Iaeanuee?e a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee ?inoeooo

OO?AeA Enai?y Aaeoa?ae?aia

OAeE 551.513: 551.515.4

Oiiae aeieeiaiiy oa i?inoi?iai-/aniaa i?ieea?noue

iiaae?a oaieiai i?a??//y ? a?ic ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie

( Oe?a?inueea I?e/i?iiii?\y ).

11.00.09 — iaoai?ieia?y, ee?iaoieia?y, aa?iiaoai?ieia?y

A a o i ? a o a ? a o aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe.

Iaeana — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanueeiio a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iiio ?inoeooo?

I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee

eaiaeeaeao aaa?ao?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Eoae?yiue Ieaenaiae? Iaioae?eiae/,

Iaeanuee?e a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee
?inoeooo,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii?
iaoai?ieia??

oa iaoai?ieia?/ieo i?iaiicia

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aaa?ao?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

I?uaiei C?ia?aea Aioii?aia,

Iaeanuee?e a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee
?inoeooo,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e aa?iiaoai?ieia??
oa

aa?iiaoai?ieia?/ieo i?iaiic?a

eaiaeeaeao aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Oeoii??iaa A??a Ieaen??aia,

Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao,

cai.aeaeaia aeiiii?/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee
a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee

?inoeooo Aea?aeeiia?ae?iiaoo, i.
Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 4 » aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei?

ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 41.090.01

Iaeanueeiai a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ca aae?anith:

270016, i. Iaeana, aoe. Euea?anueea, 15, IAI?

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai

a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iiai ?inoeoooo, i. Iaeana, aoe. Euea?anueea, 15, IAI?

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 29 n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Eiaiaea I.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE.

Aeooaeuei?noue oa ??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiiino? oaiaoeee. Eiiaaeoeai?
i?ioeane a aoiinoa??, na?aae yeeo ceeaia? iiaaee ? a?ice aeeeeeathoue
iaea?eueoee ?ioa?an, ? iniiaieie iiaiaeinoai?thth/eie i?ioeanaie o oaiea
i?a??//y. Aiie aecia/athoue iaaacia/i? yaeua iiaiaee, ?aaeei
caieiaeaiiy, ee?iaoe/i? oa a?ae?ieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aa?iio.

?icaeoie eiiaaeoe?? o ae??oaeuei?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae oiia aoiinoa?ii?
oee?eoeyoe?? ? oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai noaio aoiinoa?e, ia ye?, a naith /a?ao,
aieeaathoue o?ceei-aaia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? ?aa?iio. Iacaaaeath/e ia
i/aaeaeio aaaeeea?noue aea/aiiy ?ie? oeeo oaeoi??a o ?icaeoeo
eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu, aeaoaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?o aeey i?aaeaiieo ?aeii?a
Oe?a?ie a?aenooi?. Iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaie a oe?e iaeano? aecia/a?oueny
oaeiae oei, ui e?euee?noue ? ye?noue noaiaea?oii? iaoai?ieia?/ii?
?ioi?iaoe?? ca inoaii? ?iee iiiaioaea ? ana a?eueoiai canoinoaaiiy
caeiaoaa? ?ioi?iaoe?y iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a Caie?.

Iaoa oa iniiai? caaaeaiiy iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoea ioe?iea ?ie? aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoe?? o ?icaeoeo
eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu — ceeaiaeo iiaae?a ? a?ic ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae
?ic?iaea iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei iae?eo ??cieo oa?aeoa?enoee oee?eoeyoe?? c
aeei?enoaiiyi iaoa??ae?a niinoa?aaeaiue, a oiio /ene? ?ioi?iaoe??
iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a. Iaea?eueoa oaaaa i?eae?eaia oee?eoeyoe?eiei
iaoai?ciai neiiioe/iiai ianooaao, aea ?icaeyaeaeeny oaeiae ca’ycee yaeu
c iae?i- ? iacii?ioeanaie.

A?aeiia?aeii aei iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee iinoaaeai? caaea/?:

— ?ic?iaeoe ? canoinoaaoe iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy oiia ?icaeoeo
a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? oa e?oi?o iiaae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi oa?aeoa?enoee
aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoe?? oa ?ioi?iaoe?? iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a;

— io?eiaoe i?inoi?iao no?oeoo?o a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aaei?
Oe?a?ie;

— aecia/eoe aaaaoi??/io i?ieea?noue a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? oa e?oi?o
iiaae?a ca inoaii? 130 ?ie?a;

— anoaiiaeoe ca’ycie i?ae oee?eoeyoe?eieie iaoai?ciaie neiiioe/iiai ?
iaciianooaao oa eiiaaeoeaieie yaeuaie;

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo eiiieaeniiai aeei?enoaiiy aeaieo neiiioe/iiai
aiae?co oa ?ioi?iaoe?? iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? i?iaiico eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iaoeiaa iiaecia
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o ne?aeoth/iio:

— ?ic?iaeaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy ?ie? oa?aeoa?enoee
aoiinoa?ii?

oee?eoeyoe?? o ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie;

— oia?oa io?eiaiee i?inoi?iai-/aniaee ?iciiae?e a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? ia
i?aaei? Oe?a?ie;

— aecia/aii caeaaei?noue ?icaeoeo ? ia?ai?uaiiy oia?ieo nenoai, ui
aecia/athoueny ii ci?ieao oia?iino?, a?ae no?oeoo?e iiey oeneo oa eiai
ci?i a na?aaei?e o?iiinoa??;

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo eiiieaeniiai aeei?enoaiiy neiiioe/ii? ?
noiooieeiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? i?iaiico
eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie. Io?eiai? a ?iaio? ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a iia?aoeaieo i?ae?icae?eao iaoai?ieia?/ii?
neoaeae i?e neeaaeaii? i?iaiico iiaae?a ? a?ic ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ia 24
aiaeeie oa iaioa. Iniaeea?noth cai?iiiiiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ? oe?iea
canoinoaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a ? i?i?iaeueia
aeei?enoaiiy oeo ia?aiao??a noaio aoiinoa?e, ye? aecia/athoueny c
aaeeeith iia??oi?noth. Aeey aeaiiai ?aa?iio c aeoaea neaaei aena?oeaiiyi
aa?ieia?/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th oea ia? ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy i?e i?iaiic?
eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu. Anoaiiaeaiiy i?e/ei a?aenooiino? iiaae?a ? a?ic, eiee
aoiinoa?i? o?iioe ia?ai?uothoueny /a?ac i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie, oaeiae
i?aeaeuo? aoaeoeai?noue i?iaiico yaeu.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy i?inoi?iai-/aniai? i?ieeaino? a?ic ? iiaae?a
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iiaoaeia? oai??? ee?iaoo ?aa?iio.

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?? aeieeaaeaeeny ia nai?ia?? eaoaae?e oai?aoe/ii? iaoai?ieia??
? iaoai?ieia?/ieo i?iaiic?a Iaeanueeiai a?ae?iiaoai?ieiae/iiai ?inoeoooo
( IAI? ) o /a?ai? 1998 ?. oa ia ?icoe?aiiio iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?
iaoai?ieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo IAI? o aeiaoi? 1998 ?. Ie?ai? /anoeie
?iaioe aeieeaaeaeeny o A?ae?iiaooeaio?? *i?iiai oa Acianueeiai ii??a (
AIOe *AI ). ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii i?iaiico e?oi?o iiaae?a ? a?ic ia?aaeai? a
AIOe *AI.

Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeineoue iiaii a?aeia?aaeai? a 7 noaooyo, 6 c
yeeo aoee iioae?eiaai? o I?aea?aeii/iio iaoeiaiio ca??ieeo Oe?a?ie »
Iaoai?ieia?y, ee?iaoieia?y ? a?ae?ieia?y».

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa aeiaeaoe?a. Iiaiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue
201 noi??ieo, na?aae yeeo ?ethno?aoe?? caeiathoue 45 noi??iie, oaaeeoe?
— 5 noi??iie, aeiaeaoee ( A, A, A ) — 41 noi??ieo, nienie aeei?enoaieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae (117 iaeiaioaaiue) — 9 noi??iie.

Aeaeea?aoe?y eiie?aoiiai ninaenoiai aianeo caeiaoaa/a a ?ic?iaeo
?acoeueoao?a, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee i?aeo?ae aei aecia/aiiy ?ie? oa?aeoa?enoee
aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoe?? o ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu ia i?aaei?
Oe?a?ie;

— ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo eiiieaeniiai aeei?enoaiiy neiiioe/ii? ?
noiooieeiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aeey i?iaiico eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu;

— cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo iae?/aiiy aeaieo aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy a?iciai?
ae?yeueiino? ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie.

Iaoiaeieia??, iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aaeiaoo oa ia’?eoa. A ?iaio?
aeei?enoiao?oueny iaoiaeieia?y neiiioeei-noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co aeey
ioe?iee ?ie? aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoe?? o ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu. Aeey
anoaiiaeaiiy ca’yceo i?ae oee?eoeyoe?eieie iaoai?ciaie neiiioe/iiai ?
iaciianooaaa oa eiiaaeoeaieie yaeuaie aeei?enoiaoaaeenue aeai?
neiiioe/iiai aiae?co a eiiieaen? c ?ioi?iaoe??th iaoai?ieia?/ieo
noiooiee?a.

Aeo?aeieie iaoa??aeaie aoee i?ecaii? ea?oe iiaiaee, ea?oe aa?e/ii?
oiiia?ao??, uiaeaiieee iiaiaee, aeai? ?aae?iciiaeoaaiiy aoiinoa?e oa
cieie? oia?iino? ca 1980-1989 ?.?. ( oaiea i?a??//y ).

INIIAIEE CI?NO.

O ANOOI? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?? ? noi?ioeueiaai?
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? neeaaeathoue iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aaeiao
caoenoo.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? c?iaeaii ei?ioeee iaeyae iaoeiaeo i?aoeue, a yeeo
aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoe??. O
ca’yceo c aaeeeei aieeaii eiiaaeoeaieo i?ioean?a ia oi?ioaaiiy
iaaacia/ieo yaeu iiaiaee e?euee?noue i?aoeue a oe?e iaeano? aeoaea
aaeeea. Oea a?aeia?aaeo? ia eeoa iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aei eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu,
aea e neeaaei?noue ii?ooaii? i?iaeaie. O ca’yceo c oeei a iaeyae?
e?oa?aoo?e iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?eyeany iaoeiaei i?aoeyi, aeeiiaiei a
inoaii? aeanyoe??//y. ?icaeyioo? oa?iiaeeiai?/i? oiiae oi?ioaaiiy
iacino?oeoo?ieo ooai?aiue eiiaaeoeaii? oia?iino? — a?yae, ina?aaee?a oa
eiiaaeoeaieo eiiieaen?a. Aea/aiith iaoai?ci?a aeieeiaiiy oeeo ooai?aiue,
ianaiia?aae, ni?eya ?icaeoie noiooieeiai? iaoai?ieia??. Iaaia ?ieue
iaeaaeeoue ? aeeiiaiei ca inoaii? ?iee ?ioaineaiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
eiiaaeoe?? ia niaoe?aeueieo e?oaeao — eaai?aoi??yo, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
aeyaeai? oae? yaeua a aoiinoa??, ye aeeoa?aioe?aeueia aaeaaeoe?y, cnoae
a?o?o a iaeano? eiiaaeoeaieo oia? oa ?o ?ieue o ?icaeoeo inoaii?o.
A?aoiaoth/e iaiaeii??aei?noue i?aenoaeyth/i? iiaa?oi? a aeaiiio ?aa?ii?
aoee ?icaeyioo? i?aoe?, a yeeo aeine?aeaeai? ieoaiiy aieeao nenoaie
ii?a-nooa ia ?icaeoie eiiaaeoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi aeiaiaiai oiaeo niiy/ii?
?aae?aoe??. Iai?ee?ioe? ?icae?eo i?eaaaeaii iaeyae iniiaieo i?aoeue, a
yeeo ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee i?iaiicoaaiiy eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyioo? o?ceei-aaia?ao?/i? iniaeeaino? i?aaeiy
Oe?a?ie, aieiaiei /eiii i?ia?ao?y ?aa?iio. Iieacaii, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia
a?aeiinii iaaaeeeo i?ieea?noue aenio i?noeaaino? ( iaio 200 i iiiaae
??aiai ii?y ), ?? aieea aeyaey?oueny o ?iciiae?e? e?oi?o iiaae?a ? a?ic.
Aeey oiai, uia oia?oa ioa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iiaaee oaieiai i?a??//y ? a?ice,
ye yaeua o eiie?aoiiio ?aa?ii?, a oeueiio ?icae?e? aoea ?icaeyiooa ?o
i?inoi?iai-/aniaa i?ieea?noue.

Aoee aecia/ai? iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee iiey a?iciai? ae?yeueiino?:
na?aaei? ii i?nyoeyo ? ?ieao /enei a?ic ii aeaiei 36 iaoai?ieia?/ieo
noaioe?e ? iino?a; na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/i? a?aeoeeaiiy ? iiey ei?aeyoe??
/enea a?ic.

Na?aaei? ca aeanyoe??//y ( 1980-1989 ?.?.) iiea a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? o
oaiea i?a??//y oa?aeoa?eco?oueny c?inoaiiyi /enea a?ic aaeea eiioeiaioo
? aeieeiaiiyi ie?aieo ina?aaee?a c iaeneiaeueiei ? i?i?iaeueiei ?o
/eneii. Iaeei c ina?aaee?a c iaeneioiii /enea a?ic ( 30-33 a?ice )
?icoaoiaaiee ia i?aii/?, a ae?oaee — ia i?aaei? Iaeanueei? iaeano?
( 26-28 a?ic ). Ina?aaeie c i?i?ioiii a?ic ciaoiaeeoueny ia
i?aaei? Oa?niinueei? iaeano? ( 19-23 a?ice ). ?iciiae?e a?ic a
iniiaiiio caa??aa?oueny i?ioyaii on?o i?nyoe?a oaieiai i?a??//y oa o
oaiea i?a??//y caaaeii ca aeanyoue ?ie?a. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i
iino?ei?noue ae?? oeo oaeoi??a, ye? oi?iothoue iiea a?iciai?
ae?yeueiino?:

a) iani?eyoeeaee ( ca ??aeeei aeiyoeii ) aieea ii?y ia eiiaaeoe?th — oea
a?eueo oieiaeia, /ei iia?o?y iiaa?oiy ii?y a aeaii? aiaeeie ? a?eciaa
oee?eoeyoe?y; a) oa?aeoa? o?aaeoi??e oia?iino? oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue (
ia?aaaaeii acaeiaae 30I no?aeii? aeiaaioe ); a) aieea i?ia?ao?? — oiaoi
a?ae??a?a Aieeii-Iiaeieuenueei? i?aeianaiino?, cie?aia, ia ooai?aiiy
ina?aaeeo i?i?ioio a?ic a aeieei? ieaeiuei? oa/?? ??ee ?iaoe.

Na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/i? a?aeoeeaiiy /enea a?ic a?ae 4 ia i?aaei? c?inoa?
aei 12 a i?ai?/i?e /anoei? oa?eoi???. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i cia/io
i?ieea?noue ia i?aii/? /enea a?ic ii i?nyoeyo ? ?ieao. Eiao?oe??ioe
ei?aeyoe?? /enea a?ic aeineoue aaeee? a cao?aei?e /anoei? ?aa?iio ( 0.70
-0.80 ), iaioathoue ia i?aaei? ( 0.60 ) ? ua a?eueoa — ia noiae? ( 0.40
). Oaea ciaioaiiy iiaea aooe iiyniaii aneio?iii?noth aoiinoa?ieo
i?ioean?a a cao?aei?e ? no?aei?e /anoeiao oa?eoi???.

Aenie? eiao?oe??ioe ei?aeyoe?? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue io?eiai? aeae? a
?iaio? aeai? i?i aaaaoi??/iee ?aaeei a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? aaaaeaoe
oa?aeoa?ieie aeey cia/ii? /anoeie ?aa?iio.

*aniaa i?ieea?noue a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ? neaai
aea/aiith, oiio aoee ?icaeyioo? aeai? niinoa?aaeaiue a Iaean? (
Iana?aaoi??y ) ca ia??iae c 1866 aei 1996 ?.?., oiaoi ca 131 ??e.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy /aniaiai oiaeo /enea a?ic aoa canoiniaaiee
niaeo?aeueiee aiae?c ? iaoiae caeaaeaeoaaiiy ?yae?a. Cia/oueie
ia??iaeaie O c a?aeiia?aeieie iei aiie?ooaeaie ( A ) aeyaeeeny: 10.27
( 1.46 ); 4.32 ( 1.77 ); 2.20 ( 1.56 ).

I?e caeaaeaeoaaii? ii 5-??//yi a ci?i? /enea a?ic aoea ae?aaeaia
oaiaeaioe?y aei 9-11-??/ii? oeeee?/iino?, a i?e aeiii?aeueiiio
caeaaeaeoaaii? — aeia?a ae?aaeaia 4-5-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue. O inoaii?
aeanyoe??//y, eiee cia/ii c?inea niiy/ia aeoeai?noue, aeyaeeany
10-11-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue /aniai? i?ieeaino? /enea a?ic. ?yae,
caeaaeaeaiee ii iaeneiaeueiiio ia??iaeo, oa?aeoa?iee ooai?aiiyi
aeae?eueeio aeno?aioi?a c ?ioa?aaeaie i?ae ieie a 20-22 ?iee; oaeiae
aoea aeyaeaia 10-11-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue.

Aeey aecia/aiiy ?ie? iae?ioee?eoeyoe?eieo i?ioean?a a eiiaaeoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? aoa i?iaaaeaiee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c /enea a?ic c
iiaoi?thaai?noth oi?i oee?eoeyoe?? ii A.ss.Aaiaaeaaeio ? A.E.Eaoeo. Aoea
aeyaeaia aeayea oaiaeaioe?y a aaaaoi??/iiio ca’yceo /enea aei?a c
oi?iith oee?eoeyoe?? A ii Aaiaaeaaeio ? /enea a?ic, aea e?aua ae?aaeaiee
ca’ycie i?ae /aniaei oiaeii /enea aei?a c ia?eae?iiaeueiith
oee?eoeyoe??th Nm ii Eaoeo ? ci?iith /enea a?ic ii ?ieao.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy /aniai? i?ieeaino? e?eueeino? iiaae?a o oaiea i?a??//y
oaeiae aoei i?iaaaeaii ii aeaiei Iaeanueei? iana?aaoi??? a ia??iae c
1866 aei 1996 ?.?. A ?acoeueoao? niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co aoee aecia/ai?
o?e cia/oueo ia??iaee O c a?aeiia?aeieie aiie?ooaeaie ( A ): 7.15
( 23.36 ); 2.69 ( 17.97 ); 2.13 ( 20.79 ).

I?e aeiii?aeueiiio caeaaeaeoaaii? ?yaeo aaaaoi??/ii? i?ieeaino?
e?eueeino? iiaae?a aeia?a aeyaeeany 7-8-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue c
iai?aia??iaeii a 4-5 ?ie?a. ?yae, caeaaeaeaiee ii iaeneiaeueiiio
ia??iaeo, ia? 5 iaeneioi?a iiaae?a c ?ioa?aaeii a 27-29 ?ie?a. Ia??iaee
cia/iiai caieiaeaiiy i?eiaaeathoue ia 70-o? ?iee aeaa’yoiaaeoeyoiai
noi??//y, ae?oaa aeanyoe??//y aeaaaeoeyoiai noi??//y, ia?oo iieiaeio
30-o oa 40-o ?ie?a ? ia 70-o? ?iee aeaaaeoeyoiai noi??//y. ?iee c 1895
aei 1907 oa c 1920 aei 1924 — aoee iaea?eueo iinooeeaeie ia i?aaei?
Oe?a?ie. Iaea?eueo /?oei aeyaey?oueny 7-8-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue, yea, ye ?
4-5-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue i?e a?icao, iiaea aooe canoiniaaia aeey oiiiaiai
caa?oaeiaaino?ieiaiai i?iaiico iiaae?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny aoiinoa?ia oee?eoeyoe?y
neiiioe/iiai ianooaao i?e ye?e aeieeathoue a?ice ? iiaaee ia i?aaei?
Oe?a?ie. Iniiaiith iaoith aoa ia oi?iaeueiee noaoenoe/iee iae?e a?aeiieo
neiiioe/ieo neooaoe?e, i?e yeeo aeieeathoue a?ice, a aeaoaeueiee aiae?c
eiaeiiai yaeua a?ice ? eiiaaeoeaieo iiaae?a ?c caeo/aiiyi an?o
iaoa??ae?a niinoa?aaeaiue — ea?o iiaiaee ? aa?e/ii? oiiia?ao??,
uiaeaiiee?a iiaiaee ? uii?ny/ieo niinoa?aaeaiue, aeaieo
?aae?iciiaeoaaiiy ca ia??iae c 1980 aei 1989 ?.?. Aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
a?aeiiino? i?i iiaaee ia i’yoe noaioe?yo i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie, ?icoaoiaaieo
a?aeiinii ??aiii??ii ii oa?eoi???, a a?ice a?aoiaoaaeeny o?eueee a
Iaean?, oae ye ca aeanyoue ?ie?a aeai? i?i a?iciao ae?yeuei?noue ia
?ioeo noaioe?yo a?aenooi?.

A ?acoeueoao? eiiieaeniiai aiae?co iaoa??ae?a niinoa?aaeaiue aoee
aeae?eai? o?noue aa??aio?a aoiinoa?ieo i?ioean?a, i?e yeeo aeieeathoue
eiiaaeoeai? yaeua: 1) oieiaeiee o?iio; 2)
oieiaeiee o?iio c oaeeyie; 3) o?iio ieethc??; 4) oaeeueiaee oeeeeii; 5)
?icaeiaiee oeeeeii; 6) aenioiee oeeeeii.

O oeeo aa??aioao a?aenooi? oae? i?ioeane, ye oaieee o?iio ?
aioo??oiueiiania? a?ice. A?ice ia oaieeo o?iioao ca ?icaeyiooee ia??iae
aoee a?aecia/ai? eeoa a aeaye?o aeiaaeeao, oiio a ie?aio a?oio ?o
aeae?eyoe iaaeioe?eueii. A a?eueo?noue aeiaaee?a a?ic ? iiaae?a i?e
?nioaaii? iaeia?aae??ioieo iie?a oeneo a?ey iiaa?oi? caie?, ye? aeieeaee
a oieiaei?e, a?aeiinii iaeii??aei?e iia?o?yi?e ian? ca o?iioii ? iiaee a
aooe aecia/ai? ye aioo??oiueiiania?, aeyaeeeny iia’ycaieie c
oeeeeii?/iith oee?eoeyoe??th a na?aaei?e ? aa?oi?e o?iiinoa??, a oaeiae
c aenioieie oeeeeiiaie, aeieeath/eie /anoi iaae i?aaeiai ?a?iie o oaiea
i?a??//y.

A aeena?oaoe?? aeaii aeaoaeueiee aiae?c eiaeiiai aa??aioo neiiioe/ieo
i?ioean?a ? noaoenoe/i? aeai? i?i iiaoi?thaai?noue i?ioean?a ? a?ic.
Iae/ano?oa a?ice aeieeathoue i?e i?ioiaeaeaii? oieiaeieo o?iio?a c
iiaoi?thaai?noth 65.5 % a?ae caaaeueiiai /enea ?acaeyiooeo i?ioean?a.
Ae?oaee ii iiaoi?thaai?no? i?ioean — aenioi? oeeeeiie (15.9 %). Iaioo
iiaoi?thaai?noue iathoue oeeeeiie (10 %), oieiaei? o?iioe c oaeeyie (4.6
%) ? o?iioe ieethc?? (4.0 %).

??ci? oaeoi?e, ye o?ce/ii caeiiii??i?, oae ? aeiaaeeia?, ? i?e/eiith
a?aenooiino? a?ic. A?aeiioaiiy /enea a?ic ia oieiaeieo o?iioao aei /enea
oieiaeieo o?iio?a a na?aaeiueiio ca aeanyoue ?ie?a noaiiaeoue 28.5 %,
aeey o?iio?a ieethc?? — 43.8 %, aeey oaeeueiaeo ? ?icaeiaieo oeeeeii?a
— 45 oa 36.8 % a?aeiia?aeii. Aeey oieiaeieo o?iio?a c oaeeyie ?
aenioieo oeeeeii?a oea a?aeiioaiiy iaea?eueo aeniea — 66.6 oa 58.1 %
a?aeiia?aeii.

Aeey a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? aeeeth/ii aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia? /an
i?ioiaeaeaiiy o?iioo. O ia??iae c 24 aei 8 aiaeeie a?ice ia oieiaeieo
o?iioao, ?icoaoiaaieo a ia?aaei?e /anoei? aenioii? oeiaiaeie,
niinoa??aaeeny o?eueee o 8.9 % aeiaaee?a, a eiee o?iio ?icoaoiaoaaany a
oeeia?e /anoei? aenioii? oeiaiaeie ?iia??i?noue a?ic aeecueea aei 0.
Ine?eueee cia/ia /anoeia o?iio?a ia?ai?uo?oueny a ia??iae aeiae
iani?eyoeeaee aeey ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoe?? ? /enei oaeeo o?iio?a
ci?ith?oueny a?ae ?ieo aei ?ieo, oi aeiaiaee oaeoi? iiaea aooe oaeiae
aeaiaioii oi?ioaaiiy iiaiaeieo oiia ? ?aaeeio caieiaeaiiy.

?icaeoie oaeeueiaeo i?ioean?a ia oieiaeieo o?iioao ?noioii ci?ith?
no?oeoo?o oia?iino? oa iiaiaeieo yaeu, aea ?iciiae?e ?o iiiaae
oa?eoi???th iia’ycaiee c o?a?eoi???th oia?ii? nenoaie oaee?. Ia
a?aenoai? 150-200 ei aieea oe??? nenoaie cia/ii neaaoa?.

Ieethaeiaai? oia?i? ooai?aiiy iathoue iaaaeeeo iiaoi?thaai?noue, aea ?o
ai?eciioaeuei? ?ici??e ? i?ioyaei?noue ii aa?oeeae? aeoaea cia/i?, oiio
a?ice niinoa??aathoueny /anoi, a i?/iee /an oaeiae.

Oeeeeiie, aeia?a ae?aaeai? a?ey iiaa?oi? caie? ? ioi?ieai? ii aeni/ei?,
a?aeiinii ??aeei aieeaathoue ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie. Iniiaiith oiiaith
ooai?aiiy a?ic a oeeeeiiao ? aieiaiiano?eea no?aoeo?eaoe?y, aaeeeee
aieiaiai?no aoiinoa?e ? aeno?aei? aii?yaeeiaai? aa?oeeaeuei? ?ooe, oiae?
ye oa?i?/ia iano?ee?noue a ieaei?e o?iiinoa?? ae?aaeaia neaai aai
a?aenooiy. A?aenooi?noue oa?i?/ii? iano?eeino? ia? aaeeea cia/aiiy ? a
oeeeeiiao a?ice /anoi ia iathoue ?icaeoeo.

Aenioi? oeeeeiie ? iaei??th c oe?eaaeo ? iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aieo
oee?eoeyoe?eiee nenoai, aeieeath/eo ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ? i?eeaaeeo
oa?eoi??yo, ye? aieeaathoue ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie a na?aaeiueiio aeecueei
6 aei?a o oaiea i?a??//y, a a ie?ai? ?iee — aei 18 aei?a ( 1989 ?. ).
Aeieeath/? i?e ?cieyoe?? oieiaeii? iane, aenioi? oeeeeiie iaiaeii??aei?
ii oa?i?/i?e no?oeoo??: iaeia?aae??ioia iaeanoue oieiaeo a oeaio?aeuei?e
/anoei? oeeeeiio oa aa?ieeeiia ciia iaaaeeei? oe?eie ? i?ioyaeiino?
iaaeiei oieiaeo. Oieiaeia iia?o?y iaeii/anii ? oaeiae nooei, oiio
?ioaineaia eiiaaeoe?y ooo ia ?icaeaa?oueny, a i?ae ia?eoa??eiith
/anoeiith oeeeeiio aeieeathoue iaaaeee? oeeeeii?/i? aeoi?e, a yeeo ?
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoe??, a?ic ? cia/ieo iiaae?a. C
aenioieie oeeeeiiaie iia’ycai? ?ioaineai? i?/i? a?ice ? iaea?eueo
neeuei? ceeae — iiiaae 90 ii iiaae?a ca aeiao.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e aeaoaeueio noaoenoeeo i?i iiaoi?thaai?noue neiiioe/ieo
i?ioean?a ca 10 ?ie?a, aoea iiaeeea?noue c’ynoaaoe aieea i?ieeaino? oeeo
i?ioean?a a?aeiinii iiaoi?thaaiino? a?ic a oe? ?iee. Aieiaieie
i?ioeanaie, ui aieeaathoue ia a?iciao ae?yeuei?noue, aeyaeeeny oieiaei?
o?iioe ( aeeth/ath/e o?iioe c oaeeyie ) ? aenioi? oeeeeiie. Oe? aeaa
i?ioeane coiiaeee oaeoe/ii on? a?ice a 7 ?ieao c 10, i?e/iio iaeneioi (
22 a?ice ) a 1989 ?. aeiee aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo aenioieo oeeeeii?a ( 14 )
? i?ioiaeaeaiiy oieiaeieo o?iio?a ( 17 ), aea ae?oaee iaeneioi ( 20 a?ic
) a 1982 ?. ? ?acoeueoaoii aieeao oieiaeieo o?iio?a ( 10 ) ? oeeeeii?a (
5 ) i?e i?i?ioi? aenioieo oeeeeii?a ( 1 ). I?i?ioi a?ic ( 9 aeiaaee?a )
noi?ioaaany a ?acoeueoao? i?i?iaeueii? iiaoi?thaaiino? an?o i?ioean?a a
1983 ?.

Aeey noaoenoe/ii? ioe?iee ca’yceo i?ae iiaaeaie ? aoiinoa?iith
oee?eoeyoe??th aoa canoiniaaiee eeanoa?iee aiae?c c iiia?aaei?i
aeae?eaiiyi neiiioe/ieo neooaoe?e ? a?aaeaoe?e iiaae?a.

C iaoith iaeneiaeueii a?aooaaoe oa?aeoa? i?ioeano ? aa?e/iiai iieth aoei
aeae?eaii 8 oeiiaeo i?ioean?a, a /enei yeeo oa?eoee ?ai?oa ?icaeyioo?
oeie ? aeiaeaoeiai oieiaei? o?iioe c o?aooaaiiyi ?o ?icoaooaaiiy: a) a
ia?aaei?e /anoei? aenioii? oeiaiaeie; a) a oeeia?e /anoei? aenioii?
oeiaiaeie; o) a iaeicao?aiiio cao?aeiiio ia?aiin?. E??i oiai,
a?aoiaoaaany /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy o?iioo /a?ac i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie ( aeaiue,
i?/ ). A caeaaeiino? a?ae ?ici???a aoei aeae?eaii aeaa aeaee oeeeeii?a —
oeeeeiie neiiioe/iiai ianooaao ? iacioeeeeiie.

A ?acoeueoao? eeanoa?iiai aiae?co aoee aecia/ai? 4 a?aaeaoe?? iiaae?a:
neaa? ( 0-1.5 ii ), iii??i? ( 1.6-6.4 ii ), cia/i? ( 6.5-25.9 ii ) ?
neeuei? ( 26.0-90.3 ii ).

Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui ?iia??i?noue aeiaaeaiiy neaaeo iiaae?a ia oieiaeieo
o?iioao, ?icoaoiaaieo a ia?aaei?e ? oeeia?e /anoeiao aenioii? oeiaiaeie,
noaiiaeoue 0.80, a ?iia??i?noue neaaeo iiaae?a a oeeeeii?/ieo ooai?aiiyo
noaiiaeoue o?eueee 0.17. ?iia??i?noue iii??ieo iiaae?a aeey oieiaeieo
o?iio?a, ?icoaoiaaieo a ia?aaei?e ? oeeia?e /anoeiao aenioii? oeiaiaeie
( aeaiiee /an ), ? aenioieo oeeeeii?a noaiiaeoue 0.25 oa 0.27
a?aeiia?aeii. I?e ?ioeo i?ioeanao aiia eieeaa?oueny a?ae 0.02 aei 0.09.
Cia/i? iiaaee oaeoe/ii a?aenooi? ia oieiaeieo o?iioao a i?/iee /an ? i?e
cao?aeiiio ia?aiin?; aiie aeoaea ??aeei niinoa??aaeeny ia oieiaeieo
o?iioao, ?icoaoiaaieo a oeeia?e /anoei? aenioii? oeiaiaeie, ye a i?/i?,
oae ? a aeaii? aiaeeie. ?o noia?ia ?iia??i?noue noaiiaeoue 0.02. Neeuei?
iiaaee aeieeathoue aieiaiei /eiii o aenioieo oeeeeiiao ? i?e oaeeueiaeo
cao?aiiyo c ?iia??i?noth 0.46 oa 0.27 a?aeiia?aeii.

Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe ei?eni? i?e neeaaeaii? i?iaiico
iiaae?a, iniaeeai eiee ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie ia?ai?uothoueny oieiaei?
o?iioe.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeey ?icaeyaeo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo oia?ieo
nenoai o?iio?a oa oeeeeii?/ieo cao?aiue ? iia’ycaieo c ieie iiaiaeieo
yaeu aeei?enoiaoaaeany ?ioi?iaoe?y iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a oa ?io?
iaoa??aee niinoa?aaeaiue. Ii/aoeiaeie aeaieie aoee ci?iee oia?iino? ca
1980-1989 ?.?. ( oaiea i?a??//y ) oa, /anoeiai, 1993 ? 1995 ?.?.,
i?ecaii? ea?oe iiaiaee oa ea?oe aa?e/ii? oiiia?ao?? ( ca oie aea ia??iae
). C aeei?enoaiiyi ea?o AO-500 ca 00 A?./. oa neio?iiieo ca /anii
ci?ie?a oia?iino? aecia/aany ia?aiin oia?ieo aeaiaio?a o?iio?a,
oeeeeii?a aai ie?aieo iaciianooaaieo eiiieaen?a c o?aooaaiiyi ?o
oa?aeoa?enoee: yne?aaino?, no?oeoo?e, ?ici???a. Aecia/aeany aaiethoe?y
oia?ii? nenoaie ? ci?ie o?a?eoi???, oaeeueiaa no?oeoo?a ia?aiino a
iaeano? o?iioaeueii? ciie c ?ic?aooieii a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao aaeaaeoe??
aeoi?o.

Aoei ?icaeyiooi 112 aeiaaee?a ia?ai?uaiiy oia?iino? oieiaeieo o?iio?a:
ii cao?aei?e o?a?eoi??? — 64 aeiaaeee; ii i?aaeaiii-cao?aei?e — 27
aeiaaee?a ? ii i?ai?/ii-cao?aei?e — 21. C o?aooaaiiyi ci?i iiey
aaiiioaioe?aeo ? iai?yi?a ia?aiino ia i?ioyc? aeiae, aecia/aiiai ii
ea?oao ca aeaa no?iee, io?eiaii a?eueo aeaoaeueiee ca’ycie i?ae iai?yiii
ia?aiino iia?o?yii? iane ? e?euee?noth iiaae?a ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie,
anoaiiaeaiee ?ai?oa ?c canoinoaaiiyi eeanoa?iiai aiae?co.

Aaiethoe?y oia?iino? ?, ye iane?aeie, iiaaee i?e cao?aeiiio ia?aiin?
aeyaeeeny oaeeie, ui caeaaeaoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o oaeeueiaeo i?ioean?a a
iaeano? o?iioaeueii? ciie. Aoei aeae?eaii i’youe ??ciiaeaeiinoae oeeo
i?ioean?a: i?e aeaio c ieo, eiee aoee a?aenooi? oaeeueia? cao?aiiy,
iiaaee aoee iacia/ieie ( 0-6 ii ). A?aei?ii?noue i?ae ieie iieyaa? a
oiio, ui a ia?o?e ??ciiaeaeiino? iai?yi ia?aiino ia i?ioyc? aeiae ia
ci?ithaaany, a a ae?oa?e — a?i iaaoaaa iaaaeeeo i?aaeaiio neeaaeiao. Aei
o?aouei? ??ciiaeaeiino? a?aeianai? aeiaaeee c eaac?iino?eiei aenioiei
a?aaiai c iaeith aiie?ooaeith a cao?aeiiio ia?aiin?, aiane?aeie /iai
oia?i?noue ?oeioaaeany ? iiaaee noaiiaeee 0-1.5 ii aai aoee a?aenooi?.
*aoaa?oa ? i’yoa ??ciiaeaeiino? oa?aeoa?i? oaeeueiaeie i?ioeanaie, i?e
yeeo cao?aiiy c a?aeiia?aeiith oia?iith nenoaiith ia?ai?uaeeny ?c
caoiaeo ia no?ae aai aenioia oeiaiaeia aeieeaea iaae i?aaeiai Oe?a?ie. O
iaio aeiaaeeao iiaaee neeaaeaee a?ae 6 aei 25 ii, ?iiae? aoee
a?eueoeie, a a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao aii/? aoee iaioeie.

Aeey ioe?iee ?iciiae?eo o?a?eoi??e oia?ieo aeaiaio?a an?o i’yoe
??ciiaeaeiinoae cao?aeiiai ia?aiino aecia/aeeny oe?ioe, ia yeeo
o?a?eoi??? ia?aoeiaeeny c ia?eae?aiii 30I n.ae. a ?ioa?aae? 44I30/ —
48I i.o. Ioe?iea ?iciiae?eo i?iaiaeeeany ?c canoinoaaiiyi iaoiaeo
noaoenoe/ieo aei?iaoaaiue ( Iiioa-Ea?ei ). Aoei aecia/aii /enei
aeiaaee?a i?ioiaeaeaiiy 64 o?a?eoi??e /a?ac ia?eae?ai 30I a.ae.
?iia??i?noue oiai, ui o?a?eoi??? ciaoiaeyoueny o aeae?eaiiio ?ioa?aae?,
noaiiaeoue 0.95 i?e aeineoue iae?e aeenia?n?? ( 0.08 ). Oeae ?acoeueoao
na?ae/eoue, ui i?e iacao?ai?i aai c oaeeyie iaaaeeei? aiie?ooaee
cao?aeiiio ia?aiin? a ii/aoeiao aeiao aaniethoia a?eueo?noue o?a?eoi??e
oia?ieo nenoai i?ioiaeeoue a oaeiio ?ioa?aae? oe?io, ui oe? nenoaie
aieeaathoue ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie. Iniaeeaei ieoaiiyi ? aaiethoe?y
oia?ieo nenoai.

I?aaeaiii-cao?aeiee ia?aiin oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?icaeoeii oeiaiaeie a
o?iiinoa?? iaae i?aaeiai ?a?iie ? Na?aaecaiiei ii?ai. Iiaeeea? o?e
aa??aioe ci?i ia?aiina ca aeiao, ye? iae/ano?oa niinoa??aathoueny: 1)
iacia/i? ci?ie a iieiaeaii? oeiaiaeie ? iai?yi? ia?aiino oia?ii?
nenoaie; 2) iiaeeaeaiiy oeiaiaeie c iaaaeeeith ci?iith a iai?yi?
ia?aiino; 3) ia?ai?uaiiy oeiaiaeie ia no?ae ?c ci?iith a iai?yi?
ia?aiino oia?ii? nenoaie. I?e ia?oiio aa??aio? i?iaiic o?a?eoi???
oia?ii? nenoaie o?iioo aai oeeeeiio ia i?aaenoaaey? aaeeeeo o?oaeiiu?a.
Cie?aia, iiaeia aecia/eoe ?iia??i?noue i?ioiaeaeaiiy iniiaiiai ianeao
oia?iino? c i?aaeiy ia i?ai?/ acaeiaae o?iioaeueii? ciie ia cao?ae a?ae
i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie ?, oaeei /eiii, iiaeaeueoa i?ioiaeaeaiiy o?iioo /a?ac
?aa?ii aac iiaae?a. ?icaeoie oeueiai i?ioeano iiaeia ia?aaeaa/eoe
o?eueee c aeiiiiiaith ?ioi?iaoe?? iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a. I?iaiic
ia?aaoaeiae iiey oeneo i?e ae?oaiio ? o?aoueiio aa??aio? cia/ii
neeaaei?oee ? a?aeiineoueny aei iaeano? /enaeueieo iaoiae?a i?iaiico,
aoaeo/e iaeiaioa ?ic?iaeaiei a ?aa?iiaeueiiio a?aeiioaii?.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icaeoeo oia?ieo nenoai c o?aooaaiiyi oaeoe/ieo iie?a
oeneo iieacaei, ui oia?i?noue o?iio?a oa oeeeeii?a aeoaea aeoeaii ?aaao?
ia ci?io iiey oeneo ca /anii ? acaeiaae o?a?eoi???: aiia ca ei?ioeee
no?ie aeieea? i?e oi?ioaaii? oeeeeii?/iiai iiey ?, iaaiaee, ?oeio?oueny
i?e ia?ai?uaii? a iaeanoue c aioeoeeeeiiaeueiei oa?aeoa?ii iiey oeneo. O
?iaio? i?eaaaeai? i?eeeaaee oaeiai ?icaeoeo.

I?ai?/ii-cao?aeiee ia?aiin ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie aeieea? i?e o?iiinoa?ieo
oaeeyo aaeeei? aiie?ooaee, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/iith ?ia?oe??th. O
a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a iai?yi ia?aiino ci?ithaaany ia i?ioyc? aeiae iaei ?
a ia?oiio aa??aio? a?aoiao?oueny o?eueee ia?aoai?aiiy oi?ie oia?ieo
ianea?a. O ii/aoeiaiio iieiaeaii? aiie iiaeooue aooe iaoii?yaeeiaaieie
oia?ieie neoi/aiiyie, aea eiee o?iio ia?ai?uo?oueny ia i?aaeaiue
iaaoaathoue iieiniao no?oeoo?o. Aei ae?oaiai aa??aioo a?aeianai?
aeiaaeee ?noioieo ci?i iiey oeneo a o?iiinoa?? ? a ia?aiin?, ui
a?aeaoaa?oueny aiane?aeie ?icaeoeo cao?aeieo aai i?ai?/ii-cao?aeieo
oeeeeii?a iaae no?aeiith /anoeiith ?a?iie.

O ie?aiiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi oia?i? nenoaie aenioieo oeeeeii?a ca
aeaieie ?ioi?iaoe?? iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a. Iniiaieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oia?iino? ? ?? iaciianooaaia no?oeoo?a, ui
neeaaea?oueny c eiiieaen?a eiiaaeoeaieo oia? ae?aiao?ii a?ae aeae?eueeio
aeanyoe?a aei 200-300 ei. Aeo?iaa no?oeoo?a oia?, iacaaaeath/e ia
caieiaio oeeeeii?/io oee?eoeyoe?th, a a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ae?aaeaia
neaai. A?aae??ioe aaiiioaioe?aeo o aenioieo oeeeeiiao iaaaeeee ?
oaeaee?noue ia?ai?uaiiy iaciianooaaieo eiiaaeoeaieo eiiieaen?a
noaiiaeoue 10-30 ei/aiaeeio. Oiio i?e iia?eueiiio ia?ai?uaii? aaeeeiai
ii ?ici??ao eiiieaeno eieaeuei? iiaaee aoaathoue cia/ieie ( 20-30 ii ).
I?e ni?eyoeeaeo oiiaao i?ae aa?ieeeiiith ciiith ia ia?eoa??? aenioiiai
oeeeeiio aeieeathoue iaaaeee? oeeeeiie, a yeeo oi?io?oueny cia/ia ii
?ici??ao oia?ia nenoaia. Ia?ai?uath/enue a nenoai? aenioiiai oeeeeiio,
oaea oia?i?noue iaoiiaeth? ?ioaineai? iiaaee. Aeey i?iaiico yaeu a
iaeano? aenioieo oeeeeii?a ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy ia? ?ioi?iaoe?y
iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a ? ?aae?ieieaoi??a.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny oiiae aeieeiaiiy neeueieo iiaae?a ia
i?aaei? Oe?a?ie. sse neeuei? a?aoiaoaaeeny iiaaee, aeiaia? noie yeeo
noaiiaeee 30 ii ? a?eueoa. Ca aeanyoue ?ie?a ia i’yoe iaoai?ieia?/ieo
noaioe?yo i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie ( Aiea?aae, Iaeana, ?icae?eueia, Aicianainuee,
Oa?nii ) aoei a?aei?/aii 32 aeiaaeee oaeeo iiaae?a. O iaeio e oo ae
aeiao neeuei? iiaaee niinoa??aaeeny o?eueee o 3 aeiaaeeao ia o?ueio
noaioe?yo iaeii/anii, aea?/? — ia aeaio noaioe?yo, a a ?ioeo 27
aeiaaeeao — o?eueee ia iaei?e noaioe??. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i ??cei
ae?aaeaiee eieaeueiee oa?aeoa? neeueieo iiaae?a. Iiaaee c e?euee?noth 80
ii ? a?eueoa ca 10 ?ie?a niinoa??aaeeny aea?/? a Iaean? ? iaeei ?ac a
Oa?nii?. O 18 aeiaaeeao neeuei? iiaaee aoee coiiaeai? aenioieie
oeeeeiiaie, a 8 — ia?ai?uaiiyi oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue ia oieiaeieo o?iioao,
a aeaio aeiaaeeao — o?iioaie ieethc?? ? a iaeiiio — oieiaeiei o?iioii.
*enei aeiaaee?a neeueieo iiaae?a cia/ii c?inei a inoaii? ?iee
aeanyoe??//y ( 1987-1989 ?.?.).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy oiia aeieeiaiiy neeueieo iiaae?a o aenioieo oeeeeiiao
iieacaei, ui iniiaiith i?e/eiith iiaae?a aoei caeo/aiiy aei nenoaie
oee?eoeyoe?? aenioiiai oeeeeiio oia?ieo nenoai, ye? ooai?eeeny i?ae
aa?ieeeiiith ia?eoa??eiith ciiith aenioiiai oeeeeiio — oeeeeii?/ieo
aeoi??a. Ia?ai?uoth/enue c iaaaeeeith oaeaee?noth, oe? iaciianooaai?
oia?i? nenoaie coiiaeththoue ?ioaineai? ? o?eaae? eieaeuei? iiaaee.
Aeno?aiaeuei? iiaaee ( 80 ii ? a?eueoa ca 12 aiaeei ? iaioa )
aeieeaee, eiee oia?i?noue oi?ioaaeany iaae *i?iei ii?ai. Neeuei? iiaaee
? a?ice a?aei?/aeeny a aa?aaia?e cii?; i?ioean noaaaa a?eueo
?ioaineaiei i?e aeiaeaoeiaiio ?icaeoeo oa?i?/ii? eiiaaeoe?? iaae nooath.

Oiiae aeieeiaiiy neeueieo iiaae?a a oaeeueiaeo cao?aiiyo ia oieiaeieo
o?iioao ? no?oeoo?a iiey oeeo iiaae?a i?aaenoaaeythoue aaeeeee ?ioa?an.
Oiio c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaieo i?i iiaaee ia 26 noaioe?yo i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie ?
ia?anoaii? n?oee eii?aeeiao aoei io?eiaia iiea ei?aeyoe?? iiaae?a a
iaeano? oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue. ?ciei?aeyoe iathoue aeaeyae ae?ini?aea,
aaeeea a?nue yeiai aeoyaiooa a iai?yi? ia?aiino — c i?aaeaiiiai caoiaeo
ia i?ai?/iee no?ae. Cia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa ei?aeyoe?? 0.50
niinoa??aathoueny ia a?aenoai? a?ey 150-200 ei a?ae oeaio?a ae?ini?aea,
a iio?i oaeaeei ciaiueoothoueny. Iaeanoue cia/ieo iiaae?a ia? ?ici??e
150-200 ei, ui neeaaea? a?ey 2/3 ?ici??o oia?ii? nenoaie oaeeueiaiai
cao?aiiy ? aecia/a?oueny ia ?E-ci?ieo o aeaeyae? yne?aaiai oia?iiai
ooai?aiiy. I?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee i?aeoaa?aeeee a?aeiia iieiaeaiiy, ui
oaee? ia oieiaeieo o?iioao, ye ? a?eueo ?icaeiai? oeeeeii?/i? aeoi?e
aeieeathoue i?e iiceoeai?e aaeaaeoe?? aeoi?o a iaeano? o?iioaeueii?
ciie.

Iai?ee?ioe? i’yoiai ?icae?eo i?eaiaeyoueny iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaieo
?aae?iciiaeoaaiiy a Iaean? ca 1980-1989 ?.?. ( oaiea i?a??//y ) a
ia??iae ia?ai?uaiiy oieiaeieo o?iio?a ( 112 aeiaaee?a ). Cai?iiiiiaaia
iaoiaeeea iae?eo aeaieo aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? a
aeaiiio ?aa?ii?. Aeooaeuei?noue iaoiaeeee iieyaa? o oiio, ui oa?eoi??y,
c yeith ia?aiineoueny iia?o?yia iana, aeoaea neaai aai cian?i ia
ina?oeaia aa?ieiae/ieie aeaieie ? iiieeee o aecia/aii? ii/aoeiaeo aeaieo
aeey i?iaiico yaeu aeineoue cia/i?. Iniaeeai oea oi?ea?oueny
oa?aeoa?enoee aieiaino?: a?aae??ioe aieiaino? a iaeano? o?iioo aaeee? ?
?? aecia/aiiy iia’ycaii c oaeeie iia??oiinoyie, ui i?iaiic yaeua ia
iiaea aooe oni?oiei. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, cai?iiiiiaaii a?aoiaoaaoe
aieia?noue oaeei /eiii: yeui ii ?ic?aooieo ia?aaeaa/a?oueny
i?ioiaeaeaiiy /a?ac ioieo i?iaiico yne?aai? ia ?E-ci?ieo oia?iino?
o?iioo, oi aaaaeaoe a?aeiinio aieia?noue a oe?e iia?o?yi?e ian?
aeinoaoiueith ( 80-100 % ) aeey ?icaeoeo ?ioaineaii? eiiaaeoe??, yeui
no?aoeo?eaoe?y aoiinoa?e aieiaiiano?eea.

Aeey ioe?iee oa?i?/iiai noaio i?aenoaeyth/i? iiaa?oi?, ui cia/iith
i??ith aecia/a? iano?ee?noue ieaeiuei? o?iiinoa?e, i?iiiio?oueny
aeei?enoaoe iaeneiaeueio aeaiio oaiia?aoo?o ( ca 15-16 a ) ?
a?aeiia?aeio oaiia?aoo?o oi/ee ?ine a?ey iiaa?oi? caie?. Aeey
noaoenoe/ii? ioe?iee ca’yceo i?ae noaiii aoiinoa?e ? yaeuai a?ice
cai?iiiiiaaii a?aoiaoaaoe o?eueee a?aei?ii?noue oaiia?aoo? i?ae
iia?o?yiith ianith, ui i?aeiyeany aae?aaaoe/ii a?ae iiaa?oi? caie? aei
??aiy 500 aIa, ? iia?o?yii? iane ia oe?e iiaa?oi?, yea ia?ai?noeoueny
ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie.

Oaeei /eiii, yaeua a?ice noaoenoe/ii noaaeoueny a caeaaei?noue a?ae
??cieoe? oaiia?aoo? iia?o?y ? oi/ee ?ine a?ey iiaa?oi? caie? a ia??iae
iaeneiaeueiiai i?ia??aaiiy ? ??cieoe? oaiia?aoo? iia?o?yii? iane, ui
aae?aaaoe/ii i?aeiyeany aei ??aiy 500 aIa, ? iaaeieeoiueiai iia?o?y ia
iiaa?oi? 500 aIa. I?e neeaaeaii? i?iaiico oe? aaee/eie iiaeia
i?iaiicoaaoe caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iaoiaeaie.

Ia a?ao?eo, iiaoaeiaaiiio c aeei?enoaiiyi oaeoe/ieo cia/aiue aeacaieo
ia?aiao??a, aeae?eythoueny aea? iaeano?. Ia’?eoeaia ?icae?eaiiy oeeo
iaeanoae c?iaeaia ca aeiiiiiaith aeene?eieiaioiiai aiae?co. ??aiyiiy
i?yii?

o = -4.4 + 0.7 o

?icae?ey? iaeanoue c a?icaie i?e o > 0 ( iaeanoue A ) ? iaeanoue c ?o
a?aenooi?noth i?e o < 0 ( iaeanoue A ). O iaeano? A ?iia??i?noue a?ice noaiiaeoue 0.95, a ?iia??i?noue ?? a?aenooiino? a iaeano? A aeecueea aei 1. I?e i?iaiicoaaiiy cia/aiue oaiia?aoo?e ia 24 aiaeeie oa iaioa iiaeooue aeieeiooe iia??oiino?, ye? aianooue ei?aeoeae o oeae ca'ycie. Aoaeoeai?noue i?iaiico yaeua aoaea caeaaeaoe a?ae oi/iino? i?iaiico ii/aoeiaeo ia?aiao??a. AENIIAEE. 1. Iiea a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? a aa?aaia?e cii? ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie oa?aeoa?eco?oueny c?inoaiiyi /enea a?ic a?ae ocaa?aaeaey aei i?aii/? a na?aaeiueiio ia 4-5 aeiaaee?a ia 100 ei a oaieee ia??iae. Iaeiae oaeee ?iciiae?e ii?ooo?oueny aeae? aaeea eiioeiaioo. Iaeneioi /enea a?ic a?aei?/a?oueny ia i?aii/? ?aa?iio ( ?aeii Na?aee-Aicianainueea - 30-33 a?ice a oaiea i?a??//y ). Ina?aaeie c i?i?ioiii /enea a?ic ciaoiaeeoueny a ieaei?e oa/?? ??ee ?iaoe ( 19-23 aeiaaeee ). Iaeneioi a?ic iiynith?oueny iniaeeainoyie aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoe?? ? aieeaii aeaaoi??? *i?iiai ii?y ia eiiaaeoeaio oia?i?noue. O?a?eoi??? a?eueoino? oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac cao?aeio /anoeio ?aa?iio, a oia?i?noue oieiaeieo o?iio?a ?iciaaea?oueny a aeaii? aiaeeie iaae aeaaoi???th *i?iiai ii?y. Iino?eia aaia?ao?/ia iieiaeaiiy ina?aaee?a iaeneioia ? i?i?ioia a?ic a eiaeiiio i?nyoe? oaieiai i?a??//y i?aeoaa?aeaeo? aieea o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo oiia ia ?iciiae?e a?iciaeo ina?aaee?a. Eiao?oe??ioe ei?aeyoe?? na?aaeiueii?ny/iiai /enea a?ic aeey cao?aeii? /anoeie ?aa?iio aeineoue aenie? ( 0.70 - 0.80 ) ? ciaioothoueny ia no?ae ( 0.40 ). Iiea ei?aeyoe?? aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iaeanoue, aeey yei? iiaeia canoinoaaoe ee?iaoieia?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ?ic?aoiaai? ii aeaiei aeey iaeiiai ioieoo. 2. O aaaaoi??/i?e i?ieeaino? /enea a?ic ca 1866-1996 ?.?. ?c canoinoaaiiyi niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co aeyaeaia oeeee?/i?noue c noaoenoe/ii cia/oueie ia??iaeaie a 10.27 ?ie?a, 4.32 ? 2.20 ?iee i?e cia/ieo aiie?ooaeao. Oeeee?/i?noue a 9-11, 4-5 ?ie?a ? 2 ?iee aeyaey?oueny i?e caeaaeaeoaaii? ?yaeo ii 5-oe ? 10-??//yi. 4-5- ??/ia oeeee?/i?noue aeia?a ae?aaeaia ? aac caeaaeaeoaaiiy, ui aeicaiey? canoiniaoaaoe ?? aeey oiiiaiai caa?oaeiaaino?ieiaiai i?iaiico a?iciai? ae?yeueiino?. I?e caeaaeaeoaaii? ii 10-??//yi ? iaeneiaeueiiio ia??iaeo aeyaey?oueny 9-11 ? 20-23-??/ia oeeee?/i?noue. Oaeei /eiii niinoa??aa?oueny oiiiaa caeaaei?noue i?ae i?ieea?noth /enea a?ic, aeayeeie iae?ioee?eoeyoe?eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie ? niiy/iith aeoeai?noth. 3. O aaaaoi??/ieo eieeaaiiyo e?eueeino? iiaae?a oaieiai i?a??//y ca 1866-1996 ?.?. ca aeiiiiiaith niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co aoea aecia/aia oeeee?/i?noue ?c cia/oueie ia??iaeaie a 7.15 ?ie?a, 2.69 ? 2.13 ?iee. Oeeee?/i?noue a 7-8 ?ie?a aeia?a aeyaey?oueny i?e caeaaeaeoaaii? ?yaeo ca?aeii c aeiii?aeueiei caeiiii ? a aaaaoi??/iiio oiae? e?eueeino? iiaae?a aac caeaaeaeoaaiiy. O inoaii? aeanyoe??//y ae?acii aeyaeeany oeeee?/i?noue a 8 ?ie?a c iieoia??iaeii a 4 ?iee. Aeyaey?oueny oaeiae ? aeai??/ia oeeee?/i?noue, aea c iaeith aiie?ooaeith. I?e caeaaeaeoaaii? ii iaeneiaeueiiio ia??iaeo aeyaeeany iiaoi?thaai?noue aeno?aioi?a e?eueeino? iiaae?a c ia??iaeii a 27-29 ?ie?a. Oeeee?/i?noue iiaae?a ia ni?aiaaea? c oeeee?/i?noth a?ic, ca aeiyoeii ei?ioeiia??iaeieo oeeee?a a 4 oa 2 ?iee. Oea iiynith?oueny a?aenooi?noth a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao ca'yceo i?ae oiiaaie ooai?aiiy iiaae?a ? a?ic: cia/i? iiaaee ia caaaeaee noi?iaiaeaeothoueny a?iciaith ae?yeuei?noth ?, iaaiaee, a?ice ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie /anoi aeieeathoue i?e iaaaeeeeo iiaaeao aai ?o a?aenooiino?. 4. Aiane?aeie aeaoaeueiiai aiae?co iaoa??ae?a niinoa?aaeaiue ca aeanyoe??/iee ia??iae aecia/ai? aoiinoa?i? i?ioeane, ui coiiaeththoue aeieeiaiiy a?ic ? iiaae?a oaieiai i?a??//y ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie: oieiaeiee o?iio; oieiaeiee o?iio c oaeeyie; o?iio ieethc??; oaeeueiaee oeeeeii; ?icaeiaiee oeeeeii; aenioiee oeeeeii. Iiaoi?thaai?noue i?ioeano, i?e yeiio iae/ano?oa aeieeathoue a?ice - i?ioiaeaeaiiy oieiaeieo o?iio?a, noaiiaeoue 65.5 %. Ae?oaee ii iiaoi?thaaiino? i?ioean - aenioi? oeeeeiie ( 15.9 % ). Iaioo iiaoi?thaai?noue iathoue oeeeeiie, oieiaei? o?iioe c oaeeyie oa o?iioe ieethc??. A?aeiioaiiy /enea a?ic aei /enea aeiaaee?a i?ioiaeaeaiiy oieiaeieo o?iio?a a na?aaeiueiio ca aeanyoe??/iee ia??iae noaiiaeoue 28.5 %, aeey o?iio?a ieethc?? - 43.8 %, aeey oaeeueiaeo ? ?icaeiaieo oeeeeii?a - 45.0 oa 36.8 % a?aeiia?aeii. Cia/ii a?eueoa oea ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey oieiaeieo o?iio?a c oaeeyie ? aenioieo oeeeeii?a - 66.6 oa 58.1 % a?aeiia?aeii. Aeey aeieeiaiiy a?ice aeiyoeiaa cia/aiiy ia? /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy o?iioo. O ia??iae c 24 aei 8 aiaeei a?ice ia oieiaeieo o?iioao niinoa??aathoueny o?eueee o 8.9 % aeiaaee?a, a i?e ?icoaooaaii? o?iioo a oeeia?e /anoei? aenioii? oeiaiaeie ?iia??i?noue a?ic aeecueea aei 0. 5. I?ae??/ia i?ieea?noue eieaeueiiai /enea a?ic ( ca 10-??/iee ia??iae ) aecia/aeany aieiaiei /eiii iiaoi?thaai?noth oieiaeieo o?iio?a ? aenioieo oeeeeii?a. A aaniethoi?e a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a ??/i? iaeneioie /enea a?ic ni?aiaaeathoue c iaea?eueoith iiaoi?thaai?noth oeeo aeaio aoiinoa?ieo i?ioean?a. A?iciaa ae?yeuei?noue niinoa??aa?oueny i?e iaeii/aniiio cae?eniaii? oeeo i?ioean?a aai i?e aiiiaeueiiio ?icaeoeo iaeiiai c ieo. 6. Aeey aecia/aiiy noaoenoe/iiai ca'yceo aoiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoe?? c e?euee?noth iiaae?a o oaiea i?a??//y ?c canoinoaaiiyi eeanoa?iiai aiae?co aeyaeeiny aeioe?eueiei a?eueo aeaoaeueii a?aooaaoe iniaeeaino? o?iiinoa?ii? oee?eoeyoe?? a iaeano? oieiaeieo o?iio?a, aeae?eeaoe 8 aa??aio?a i?ioean?a: 1) oieiaeiee o?iio a ia?aaei?e /anoei? aenioii? oeiaiaeie; 2) oieiaeiee o?iio a oeeia?e /anoei? aenioii? oeiaiaeie; 3) oieiaeiee o?iio a iaeicao?aiiiio cao?aeiiio ia?aiin?; 4) oieiaeiee o?iio c oaeeyie; 5) o?iio ieethc??; 6) oeeeeii ( oaeeueiaee ? ?icaeiaiee ); 7) aenioiee oeeeeii; 8) iacioeeeeii. Ii e?eueeino? iiaae?a aoei aeae?eaii 4 a?aaeaoe??: neaa? ( 0-1.5 ii ), iii??i? ( 1.6-6.4 ii ), cia/i? ( 6.5-25.9 ii ) ? neeuei? ( 26.0-90.3 ii ). ?iia??i?noue aeiaaeaiiy neaaeo iiaae?a ia oieiaeieo o?iioao, ?icoaoiaaieo a ia?aaei?e ? oeeia?e /anoeiao aenioii? oeiaiaeie noaiiaeoue 4/5 a?ae caaaeueiiai /enea o?iioaeueieo iiaae?a, a a oeeeeii?/ieo ooai?aiiyo - o?eueee 0.17. ?iia??i?noue iii??ieo iiaae?a noaiiaeoue 0.25 aeey oieiaeieo o?iio?a, ?icoaoiaaieo a ia?aaei?e /anoei? aenioii? oeiaiaeie a aeaiiee /an, oa 0.27 aeey aenioieo oeeeeii?a. Cia/i? iiaaee oaeoe/ii a?aenooi? ia oieiaeieo o?iioao a i?/iee /an ? i?e cao?aeiiio ia?aiin?. Neeuei? iiaaee aeieeathoue aieiaiei /eiii o aenioieo oeeeeiiao ( c ?iia??i?noth 0.46 ) ? oaeeueiaeo cao?aiiyo ( c ?iia??i?noth 0.27 ). 7. A ?acoeueoao? ni?eueiiai aiae?co ci?ie?a oia?ieo nenoai ? ea?o aa?e/ii? oiiia?ao?? io?eiaia iiaeaeueoa aeaoae?caoe?y ca'yceo i?ae iai?yiii ia?aiino iia?o?yii? iane ? e?euee?noth iiaae?a, anoaiiaeaia ?ai?oa ?c canoinoaaiiyi eeanoa?iiai aiae?co. Aaiethoe?y oia?iino? i?e cao?aeiiio ia?aiin? aeyaeeany oaeith, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae oa?aeoa?o oaeeueiaeo i?ioean?a a iaeano? o?iioaeueii? ciie. Aoei aeae?eaii i'youe ??ciiaeaeiinoae oeeo i?ioean?a; i?e aeaio ?c ieo c a?aenooi?noth cao?aiue iiaaee aoee iacia/ieie ( 0-6 ii ), i?e aeieoth/iio a?aai? c iaeith aiie?ooaeith cao?aiiy iiaaee noaiiaeee 0-1.5 ii aai aoee a?aenooi?, a i?e aeieeiaii? oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue a cao?aeiiio ia?aiin? iiaaee aoee cia/ieie ( 6-25 ii ? a?eueoa ). C aeei?enoaiiyi iaoiaeo noaoenoe/ieo aei?iaoaaiue ( Iiioa-Ea?ei ) iieacaii, ui i?e cao?aeiiio ia?aiin? o?a?eoi??? iia?o?yii? iane ? oia?iino? ia i?ioyc? aeiae ?noioii ia i?iythoueny ? oiae? i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie ia?aaoaa? i?ae aieeaii oe??? oia?iino?. Cia/ii neeaaei?oa cae?enith?oueny ia?aiin oia?ii? iane i?e i?aaeaiii-cao?aeieo iioieao. Oia?i?noue, ia?eae?iiaeueii i???ioiaaia, /anoi ia?ai?uo?oueny acaeiaae i?aaeaiiiai iioieo ia i?ai?/ ?, i?e a?aenooiino? oiia ?? ?aaaia?aoe??, o?iio i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie aac iiaae?a. I?iaiic iiaae?a ? a?ic i?e i?aaeaiii-cao?aeiiio ? i?aaeaiiiio ia?aiin? aeioe?eueii cae?enithaaoe c iaeneiaeueiei aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?? iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a. 8. Iniaeeaa ??ciiaeaei?noue oia?iino? aeieea? o aenioieo oeeeeiiao ( AOe ) ? iae/ano?oa yaey? niaith neoi/aiiy iaciianooaaieo eiiaaeoeaieo eiiieaen?a ( IEE ) c? neaai ae?aaeaiith aeo?iaith no?oeoo?ith. I?e oae?e neooaoe?? a oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei? oeeeeiio niinoa??aa?oueny iaeioia?ia iiaiaea. Oeeeeii?/ia iiea a?ey iiaa?oi? caie? ni?ey? ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoe??; iiaooi? nenoaie IEE aeieeathoue i?e ooai?aii? iaaaeeeeo oeeeeii?a i?ae aa?ieeeiiith ciiith ia ia?eoa??? AOe. O oeeo aeiaaeeao a iaea?eueo?e i??? ?aae?co?oueny oiiaia iano?ee?noue ae?oaiai ?iaeo. 9. Neeuei? iiaaee c e?euee?noth 30 ii ? a?eueoa ca aeiao aeieeathoue ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ia?aaaaeii ia oieiaeieo o?iioao c oaeeyie oa o aenioieo oeeeeiiao. sse i?aaeei, aiie iathoue /?oei ae?aaeaiee eieaeueiee oa?aeoa?. Neeuei? iiaaee o aenioieo oeeeeiiao aeieeathoue i?e caeo/aii? aei ?o nenoaie oia?iino?, ui ooai?eeany a i?ecaiieo iaciianooaaieo oeeeeiiao. I?e a?aenooiino? oeeeeii?a a?ey iiaa?oi? caie?, iiaaee neeaaeaee a?ae aeae?eueeio ii aei aeaio aeanyoe?a ii. 10. Oia?i? nenoaie oaeeueiaeo cao?aiue ia oieiaeieo o?iioao ? nenoaiaie c oaeaeei oaoaath/ith aa?oeeaeueiith i?ioyaei?noth eoi/anoi-aeiuiaeo oia? a?ae oeaio?aeueii? /anoeie aei ia?eoa???, oiio iiea ei?aeyoe?? iiaae?a, coiiaeaieo oieiaeieie o?iioaie c oaeeyie, oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaeeeeie a?aae??ioaie ?cia??o. Neeuei? iiaaee aeieeathoue o?eueee i?ae oeaio?aeueiith /anoeiith oia?ii? nenoaie, i?e/iio o?eaae?noue ?o iaaaeeea ( aeae?eueea aiaeei ). Iiea iiaae?a ia? aeaeyae ae?ina c iacia/iei aenoeaio?eneoaoii ? aaeeeith a?nnth, aeoyaiooith a iai?yi? ia?aiino. 11. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, i?eaaaeai? o aeniiaeao i.i.6, 7, 9 oa 10, aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe ocaaaeueiaiee aeniiaie i?i oa, ui iaaaeee? iiaaee aai ?o a?aenooi?noue iiaeooue oni?oii i?iaiicoaaoeny noaoenoe/ii c o?aooaaiiyi oa?aeoa?o iiey oeneo, iia?o?yiiai ia?aiino ? /ano aeiae. Cia/i? eieaeuei? iiaaee ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie iiaeooue i?iaiicoaaoeny o?eueee i?e aeineoue oi/iiio aecia/aii? o?a?eoi??? aa?e/ieo cao?aiue ( oeeeeii?a, oaeeue ) ? c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ioi?iaoe?? iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a. 12. I?e iaaeinoaoiueiio ina?oeaii? aa?ieiae/ieie aeaieie oa?eoi???, ca?aeee a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?ai?uaiiy iia?o?yii? iane ia i?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie, aeey aoaeoeaiiai i?iaiico a?ic ia oieiaeieo o?iioao iaiao?aeii aecia/aoe /an i?ioiaeaeaiiy yne?aai? ia ?E-ci?ieo oia?iino? /a?ac ioieo i?iaiico. Iano?ee?noue iia?o?yii? iane a iaeano? o?iioo cai?iiiiiaaii ioe?ithaaoe c o?aooaaiiyi aaeaaeoeaieo cia/aiue oaiia?aoo?e ? oi/ee ?ine a?ey iiaa?oi? caie? oa oaiia?aoo?e ia iiaa?oi? 500 aIa. NIENIE IIOAEEEIAAIEO I?AOeUe. 1. Oo?aea E.A. Noai?a ceia 1995-1996 ?.?. ? oee?eoeyoe?ei? iniaeeaino? aoiinoa?e, ye? ?? coiiaeee / / Iaoai?ieia?y, ee?iaoieia?y ? a?ae?ieia?y. - 1996. - Aei.33. - N.65-67. 2. Oo?aea E.A. Aiiiae?? iiaae?a a Iaean? i?e aeoiaeo i?aaeaiieo oeeeeii?a / / Iaoai?ieia?y, ee?iaoieia?y ? a?ae?ieia?y . - 1997. - Aei.34. - N.111-117. 3. Oo?aea E.A. I?inoi?iaa no?oeoo?a oa?aeoa?enoee iiey a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie / / Iaoai?ieia?y, ee?iaoieia?y ? aeae?ieia?y. - 1997. - Aei.34. - N. 31-35. 4. Eoae?yiue I.I., Oo?aea E.A. Aoiinoa?ia oee?eoeyoe?y neiiioe/iiai ? iaciianooaao i?e a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie / / Iaoai?ieia?y, ee?iaoieia?y e a?ae?ieia?y. - 1997. - Aei.34. - N. 36-42. 5. Oo?aea E.A. Noaoenoe/ia ioe?iea ca'yceo i?ae aoiinoa?iith oee?eoeyoe??th ? iiaaeaie a oaiea i?a??//y ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie / / Iaoai?ieia?y, ee?iaoieia?y ? a?ae?ieia?y . - 1998. - Aei.35. - N. 107-113. 6. Eoae?yiue I.I., Oo?aea E.A. I?i iaciianooaaio no?oeoo?o iiey e?oieo iiaae?a ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie / / Iaoai?ieia?y, ee?iaoieia?y ? a?ae?ieia?y . - 1998. - Aei.35. - N. 99-107. 7. Eoae?yiue I.I., sse?iiaa E.A. Canoinoaaiiy eeanoa?iiai aiae?co aeey ioe?iee ?iia??iino? aeiaae?iiy iiaae?a i?e i?iaiic? ia o?e aeiae; Iaean. a?ae?iiaoai?ie. ?i-o. - Iaeana, 1988. - 7 n. - ?in. - Aeai. a ?Oe AIAe?AI?-IOeAe 05.11.88, ? 832-ai88 / / Aiio. a a?ae?ia?. aeac. A?I?O?, ? 4, 1989. AIIOAOe??. Oo?aea E.A. Oiiae aeieeiaiiy oa i?inoi?iai-/aniaa i?ieea?noue iiaae?a oaieiai i?a??//y ? a?ic ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie ( Oe?a?inueea I?e/i?iiii?'y ). - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 11.00.09 - iaoai?ieia?y, ee?iaoieia?y, aa?iiaoai?ieia?y. - Iaeanueeee a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?/iee ?inoeooo, Iaeana, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith oiia aeieeiaiiy iiaae?a oaieiai i?a??//y ? ?icaeoeo a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? ia i?aaei? Oe?a?ie. Aia?oa iaea?aeaii i?inoi?iao no?oeoo?o a?iciai? ae?yeueiino? ? aeyaeaii ?ieue o?ceei-aaia?ao?/ieo oiia a ?? oi?ioaaii?. Aeine?aeaeaii /aniao i?ieea?noue a?ic ? iiaae?a ca ia??iae c 1866 aei 1996 ?.?. ( 131 ??e ) c canoinoaaiiyi niaeo?aeueiiai aiae?co ? iaoiaeo caeaaeaeoaaiiy ?yae?a, ui aeicaieth? neeaaeaoe oiiia? caa?oaeiaaino?ieia? i?iaiice yaeu. Aeey aecia/aiiy oiia ?icaeoeo eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu aoei aeaoaeueii ?icaeyiooi aoiinoa?io oee?eoeyoe?th ? aeae?eaii oeiia? neiiioe/i? i?ioeane. Oiiae ooai?aiiy, ia?ai?uaiiy oa aaiethoe?? eiiaaeoeaii? oia?iino? aeine?aeaeoaaeenue c aeei?enoaiiyi ci?ie?a, iaea?aeaieo c iaoai?ieia?/ieo noiooiee?a. A aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi oiiae aeieeiaiiy ?ioaineaieo ? iaaacia/ieo eiiaaeoeaieo yaeu oa cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaeeeo iae?/aiiy aeaieo i?e i?iaiicoaaii? a?iciai? ae?yeueiino?. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? iiaeooue aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a iia?aoeaieo i?ae?icae?eao iaoai?ieia?/ii? neoaeae ? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ee?iaoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ?aa?iio. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aoiinoa?ia oee?eoeyoe?y, eiiaaeoeai? yaeua, i?inoi?iai-/aniaa i?ieea?noue, aiae?c, ci?ie? oia?iino?. Shurda K.E. Conditions of formation and space-time changeability of precipitation and thunderstorms in warm half-year on the south of Ukraine. - Manuscript. Thesis for a candidate's degree by speciality 11.00.09 - meteorology, climatology, agrometeorology. - The Odessa Hydrometeorological Institute, Odessa, 1999. The dissertation is devoted to investigation of conditions fallout precipitation and formation thunderstorms in warm half-year on the south of Ukraine. A spatial structure of thunderstorms is received for the first time and the role of physical-geographical conditions in their formation is defined. A time changeability of thunderstorms and precipitation in period with 1866 to 1996 ( 131 years ) is investigated by means of spectral analysis and method of smoothing, when background over-long-range forecasting of phenomena can by composed. The atmospheric circulation is examined in detail for determination of conditions development convective phenomena and typical synoptical processes are distinguish. Conditions of formation, translation and evolution convective cloudiness are investigated with use photographs from meteorological satellites. Conditions of origin intensive and dangerous convective phenomena are examined and method of registration data for thunderstorm forecasting are proposed. The results of work can be used in operative department of meteorological service and when climatological characteristics of region is working out. Key words: atmospheric circulation, convective phenomena, space-time changeability, analysis, photographs of cloudiness. Oo?aea E.Y. Oneiaey ia?aciaaiey e i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiay eciai/eainoue inaaeeia oaieiai iieoaiaeey e a?ic ia thaa Oe?aeiu ( Oe?aeineia I?e/a?iiii?uea ). - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa aaia?aoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 11.00.09 - iaoai?ieiaey, eeeiaoieiaey, aa?iiaoai?ieiaey. - Iaeanneee aeae?iiaoai?ieiae/aneee einoeooo, Iaeanna, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth oneiaee auiaaeaiey inaaeeia oaieiai iieoaiaeey e ?acaeoey a?iciaie aeayoaeueiinoe ia thaa Oe?aeiu. Aia?aua iieo/aia i?ino?ainoaaiiay no?oeoo?a a?iciaie aeayoaeueiinoe e ii?aaeaeaia ?ieue oeceei-aaia?aoe/aneeo oneiaee a aa oi?ie?iaaiee. Ii aeaiiui i a?icao ca 1980-1989 a.a. ( oaieia iieoaiaeea ) ia 36 noaioeeyo e iinoao thaa Oe?aeiu auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeneioi a?ic ioia/aaony ia naaa?a ?aaeiia e ia thaa Iaeanneie iaeanoe, a ieieioi - ia thaa Oa?niineie iaeanoe. Enneaaeiaaia a?aiaiiay eciai/eainoue a?ic e inaaeeia ca ia?eiae n 1866 ii 1996 a.a. ( 131 aiae ) n i?eiaiaieai niaeo?aeueiiai aiaeeca e iaoiaea naeaaeeaaiey ?yaeia. A ?yaeao inaaeeia e a?ic auyaeaiu oeeeeu ni cia/eiuie ia?eiaeaie, /oi iicaieyao ninoaaeyoue oiiiaue naa?oaeieain?i/iue i?iaiic yaeaiee. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey oneiaee ?acaeoey eiiaaeoeaiuo yaeaiee auea aeaoaeueii ?anniio?aia aoiinoa?iay oee?eoeyoeey e auaeaeaiu oeiiaua neiiioe/aneea i?ioeannu: a) oieiaeiue o?iio; a) oieiaeiue o?iio n aieiaie; a) o?iio ieeethcee; a) aieiiaie oeeeeii; ae) ?acaeoue oeeeeii; a) aunioiue oeeeeii. A ?aaioa aeaiu noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua i iiaoi?yaiinoe neiiioe/aneeo i?ioeannia e a?ic. Iniiaiie auaiae ninoieo a oii, /oi iaeaieaa /anoi a?icu aicieeatho i?e i?ioiaeaeaiee oieiaeiuo o?iioia e a aunioiuo oeeeeiiao. Naycue inaaeeia n oeiiauie neiiioe/aneeie i?ioeannaie auea iauaeoeaii ioeaiaia n i?eiaiaieai eeanoa?iiai aiaeeca. Ii eiee/anoao inaaeee auee i?aaenoaaeaiu 4-iy a?aaeaoeeyie: neaaua ( 0-1.5 ii ), oia?aiiua ( 1.6-6.4 ii ), cia/eoaeueiua ( 6.5-25.9 ii ) e neeueiua ( 26-90 ii ). ?acoeueoaou eeanoa?iiai aiaeeca ninoiyo a neaaeothuai: 1) neaaua inaaeee auiaaeatho ia oieiaeiuo o?iioao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ia?aaeiae e oueiaie /anoyo aunioiie eiaeaeiu n aa?iyiinoueth 0.80; 2) oia?aiiua inaaeee auiaaeatho ia oieiaeiuo o?iioao, ?aniieiaeaiiuo a ia?aaeiae /anoe aunioiie eiaeaeiu e a aunioiuo oeeeeiiao n aa?iyoiinoueth 0.25 e 0.27 niioaaonoaaiii; 3) cia/eoaeueiua inaaeee ionoonoaotho ia oieiaeiuo o?iioao a ii/iia a?aiy e i?e caiaaeiii ia?aiina; 4) neeueiua inaaeee aicieeatho a aunioiuo oeeeeiiao e a aieiiauo aiciouaieyo ia oieiaeiuo o?iioao n aa?iyoiinoueth 0.46 e 0.27 niioaaonoaaiii. A aeenna?oaoeee aue i?eiaiai eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae e eniieueciaaieth aeaiiuo neiiioe/aneiai aiaeeca e eioi?iaoeee iaoai?ieiae/aneeo niooieeia aeey enneaaeiaaiey ?iee aoiinoa?iie oee?eoeyoeee a ?acaeoee eiiaaeoeee e naycaiiuo n iae iiaiaeiuo yaeaiee. Niaianoiue aiaeec nieieia iaea/iinoe, neiiioe/aneeo ea?o e ea?o aa?e/aneie oiiia?aoee iicaieee aieaa aeaoaeueii enneaaeiaaoue naycue iaaeaeo iai?aaeaieai ia?aiina aicaeooiuo iann a n?aaeiae o?iiinoa?a e eiee/anoaii inaaeeia, onoaiiaeaiioth n i?eiaiaieai eeanoa?iiai aiaeeca. Enneaaeiaaieth i?aaeoanoaiaae aiaeec iaea/iuo nenoai o?iioia, a oaeaea o?iioaeueiuo e aunioiuo oeeeeiiia. Anaai auei ?anniio?aii 112 neo/aaa ia?aiauaiey iaea/iinoe oieiaeiuo o?iioia. Ii iai?aaeaieth auei auaeaeaii o?e aeaea ia?aiina: caiaaeiue, thai-caiaaeiue e naaa?i-caiaaeiue. A iaeaieaa iiiai/eneaiiie a?oiia - ia?aiauaiea aicaeooiuo iann n caiaaeiie ninoaaeythuae - auee auaeaeaiu iyoue ?aciiaeaeiinoae aieiiauo i?ioeannia a iaeanoe o?iioaeueiie ciiu. A eaaeaeie ec ieo aicieeaea oa?aeoa?iay iaea/iay nenoaia n niioaaonoaothueie yaeaieyie. I?e iacia/eoaeueiuo eciaiaieyo a iai?aaeaiee ia?aiina ( 1-ue aa?eaio ), i?e aicieeiiaaiee a?aaiy n iaaieueoie aiieeooaeie ( 2-ie aa?eaio ) e i?e aicieeiiaaiee iaaieueoie thaeiie ninoaaeythuae ( 3-ee aa?eaio ) aa?iyoiinoue ionoonoaey inaaeeia ninoaaeyea 0.90, a eo eiee/anoai eieaaaeinue a i?aaeaeao 0-1.5 ii. I?e aicieeiiaaiee aieiiauo aiciouaiee ( 4-ue e 5-ue aa?eaiou ) inaaeee eiee/anoaii aei 1.5 ii ionoonoaiaaee, a aa?iyoiinoue auiaaeaiey inaaeeia eiee/anoaii io 6.5 aei 26 ii e aieaa ninoaaeyea 0.80. A ?aaioa eceiaeaii oece/aneia iainiiaaiea oaeiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey inaaeeia. A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniio?aiu oneiaey auiaaeaiey inaaeeia 30 ii e aieaa ca nooee ia thaa Oe?aeiu. Ca 10-eaoiee ia?eiae anaai iaaethaeaeinue 32 neo/ay oaeeo inaaeeia. Iniiaiuie neiiioe/aneeie i?ioeannaie, i?e eioi?uo iaaethaeaeenue neeueiua inaaeee, yaeythony oieiaeiue o?iio n aieiaie e aunioiue oeeeeii. ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiey nayce inaaeeia n aoiinoa?iie oee?eoeyoeeae iicaieytho i?aaeeiaeeoue ?yae ?aeiiaiaeaoeee aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey i?iaiica inaaeeia n iaeie caaeaaia?aiaiiinoueth. *oi eanaaony i?iaiica a?iciaie aeayoaeueiinoe oi, eae neaaeoao ec iieo/aiiuo a aeenna?oaoeee ?acoeueoaoia, ?ac?aaioea iaoiaea aeieaeia i?iaiaeeoueny aeeooa?aioee?iaaii aeey eaaeaeiai neiiioe/aneiai i?ioeanna. A ?aaioa i?aaeeiaeaia iaoiaeeea o/aoa aeaiiuo i?e i?iaiice?iaaiee a?iciaie aeayoaeueiinoe ia oieiaeiuo o?iioao, eioi?ua ia?aiauaeenue a aeiaaiia a?aiy /a?ac tha Oe?aeiu. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a iia?aoeaiuo iiae?acaeaeaieyo iaoai?ieiae/aneie neoaeau e i?e ?ac?aaioea eeeiaoe/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee ?aaeiia. Eeth/aaua neiaa: aoiinoa?iay oee?eoeyoeey, eiiaaeoeaiua yaeaiey, i?ino?ainoaaiii-a?aiaiiay eciai/eainoue, aiaeec, nieiee iaea/iinoe.

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