?iaeoeoeai?noue aaeocae
?ineeiieoeoaa ? oaa?eiieoeoaa, aeieiai-aeiiii?/i? oiiae aeei?enoaiiy
caiaeue. E?eoa???i iioeiaeueiino? ? iae?i?eia ooieoe?y – i?eaooie ia
iaeeieoeth ieiu?:

( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 4 )

aea ci — aa?o?noue iaeiiai oeaioia?a i?iaeoeoe?? ?-oi? oiaa?ii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eoeueoo?e, a?i./oe;

yi — o?iaeaei?noue ?-oi? oiaa?ii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eoeueoo?e,
oe/aa;

xi — ieiua iin?ao ?-oi? oiaa?ii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eoeueoo?e,
aa;

c(j — aa?o?noue iaeiiai oeaioia?a oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? j-ai aeaeo
oaa?eiieoeoaa, a?i./oe;

y(j — i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaei??? aieiae j-ai aeaeo oaa?ei, oe/aieiao;

x(j — iiaie?a’y j-ai aeaeo oaa?ei, aie?a;

zi — cao?aoe ia iaeeieoeth ieiu? iin?ao ?-oi? oiaa?ii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eoeueoo?e, a?i./aa;

z(j — cao?aoe ia ae?iaieoeoai oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? j-ai aeaeo
oaa?eiieoeoaa, a?i./aieiao;

??ic — ?ic?aooieiaa ieiua caieaei?enooaaiiy, aa.

Oeyoii ?ica`yceo iiaeae? io?eiaii iioeiaeuei? ?ici??e naeyinueeeo
(oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa ??cieo ae?iaie/eo oei?a oa c ??cieie
cao?aoaie ia ae?iaieoeoai i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa ? oaa?eiieoeoaa.
Ia?oa ieiua a?aeia?aaea? iioeiaeueiee ?ici?? caieaei?enooaaiiy i?e
oaeoe/ieo cao?aoao, a ae?oaa – ia?niaeoeaiee i?e iioeiaeueiiio
caaacia/aii? ainiiaea?noaa iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieie caniaaie
ae?iaieoeoaa. Ioaea, iioeiaeuei? ieiu? naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo)
ainiiaea?noa aeey oiia Ia?aaeea?iaooy ianooii?: ao?ye?aie/i-iiei/ia
niaoe?ae?caoe?y – 30-44aa; eueiia?nueei-iiei/ia – 34-43aa;
ea?oiiey?nueei-naeia?nueea – 23-50aa; iai/?aieoeueei-iiei/ia – 12-32aa;
iiei/ia – 27-36aa; neioa?nueei-a?aeaiae?aaeueia – 33-48aa.

Aeey caaacia/aiiy oaeaeeiai oa iiaiioe?iiiai ?icaeoeo ??cieo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy iaa?oioiaai? iniiai? i?eioeeie, ia iniia? yeeo iiaeii?
oi?ioaaoenue iia? caieaei?enooaaiiy oa caieaaieiae?iiy. Na?aae ieo
aeae?eai? ianooii?: i??i?eoao i?e?iaeii-aeieia?/ieo /eiiee?a,
eiiieaeni?noue (oe?e?ni?noue), no?ee?noue, aeeiai?/i?noue,
aeieiai-aeiiii?/ia oa nioe?aeueia aoaeoeai?noue. Canoiniaoaaoe
?icaeyioo? i?eioeeie aeioe?eueii o ?ic?iaeai?e iaie ia?niaeoeai?e noai?
oi?ioaaiiy caieaaieiae?iue oa caieaei?enooaaiue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa, yea a?oioo?oueny ia i?eioeei?
«a?ae ia`?eoa aei noa`?eoa caieaei?enooaaiiy», oiaoi, nii/aoeo
oi?io?oueny caiaeueia ieiua iioeiaeueiiai ?ici??o aeey i?aai?caoe?? a
ia?niaeoea? iiaiai caieaaieiae?iiy /e caieaei?enooaaiiy, a i?ci?oa —
aecia/a?oueny noa’?eo ?? aeei?enoaiiy.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e caieaei?enooaaiue
n?euenueeiain-iiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa a iiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy,
ye iieacaee ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaeiii cae?enithaaoenue
eiiieaenii, a?aoiaoth/e an? i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i? /eiieee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa oa ?ici?uaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo
aeaiaio?a noi?aeieo caieaei?enooaaiue /e caieaaieiae?iue, ye?
aieeaathoue (iiaeooue aieeaaoe) ia ae?iaie/ee i?ioean a eiie?aoiiio
aa?ioi?ioaaii?. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? oaeiai i?aeoiaeo oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e iaiao?aeii i?iaiaeeoe a iaaeao oe?ei? n?euenueei?
(naeeuii?) ?aaee o i?iaeoao i?aai?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy oa aii?yaeeoaaiiy
caiaeue.

Oeyoii ?ic?iaee oa ?ica`yceo aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? caaea/? c
iioei?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue i?e ??cieo e?eoa??yo iioeiaeueiino?:

ca aa?o?noth aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe??

( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 5 )

aea n? – aa?o?noue 1oe ?-ai aeaeo i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa, a?i./oe;

y? – o?iaeaei?noue ?-oi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eoeueoo?e, oe/aa;

o? – ieiua iin?ao ?-i? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eoeueoo?e, aa;

c(j – aa?o?noue 1oe i?iaeoeoe?? j-ai aeaeo oaa?eiieoeoaa, a?i./oe;

y(j – ??/ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaei??? aieiae j-ai aeaeo oaa?ei,
oe/aieiao;

o(j – iiaie?a’y j-ai aeaeo oaa?eiieoeoaa, aie?a;

ca i?eaooeii ia iaeeieoeth ieiu?

( SEQ ( \* ARABIC 6 )

aea n? – aa?o?noue 1oe ?-ai aeaeo oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa,
a?i./oe;

y? – o?iaeaei?noue ?-oi? oiaa?ii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eoeueoo?e,
oe/aa;

o? – ieiua iin?ao ?-i? oiaa?ii? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eoeueoo?e, aa;

c(j – aa?o?noue 1oe j-ai aeaeo oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe?? oaa?eiieoeoaa,
a?i./oe;

y(j – ??/ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue iaei??? aieiae j-ai aeaeo oaa?ei,
oe/aieiao;

o(j – iiaie?a’y j-ai aeaeo oaa?ei, aie?a;

zi – iaoa??aeueii-a?ioia? cao?aoe ia ae?iuoaaiiy 1 aa ?-oi? oiaa?ii?
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueei? eoeueoo?e, a?i./aa;

z(j – iaoa??aeueii-a?ioia? cao?aoe ia ae?iaieoeoai oiaa?ii? i?iaeoeoe??
j-ai aeaeo oaa?eiieoeoaa, a?i./aieiao;

?? – ieiua ??ee?, aa,

?ic?iaeaii /ioe?e aa??aioe iioeiaeueiiai ii?aeiaiiy aaeocae
n?euenueeiain-iiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa a ainiiaea?noa?. Ia iniia?
aiae?co aa??aio?a ?ica`yceo aecia/aii ca`ycee oa caeiiii??iino?
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a iueiio.

Aeoiaey/e c aiae?co aa??aio?a oa no/aniiai noaio aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue o
ae?iaie/iio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio eiiia?aoea? ?i. Oaa/aiea
Ieeiea?anueeiai ?aeiio Euea?anueei? iaeano? inoaii?e aa??aio
cai?iiiiiaaii aeey cai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai. Ia aeaeue, i?e
no/aniiio ??ai? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa, iacaaeia?euei?e
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/i?e aac? oa iayaiino? oe?ei? iecee ?ioeo iaaeie?e?a
oaeoe/iiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue iaiiaeeeai aeinyaoe aenieeo aeiiii?/ieo
iieaciee?a. Caoa iioeiaeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaeocae
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa, ?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy
caiaeueieo oa ?ioeo ?ano?n?a, caaeia?euei? aeieiai-aeiiii?/i? iieacieee
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue, ui aeinyaiooi a aeaiiio aa??aio?, ? aaaeeeaith
ia?aaeoiiaith i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue oa oaeaeei?
aaeaioaoe?? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai i?aei?e?inoaa aei aeiia no/aniiai
aenieiaoaeoeaiiai caieaei?enooaaiiy.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui aeua aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue aeinyaa?oueny i?e aocueeiaaeocaa?e niaoe?ae?caoe??,
aea aanoe aocueei-niaoe?ae?ciaaia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea ae?iaieoeoai
a ianoaa?eueieo ?eieiaeo oiiaao, ye? neeaeeny a Oe?a?i?, aeineoue
iaaacia/ii. Oiio ia aeaiiio aoai? ie i?iiiio?ii ?icaeaaoe aeae?eueea
aenieiaoaeoeaieo aaeocae ae?iaieoeoaa, a c? noaa?e?caoe??th iaoi?
aeiiii?ee aeioe?eueii aoaea cae?enithaaoe ia?ao?ae ia a?eueo
aocueeiaaeocaa? iai?yie ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?.

Aeniiaee

Aeoiaey/e ?c i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, c?iaeai? ianooii? aeniiaee:

Oe?ieiianooaaia inai?iiy oa?eoi??? a ieioe? ?iee i?ecaaei aei caeo/aiiy
a ?ioaineaia n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea ae?iaieoeoai iecueeii?iaeoeoeaieo
caiaeue, ieiu? yeeo ia Ia?aaeea?iaoo? noaiiaeyoue 3454aa (3%).
Ae?iuoaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? ia oeeo caieyo ?
iaeiaoaeoeaiei, ine?eueee cao?aoe ooo aenie?, a a?iaeaei?noue eoeueoo?
iinooiiai cieaeo?oueny. Iiaeaeueoa aeei?enoaiiy ?o o
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio ae?iaieoeoa? caa?iaeo? ?icaeoeii iaaaoeaieo
aeaa?aaeaoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Oiio ia nueiaiaei? 3% ??ee? ia
Ia?aaeea?iaoo?, yea i?aaenoaaeaia iecueei?iaeth/eie a?oioaie, iaiao?aeii
aeeo/eoe c ?ioaineaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ia?ia?oeo.

Ia?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy inooaieo caiaeue ia ieoiiao? cao?aoe,
aeo?a/ai? ia aoae?aieoeoai iae?i?aoeaieo nenoai. *anoeia ?o (2,2%) aaea
ia?aaaaeaia o ian?euenueeiainiiaea?nuee? oa?aeaey (e?nia? ieiu?, caie?
i?ae oi?oi?ic?iaeaie, ii?ooai? caie? oiui). C iaoith iaaeiiouaiiy
aeeo/aiiy inooaieo caiaeue ?c n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ae?iaieoeoaa
iaiao?aeii iineethaaoe eiio?ieue oa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca ?o
aeei?enoaiiyi.

Ca inoaii? i’youe ?ie?a (1992 — 1997??.) ieiu? caiaeue i?eaaoiiai
naeoi?a ca?eueoeeenue ia 24% ? noaiii ia 1.01.1998?. neeaaeathoue 22%
caiaeueiiai oiiaeo Ia?aaeea?iaooy, a ?acoeueoao? /iai ciaioeeenue ieiu?
caiaeue noni?eueiiai naeoi?a ia 7% oa ?ioeo aeaniee?a caie? ?
caieaei?enooaa/?a – ia 14% (aei 39 a?aenioe?a). Oaeei /eiii, ia
Ia?aaeea?iaoo? noai?ai? ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo aaaaoioeeaaeieo
oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy, a oiio /ene? c i?eaaoiith oi?iith aeaniino? ia
caieth.

I?ioean oi?ioaaiiy caieaaieiae?iue oa caieaei?enooaaiue
n?euenueeiain-iiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ia Ia?aaeea?iaoo?
oneeaaeith?oueny iaaeinoaoiueith caaacia/ai?noth naeyi
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeie oa?aeaeyie. sseui o Euea?anuee?e iaeano? a
na?aaeiueiio ia iaeiiai aeeoaey ?o i?eiaaea? 0,86aa, oi ia
Ia?aaeea?iaoo? – 0,69aa, ??ee? – 0,57 ? 0,45aa a?aeiia?aeii. Oiio
oi?ioaaiiy caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa ?aoe?iiaeueieo ?ici???a iiaeiii
iaoe iaeaaeia iaoeiaa iaa?oiooaaiiy.

Oi?ioaaiiy caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa a i?ioean? ?aae?caoe?? caiaeueii?
?aoi?ie ?icaeyaea?oueny a iniiaiiio ?c nioe?aeueii-i?aaiaeo iiceoe?e, a
i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i? /eiieee i?aeoe/ii ia a?aoiaothoueny, a ?acoeueoao?
cieaeo?oueny iiaeeea?noue i?aai?caoe?? aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue
a iiainoai?aieo aa?ioi?ioaaiiyo. ?o caieaei?enooaaiiy oa caieaaieiae?iiy
– ?iceeaeai? ii oa?eoi??? i?noeaaeo ?aae ae??ai? caiaeuei? ianeae oa
ae?eyiee, ?ici??e ? ?ici?uaiiy yeeo ia iathoue iaeaaeiiai iaa?oiooaaiiy.

Aiae?c ??aiy aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoaao Ia?aaeea?iaooy, ca iieacieeaie caaaeueii? aeiiii?/ii?
ioe?iee caiaeue, iieaco?, ui a?i ? ieae/ei, i?ae a oe?eiio o
Euea?anuee?e iaeano?. Iniaeeai oea noino?oueny i?ieo caiaeue, ieiu? yeeo
ooo noaiiaeyoue 2/3 n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue. Oe? caie?
iio?aaothoue caoiae?a uiaei i?aeaeuaiiy ?o ?iaeth/ino? oa iaae?eiiai
caoenoo. A?eueo ni?eyoeeaeie i?e?iaei? oiiae Ia?aaeea?iaooy ? aeey
ae?iuoaaiiy aaaaoi??/ieo ianaaeaeaiue, oi/a aiie caeiathoue aeoaea iae?
ieiu? (1,5% n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oa?aeue ?aa?iio).

C ii/aoeii caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie ia Ia?aaeea?iaoo? niinoa??aa?oueny
cieaeaiiy iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? ainiiaea?noa noni?eueiiai
naeoi?a oa i?iaeoeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a ieo. C eiaeiei ?ieii
?aioaaaeuei?noue ciaioo?oueny a na?aaeiueiio ia 36,1%, a aa?o?noue
aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? ?ineeiieoeoaa — ia 7,09 oen. a?i. c ?ic?aooieo ia
100 aa ??ee?. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaiiai ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co i?ae
oeeie iieacieeaie anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aa?oino? aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? iaioa
21,6 oen. a?i. c ?ic?aooieo ia 100 aa ??ee? aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue ?
iaaoaeoeaiei.

Aiane?aeie ia?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy i?ieo caiaeue, iaaeinoaoiueiai
caaacia/aiiy ?o i?aai?/ieie aeia?eaaie, iacaaeainiaaii? no?oeoo?e
iin?aieo ieiu, ciaioaiiy caian?a aoiono o aa?oiueiio oa?? a?oioo a
na?aaeiueiio 1 o/aa ca ??e, o?iaeaei?noue iniiaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a ??cieo eaoaai??yo ainiiaea?noa
cieaeo?oueny. Iaea?eueoa ciaioeeanue o?iaeaei?noue a ainiiaea?noaao
i?eaaoiiai naeoi?a. A na?aaeiueiio o?iaeaei?noue iniiaieo
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? o an?o eaoaai??yo ainiiaea?noa
ciaioeeanue iaeaea aaea?/?, ? a oe?eiio ?o aeeiai?ea ia? iacaaeia?eueiee
oa?aeoa?.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ei?aeyoe?eiiai aiae?co iaeaeua oaeoe/ia o?iaeaei?noue
ca?iiaeo n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo eoeueoo? a ainiiaea?noaao
noni?eueiiai naeoi?a Ia?aaeea?iaooy niinoa??aa?oueny a
caieaei?enooaaiiyo (caieaaieiae?iiyo) ieiuath a?ae 900 aei 1100aa, a a
naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noaao — ieiuath 3-5aa. Ca?aeii c
?ic?aooieaie, i?iaaaeaieie ia iniia? ?ic?iaeaii? iaie iaoiaeeee
iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ici???a caieaei?enooaaiue (caieaaieiae?iue) naeyinueeeo
(oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa, ?aoe?iiaeuei? ieiu? ?o ca oaeoe/ieie
iieacieeaie aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a ??cieo ae?iaie/eo oeiao noaiiaeyoue
12-34 aa, a a ia?niaeoea? iioeiaeuei? ?ici??e naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo)
ainiiaea?noa iiaeooue c?inoaoe aei 32 — 50 aa.

I?iiiceoe??

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iiiio?ii:

C iaoith ?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo caiaeue i?ae aeanieeaie caie? oa
caieaei?enooaa/aie, noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey oi?ioaaiiy
aaaaoioeeaaeieo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy oa caa?aaeaiiy oe?e?niino?
ae?iaie/eo eiiieaen?a ? i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e oa?eoi??? oi?ioaaoe iia?
caieaaieiae?iiy oa caieaei?enooaaiiy n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
i?aei?e?inoa oeyoii ?ic?iaee ia oa?eoi??? i?noeaaeo ?aae ia?niaeoeaieo
noai, a yeeo an? caieaei?enooaaiiy oa caieaaieiae?iiy ?icaeyaeathoueny
ia ye ie?ai? aeaiaioe, a ye oe?e?nia nenoaia.

Oi?ioaaiiy iiaeo caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?-nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa cae?enithaaoe ca i?eioeeiii
«a?ae ia`?eoa aei noa`?eoa caieaei?enooaaiiy», i?e oeueiio i?e?iaei?
aeanoeaino? oa ??aaiue i?eaeaoiino? caiaeue aeey
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai aeei?enoaiiy iiaeii? aooe i??i?eoaoieie. I?e
oi?ioaaii? caieaei?enooaaiue (caieaaieiae?iue) naeyinueeeo
(oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa i?iaiaeeoe ?ic?aooiie ?o ?ici???a ca
cai?iiiiiaaiith iaoiaeeeith.

C iaoith a?eueo i?iaeoeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ??ee? a
n?euenueeiain-iiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoaao i?iaeooaaoe iaaaeee? ca
ieiuath, c ei?ioeith ?ioaoe??th, aeeiai?/i? n?aici?ie. Aeey oeueiai ia
oa?eoi??? ainiiaea?noaa aeae?eyoe caiaeuei? ae?eyiee c iaeiaeiaeie
i?e?iaeieie oiiaaie – aeaiaioa?i? eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/i? oa?eoi??aeuei?
iaeeieoe? (AEAOI). Aa?o?noue aaeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? i?e oeueiio, ca ?aooiie
e?auiai ?ici?uaiiy iin?a?a eoeueoo? ia caiaeueieo ae?eyieao,
ca?eueoo?oueny ia 89 a?i./aa.

Ca?aeii c ?ic?aooieaie, aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue aeua o
ainiiaea?noaao c a?eueo aocueeith niaoe?ae?caoe??th, oiaoi, eiee iniiaio
ieoiio aaao a no?oeoo?? iin?aieo ieiu noaiiaeyoue aeniei?aioaaaeuei?
eoeueoo?e. O ca`yceo c oeei ciaiooaaoe o ae?iaie/eo i?ia?aiao
ainiiaea?noa ieiu? iecueei?aioaaaeueieo eoeueoo? iaiao?aeii aei
i?i?ioio, aeio?eioth/enue i?e oeueiio aaeaino ae?iaieoeoaa oa
niiaeeaaiiy ei?i?a, /a?aoaaiiy eoeueoo? o n?aici?i? oa aeieia?/ieo aeiia
aei no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e caieaei?enooaaiue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa iaiao?aeii cae?enithaaoe
eiiieaenii, a iaaeao oa?eoi??? i?noeaai? ?aaee, a?aoiaoth/e i?e oeueiio
?ici?uaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo aeaiaio?a ?ioeo caieaei?enooaaiue
(caieaaieiae?iue), a oaeiae i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/i? ? nioe?aeuei? oiiae
aeaii? ciie. C iaoith caaacia/aiiy ?aae?caoe?? oaeiai i?aeoiaeo
oaeineiiaeaiiy i?inoi?iai? no?oeoo?e caieaei?enooaaiue ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe
ye neeaaeiao /anoeio i?iaeo?a i?aai?caoe?? aeei?enoaiiy oa
aii?yaeeoaaiiy caiaeue ia oa?eoi??? n?euenueeeo (naeeuieo) ?aae.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e iin?aieo ieiu oa aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai
ii?aeiaiiy aaeocae a ainiiaea?noaao i?iaiaeeoe oeyoii ?ic?iaee ?
?ica`yceo aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae caaea/, ui aeicaiey?
ciaoiaeeoe iaee?au? aa??aioe aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a oiiaao eiie?aoiiai
ainiiaea?noaa c a?aooaaiiyi ianooiieo aeiia no/aniiai caieaei?enooaaiiy:
iiceoeaiiai aaeaino aoiono a a?oio?; iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaiiai /a?aoaaiiy
eoeueoo?; aaeaino ae?iaieoeoaa oa niiaeeaaiiy ei?i?a; iioeiaeueiiai
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeueieo, o?oaeiaeo oa ?ioeo ?ano?n?a ainiiaea?noaa.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue

Etha/ee A.E. Iaa?oiooaaiiy no?oeoo?e iin?a?a n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo
eoeueoo? o oa?ia?nueeiio ainiiaea?noa? c aeiiiiiaith
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy// A?niee Euea?a. aea?ae. aa?a?iiai
oi-oo: I?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy caiaeueieo a?aeiinei a oiiaao Cao?aeiiai
?aa?iio Oe?a?ie ?1.- Euea?a, 1997.- N.182-186. — 0,28ae?oe. a?e.

Etha/ee A.E. Oi?ioaaiiy caieaei?enooaaiue ? caieaaieiae?iue
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo i?aei?e?inoa iiaeo oi?i ainiiaea?thaaiiy ia
oa?eoi??? n?euenueei? ?aaee// A?niee Euea?a. aea?ae. aa?a?iiai oi-oo:
Caieaaii?yaeeoaaiiy ? eaaeano? ?2.- Euea?a, 1998.- N.76-81. — 0,31ae?oe.
a?e.

Etha/ee A.E., *a?a/ii I.?. Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue o
oa?ia?nueeiio ainiiaea?noa?// A?niee Euea?a. aea?ae. aa?a?iiai oi-oo:
Caieaaii?yaeeoaaiiy ? eaaeano? ?2.- Euea?a, 1998.- N.99-102. —
0,25ae?oe.a?e., a o./. aaoi?a – 0,20ae?oe. a?e.

Etha/ee A.E. Oii?yaeeoaaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
caiaeue o ainiiaea?noaao Ia?aaeea?iaooy// A?niee Euea?a. aea?ae.
aa?a?iiai oi-oo: Aeiiii?ea AIE ?5.- Euea?a, 1999.- N.105-110. —
0,31ae?oe. a?e.

Aiioaoe??

Etha/ee A.E. Oii?yaeeoaaiiy ? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
caiaeue o ainiiaea?noaao Ia?aaeea?iaooy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
c? niaoe?aeueiino? 08.08.01 – Aeiiii?ea i?e?iaeiei?enooaaiiy ? ioi?iie
iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua. — Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, Euea?anueea iaeanoue, AEiae?anueeee ?aeii, i. Aeoaeyie,
1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? oaeineiiaeaii iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? iieiaeaiiy oi?ioaaiiy
caieaei?enooaaiue oa caieaaieiae?iue, iaa?oioiaaii aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue a iiaeo oi?iao ainiiaea?thaaiiy i?e
eaiaeoaooii-aeieia?/iiio i?aeoiae?; oaeineiiaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy
iioeiaeueieo ?ici???a naeyinueeeo (oa?ia?nueeeo) ainiiaea?noa;
i?iaaaeaii aeaoaeueiee aiae?c ? aeaii ioe?ieo noaio aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue
o ainiiaea?noaao Ia?aaeea?iaooy, anoaiiaeaii ei?aeyoe?eio caeaaei?noue
i?ae i?e?iaeii-aeiiii?/ieie /eiieeaie aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue oa ?ici??ii
caieaei?enooaaiue. A ?iaio? aecia/aii iaea?eueo aoaeoeai? oi?ie
ainiiaea?noa a aeai?e cii? ? anoaiiaeaii iaaeo i?iaeoeoeaiino?
aeei?enoaiiy caiaeue; oeyoii ?ic?iaee ? canoinoaaiiy
aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?, aecia/aii iioeiaeueia ii?aeiaiiy aaeocae
o ae?iaie/iio n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiio eiiia?aoea? ?i Oaa/aiea
Ieeiea?anueeiai ?aeiio Euea?anueei? iaeano?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: caiaeueia ?aoi?ia, iioei?caoe?y, iiaeaethaaiiy,
caieaaieiae?iiy, caieaei?enooaaiiy.

Etha/ee A.E. Oii?yaei/aiea e iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey
caiaeue a oicyenoaao I?aaeea?iaouey. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.08.01 – Yeiiiieea i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey e io?aiu
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. – Eueaianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao,
Eueaianeay iaeanoue, AEiaeeaneee ?aeii, a. Aeoaeyiu, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa enneaaeiaaiu i?e?iaeii-yeiiiie/aneea e
nioeeaeueiua oneiaey ?aaeiia, eco/aiu nayce iaaeaeo yeiiiie/aneeie
yaeaieyie, caeiiiia?iinoe e niaoeeoeea caiaeueiuo ioiioaiee a i?i,
i?iaaae?i aiaeec ?acoeueoaoia caiaeueiie ?aoi?iu e ?anniio?aiu iooe a?
i?iaaaeaiey a iai?aaeaiee i?aaiecaoeee ?aciuo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey,
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey e oii?yaei/aiey caiaeue a ieo.

Ioo?i oai?aoe/aneiai iniio?a nia?aiaiiuo iao/iuo aeinoeaeaiee ?ane?uoi e
oaeoaeaii iiieiaiea nooe iniiaiuo iieiaeaiee yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey
e oii?yaei/aiey caiaeue, iai?aaeaiee oniaa?oainoaiaaiey nenoaiu
caieaiieueciaaiee e caieaaeaaeaiee naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a
i?ioeanna ?aaeecaoeee caiaeueiie ?aoi?iu. A oai?aoe/aneie aeaaa
aeenna?oaoeee iainiiaaiu i?eioeeiu ?aoeeiiaeueiiai eniieueciaaiey
caiaeue a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo oicyenoaiaaiey; ?anniio?aia nenoaia
iieacaoaeae yeieiai-yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey caiaeue e
aiciiaeiinoue a? oniaa?oainoaiaaiey.

N eniieueciaaieai aeaiiuo caiaeueiuo io/?oia, io/?oia aa?ii?aaei?eyoee,
?acoeueoaoia ii/aaiiuo ianeaaeiaaiee e ae?oaie caiaeueii-eaaeano?iaie
eioi?iaoeee i?iaaae?i aiaeec i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey caieaaeaaeaiee e
caieaiieueciaaiee, ?acoeueoaou eioi?iai naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i iaaeeaiiuo
oaiiao ?aaeecaoeee caiaeueiie ?aoi?iu a aeaiiii aniaeoa. Ioeaiea o?iaiy
eniieueciaaiey caiaeue a oicyenoaao I?aaeea?iaouey iieacaea, /oi ca
iineaaeiea iyoue eao o?iaeaeiinoue iniiaiuo naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
eoeueoo? oiaiueoeeanue ii/oe aaeaia, iieacaoaee ?aioaaaeueiinoe
i?iaeoeoeee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa n eaaeaeui aiaeii oiaiueoathony ia 36,1%, a
noieiinoue aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeee – ia 7,1 oen. a?i. a ?an/?oa ia 100 aa
iaoie. I?iaaae?i ei??aeyoeeiiiue aiaeec iaaeaeo i?e?iaeii-yeiiiie/aneeie
oaeoi?aie eniieueciaaiey caiaeue, i?iaeoeoeaiinoueth e ?acia?ii
caieaiieueciaaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai ii?aaeaeaiu i?ei?eoaoiua
?acia?u caieaiieueciaaiee e?anoueyineeo (oa?ia?neeo) oicyenoa e oicyenoa
iauanoaaiiiai naeoi?a.

Ioo?i yenia?eiaioaeueiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey ia i?eia?a eiie?aoiiai
oicyenoaa ai?iae?iaaia iaoiaeeea ii?aaeaeaiey yeaiaioa?iuo
eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneeo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aaeeieoe e iainiiaaia
yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey caiaeue i?e eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneii
iiaeoiaea e ?aciauaieth io?aneae ?anoaieaaiaenoaa. ?ac?aaioaiu
iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneea iieiaeaiey e iainiiaaiu iniiaiua i?eioeeiu
oi?ie?iaaiey iiauo caieaaeaaeaiee e caieaiieueciaaiee
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ?aciuo oi?i oicyenoaiaaiey ia iniiaa
yeaiaioa?iuo eaiaeoaooii-yeieiae/aneeo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo aaeeieoe.
Oniaa?oainoaiaaii iaoiaeeeo ii?aaeaeaiey iioeiaeueiuo ?acia?ia
e?anoueyineeo (oa?ia?neeo) oicyenoa, ia iniiaa eioi?ie ?ann/eoaiu eo
ia?niaeoeaiua ieiuaaee aeey oneiaee I?aaeea?iaouey i?e ?aciuo iau?iao
cao?ao o?oaea ia au?aueaaiea naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? e
ianeoaeeaaiea aeeaioiiaiaenoaa, eioi?ua, a caaeneiinoe io iai?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie niaoeeaeecaoeee, iaoiaeyony a a?aieoeao io 12 aei 50
aa naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee.

Iainiiaaii ?aciauaiea oa??eoi?eaeueiuo yeaiaioia caieaiieueciaaiee
(caieaaeaaeaiee) e onoaiiaeaii aeeyiea eo ia yooaeoeaiinoue
eniieueciaaiey caiaeue. Iiae/??eeaaaony, /oi oniaa?oainoaiaaiea
i?ino?ainoaaiiie no?oeoo?u caieaiieueciaaiee (caieaaeaaeaiee) a iiauo
oneiaeyo oicyenoaiaaiey aeieaeii niaa?oaoueny eiiieaenii, n o/?oii anao
i?e?iaeii-yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, a
oaeaea ?aciauaiey oa??eoi?eaeueiuo yeaiaioia caieaiieueciaaiee eee
caieaaeaaeaiee ae?oaeo oicyenoa, eioi?ua aeeytho ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiue
i?ioeann a eiie?aoiii aa?ioi?ie?iaaiee. N oeaeueth iaania/aiey
?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai iiaeoiaea oniaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ino?ainoaaiiie
no?oeoo?u caieaiieueciaaiee (caieaaeaaeaiee) iaiaoiaeeii i?iaiaeeoue a
i?iaeoao i?aaiecaoeee eniieueciaaiey e oii?yaei/aiey caiaeue ia
oa??eoi?ee ianoiuo niaaoia.

Ia i?eia?a i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai eiiia?aoeaa
ei.Oaa/aiei Ieeieaaaneiai ?aeiia, Eueaianeie iaeanoe ?ac?aaioaia e
ai?iae?iaaia yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue caaea/e ii iioeiecaoeee
eniieueciaaiey caiaeue. A ?acoeueoaoa ii?aaeaeaiu iioeiaeueiia
niioiioaiea io?aneae naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
yeieiai-aaciianiay no?oeoo?a iinaaiuo ieiuaaeae, eioi?ay iiaeao
iaania/eoue yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea caiaeue, iaiaoiaeeiia iinooieaiea
ei?iia aeey ei?ieaiey aeeaioiuo, a oaeaea iieiaeeoaeueiue aaeain aoiona
a ii/aa.

Enneaaeiaaiey naeaeaoaeuenoaotho, /oi aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue
eniieueciaaiey caiaeue a oneiaeyo noaiiaeaiey iiiaioeeaaeiie yeiiiieee
aiciiaeia i?e oneiaee iioeiaeueiiai o/?oa i?e?iaeiuo e yeiiiie/aneeo
oaeoi?ia caieaiieueciaaiey, iauaaeeiyy eo aeeyiea n oeaeueth iieo/aiey
iaeneiaeueiiai yeieiai-yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa i?e?iaeiiieueciaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: caiaeueiay ?aoi?ia, iioeiecaoeey, iiaeaee?iaaiea,
caieaaeaaeaiea, caieaiieueciaaiea.

Lyubchyk V.L. The regulation and the increase of land use efficiency on
Precarpathian farms.- The manuscript.

Candidate (Ph.D.) Dissertation in specialty 08.08.01 – Economics of
Natural Resources and Environmental Protection. Lviv State Agricultural
University, Ministry of Agro-Industrial Complex in Ukraine, Lviv Region,
Zhovkva District, Dublyany, 1999.

The scientific methodological principles of the land use, landholding
and land use efficiency under new forms of farming were improved while
using landscape-ecological approach. The methods of the determination of
the optimum form size were improved; detailed analysis and the
evaluation of the land use state in Precarpathian have been done;
correlative dependence has been ascertained between both the
natural-economic land use factors and land use volume. The most
effective forms types have been determinate for investigated zone and
the limit of land use productivity has been identified in the thesis.
Optimum combination of agricultural production in a cooperative in
Mykolajiv District has been determined using developed
economic-mathematical model.

Key words: land reform, optimization, modeling, landholding, land use.

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