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Iaeanuee?e a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee ?inoeooo

OO?AeA Enai?y Aaeoa?ae?aia

OAeE 551.513: 551.515.4

Oiiae aeieeiaiiy oa i?inoi?iai-/aniaa i?ieea?noue

iiaae?a oaieiai i?a??//y ? a?ic ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie

( Oe?a?inueea I?e/i?iiii?\y ).

11.00.09 – iaoai?ieia?y, ee?iaoieia?y, aa?iiaoai?ieia?y

A a o i ? a o a ? a o aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe.

Iaeana – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iiio ?inoeooo?

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

eaiaeeaeao aaa?ao?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Eoae?yiue Ieaenaiae? Iaioae?eiae/,

Iaeanuee?e a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee
?inoeooo,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii?
iaoai?ieia??

oa iaoai?ieia?/ieo i?iaiicia

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aaa?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

I?uaiei C?ia?aea Aioii?aia,

Iaeanuee?e a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee
?inoeooo,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e aa?iiaoai?ieia??
oa

aa?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo i?iaiic?a

eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Oeoii??iaa A??a Ieaen??aia,

Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao,

cai.aeaeaia aeiiii?/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee
a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee

?inoeooo Aea?aeeiia?ae?iiaoo, i.
Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny ” 4 ” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 41.090.01

Iaeanueeiai a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ca aae?anith:

270016, i. Iaeana, aoe. Euea?anueea, 15, IAI?

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai

a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo, i. Iaeana, aoe. Euea?anueea, 15, IAI?

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 29 n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Eiaiaea I.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE.

Aeooaeuei?noue oa ??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiiino? oaiaoeee. Eiiaaeoeai?
i?ioeane a aoiinoa??, na?aae yeeo ceeaia? iiaaee ? a?ice aeeeeeathoue
iaea?eueoee ?ioa?an, ? iniiaieie iiaiaeinoai?thth/eie i?ioeanaie o oaiea
i?a??//y. Aiie aecia/athoue iaaacia/i? yaeua iiaiaee, ?aaeei
caieiaeaiiy, ee?iaoe/i? oa a?ae?ieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aa?iio.

?icaeoie eiiaaeoe?? o ae??oaeuei?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia aoiinoa?ii?
oee?eoeyoe?? ? oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai noaio aoiinoa?e, ia ye?, a naith /a?ao,
aieeaathoue o?ceei-aaia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? ?aa?iio. Iacaaaeath/e ia
i/aaeaeio aaaeeea?noue aea/aiiy ?ie? oeeo oaeoi??a o ?icaeoeo
eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu, aeaoaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o aeey i?aaeaiieo ?aeii?a
Oe?a?ie a?aenooi?. Iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaie a oe?e iaeano? aecia/a?oueny
oaeiae oei, ui e?euee?noue ? ye?noue noaiaea?oii? iaoai?ieia?/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ca inoaii? ?iee iiiaioaea ? ana a?eueoiai canoinoaaiiy
caeiaoaa? ?ioi?iaoe?y iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a Caie?.

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea ioe?iea ?ie? aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoe?? o ?icaeoeo
eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu – ceeaiaeo iiaae?a ? a?ic ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae
?ic?iaea iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei iae?eo ??cieo oa?aeoa?enoee oee?eoeyoe?? c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoa??ae?a niinoa?aaeaiue, a oiio /ene? ?ioi?iaoe??
iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a. Iaea?eueoa oaaaa i?eae?eaia oee?eoeyoe?eiei
iaoai?ciai neiiioe/iiai ianooaao, aea ?icaeyaeaeeny oaeiae ca’ycee yaeu
c iae?i- ? iacii?ioeanaie.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iinoaaeai? caaea/?:

– ?ic?iaeoe ? canoinoaaoe iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy oiia ?icaeoeo
a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? oa e?oi?o iiaae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi oa?aeoa?enoee
aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoe?? oa ?ioi?iaoe?? iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a;

– io?eiaoe i?inoi?iao no?oeoo?o a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aaei?
Oe?a?ie;

– aecia/eoe aaaaoi??/io i?ieea?noue a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? oa e?oi?o
iiaae?a ca inoaii? 130 ?ie?a;

– anoaiiaeoe ca’ycie i?ae oee?eoeyoe?eieie iaoai?ciaie neiiioe/iiai ?
iaciianooaao oa eiiaaeoeaieie yaeuaie;

– ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo eiiieaeniiai aeei?enoaiiy aeaieo neiiioe/iiai
aiae?co oa ?ioi?iaoe?? iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? i?iaiico eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iaoeiaa iiaecia
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o ne?aeoth/iio:

– ?ic?iaeaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy ?ie? oa?aeoa?enoee
aoiinoa?ii?

oee?eoeyoe?? o ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie;

– oia?oa io?eiaiee i?inoi?iai-/aniaee ?iciiae?e a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? ia
i?aaei? Oe?a?ie;

– aecia/aii caeaaei?noue ?icaeoeo ? ia?ai?uaiiy oia?ieo nenoai, ui
aecia/athoueny ii ci?ieao oia?iino?, a?ae no?oeoo?e iiey oeneo oa eiai
ci?i a na?aaei?e o?iiinoa??;

– ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo eiiieaeniiai aeei?enoaiiy neiiioe/ii? ?
noiooieeiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?iaiico
eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie. Io?eiai? a ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a iia?aoeaieo i?ae?icae?eao iaoai?ieia?/ii?
neoaeae i?e neeaaeaii? i?iaiico iiaae?a ? a?ic ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ia 24
aiaeeie oa iaioa. Iniaeea?noth cai?iiiiiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? oe?iea
canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a ? i?i?iaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy oeo ia?aiao??a noaio aoiinoa?e, ye? aecia/athoueny c
aaeeeith iia??oi?noth. Aeey aeaiiai ?aa?iio c aeoaea neaaei aena?oeaiiyi
aa?ieia?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th oea ia? ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy i?e i?iaiic?
eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu. Anoaiiaeaiiy i?e/ei a?aenooiino? iiaae?a ? a?ic, eiee
aoiinoa?i? o?iioe ia?ai?uothoueny /a?ac i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie, oaeiae
i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue i?iaiico yaeu.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?inoi?iai-/aniai? i?ieeaino? a?ic ? iiaae?a
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iiaoaeia? oai??? ee?iaoo ?aa?iio.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?? aeieeaaeaeeny ia nai?ia?? eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? iaoai?ieia??
? iaoai?ieia?/ieo i?iaiic?a Iaeanueeiai a?ae?iiaoai?ieiae/iiai ?inoeoooo
( IAI? ) o /a?ai? 1998 ?. oa ia ?icoe?aiiio iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?
iaoai?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo IAI? o aeiaoi? 1998 ?. Ie?ai? /anoeie
?iaioe aeieeaaeaeeny o A?ae?iiaooeaio?? *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a (
AIOe *AI ). ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii i?iaiico e?oi?o iiaae?a ? a?ic ia?aaeai? a
AIOe *AI.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeineoue iiaii a?aeia?aaeai? a 7 noaooyo, 6 c
yeeo aoee iioae?eiaai? o I?aea?aeii/iio iaoeiaiio ca??ieeo Oe?a?ie ”
Iaoai?ieia?y, ee?iaoieia?y ? a?ae?ieia?y”.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue
201 noi??ieo, na?aae yeeo ?ethno?aoe?? caeiathoue 45 noi??iie, oaaeeoe?
– 5 noi??iie, aeiaeaoee ( A, A, A ) – 41 noi??ieo, nienie aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (117 iaeiaioaaiue) – 9 noi??iie.

Aeaeea?aoe?y eiie?aoiiai ninaenoiai aianeo caeiaoaa/a a ?ic?iaeo
?acoeueoao?a, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

– cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy ?ie? oa?aeoa?enoee
aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoe?? o ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu ia i?aaei?
Oe?a?ie;

– ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo eiiieaeniiai aeei?enoaiiy neiiioe/ii? ?
noiooieeiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey i?iaiico eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu;

– cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo iae?/aiiy aeaieo aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy a?iciai?
ae?yeueiino? ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia??, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaeiaoo oa ia’?eoa. A ?iaio?
aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoiaeieia?y neiiioeei-noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co aeey
ioe?iee ?ie? aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoe?? o ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu. Aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo i?ae oee?eoeyoe?eieie iaoai?ciaie neiiioe/iiai ?
iaciianooaaa oa eiiaaeoeaieie yaeuaie aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeai?
neiiioe/iiai aiae?co a eiiieaen? c ?ioi?iaoe??th iaoai?ieia?/ieo
noiooiee?a.

Aeo?aeieie iaoa??aeaie aoee i?ecaii? ea?oe iiaiaee, ea?oe aa?e/ii?
oiiia?ao??, uiaeaiieee iiaiaee, aeai? ?aae?iciiaeoaaiiy aoiinoa?e oa
cieie? oia?iino? ca 1980-1989 ?.?. ( oaiea i?a??//y ).

INIIAIEE CI?NO.

O ANOOI? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?? ? noi?ioeueiaai?
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? neeaaeathoue iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aaeiao
caoenoo.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? c?iaeaii ei?ioeee iaeyae iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, a yeeo
aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoe??. O
ca’yceo c aaeeeei aieeaii eiiaaeoeaieo i?ioean?a ia oi?ioaaiiy
iaaacia/ieo yaeu iiaiaee e?euee?noue i?aoeue a oe?e iaeano? aeoaea
aaeeea. Oea a?aeia?aaeo? ia eeoa iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aei eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu,
aea e neeaaei?noue ii?ooaii? i?iaeaie. O ca’yceo c oeei a iaeyae?
e?oa?aoo?e iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eyeany iaoeiaei i?aoeyi, aeeiiaiei a
inoaii? aeanyoe??//y. ?icaeyioo? oa?iiaeeiai?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy
iacino?oeoo?ieo ooai?aiue eiiaaeoeaii? oia?iino? – a?yae, ina?aaee?a oa
eiiaaeoeaieo eiiieaen?a. Aea/aiith iaoai?ci?a aeieeiaiiy oeeo ooai?aiue,
ianaiia?aae, ni?eya ?icaeoie noiooieeiai? iaoai?ieia??. Iaaia ?ieue
iaeaaeeoue ? aeeiiaiei ca inoaii? ?iee ?ioaineaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
eiiaaeoe?? ia niaoe?aeueieo e?oaeao – eaai?aoi??yo, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
aeyaeai? oae? yaeua a aoiinoa??, ye aeeoa?aioe?aeueia aaeaaeoe?y, cnoae
a?o?o a iaeano? eiiaaeoeaieo oia? oa ?o ?ieue o ?icaeoeo inoaii?o.
A?aoiaoth/e iaiaeii??aei?noue i?aenoaeyth/i? iiaa?oi? a aeaiiio ?aa?ii?
aoee ?icaeyioo? i?aoe?, a yeeo aeine?aeaeai? ieoaiiy aieeao nenoaie
ii?a-nooa ia ?icaeoie eiiaaeoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi aeiaiaiai oiaeo niiy/ii?
?aae?aoe??. Iai?ee?ioe? ?icae?eo i?eaaaeaii iaeyae iniiaieo i?aoeue, a
yeeo ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee i?iaiicoaaiiy eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyioo? o?ceei-aaia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? i?aaeiy
Oe?a?ie, aieiaiei /eiii i?ia?ao?y ?aa?iio. Iieacaii, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia
a?aeiinii iaaaeeeo i?ieea?noue aenio i?noeaaino? ( iaio 200 i iiiaae
??aiai ii?y ), ?? aieea aeyaey?oueny o ?iciiae?e? e?oi?o iiaae?a ? a?ic.
Aeey oiai, uia oia?oa ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iiaaee oaieiai i?a??//y ? a?ice,
ye yaeua o eiie?aoiiio ?aa?ii?, a oeueiio ?icae?e? aoea ?icaeyiooa ?o
i?inoi?iai-/aniaa i?ieea?noue.

Aoee aecia/ai? iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiey a?iciai? ae?yeueiino?:
na?aaei? ii i?nyoeyo ? ?ieao /enei a?ic ii aeaiei 36 iaoai?ieia?/ieo
noaioe?e ? iino?a; na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/i? a?aeoeeaiiy ? iiey ei?aeyoe??
/enea a?ic.

Na?aaei? ca aeanyoe??//y ( 1980-1989 ?.?.) iiea a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? o
oaiea i?a??//y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny c?inoaiiyi /enea a?ic aaeea eiioeiaioo
? aeieeiaiiyi ie?aieo ina?aaee?a c iaeneiaeueiei ? i?i?iaeueiei ?o
/eneii. Iaeei c ina?aaee?a c iaeneioiii /enea a?ic ( 30-33 a?ice )
?icoaoiaaiee ia i?aii/?, a ae?oaee – ia i?aaei? Iaeanueei? iaeano?
( 26-28 a?ic ). Ina?aaeie c i?i?ioiii a?ic ciaoiaeeoueny ia
i?aaei? Oa?niinueei? iaeano? ( 19-23 a?ice ). ?iciiae?e a?ic a
iniiaiiio caa??aa?oueny i?ioyaii on?o i?nyoe?a oaieiai i?a??//y oa o
oaiea i?a??//y caaaeii ca aeanyoue ?ie?a. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i
iino?ei?noue ae?? oeo oaeoi??a, ye? oi?iothoue iiea a?iciai?
ae?yeueiino?:

a) iani?eyoeeaee ( ca ??aeeei aeiyoeii ) aieea ii?y ia eiiaaeoe?th – oea
a?eueo oieiaeia, /ei iia?o?y iiaa?oiy ii?y a aeaii? aiaeeie ? a?eciaa
oee?eoeyoe?y; a) oa?aeoa? o?aaeoi??e oia?iino? oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue (
ia?aaaaeii acaeiaae 30I no?aeii? aeiaaioe ); a) aieea i?ia?ao?? – oiaoi
a?ae??a?a Aieeii-Iiaeieuenueei? i?aeianaiino?, cie?aia, ia ooai?aiiy
ina?aaeeo i?i?ioio a?ic a aeieei? ieaeiuei? oa/?? ??ee ?iaoe.

Na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/i? a?aeoeeaiiy /enea a?ic a?ae 4 ia i?aaei? c?inoa?
aei 12 a i?ai?/i?e /anoei? oa?eoi???. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i cia/io
i?ieea?noue ia i?aii/? /enea a?ic ii i?nyoeyo ? ?ieao. Eiao?oe??ioe
ei?aeyoe?? /enea a?ic aeineoue aaeee? a cao?aei?e /anoei? ?aa?iio ( 0.70
-0.80 ), iaioathoue ia i?aaei? ( 0.60 ) ? ua a?eueoa – ia noiae? ( 0.40
). Oaea ciaioaiiy iiaea aooe iiyniaii aneio?iii?noth aoiinoa?ieo
i?ioean?a a cao?aei?e ? no?aei?e /anoeiao oa?eoi???.

Aenie? eiao?oe??ioe ei?aeyoe?? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue io?eiai? aeae? a
?iaio? aeai? i?i aaaaoi??/iee ?aaeei a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? aaaaeaoe
oa?aeoa?ieie aeey cia/ii? /anoeie ?aa?iio.

*aniaa i?ieea?noue a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ? neaai
aea/aiith, oiio aoee ?icaeyioo? aeai? niinoa?aaeaiue a Iaean? (
Iana?aaoi??y ) ca ia??iae c 1866 aei 1996 ?.?., oiaoi ca 131 ??e.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy /aniaiai oiaeo /enea a?ic aoa canoiniaaiee
niaeo?aeueiee aiae?c ? iaoiae caeaaeaeoaaiiy ?yae?a. Cia/oueie
ia??iaeaie O c a?aeiia?aeieie iei aiie?ooaeaie ( A ) aeyaeeeny: 10.27
( 1.46 ); 4.32 ( 1.77 ); 2.20 ( 1.56 ).

I?e caeaaeaeoaaii? ii 5-??//yi a ci?i? /enea a?ic aoea ae?aaeaia
oaiaeaioe?y aei 9-11-??/ii? oeeee?/iino?, a i?e aeiii?aeueiiio
caeaaeaeoaaii? – aeia?a ae?aaeaia 4-5-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue. O inoaii?
aeanyoe??//y, eiee cia/ii c?inea niiy/ia aeoeai?noue, aeyaeeany
10-11-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue /aniai? i?ieeaino? /enea a?ic. ?yae,
caeaaeaeaiee ii iaeneiaeueiiio ia??iaeo, oa?aeoa?iee ooai?aiiyi
aeae?eueeio aeno?aioi?a c ?ioa?aaeaie i?ae ieie a 20-22 ?iee; oaeiae
aoea aeyaeaia 10-11-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ?ie? iae?ioee?eoeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a a eiiaaeoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? aoa i?iaaaeaiee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c /enea a?ic c
iiaoi?thaai?noth oi?i oee?eoeyoe?? ii A.ss.Aaiaaeaaeio ? A.E.Eaoeo. Aoea
aeyaeaia aeayea oaiaeaioe?y a aaaaoi??/iiio ca’yceo /enea aei?a c
oi?iith oee?eoeyoe?? A ii Aaiaaeaaeio ? /enea a?ic, aea e?aua ae?aaeaiee
ca’ycie i?ae /aniaei oiaeii /enea aei?a c ia?eae?iiaeueiith
oee?eoeyoe??th Nm ii Eaoeo ? ci?iith /enea a?ic ii ?ieao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy /aniai? i?ieeaino? e?eueeino? iiaae?a o oaiea i?a??//y
oaeiae aoei i?iaaaeaii ii aeaiei Iaeanueei? iana?aaoi??? a ia??iae c
1866 aei 1996 ?.?. A ?acoeueoao? niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co aoee aecia/ai?
o?e cia/oueo ia??iaee O c a?aeiia?aeieie aiie?ooaeaie ( A ): 7.15
( 23.36 ); 2.69 ( 17.97 ); 2.13 ( 20.79 ).

I?e aeiii?aeueiiio caeaaeaeoaaii? ?yaeo aaaaoi??/ii? i?ieeaino?
e?eueeino? iiaae?a aeia?a aeyaeeany 7-8-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue c
iai?aia??iaeii a 4-5 ?ie?a. ?yae, caeaaeaeaiee ii iaeneiaeueiiio
ia??iaeo, ia? 5 iaeneioi?a iiaae?a c ?ioa?aaeii a 27-29 ?ie?a. Ia??iaee
cia/iiai caieiaeaiiy i?eiaaeathoue ia 70-o? ?iee aeaa’yoiaaeoeyoiai
noi??//y, ae?oaa aeanyoe??//y aeaaaeoeyoiai noi??//y, ia?oo iieiaeio
30-o oa 40-o ?ie?a ? ia 70-o? ?iee aeaaaeoeyoiai noi??//y. ?iee c 1895
aei 1907 oa c 1920 aei 1924 – aoee iaea?eueo iinooeeaeie ia i?aaei?
Oe?a?ie. Iaea?eueo /?oei aeyaey?oueny 7-8-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue, yea, ye ?
4-5-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue i?e a?icao, iiaea aooe canoiniaaia aeey oiiiaiai
caa?oaeiaaino?ieiaiai i?iaiico iiaae?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny aoiinoa?ia oee?eoeyoe?y
neiiioe/iiai ianooaao i?e ye?e aeieeathoue a?ice ? iiaaee ia i?aaei?
Oe?a?ie. Iniiaiith iaoith aoa ia oi?iaeueiee noaoenoe/iee iae?e a?aeiieo
neiiioe/ieo neooaoe?e, i?e yeeo aeieeathoue a?ice, a aeaoaeueiee aiae?c
eiaeiiai yaeua a?ice ? eiiaaeoeaieo iiaae?a ?c caeo/aiiyi an?o
iaoa??ae?a niinoa?aaeaiue – ea?o iiaiaee ? aa?e/ii? oiiia?ao??,
uiaeaiiee?a iiaiaee ? uii?ny/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue, aeaieo
?aae?iciiaeoaaiiy ca ia??iae c 1980 aei 1989 ?.?. Aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
a?aeiiino? i?i iiaaee ia i’yoe noaioe?yo i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie, ?icoaoiaaieo
a?aeiinii ??aiii??ii ii oa?eoi???, a a?ice a?aoiaoaaeeny o?eueee a
Iaean?, oae ye ca aeanyoue ?ie?a aeai? i?i a?iciao ae?yeuei?noue ia
?ioeo noaioe?yo a?aenooi?.

A ?acoeueoao? eiiieaeniiai aiae?co iaoa??ae?a niinoa?aaeaiue aoee
aeae?eai? o?noue aa??aio?a aoiinoa?ieo i?ioean?a, i?e yeeo aeieeathoue
eiiaaeoeai? yaeua: 1) oieiaeiee o?iio; 2)
oieiaeiee o?iio c oaeeyie; 3) o?iio ieethc??; 4) oaeeueiaee oeeeeii; 5)
?icaeiaiee oeeeeii; 6) aenioiee oeeeeii.

O oeeo aa??aioao a?aenooi? oae? i?ioeane, ye oaieee o?iio ?
aioo??oiueiiania? a?ice. A?ice ia oaieeo o?iioao ca ?icaeyiooee ia??iae
aoee a?aecia/ai? eeoa a aeaye?o aeiaaeeao, oiio a ie?aio a?oio ?o
aeae?eyoe iaaeioe?eueii. A a?eueo?noue aeiaaee?a a?ic ? iiaae?a i?e
?nioaaii? iaeia?aae??ioieo iie?a oeneo a?ey iiaa?oi? caie?, ye? aeieeaee
a oieiaei?e, a?aeiinii iaeii??aei?e iia?o?yi?e ian? ca o?iioii ? iiaee a
aooe aecia/ai? ye aioo??oiueiiania?, aeyaeeeny iia’ycaieie c
oeeeeii?/iith oee?eoeyoe??th a na?aaei?e ? aa?oi?e o?iiinoa??, a oaeiae
c aenioieie oeeeeiiaie, aeieeath/eie /anoi iaae i?aaeiai ?a?iie o oaiea
i?a??//y.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeaii aeaoaeueiee aiae?c eiaeiiai aa??aioo neiiioe/ieo
i?ioean?a ? noaoenoe/i? aeai? i?i iiaoi?thaai?noue i?ioean?a ? a?ic.
Iae/ano?oa a?ice aeieeathoue i?e i?ioiaeaeaii? oieiaeieo o?iio?a c
iiaoi?thaai?noth 65.5 % a?ae caaaeueiiai /enea ?acaeyiooeo i?ioean?a.
Ae?oaee ii iiaoi?thaai?no? i?ioean – aenioi? oeeeeiie (15.9 %). Iaioo
iiaoi?thaai?noue iathoue oeeeeiie (10 %), oieiaei? o?iioe c oaeeyie (4.6
%) ? o?iioe ieethc?? (4.0 %).

??ci? oaeoi?e, ye o?ce/ii caeiiii??i?, oae ? aeiaaeeia?, ? i?e/eiith
a?aenooiino? a?ic. A?aeiioaiiy /enea a?ic ia oieiaeieo o?iioao aei /enea
oieiaeieo o?iio?a a na?aaeiueiio ca aeanyoue ?ie?a noaiiaeoue 28.5 %,
aeey o?iio?a ieethc?? – 43.8 %, aeey oaeeueiaeo ? ?icaeiaieo oeeeeii?a
– 45 oa 36.8 % a?aeiia?aeii. Aeey oieiaeieo o?iio?a c oaeeyie ?
aenioieo oeeeeii?a oea a?aeiioaiiy iaea?eueo aeniea – 66.6 oa 58.1 %
a?aeiia?aeii.

Aeey a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? aeeeth/ii aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? /an
i?ioiaeaeaiiy o?iioo. O ia??iae c 24 aei 8 aiaeeie a?ice ia oieiaeieo
o?iioao, ?icoaoiaaieo a ia?aaei?e /anoei? aenioii? oeiaiaeie,
niinoa??aaeeny o?eueee o 8.9 % aeiaaee?a, a eiee o?iio ?icoaoiaoaaany a
oeeia?e /anoei? aenioii? oeiaiaeie ?iia??i?noue a?ic aeecueea aei 0.
Ine?eueee cia/ia /anoeia o?iio?a ia?ai?uo?oueny a ia??iae aeiae
iani?eyoeeaee aeey ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoe?? ? /enei oaeeo o?iio?a
ci?ith?oueny a?ae ?ieo aei ?ieo, oi aeiaiaee oaeoi? iiaea aooe oaeiae
aeaiaioii oi?ioaaiiy iiaiaeieo oiia ? ?aaeeio caieiaeaiiy.

?icaeoie oaeeueiaeo i?ioean?a ia oieiaeieo o?iioao ?noioii ci?ith?
no?oeoo?o oia?iino? oa iiaiaeieo yaeu, aea ?iciiae?e ?o iiiaae
oa?eoi???th iia’ycaiee c o?a?eoi???th oia?ii? nenoaie oaee?. Ia
a?aenoai? 150-200 ei aieea oe??? nenoaie cia/ii neaaoa?.

Ieethaeiaai? oia?i? ooai?aiiy iathoue iaaaeeeo iiaoi?thaai?noue, aea ?o
ai?eciioaeuei? ?ici??e ? i?ioyaei?noue ii aa?oeeae? aeoaea cia/i?, oiio
a?ice niinoa??aathoueny /anoi, a i?/iee /an oaeiae.

Oeeeeiie, aeia?a ae?aaeai? a?ey iiaa?oi? caie? ? ioi?ieai? ii aeni/ei?,
a?aeiinii ??aeei aieeaathoue ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie. Iniiaiith oiiaith
ooai?aiiy a?ic a oeeeeiiao ? aieiaiiano?eea no?aoeo?eaoe?y, aaeeeee
aieiaiai?no aoiinoa?e ? aeno?aei? aii?yaeeiaai? aa?oeeaeuei? ?ooe, oiae?
ye oa?i?/ia iano?ee?noue a ieaei?e o?iiinoa?? ae?aaeaia neaai aai
a?aenooiy. A?aenooi?noue oa?i?/ii? iano?eeino? ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy ? a
oeeeeiiao a?ice /anoi ia iathoue ?icaeoeo.

Aenioi? oeeeeiie ? iaei??th c oe?eaaeo ? iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aieo
oee?eoeyoe?eiee nenoai, aeieeath/eo ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ? i?eeaaeeo
oa?eoi??yo, ye? aieeaathoue ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie a na?aaeiueiio aeecueei
6 aei?a o oaiea i?a??//y, a a ie?ai? ?iee – aei 18 aei?a ( 1989 ?. ).
Aeieeath/? i?e ?cieyoe?? oieiaeii? iane, aenioi? oeeeeiie iaiaeii??aei?
ii oa?i?/i?e no?oeoo??: iaeia?aae??ioia iaeanoue oieiaeo a oeaio?aeuei?e
/anoei? oeeeeiio oa aa?ieeeiia ciia iaaaeeei? oe?eie ? i?ioyaeiino?
iaaeiei oieiaeo. Oieiaeia iia?o?y iaeii/anii ? oaeiae nooei, oiio
?ioaineaia eiiaaeoe?y ooo ia ?icaeaa?oueny, a i?ae ia?eoa??eiith
/anoeiith oeeeeiio aeieeathoue iaaaeee? oeeeeii?/i? aeoi?e, a yeeo ?
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoe??, a?ic ? cia/ieo iiaae?a. C
aenioieie oeeeeiiaie iia’ycai? ?ioaineai? i?/i? a?ice ? iaea?eueo
neeuei? ceeae – iiiaae 90 ii iiaae?a ca aeiao.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e aeaoaeueio noaoenoeeo i?i iiaoi?thaai?noue neiiioe/ieo
i?ioean?a ca 10 ?ie?a, aoea iiaeeea?noue c’ynoaaoe aieea i?ieeaino? oeeo
i?ioean?a a?aeiinii iiaoi?thaaiino? a?ic a oe? ?iee. Aieiaieie
i?ioeanaie, ui aieeaathoue ia a?iciao ae?yeuei?noue, aeyaeeeny oieiaei?
o?iioe ( aeeth/ath/e o?iioe c oaeeyie ) ? aenioi? oeeeeiie. Oe? aeaa
i?ioeane coiiaeee oaeoe/ii on? a?ice a 7 ?ieao c 10, i?e/iio iaeneioi (
22 a?ice ) a 1989 ?. aeiee aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo aenioieo oeeeeii?a ( 14 )
? i?ioiaeaeaiiy oieiaeieo o?iio?a ( 17 ), aea ae?oaee iaeneioi ( 20 a?ic
) a 1982 ?. ? ?acoeueoaoii aieeao oieiaeieo o?iio?a ( 10 ) ? oeeeeii?a (
5 ) i?e i?i?ioi? aenioieo oeeeeii?a ( 1 ). I?i?ioi a?ic ( 9 aeiaaee?a )
noi?ioaaany a ?acoeueoao? i?i?iaeueii? iiaoi?thaaiino? an?o i?ioean?a a
1983 ?.

Aeey noaoenoe/ii? ioe?iee ca’yceo i?ae iiaaeaie ? aoiinoa?iith
oee?eoeyoe??th aoa canoiniaaiee eeanoa?iee aiae?c c iiia?aaei?i
aeae?eaiiyi neiiioe/ieo neooaoe?e ? a?aaeaoe?e iiaae?a.

C iaoith iaeneiaeueii a?aooaaoe oa?aeoa? i?ioeano ? aa?e/iiai iieth aoei
aeae?eaii 8 oeiiaeo i?ioean?a, a /enei yeeo oa?eoee ?ai?oa ?icaeyioo?
oeie ? aeiaeaoeiai oieiaei? o?iioe c o?aooaaiiyi ?o ?icoaooaaiiy: a) a
ia?aaei?e /anoei? aenioii? oeiaiaeie; a) a oeeia?e /anoei? aenioii?
oeiaiaeie; o) a iaeicao?aiiio cao?aeiiio ia?aiin?. E??i oiai,
a?aoiaoaaany /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy o?iioo /a?ac i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie ( aeaiue,
i?/ ). A caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici???a aoei aeae?eaii aeaa aeaee oeeeeii?a –
oeeeeiie neiiioe/iiai ianooaao ? iacioeeeeiie.

A ?acoeueoao? eeanoa?iiai aiae?co aoee aecia/ai? 4 a?aaeaoe?? iiaae?a:
neaa? ( 0-1.5 ii ), iii??i? ( 1.6-6.4 ii ), cia/i? ( 6.5-25.9 ii ) ?
neeuei? ( 26.0-90.3 ii ).

Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ?iia??i?noue aeiaaeaiiy neaaeo iiaae?a ia oieiaeieo
o?iioao, ?icoaoiaaieo a ia?aaei?e ? oeeia?e /anoeiao aenioii? oeiaiaeie,
noaiiaeoue 0.80, a ?iia??i?noue neaaeo iiaae?a a oeeeeii?/ieo ooai?aiiyo
noaiiaeoue o?eueee 0.17. ?iia??i?noue iii??ieo iiaae?a aeey oieiaeieo
o?iio?a, ?icoaoiaaieo a ia?aaei?e ? oeeia?e /anoeiao aenioii? oeiaiaeie
( aeaiiee /an ), ? aenioieo oeeeeii?a noaiiaeoue 0.25 oa 0.27
a?aeiia?aeii. I?e ?ioeo i?ioeanao aiia eieeaa?oueny a?ae 0.02 aei 0.09.
Cia/i? iiaaee oaeoe/ii a?aenooi? ia oieiaeieo o?iioao a i?/iee /an ? i?e
cao?aeiiio ia?aiin?; aiie aeoaea ??aeei niinoa??aaeeny ia oieiaeieo
o?iioao, ?icoaoiaaieo a oeeia?e /anoei? aenioii? oeiaiaeie, ye a i?/i?,
oae ? a aeaii? aiaeeie. ?o noia?ia ?iia??i?noue noaiiaeoue 0.02. Neeuei?
iiaaee aeieeathoue aieiaiei /eiii o aenioieo oeeeeiiao ? i?e oaeeueiaeo
cao?aiiyo c ?iia??i?noth 0.46 oa 0.27 a?aeiia?aeii.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe ei?eni? i?e neeaaeaii? i?iaiico
iiaae?a, iniaeeai eiee ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie ia?ai?uothoueny oieiaei?
o?iioe.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeey ?icaeyaeo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo oia?ieo
nenoai o?iio?a oa oeeeeii?/ieo cao?aiue ? iia’ycaieo c ieie iiaiaeieo
yaeu aeei?enoiaoaaeany ?ioi?iaoe?y iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a oa ?io?
iaoa??aee niinoa?aaeaiue. Ii/aoeiaeie aeaieie aoee ci?iee oia?iino? ca
1980-1989 ?.?. ( oaiea i?a??//y ) oa, /anoeiai, 1993 ? 1995 ?.?.,
i?ecaii? ea?oe iiaiaee oa ea?oe aa?e/ii? oiiia?ao?? ( ca oie aea ia??iae
). C aeei?enoaiiyi ea?o AO-500 ca 00 A?./. oa neio?iiieo ca /anii
ci?ie?a oia?iino? aecia/aany ia?aiin oia?ieo aeaiaio?a o?iio?a,
oeeeeii?a aai ie?aieo iaciianooaaieo eiiieaen?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?o
oa?aeoa?enoee: yne?aaino?, no?oeoo?e, ?ici???a. Aecia/aeany aaiethoe?y
oia?ii? nenoaie ? ci?ie o?a?eoi???, oaeeueiaa no?oeoo?a ia?aiino a
iaeano? o?iioaeueii? ciie c ?ic?aooieii a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao aaeaaeoe??
aeoi?o.

Aoei ?icaeyiooi 112 aeiaaee?a ia?ai?uaiiy oia?iino? oieiaeieo o?iio?a:
ii cao?aei?e o?a?eoi??? – 64 aeiaaeee; ii i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e – 27
aeiaaee?a ? ii i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e – 21. C o?aooaaiiyi ci?i iiey
aaiiioaioe?aeo ? iai?yi?a ia?aiino ia i?ioyc? aeiae, aecia/aiiai ii
ea?oao ca aeaa no?iee, io?eiaii a?eueo aeaoaeueiee ca’ycie i?ae iai?yiii
ia?aiino iia?o?yii? iane ? e?euee?noth iiaae?a ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie,
anoaiiaeaiee ?ai?oa ?c canoinoaaiiyi eeanoa?iiai aiae?co.

Aaiethoe?y oia?iino? ?, ye iane?aeie, iiaaee i?e cao?aeiiio ia?aiin?
aeyaeeeny oaeeie, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o oaeeueiaeo i?ioean?a a
iaeano? o?iioaeueii? ciie. Aoei aeae?eaii i’youe ??ciiaeaeiinoae oeeo
i?ioean?a: i?e aeaio c ieo, eiee aoee a?aenooi? oaeeueia? cao?aiiy,
iiaaee aoee iacia/ieie ( 0-6 ii ). A?aei?ii?noue i?ae ieie iieyaa? a
oiio, ui a ia?o?e ??ciiaeaeiino? iai?yi ia?aiino ia i?ioyc? aeiae ia
ci?ithaaany, a a ae?oa?e – a?i iaaoaaa iaaaeeeo i?aaeaiio neeaaeiao. Aei
o?aouei? ??ciiaeaeiino? a?aeianai? aeiaaeee c eaac?iino?eiei aenioiei
a?aaiai c iaeith aiie?ooaeith a cao?aeiiio ia?aiin?, aiane?aeie /iai
oia?i?noue ?oeioaaeany ? iiaaee noaiiaeee 0-1.5 ii aai aoee a?aenooi?.
*aoaa?oa ? i’yoa ??ciiaeaeiino? oa?aeoa?i? oaeeueiaeie i?ioeanaie, i?e
yeeo cao?aiiy c a?aeiia?aeiith oia?iith nenoaiith ia?ai?uaeeny ?c
caoiaeo ia no?ae aai aenioia oeiaiaeia aeieeaea iaae i?aaeiai Oe?a?ie. O
iaio aeiaaeeao iiaaee neeaaeaee a?ae 6 aei 25 ii, ?iiae? aoee
a?eueoeie, a a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao aii/? aoee iaioeie.

Aeey ioe?iee ?iciiae?eo o?a?eoi??e oia?ieo aeaiaio?a an?o i’yoe
??ciiaeaeiinoae cao?aeiiai ia?aiino aecia/aeeny oe?ioe, ia yeeo
o?a?eoi??? ia?aoeiaeeny c ia?eae?aiii 30I n.ae. a ?ioa?aae? 44I30/ –
48I i.o. Ioe?iea ?iciiae?eo i?iaiaeeeany ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo
noaoenoe/ieo aei?iaoaaiue ( Iiioa-Ea?ei ). Aoei aecia/aii /enei
aeiaaee?a i?ioiaeaeaiiy 64 o?a?eoi??e /a?ac ia?eae?ai 30I a.ae.
?iia??i?noue oiai, ui o?a?eoi??? ciaoiaeyoueny o aeae?eaiiio ?ioa?aae?,
noaiiaeoue 0.95 i?e aeineoue iae?e aeenia?n?? ( 0.08 ). Oeae ?acoeueoao
na?ae/eoue, ui i?e iacao?ai?i aai c oaeeyie iaaaeeei? aiie?ooaee
cao?aeiiio ia?aiin? a ii/aoeiao aeiao aaniethoia a?eueo?noue o?a?eoi??e
oia?ieo nenoai i?ioiaeeoue a oaeiio ?ioa?aae? oe?io, ui oe? nenoaie
aieeaathoue ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie. Iniaeeaei ieoaiiyi ? aaiethoe?y
oia?ieo nenoai.

I?aaeaiii-cao?aeiee ia?aiin oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?icaeoeii oeiaiaeie a
o?iiinoa?? iaae i?aaeiai ?a?iie ? Na?aaecaiiei ii?ai. Iiaeeea? o?e
aa??aioe ci?i ia?aiina ca aeiao, ye? iae/ano?oa niinoa??aathoueny: 1)
iacia/i? ci?ie a iieiaeaii? oeiaiaeie ? iai?yi? ia?aiino oia?ii?
nenoaie; 2) iiaeeaeaiiy oeiaiaeie c iaaaeeeith ci?iith a iai?yi?
ia?aiino; 3) ia?ai?uaiiy oeiaiaeie ia no?ae ?c ci?iith a iai?yi?
ia?aiino oia?ii? nenoaie. I?e ia?oiio aa??aio? i?iaiic o?a?eoi???
oia?ii? nenoaie o?iioo aai oeeeeiio ia i?aaenoaaey? aaeeeeo o?oaeiiu?a.
Cie?aia, iiaeia aecia/eoe ?iia??i?noue i?ioiaeaeaiiy iniiaiiai ianeao
oia?iino? c i?aaeiy ia i?ai?/ acaeiaae o?iioaeueii? ciie ia cao?ae a?ae
i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie ?, oaeei /eiii, iiaeaeueoa i?ioiaeaeaiiy o?iioo /a?ac
?aa?ii aac iiaae?a. ?icaeoie oeueiai i?ioeano iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe
o?eueee c aeiiiiiaith ?ioi?iaoe?? iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a. I?iaiic
ia?aaoaeiae iiey oeneo i?e ae?oaiio ? o?aoueiio aa??aio? cia/ii
neeaaei?oee ? a?aeiineoueny aei iaeano? /enaeueieo iaoiae?a i?iaiico,
aoaeo/e iaeiaioa ?ic?iaeaiei a ?aa?iiaeueiiio a?aeiioaii?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo oia?ieo nenoai c o?aooaaiiyi oaeoe/ieo iie?a
oeneo iieacaei, ui oia?i?noue o?iio?a oa oeeeeii?a aeoaea aeoeaii ?aaao?
ia ci?io iiey oeneo ca /anii ? acaeiaae o?a?eoi???: aiia ca ei?ioeee
no?ie aeieea? i?e oi?ioaaii? oeeeeii?/iiai iiey ?, iaaiaee, ?oeio?oueny
i?e ia?ai?uaii? a iaeanoue c aioeoeeeeiiaeueiei oa?aeoa?ii iiey oeneo. O
?iaio? i?eaaaeai? i?eeeaaee oaeiai ?icaeoeo.

I?ai?/ii-cao?aeiee ia?aiin ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie aeieea? i?e o?iiinoa?ieo
oaeeyo aaeeei? aiie?ooaee, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iith ?ia?oe??th. O
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iai?yi ia?aiino ci?ithaaany ia i?ioyc? aeiae iaei ?
a ia?oiio aa??aio? a?aoiao?oueny o?eueee ia?aoai?aiiy oi?ie oia?ieo
ianea?a. O ii/aoeiaiio iieiaeaii? aiie iiaeooue aooe iaoii?yaeeiaaieie
oia?ieie neoi/aiiyie, aea eiee o?iio ia?ai?uo?oueny ia i?aaeaiue
iaaoaathoue iieiniao no?oeoo?o. Aei ae?oaiai aa??aioo a?aeianai?
aeiaaeee ?noioieo ci?i iiey oeneo a o?iiinoa?? ? a ia?aiin?, ui
a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo cao?aeieo aai i?ai?/ii-cao?aeieo
oeeeeii?a iaae no?aeiith /anoeiith ?a?iie.

O ie?aiiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi oia?i? nenoaie aenioieo oeeeeii?a ca
aeaieie ?ioi?iaoe?? iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a. Iniiaieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oia?iino? ? ?? iaciianooaaia no?oeoo?a, ui
neeaaea?oueny c eiiieaen?a eiiaaeoeaieo oia? ae?aiao?ii a?ae aeae?eueeio
aeanyoe?a aei 200-300 ei. Aeo?iaa no?oeoo?a oia?, iacaaaeath/e ia
caieiaio oeeeeii?/io oee?eoeyoe?th, a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ae?aaeaia
neaai. A?aae??ioe aaiiioaioe?aeo o aenioieo oeeeeiiao iaaaeeee ?
oaeaee?noue ia?ai?uaiiy iaciianooaaieo eiiaaeoeaieo eiiieaen?a
noaiiaeoue 10-30 ei/aiaeeio. Oiio i?e iia?eueiiio ia?ai?uaii? aaeeeiai
ii ?ici??ao eiiieaeno eieaeuei? iiaaee aoaathoue cia/ieie ( 20-30 ii ).
I?e ni?eyoeeaeo oiiaao i?ae aa?ieeeiiith ciiith ia ia?eoa??? aenioiiai
oeeeeiio aeieeathoue iaaaeee? oeeeeiie, a yeeo oi?io?oueny cia/ia ii
?ici??ao oia?ia nenoaia. Ia?ai?uath/enue a nenoai? aenioiiai oeeeeiio,
oaea oia?i?noue iaoiiaeth? ?ioaineai? iiaaee. Aeey i?iaiico yaeu a
iaeano? aenioieo oeeeeii?a ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy ia? ?ioi?iaoe?y
iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a ? ?aae?ieieaoi??a.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny oiiae aeieeiaiiy neeueieo iiaae?a ia
i?aaei? Oe?a?ie. sse neeuei? a?aoiaoaaeeny iiaaee, aeiaia? noie yeeo
noaiiaeee 30 ii ? a?eueoa. Ca aeanyoue ?ie?a ia i’yoe iaoai?ieia?/ieo
noaioe?yo i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie ( Aiea?aae, Iaeana, ?icae?eueia, Aicianainuee,
Oa?nii ) aoei a?aei?/aii 32 aeiaaeee oaeeo iiaae?a. O iaeio e oo ae
aeiao neeuei? iiaaee niinoa??aaeeny o?eueee o 3 aeiaaeeao ia o?ueio
noaioe?yo iaeii/anii, aea?/? – ia aeaio noaioe?yo, a a ?ioeo 27
aeiaaeeao – o?eueee ia iaei?e noaioe??. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ??cei
ae?aaeaiee eieaeueiee oa?aeoa? neeueieo iiaae?a. Iiaaee c e?euee?noth 80
ii ? a?eueoa ca 10 ?ie?a niinoa??aaeeny aea?/? a Iaean? ? iaeei ?ac a
Oa?nii?. O 18 aeiaaeeao neeuei? iiaaee aoee coiiaeai? aenioieie
oeeeeiiaie, a 8 – ia?ai?uaiiyi oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue ia oieiaeieo o?iioao,
a aeaio aeiaaeeao – o?iioaie ieethc?? ? a iaeiiio – oieiaeiei o?iioii.
*enei aeiaaee?a neeueieo iiaae?a cia/ii c?inei a inoaii? ?iee
aeanyoe??//y ( 1987-1989 ?.?.).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia aeieeiaiiy neeueieo iiaae?a o aenioieo oeeeeiiao
iieacaei, ui iniiaiith i?e/eiith iiaae?a aoei caeo/aiiy aei nenoaie
oee?eoeyoe?? aenioiiai oeeeeiio oia?ieo nenoai, ye? ooai?eeeny i?ae
aa?ieeeiiith ia?eoa??eiith ciiith aenioiiai oeeeeiio – oeeeeii?/ieo
aeoi??a. Ia?ai?uoth/enue c iaaaeeeith oaeaee?noth, oe? iaciianooaai?
oia?i? nenoaie coiiaeththoue ?ioaineai? ? o?eaae? eieaeuei? iiaaee.
Aeno?aiaeuei? iiaaee ( 80 ii ? a?eueoa ca 12 aiaeei ? iaioa )
aeieeaee, eiee oia?i?noue oi?ioaaeany iaae *i?iei ii?ai. Neeuei? iiaaee
? a?ice a?aei?/aeeny a aa?aaia?e cii?; i?ioean noaaaa a?eueo
?ioaineaiei i?e aeiaeaoeiaiio ?icaeoeo oa?i?/ii? eiiaaeoe?? iaae nooath.

Oiiae aeieeiaiiy neeueieo iiaae?a a oaeeueiaeo cao?aiiyo ia oieiaeieo
o?iioao ? no?oeoo?a iiey oeeo iiaae?a i?aaenoaaeythoue aaeeeee ?ioa?an.
Oiio c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaieo i?i iiaaee ia 26 noaioe?yo i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie ?
ia?anoaii? n?oee eii?aeeiao aoei io?eiaia iiea ei?aeyoe?? iiaae?a a
iaeano? oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue. ?ciei?aeyoe iathoue aeaeyae ae?ini?aea,
aaeeea a?nue yeiai aeoyaiooa a iai?yi? ia?aiino – c i?aaeaiiiai caoiaeo
ia i?ai?/iee no?ae. Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa ei?aeyoe?? 0.50
niinoa??aathoueny ia a?aenoai? a?ey 150-200 ei a?ae oeaio?a ae?ini?aea,
a iio?i oaeaeei ciaiueoothoueny. Iaeanoue cia/ieo iiaae?a ia? ?ici??e
150-200 ei, ui neeaaea? a?ey 2/3 ?ici??o oia?ii? nenoaie oaeeueiaiai
cao?aiiy ? aecia/a?oueny ia ?E-ci?ieo o aeaeyae? yne?aaiai oia?iiai
ooai?aiiy. I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee i?aeoaa?aeeee a?aeiia iieiaeaiiy, ui
oaee? ia oieiaeieo o?iioao, ye ? a?eueo ?icaeiai? oeeeeii?/i? aeoi?e
aeieeathoue i?e iiceoeai?e aaeaaeoe?? aeoi?o a iaeano? o?iioaeueii?
ciie.

Iai?ee?ioe? i’yoiai ?icae?eo i?eaiaeyoueny iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaieo
?aae?iciiaeoaaiiy a Iaean? ca 1980-1989 ?.?. ( oaiea i?a??//y ) a
ia??iae ia?ai?uaiiy oieiaeieo o?iio?a ( 112 aeiaaee?a ). Cai?iiiiiaaia
iaoiaeeea iae?eo aeaieo aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? a
aeaiiio ?aa?ii?. Aeooaeuei?noue iaoiaeeee iieyaa? o oiio, ui oa?eoi??y,
c yeith ia?aiineoueny iia?o?yia iana, aeoaea neaai aai cian?i ia
ina?oeaia aa?ieiae/ieie aeaieie ? iiieeee o aecia/aii? ii/aoeiaeo aeaieo
aeey i?iaiico yaeu aeineoue cia/i?. Iniaeeai oea oi?ea?oueny
oa?aeoa?enoee aieiaino?: a?aae??ioe aieiaino? a iaeano? o?iioo aaeee? ?
?? aecia/aiiy iia’ycaii c oaeeie iia??oiinoyie, ui i?iaiic yaeua ia
iiaea aooe oni?oiei. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, cai?iiiiiaaii a?aoiaoaaoe
aieia?noue oaeei /eiii: yeui ii ?ic?aooieo ia?aaeaa/a?oueny
i?ioiaeaeaiiy /a?ac ioieo i?iaiico yne?aai? ia ?E-ci?ieo oia?iino?
o?iioo, oi aaaaeaoe a?aeiinio aieia?noue a oe?e iia?o?yi?e ian?
aeinoaoiueith ( 80-100 % ) aeey ?icaeoeo ?ioaineaii? eiiaaeoe??, yeui
no?aoeo?eaoe?y aoiinoa?e aieiaiiano?eea.

Aeey ioe?iee oa?i?/iiai noaio i?aenoaeyth/i? iiaa?oi?, ui cia/iith
i??ith aecia/a? iano?ee?noue ieaeiuei? o?iiinoa?e, i?iiiio?oueny
aeei?enoaoe iaeneiaeueio aeaiio oaiia?aoo?o ( ca 15-16 a ) ?
a?aeiia?aeio oaiia?aoo?o oi/ee ?ine a?ey iiaa?oi? caie?. Aeey
noaoenoe/ii? ioe?iee ca’yceo i?ae noaiii aoiinoa?e ? yaeuai a?ice
cai?iiiiiaaii a?aoiaoaaoe o?eueee a?aei?ii?noue oaiia?aoo? i?ae
iia?o?yiith ianith, ui i?aeiyeany aae?aaaoe/ii a?ae iiaa?oi? caie? aei
??aiy 500 aIa, ? iia?o?yii? iane ia oe?e iiaa?oi?, yea ia?ai?noeoueny
ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie.

Oaeei /eiii, yaeua a?ice noaoenoe/ii noaaeoueny a caeaaei?noue a?ae
??cieoe? oaiia?aoo? iia?o?y ? oi/ee ?ine a?ey iiaa?oi? caie? a ia??iae
iaeneiaeueiiai i?ia??aaiiy ? ??cieoe? oaiia?aoo? iia?o?yii? iane, ui
aae?aaaoe/ii i?aeiyeany aei ??aiy 500 aIa, ? iaaeieeoiueiai iia?o?y ia
iiaa?oi? 500 aIa. I?e neeaaeaii? i?iaiico oe? aaee/eie iiaeia
i?iaiicoaaoe caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie.

Ia a?ao?eo, iiaoaeiaaiiio c aeei?enoaiiyi oaeoe/ieo cia/aiue aeacaieo
ia?aiao??a, aeae?eythoueny aea? iaeano?. Ia’?eoeaia ?icae?eaiiy oeeo
iaeanoae c?iaeaia ca aeiiiiiaith aeene?eieiaioiiai aiae?co. ??aiyiiy
i?yii?

o = -4.4 + 0.7 o

?icae?ey? iaeanoue c a?icaie i?e o > 0 ( iaeanoue A ) ? iaeanoue c ?o
a?aenooi?noth i?e o

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