Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue

OAeE
9(438)+9 (N47.747)

E?an?anueeee I?ano sseoaiae/

Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie a No?aei?e Aaee/ei? a eiioaeno?
iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee

Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi? (1918-1923 ??.)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.05 — aoiieia?y

A a o i ? a o a ? a o

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie,

aee?aeoi? ?inoeoooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI
Oe?a?ie Eo?an ?aai Oaaei?iae/;

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e

anana?oiuei? ?noi??? I?eea?iaonueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Aaneey
Noaoaieea

Eoaooye Ieeiea Aaneeueiae/;

— aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e

aoiieia?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?i.?aaia O?aiea Iaea?/oe Noaiai A?naio?eiae/;

— aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iia?oiuei?

?noi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea Ion??iei
Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/.

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — ?inoeooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “1” eeiiy 1999 ?. i 14.00 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.181.01 a ?inoeooo?
iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
252011, i.Ee?a, aoe.Eooociaa, 8, aoae.202.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “29” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

ciaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Eaaeiaoeue TH.A.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Ooai?aiiy oa noaiiaeaiiy noaa?aiii? aeaiie?aoe/ii?
Oe?a?ie, aeciaiiy ? i?aeo?eiea ?? na?oiaei ni?aoiaa?enoaii
aeooae?cothoue aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a
?noi?e/iiai ieioeiai iaoiai ia?iaeo, aea/aiiy i?aeaoi?/ieo a?aeiinei,
coiiaeaieo oa?aeoa?ii aoiinioe?aeueii? aaiethoe?? oa iniaeeainoyie ??
iie?oe/iiai i?iyao. Neeaaei? i?ioeane aeieeiaiiy iiaeo aea?aeaa ?
iia’ycaia c oeei ?icnoaiiaea iie?oe/ieo nee o oeaio?? ?a?iie, iiyaa a
i?e oe?a?inueeiai oaeoi?a aeiaaathoue aeeaieiai aiae?co i?iaeai
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo oa i?aeaoi?/ieo noinoie?a o ieioeiio, cie?aia a
ia??iae oai?aiiy Oe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee oa
Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee.

O oeueiio eiioaeno? aeey No?aeii? ? Oeaio?aeueii? ?a?iie aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy iaee ? iathoue iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? aca?ieie. I?iaeaia oeeo
a?aeiinei oi?iaeiaae ye oe?a?inueei?, oae ? iieuenueei? ?noi??? caaaeaee
aoea aaaeeeaith, aea iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? aiia iaaoea o OO no.
Iacaaaeath/e ia noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia e aeiiii?/ia ni?a?ia?oieoeoai iaio
ia?iae?a, ?o aca?iicaaaa/aiiy, iieyee ? oe?a?ioe? ana ae ia ciiaee
iiaoaeoaaoe nai? noinoiee oae, uia oieeiooe eiio?iioaoe?? oa ??
eaoano?io?/ieo iane?aee?a. Iieuenueei-oe?a?inueea i?ioenoiyiiy, ye
aaaaeaa ?.Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee, aoei ni?aaae? aieiaiith i?e/eiith ao?aoe
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiino?eiino? Oe?a?iith ? Iieueuath ye o OV??, oae ? a
OO no Eenye -?oaeieoeueeee ?. ?noi?e/i? ana. — E., 1994.- O.1. — N.
83-84. .

Noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie, iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ?? iiaeo iie?oe/ieo,
aeiiii?/ieo oa eoeueoo?ieo aca?iei c Iieuenueeith ?anioae?eith
aeeeoothoue iaiao?aei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/ieo
i?ioean?a i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo, ui ae??oaeueii aieeaaee ia oa?aeoa?
iie?oe/iiai aeeooy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie ? Iieueu? e noinoiee i?ae aeaiia
ia?iaeaie.

C iaeyaeo ia oea, aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi ?noi?e/ii? iaoee ? aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioeano aea?aeaaioai?aiiy o No?aei?e Aaee/ei?, iie?oeei-i?aaiaeo,
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?ieo canaae, ui ni?eyee oi?ioaaiith iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a oe?a?ioe?a ye aeaea?aea aea?aeaaioai?aiiy; i?iaiae?coaaoe
ia?aaeoiiae ia?aa?ao oa iane?aeee oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie
1918-1919 ??., aeeieiiaoe/ii? ai?ioueae iaaeiei ieoaiiy aea?aeaaii?
i?eiaeaaeiino? No?aeii? Aaee/eie iaoiiaeaieo iie?oe/ieie o?aaeeoe?yie
iieuenueeiai ? oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueieo ?oo?a O?O – ii/aoeo OO no., e
ciai?oi?ie, i?aeia?iaeieie /eiieeaie.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?? ioiieththoue 1918 — 1923 ??., oiaoi
ia??iae ai?ioueae ca Oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao a No?aei?e Aaee/ei? oa
caaino?aiiy oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiai i?ioenoiyiiy, coiiaeaiiai
iineeaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai ?ooo oa ?aii?oaaiiyi iieyeaie
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieo ono?aie?iue oe?a?ioe?a. O cacia/aiee ia??iae
no?aei? ei?aeiie iiainoai?aii? Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi? ua ia aoee /?oei
aecia/ai? e ?iei?ii?oaaiiy iath o 1918- 1919 ??. No?aeii? Aaee/eie c
i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaiaiai iiaeyaeo iaei ieoiaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?. Oea
cia/iith i??ith aecia/aei iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo
oa iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a. I?ney ??oaiiy iine?a aea?aeaa
Aioaioe a Ia?eae? (aii/? c 14 ia 15 aa?aciy 1923 ?), ca?aeii c yeeie
No?aeia Aaee/eia noaea neeaaeiaith /anoeiith Iieueu?, ?icii/eia?oueny
iiaee aoai a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. A?i
?icai?oaany a oiiaao aeai?noi? iie?oeee Iieueu? uiaei oe?a?ioe?a.
I?aaey/? eiea Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae, c iaeiiai aieo, aeiooai? aoee
?aooaaoenue c i?aeia?iaeieie ciaia’ycaiiyie uiaei caaacia/aiiy i?aa
iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei, a c ?ioiai aieo, ye oeaio?aeueia, oae ? i?noeaaa
aeaaea, c ia?oeo aei?a ieoiaoe?? No?aeii? Aaee/eie ?icai?ioee oaeaiee
ianooi ia oe?a?inoai. O an?o noa?ao noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy
oe?a?ioe?, ye ? ?io? iaoe?iiaeuei? iaioeie Iieueu?, i?aeaeaaaeeny
aeene?ei?iaoe??, caciaaaee aei?noeiai anei?eyoe?eiiai oeneo.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aenoioaaaoe caeiaooee iaoeiaoe?a, ye? iaaiei
/eiii oi?eaeeny aeaiiai ieoaiiy, e caeo/eaoe iia? a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe,
aaoi? aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaeoue ni?iao anaa?/ii
i?iaiae?coaaoe iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee 1918-1923 ??.,
aea/eoe iie?oe/io neooaoe?th ia oa?aiao No?aeii? Aaee/eie, c’ynoaaoe
i?e/eie i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae aeaiia ia?iaeaie, i?iaiae?coaaoe ni?iae aei
ae?aeiao oa iaa?oiooaaoe i?e/eie ?o iaaaea/.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei c’ynoaaoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

n aeine?aeeoe ?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae, aaiaco i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo noinoie?a
o Aaee/ei? oa aieea ia ieo ciai?oiuei- e aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo
oaeoi??a;

n aea/eoe iie?oeeo o?yaeiaeo no?oeoo?, iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa
oa?oiiaaiue uiaei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy, i?iaiae?coaaoe ?? ci?no,
oa?aeoa?, iniaeeaino? oa iai?yie;

n aeine?aeeoe no?oeoo?o oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo,
eiai i?ia?aie c iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy oa noaaeaiiy aei Iieuenueei?
aea?aeaae;

n i?iaiae?coaaoe i?aeia?iaei? i?aaia? aeoe, ca yeeie Iieueua ciaia’ycaia
aoea aa?aiooaaoe i?aaa iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei e?a?ie ia ?o a?eueiee
iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iee ?icaeoie oa iie?oeei-i?aaia? canaaee,
iie?oeeo Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi? uiaei oe?a?ioe?a No?aeii? Aaee/eie;

n aecia/eoe i?noea ? ?aaeueio ?ieue eiaeii? iie?oe/ii? neee o
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo aca?ieiao;

n ?ice?eoe aieea Oe?a?inueei? a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae ia aca?ieie
i?ae iieuenueeei oa oe?a?inueeei ia?iaeaie;

n aea/eoe eiiieaen aioo??oi?o ? ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a, ui aieeaaee ia
i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? noinoiee a ?aa?ii?;

n i?iaiae?coaaoe aieea ooaaee ?aaee iine?a aea?aeaa Aioaioe uiaei
no?aeieo ei?aeii?a Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi? ia iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a
No?aei?e Aaee/ei? oa iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee a iiaeo
iie?oe/ieo oiiaao.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neoaoaaee
ooiaeaiaioaeuei? oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy i?i caaaeueiiaeaiie?aoe/i?
i?eioeeie noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa, no/aniiai
o?einionueeiai ?icoi?iiy aea?aeaaii? aeaaee oa aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy,
iaoia?aaeaeaia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a,
eiioeaioe?e iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. Aea/ath/e
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? i?ioeane, iiae?? ? oaeoe, aeena?oaio
aeio?eioaaany eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai i?aeoiaeo oa i?eioeei?a ieth?ae?cio
? ia’?eoeaiino?.

Iniiaiei iaoiaeii aeine?aeaeaiiy aoa no?oeoo?ii-nenoaiiee
(i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee) aiae?c, ui aeaei ciiao aea/aoe oaio e??cue
i?ecio aaaaoueio iaoe – ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa Iieueu?, anana?oiuei?
?noi???, ?noi??? aeeieiiao?? oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, iie?oieia??
oa nioe?ieia??, iaoe?ieia?? oa eoeueoo?ieia??, aoiieia?? oa
aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa, i?aaiciaanoaa oiui. Aaoi? aeei?enoiaoaaa oaeiae
iaoiaee ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co, ocaaaeueiaiiy ? neioaco iaeiioeiieo
oaeo?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? ianaiia?aae o eiiieaeniiio
aeine?aeaeaii? aaaeeeai? iaoeiai? i?iaeaie – iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo
noinoie?a ia??iaeo ai?ioueae ca oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaai?noue ia oa?aiao
No?aeii? Aaee/eie o 1918-1923 ??. Aeena?oaio aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e oa
ca?oa?aei?e ?noi??ia?ao?? aeie?aiea ?? c iecee o?aaeeoe?eieo aeey
?noi?e/ii? iaoee oai o naiino?eio ? canoinoaaa aeey ?? aea/aiiy iia?
eiioeaiooaeuei? i?aeoiaee. I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy o iaoeiaee ia?a aoei
aaaaeaii cia/iee ianea iaiioae?eiaaieo iaoa??ae?a, ia?aaeon?i a?o?aieo,
iaei aai cian?i ia aeei?enoiaoaaieo ?ai?oa, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue aaoi?o
aeena?oaoe?? ii-iiaiio inieneeoe o? aoiiiie?oe/i? i?ioeane ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo, ye? aei oeueiai aai ia aea/aeeny cian?i,
aai ae aeine?aeaeoaaeenue o?aaiaioa?ii ? /anoi oaiaeaioe?eii.

Ia iniia? ia’?eoeaiiai aiae?co aeieoiaioaeueieo aeaea?ae aeena?oaio
ii-iiaiio aena?oeea ieoaiiy aca?iei i?ae iieuenueeei oa oe?a?inueeei
ia?iaeaie a Aaee/ei?, ui a?ae ii/aoeo oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
iie?oe/iiai ?ooo ? ?icaeoeo iieuenueeiai oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny aca?iiith
iaaeia??ith oa ia?icoi?iiyi.

Aeena?oaio noaa?aeaeo?, ui aeieeiaiiy iia?oiueiai oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo a Aaee/ei?, ioi?ieaiiy
ia?o?eii-iie?oe/ii? nenoaie e ooaa?aeaeaiiy a iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? ?aea?
iiaoaeiae niai?ii? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae caaeainoaaei ?icnoaiiaeo
iie?oe/ieo nee o ?aa?ii?.

Aeoiaey/e c aiae?co aeaea?ae, aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui ai?iaeiaae
ei?ioeiai i?ii?aeeo /ano a Aaee/ei? ooai?eeiny /eiaei iie?oe/ieo ?
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. O iaaeao Iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa
?i.O.Oaa/aiea ?icaeaaeany iaoe?iiaeueia iaoea oa e?oa?aoo?a, ia ?icaeoie
yeeo aaeeeee aieea iaee ?.O?aiei, I.Iaaeee, I.A?ooaanueeee,
a?aei-eaoieeoeueea oea?eaa oa ieo?iiieeo A.Oaioeoeueeee. Ana oea i?eaaei
aei oiai, ui coaiae?ea naeyinueea iana iinooiiai ia?aoai?thaaeany ia
iaoe?iiaeueiina?aeiiee ia?iae. Oe?a?inueeee iie?oe/iee i?ia?ae aaa/aa
aieiaia caaaeaiiy a eiinie?aeaoe?? iie?oe/ieo nee aeey ai?ioueae ca
iaoe?iiaeuei?, nioe?aeuei? oa iie?oe/i? i?aaa naiai ia?iaeo, ca
ooai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o
neeaae? Aano?i-Oai?ueie, a c ?? ?iciaaeii — naiino?eii? aea?aeaae.

O aeena?oaoe?? aiae?co?oueny iie?oeea iieuenueeiai iie?oe/iiai i?iaiaeo,
ui ?icaeyaeaa Aaee/eio ye iaa?ae’?iio neeaaeiao /anoeio iaeaooiuei?
Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae; eiai noaaeaiiy aei oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo, yeee iieuenuee? oia?i?noe ?icaeyaeaee ye aano??enueeo ?io?eao,
cia?yaeaey a?aeaineiai o?yaeo i?ioe iieuenueeeo iacaeaaeieoeueeeo
aeiiaaaiue. Naia oiio iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? i?ioe??//y ia?aaoaaee a
oeaio?? iie?oe/ieo a?aeiinei o ?aa?ii?.

Aianie aeena?oaioa o ?icaeoie ?noi?e/ii? iaoee iieyaa? a oiio, ui a?i
nooo?ai iiaeeaea iayai? o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ioe?iee eiioeaioe?e
aieiaieo iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo oa?oiiaaiue noiniaii oe?a?inueeiai
ieoaiiy. O aeena?oaoe?? anaa?/ii i?iaiae?ciaaii ?iei?ii?aoe?eio
i?ia?aio aiaeaoe??, oaaea?ae?nonuee? ieaie i?enoae/ee?a, aaoiiii?/i?
i?iaeoe aaeeoeueeeo nioe?ae?no?a uiaei No?aeii? Aaee/eie. Caeo/aiiy
iiaiai oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aeaei iiaeeea?noue aaoi?o i?inoaaeeoe
oi?ioaaiiy i?aaioeaio?enonueeiai, e?aiaeaiie?aoe/iiai ?
e?ai?aaeeeaeueiiai oaai??a a oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio
?on?, i?iaiae?coaaoe ?o eiioeaioe?? ae??oaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy a
Aaee/ei? oa noaaeaiiy aei iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee Iieueu?.

Aeena?oaio oa?a aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao cia/ia eiei iiaeo aeaea?ae,
iia’ycaieo c oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeith a?eiith, yea aoea iaieio/ei
iane?aeeii a oiiaao a?aeaa?oi? oia?i?noe/ii? iie?oeee iieye?a uiaei
Oe?a?ie oa ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeueeeo ono?aie?iue a
oe?a?inueeiio na?aaeiaeu?. Ia iniia? ia?ainieneaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue oa aiae?co aaiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe??, ui
neeaeany o iiai?ii?e ?a?ii?, aaoi? ii-iiaiio i?ae?eoia aei iie?oe/ieo
ioe?iie ai?iieo ae?e, ae?yeueiino? ai?iii-aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?n?e o
Aaee/ei?, c’ynoaaiiy i?e/ei oa iane?aee?a a?eie.

Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue i??i?eoao a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? o
aeine?aeaeaii? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? iieuenueeiai o?yaeo
uiaei No?aeii? Aaee/eie, o aea/aii? ?icnoaiiaee iie?oe/ieo nee oa
iaeaaeii? ioe?iee a?e cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa aeiaeiea
no?aeiiaaeeoeueeiai ieoaiiy ia Ia?ecuee?e ie?i?e eiioa?aioe??. Iniaenoei
aianeii aeena?oaioa ? oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy ia iniia? i?ea?iaeueieo
ia?oiaeaea?ae ae?yeueiino? iieuenueei? aeeieiiao??, aa?oaanueeeo
o?yaeiaoe?a oa iine?a naeio, iia’ycaii? c aaoiiii?/ieie i?iaeoaie
No?aeii? Aaee/eie, iaaiai?aiiy ? i?eeiyooy yeeo coiiaethaaeiny
i?aeia?iaeieie ianoaaeiaie. Aei aiae?co aoei caeo/aii oaeiae iia?
aeieoiaioe c aea/aiiy i?iaeaie aca?iei i?ae o?yaeaie OI? oa COI?,
aeiaiai?o I?enoaenueeee-Iaoeth?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? e o aeeaieiio aiae?c?
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai noaiiaeua oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy No?aeii?
Aaee/eie; iie?oeee o?yaeiaeo eaa?iao?a uiaei oe?a?ioe?a; caoiae?a
iieuenueei? aeaaee, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?ioaa?aoe?th e?ath aei neeaaeo
Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae; iniiaieo iieiaeaiue caeiio i?i naiia?yaeoaaiiy
a?ae 26 aa?aniy 1922 ?.; ?icnoaiiaee iie?oe/ieo nee o ca’yceo c
naeiiaeie aeai?aie 1922 ?.

Aeena?oaio anaa?/ii ioa?aeoa?ecoaaa iie?oe/ia aeeooy ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo ii/aoeo 20-o ?ie?a, ?ice?ea noaaeaiiy
oe?a?ioe?a aei iieuenueei? aaei?i?no?aoe?? oa aei anaoe?a?inueei?
i?iaeaie.

Iiaeciith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? oaeiae aiae?c cao?aeiioe?a?inueei?
ia?o?eii-iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, aea/aiiy ?icnoaiiaee iie?oe/ieo nee o
No?aei?e Aaee/ei?. Aaoi? aeine?aeaeo? eiioeaioe??
iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaieoeueeiai oa e?ai?aaeeeaeueiiai oaai??a, ye?
niia?aeoaaee ??ci? ?aeaeii-iie?oe/i? ieaooi?ie, ?o oaeoeeo ? no?aoaa?th
uiaei Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi? oa ?icai?oaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii?
ai?ioueae, cie?aia i?ney 14 aa?aciy 1923 ?. Iia? iaiioae?eiaai?
aeaea?aea aeathoue ciiao ii-iiaiio ?ioai?aooaaoe i?iaeaie Oe?a?inueei?
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae oa ?? ?ieue a oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo
noinoieao. Cia/io oaaao i?eae?eaii aeine?aeaeaiith aea?aeaaioai?/i?
ae?yeueiino? ieo?iiieeoa A.Oaioeoeueeiai ? eiai aieeao ia aca?ieie i?ae
aeaiia ia?iaeaie.

O ?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii ieceo iaeia?aeiieo aeiiaaeaaia eiie?aoieo
ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c ooaaeith ?aaee iine?a aea?aeaa Aioaioe, ye?
ni?e/eieee aeiei??ii? ci?ie a iie?oe/i?e neooaoe?? No?aeii? Aaee/eie.
Na?aae ieo — i?aeaioiaea ? i?eeiyooy caaaeaii? ooaaee, iaoe?iiaeueia
iie?oeea iieuenueeiai o?yaeo a oiiaao, eiee no?aeiiaaeeoeueea i?iaeaia
noaea aioo??iieuenueeith; oe?a?inueeee noni?eueii-iie?oe/iee ?oo
ia??iaeo, ui oa?aeoa?ecoaaany, c iaeiiai aieo, e?ecith a ia?o?yo, a c
?ioiai – ia?aa?oiiaaiiyi ?aeaeii-iie?oe/ieo nee a aea?aeaaieoeueeiio
oaai?? oa iiooeii ieie iiaeo i???ioe??a ? eiioeaioe?e ?icaeoeo.

Iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeaeoa a noeoiiino? iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, ye?
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo a?aeiinei aoea oa
ianoaaeia, ui aoi?/iee oe?a?inueeee aeaiaio noaiiaea aaniethoio
a?eueo?noue ianaeaiiy No?aeii? Aaee/eie. Iieyee iaee ia?aaaao eeoa a
ie?aieo aaeeeeo i?noao e?ath, ?a?a? i?iaeeaaee o aaeeeeo i?noao oa
i?noa/eao, iaeiae, ye ? i?aaenoaaieee ?ioeo iaoe?iiaeueiinoae, ia iiaee
i?aoaiaeoaaoe ia aecia/aeueio ?ieue o noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?
e?ath.

2. Iino?eii ae?th/ei oaeoi?ii iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo a?aeiinei
aenooiaea ? oa ianoaaeia, ui iieuenueea ae?oa e?ath, a c a?aeiiaeaiiyi
Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi? ? ?? aea?aeaai? no?oeoo?e, ?aii?oth/e ia’?eoeai?
oaeoe ?aaeueii? aoiiaeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe??, caia?a/oaaee
oe?a?inuee?noue No?aeii? Aaee/eie. Oeyoii a?aeaa?oi? oa i?eoiaaii?
oaeueneo?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aoiia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? io?oe?eieo
ia?aien?a ianaeaiiy aiie iaiaaaeenue ia?aeiiaoe aaeeoeueeo e na?oiao
a?iiaaenuee?noue o iieuenuee?e a?eueoino? ianaeaiiy e?ath, a ioaea, o
i?aa? iieye?a ia no?aeiiaaeeoeuee? caie?. A?aoiaioii ia ei?enoue
“?noi?e/iiai i?aaa” iieye?a ia oe? caie? oia?i?noe/i? iieuenuee? neee oa
?o iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe?? ?icaeyaeaee ? aoiaeaeaiiy Aaee/eie aei
neeaaeo Iieueu? a ia??iae aei ?? ia?oiai iiae?eo 1772 ?.

3. Iino?eii ae?th/ei oaeoi?ii ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iiai, i?aeia?iaeiiai
oa?aeoa?o, ui iicia/eany ia oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo noinoieao o No?aei?e
Aaee/ei?, aoea iiceoe?y o?ao?o nee, oiaoi oeo aea?aeaa, ye? iaee nai?
?ioa?ane a oeueiio ?aa?ii?.

4. Niaaeueia iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo aioaaii?ci?a aecia/eea ci?no ?
oi?io a?aeiinei i?ae iaiia ia?iaeaie o ia??iae ?noi?e/iiai aeai?o,
coiiaeaiiai Ia?oith na?oiaith a?eiith oa ?aaiethoe?eieie iio?yn?iiyie,
ii/aoie yeei iieeaei iaae?iiy oea?ecio a ?in??. Oeae ?noi?e/iee aeeeee
iieyee ? oe?a?ioe? i?eeiyee o noiaeeo, i?ioa aeinoaoiuei ??cieo oiiaao.
Noiae?noue aeyaeyeanue o aacaea?aeaaiino? iaio ia?iae?a, oa?eoi??aeueii
aiie aeyaeeenue ?ic/eaiiaaieie o neeaae? ?in?? oa Aano?i-Oai?ueie.
Iaeiae aa/aiiy nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ?aeaaeo Aaee/eie o
iieuenueeiai e oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoa aoei ae?aiao?aeueii
i?ioeeaaeiei.

5. Aaciina?aaei?i aeyaii oeeo aieea?a noaei ooai?aiiy a
aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae ia oe?a?inuee?e aoi?/i?e oa?eoi??? No?aeii?
Aaee/eie Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee. I?iaieioaiiy COI?
aoei ni?eeiyoa iieyeaie ye neaiae aei ca?ieiiai aenooio.
Oe?a?inueei-iieuenueea a?eia, ui ?icii/aeany 1 eenoiiaaea, cae?i/eeany
17 eeiiy 1919 ?. ieoiaoe??th iieuenueeeie a?enueeaie an??? oa?eoi???
Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee.

6. Iaae?iiy COI? aoei coiiaeaii cia/iith ia?aaaaith Iieueu? a
aeiiii?/ieo, iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/ieo ? ethaenueeeo ?ano?nao, aenieei
ii?aeueii-iie?oe/iei noaiii ?? a?enueea, yeee iii?e a?ae/ooi? ii?acee a
ie?aieo iia?aoe?yo i?aeo?eioaaany neii?aeeiiaaieie i?iiaaaiaeenonueeeie
oa, aieiaia, i?aai?caoe?eii-oi?aae?inueeeie aeoe?yie ia o?yaeiaiio,
a?i?enueeiio ? noni?eueii-a?iiaaenueeiio ??aiyo; iine?aeiaiith
i?aeo?eieith oa?eoi??aeueieo aeiiaaaiue Iieueu? e?a?iaie Aioaioe oa NOA;
a?aenooi?noth iie?oe/ii? aie? i?ia?aeiee?a COI? ? OI? aei ia’?aeiaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo ? a?enueeiaeo ?ano?n?a o ai?iouea? ca niai?i?noue ?
iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie.

7. Cacia/ai? i?e/eie coiiaeee ia eeoa iaae?iiy COI?, a e iiaeaeueoo
aeieth cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue. Iaeaeua ?aaea 25 /a?aiy 1919 ?.
ooaaeeea “oei/aniai” a?aeaeaoe No?aeio Aaee/eio i?ae iieuenueea
oi?aae?iiy ca oiiae iaaeaiiy ?e aaoiiii??, oi?io ? ci?no yei? aecia/eoue
niaoe?aeueiee aeiaia?? i?ae Iieueuath ? e?a?iaie Aioaioe, a oaeiae
ieaa?noeeo, /an i?iaaaeaiiy yeiai a?aeeeaaeaany ia iaeaooi?. Iiaeaeueo?
iiae?? inoaoi/ii ia?aeiiaee aea?aeaa-o/anieoeue ie?ii? eiioa?aioe?? o
?ica’ycaii? no?aeiiaaeeoeueeiai ieoaiiy ia ei?enoue Iieueu?; 14 aa?aciy
1923 ?. ?aaea Aiaanaaei??a iaaeaea Iieueu? th?eaee/i? i?aaa ia
aieiae?iiy No?aeiith Aaee/eiith. Oae no?aeiiaaeeoeueea ieoaiiy c
i?aeia?iaeiiai ia?aoai?eeiny o aioo??oiueiiieuenueea.

8. sse o ia??iae ca?ieiiai i?ioenoiyiiy, oae ? a ?iee ?iaioe Ia?ecueei?
ie?ii? eiioa?aioe??, ci?ie aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? oa
i?aeia?iaeiiai noaiiaeua Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi? o i?aeoiaeao aei oe???
i?iaeaie ia /?eueia i?noea aenoaaeenue aeaiaioe ??cieo eiioeaioe?e,
cai?iiiiiaaieo iieuenueeith iie?oe/iith aeoieith ua caaeiaai aei
caeiaoooy aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino?. Iniiaieie c ieo aoee:
?iei?ii?aoe?eia, noi?iiaaia e?aea?aie Iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii?
ia?o?? (aiaeaoe??th), ia?aeiaiiaaii? o ia?o? ?iee iacaeaaeiino? a
Ia?iaeii-iaoe?iiaeueiee nithc, oa oaaea?ae?nonueea, ae?iaeaia
TH.I?enoaenueeei ? eiai ioi/aiiyi o Iieuenuee?e ia?o?? nioe?ae?noe/i?e.
Iaeaea? oe? eiioeaioe?? aacoaaeeny ia iieuenueeino? No?aeii? Aaee/eie,
iaa?oioiaoaaee i?aoaic?? Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi? ia oe?
cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie?, ?ic??ciyth/enue i?ae niaith eeoa caniaaie
aeinyaiaiiy iaoe.

9. I?ney cae?i/aiiy oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie oe?a?inueea iie?oe/ia
aeeooy e?ath oa?aeoa?eco?oueny /e ia iaea?eueoith ca ana i?aeai?iia
aeaaaeoeyoe??//y eiinie?aeaoe??th, caniiaaiith ia i?aaiaii? oe?a?ioe?a
a?ae?iaeeoe aea?aeaai?noue, ia?aoeiaeeoe anoaiiaeaiith iieuenueei?
aeaaee.

10. Iieuenueea ieoiaoe?y cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue oa ?icaeoie
iiae?e o ?a?ii? noai?eee iia? oiiae ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo. Ia?aae iei iinoaei caaaeaiiy — ae?iaeoe
? cai?iiiioaaoe noni?euenoao oeyoe iiaeaeueoi? ai?ioueae, ye?
a?aee?eaaee a iia? iiaeeeaino? ?aae?caoe?? i?aaiaiue oe?a?ioe?a aei
iaoe?iiaeueiiai aecaieaiiy oa a?aeiiaeaiiy nai?? aea?aeaaiino?. Iiooe
oaeeo ia?niaeoea i?eca?a aei oiai, ui a oe?a?inueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?on? c ii/aoeii 20-o ?ie?a aecia/eeenue
oeaio?enonueeee, i?aaioeaio?enonueeee, nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iee oa
e?ai?aaeeeaeueiee iai?yie;

11. Caciaea ci?i iiceoe?y a iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?on? Oe?a?inueei?
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae. I?ae aieeaii aioo??oiueiiieuenueeeo oa
?a?iiaenueeeo ianoaaei aeu? ???a?oe OAEOe iaaeaaaee ia?aaaao iio?aa?
ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c iieuenueeith aeaaeith, iaeiae cia/ia /anoeia
aeooiaainoaa oa a??oth/eo i?iaeiaaeoaaea aeio?eioaaoenue aioeiieuenueeeo
iiceoe?e.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy ianaiia?aae iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiii
aea? iiaeeea?noue caiiaieoe i?iaaeeio a ?noi??? oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo
noinoie?a i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo. Oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, oai?aoe/i?
aeniiaee oa ocaaaeueiaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? ye o
eiiieaeni?e i?aenoieia?e i?aoe? c aeaii? oaie, oae ? a caaaeueieo
eo?nao, niaoeeo?nao c ?noi??? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ?oo?a a Oe?a?i?.

Ioae?eaoe?y iaoa??ae?a aeena?oaoe?? ni?ey? aeeaoiio ?icoi?iith
no/anieo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo iaoe?iiaeueieo
aea?aeaa ? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo aca?iei, iiaeieaiith iacaiae oa
aioaaii?ci?a, ui aeieeathoue i?ae /an noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
aea?aeaa o ??cieo ?aa?iiao na?oo. Aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue
aooe aeei?enoai? aea?aeaaieie onoaiiaaie i?e aecia/aii? eiioeaioe?e ?
iaoiae?a iaoe?iiaeueii? oa i?aeia?iaeii? iie?oeee, iaeaaiaeaeaii?
ia?oia?nueeeo aca?iia?aeiinei c non?aei?ie aea?aeaaaie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeena?oaoe?y
iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaii? eaoaae?e iie?oieia??, nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee oa i?aaa Euea?anueeiai o?e?aeo Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai??
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae ia
can?aeaii? a?aeae?e?a aoiiiie?oieia?? ? iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei ?inoeoooo
iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie, ai?iaiaaia
ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo Aeaaeai??. Aeena?oaoe?y ciaeoea noaaeuei?
ioe?iee a ?inoeooo? ?noi??? Iieuenueei? Aeaaeai?? iaoe (Aa?oaaa) ? a
Oe?a?inueeiio A?eueiiio oi?aa?neoao? (Ithioai).

Iaoeia? i?iaeaie, aenoioo? aeena?oaioii ia caoeno, i?aenoiee
aeine?aeaeaiue iaaiai?thaaeeny ia i?aeia?iaeieo ? ?anioae?eainueeeo
eiioa?aioe?yo, nai?ia?ao, “e?oaeeo noieao”, cie?aia ia i?aai?ciaai?e
Oe?a?inueeei A?eueiei oi?aa?neoaoii oa Euea?anueeei aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoii
?i.?.O?aiea c i?iaeai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? a
?a?iiaenueeiio eiioaeno? (Euea?a, 1993); i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo, i?aai?ciaaieo ?inoeoooii oe?a?iiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie oa
I?eea?iaonueeei oi?aa?neoaoii, i?enay/aieo 75-??//th oa 80-??//th
ooai?aiiy COI? (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1993; Euea?a, 1998); aeainoi?iii?e
oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee?e eiioa?aioe?? (Euea?a, 1994); i?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e e?a?ciaa/?e eiioa?aioe?? (Oiaeueieoeuee, 1994); neiiic?oiao,
i?aai?ciaaieo Euea?anueeei aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoii ?i.?.O?aiea oa IOO ?i.
O.Oaa/aiea c ieoaiue aea/aiiy iaoeiai? niaaeueie I.A?ooaanueeiai ? eiai
ca’yce?a ?c Cao?aeiith Oe?a?iith (Euea?a, 1995); ?inoeoooii iie?oe/ieo ?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeai aeaiie?ao?? ? aea?aeaaiino?
a Oe?a?i? (Ee?a,1997); I?eea?iaonueeei oi?aa?neoaoii c i?iaeai
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a (?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1997) oa ?i.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o 42 ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a,
na?aae yeeo — ?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iiiia?ao??, a?ioo?e, iaoeia? noaoo?. Oe?
iaoeia? i?aoe? iathoue iaaiee iaoeiaee ?aciiain ? io?eiaee noaaeuei?
?aoeaic?? oao?aoe?a, aeei?enoiaothoueny aeine?aeieeaie a ?ioeo iaoeiaeo
aeaeaiiyo. Caaaeueiee ianya ioae?eaoe?e — aeecueei 40 ae?oe. a?e.

No?oeoo?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aenoioo? caaaeaiiy aecia/eee no?oeoo?o
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aiia iiaoaeiaaia ca i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iei
i?eioeeiii. ?iaioa ia? caaaeueiee ianya 435 noi??iee, neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a (392 noi?.), nieneo aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e (540 iaeiaioaaiue ia 42 noi?.) .

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? oaie aeena?oaoe??, ?? aeooaeuei?noue,
aecia/aii ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao, noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa ? caaaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, aeeeaaea?oueny
iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy, aena?oeth?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia
iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa ?o i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy”
aea/a?oueny nooi?iue iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie. Iaaieioaii, ui
aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae iieuenueeei ? oe?a?inueeei ia?iaeaie noaee
iaei??th c oeaio?aeueieo i?iaeai i?e aea/aii? ?noi???
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo a oe?a?inuee?e oa iieuenuee?e ?noi??ia?ao??
ua iai?ee?ioe? O?O-ii/aoeo OO no. Ie?ai? aniaeoe aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie ciaeoee aena?oeaiiy a i?aoeyo oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo
iie?oe/ieo, a?iiaaenueeeo oa eoeueoo?ieo ae?y/?a, i?eoeeueiee?a
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai ii?icoi?iiy. Na?aae ieo ae??ciythoueny i?aoe?
I.Aa?a?inueeiai, TH.Aa/einueeiai, A.Aoaeceiianueeiai, I.Aaieaae/a,
I.Iaaeeea, I.Oa?eaoeueeiai, ?.O?aiea, N.Aeiia?inueeiai,
?.Aeaoeinueeiai, A.Ae?aiaiaea, TH.Aeiaioeinueeiai, O.Eiia/iiai,
A.Oaeueaeiaia oa ?i.

Aaaeeeaa i?noea o aea/aii? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo iin?aeathoue i?aoe?, iioae?eiaai? a 20-30-o
?ieao. Oe?a?inuee? ?noi?eee oa iie?oeee, aaciina?aaei? o/anieee
aecaieueieo ciaaaiue N.Oiiao?anueeee, I.Eiceinueeee, ?.Eaae?ei,
E.Eaaeoeueeee, I.Noao?a iaa?oioiaoaaee iaiao?aei?noue ?ica’ycaiiy
i?iaeaie ca?aeii c i?aaii oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo ia naiiaecia/aiiy. A
?noi?eei-iaioa?ieo i?aoeyo E.Eaaeoeueeiai, I.Eiceinueeiai, Ae.Iae??aa,
A.*aee?anueeiai, I.Iiaeyiiae/a-Iaaeaiea, A.E?ocaaa (I.Aeoieia),
I.Eocueie, I.Caeeeinueeiai, A.Eo/aanueeiai, N.Oooaae/a oa ?ioeo ?ice?eoi
ia?aaeoiiae ? o?ae aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Aaee/ei?, i?e/eie
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ?aaiethoe??, oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie
1918-1919 ??., iieacaii i?ioean noai?aiiy Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii?
?anioae?ee ? ai?ioueao ca ooaa?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?,
oiaoi iiae?e, ye? aecia/aee noai oa ia?niaeoeae iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo
noinoie?a. C iaeyaeo ia eiioeaiooaeuei?noue aeeeaaeo ?noi?e/iiai
iaoa??aeo, i?ea?iaeuei?noue aeniiae?a oa ocaaaeueiaiue iniaeeai
ae??ciythoueny aeine?aeaeaiiy A.Eo/aanueeiai ? I.Eiceinueeiai.

Aeecueeeie aei caaaeaieo i?aoeue o aena?oeaii? iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/iiai
aeeooy e?ath o 20-30-o ?ieao oa iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo aca?iei aoee
i?aoe? A.Eeieinueeiai, I.*oaaoiai, I.Iaca?oea, Ae.Aeiioeiaa,
I.Noe?ai?nueeiai, E.Eiaa?nueeiai, I.Oaaeaiea, ?.E?ei’yeaae/a oa ?i.

O iieuenuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? 20-30-o ?ie?a oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy
?icaeyaeaeiny a e?oa?aoo??, i?enay/ai?e caeaa?eueoiai
oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee?e a?ei? oa noaiiaeaiith no?aeieo ei?aeii?a Ae?oai?
?a/?iiniieeoi?. Oe? i?aoe?, aaoi?aie yeeo aoee ia?aaaaeii iie?oe/i?
ae?y/?, iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia aea? a?oie. Aei ia?oi? iaeaaeaoue
aeaeaiiy, a yeeo caia?a/oaaeany caeaoi?noue oe?a?ioe?a aei oai?aiiy
aeanii? aea?aeaae ? oei naiei iaa?oioiaoaaeany caeiiii??i?noue aaaeaiiy
aieiaeo ae?e ia noiae? oa i?eeo/aiiy oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue aei neeaaeo
Iieueu?. Ae?oaa a?oia i?aaenoaaeaia e?oa?aoo?ith, a ye?e aenoaaeany
?aeay noai?aiiy oaaea?aoe?? c aecaieaieie c-i?ae ?in?enueeiai iaioaaiiy
aea?aeaaaie. Iaeiae o oeeo i?aoeyo ?icaeyaeaeeny
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieuei? ciaaaiiy aaee/ai ye caiao ia oe?e?ni?noue
a?aeiiaeaii? ?a/?iiniieeoi?.

A i?aeai?iiee ia??iae o Iieueu? iioae?eiaai? i?aoe?, aaoi?e yeeo
iaiaaaeeny i?ae?eoe aei aea/aiiy i?iaeaie ia’?eoeaii, ii-iaoeiaiio.
Ca?iaeeany i?ioe?a?inueeee iai?yi iieuenueei? i?aeai?iii? ioae?oeenoeee,
yeee oai?eee oae? ae?y/?, ye E.Aan?eaanueeee, O.Aoeaiace, O.Aieoaei oa
?i. Aaeeeei nooiaiai ia’?eoeaiino? ? oiea?aioiino? uiaei oe?a?ioe?a
ae??ciyeeny ioae?eaoe?? ae?oeiaaieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue “Sprawy
Narodowo?ciowe” ? “Biuletyn ?olsko – ukrainski”, i?iaiae?ciaai? ?iaioe
A.Ioeaeeuenueeiai, A.I?i/eianueeiai, O.Eo/aae, N.Einy,
I.Aeoi?i-Ai?eianueeiai, I.Aaiaeaeueniaia, E.N?ieianueeiai,
A.THcaonueeiai, A.Neaaaea oa ?i.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?aeaeaii e?eoe/iiio aiae?cia? i?aoe? ?aaeyinueeeo
?noi?ee?a, ye? o??th /e ?ioith i??ith oi?eaeeny aeine?aeaeoaaii? iaie
i?iaeaie; cacia/aii, ui ia ?aaeyinueeo ?noi??ia?ao?th aieeaaea ia eeoa
?aeeia iiaeeeaa ca oeo oiia ia?enenonueei-eai?inueea iaoiaeieia?y
aeine?aeaeaiue, a e ?aaeyinueea ae?eni?noue. Aiaeii/an aeena?oaio ia
i?aiaioo? ? aaaaoueio neooieo aeoiie, aeneiaeaieo ?aaeyinueeeie
aaoi?aie. O aeena?oaoe?? cie?aia, aeoeaioiaaii oaaao ia iiceoeaieo ?
iaaaoeaieo iiiaioao aeine?aeaeaiue ?.Aiaiaeenoa, I.Aieyithea, ?.Aaeooee,
I.Eiae, I.Ei?aeaiea, ?.Eieii?eoey, N.Iaea?/oea, A.Iaeai/oea, I.Iai/oea,
TH.Neeaee, I.Oeeiea, A.*oaaeiaa, A.ss?ioaiea.

Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia e oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeine?aeaeaiue c i?iaeaie
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo aca?iei ?noi?ee?a oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e.
Na?aae ieo aeae?eeii aeine?aeaeaiiy E.A?eana, Ae.Aa?/ai?anueeiai,
O.Aoi/aea, Ae.Aeiioeiaa, C.Eieoa, A.Eoa?eiae/a, I.Iaeueieeiae/a,
I.I??/oea, I.Iaa?ioeueeiai, ?.Iaaa?anueeiai, ss.Iaeainueeiai,
I.Iieiinueei?-Aaneeaiei, N.??iaoeueeiai, I.Noao?aa, ?.Oiie, N.Oaeoo?ia
oa ?i.

Aeaa’yiino? ?iee ?icaeyaeathoueny aeena?oaioii ye iiaee ia??iae o
?icaeoeo ?noi??ia?ao?? i?iaeaie. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oeueiai ?
i?iaiae?ciaai? i?aoe? A.Aieoaea, ss.A?eoeaea, A.Aoaey, ss.Aeaoeaae/a,
A.?aoooa, A.Caoa?/oea, I.Eoaooyea, N.Eoeue/eoeueeiai, ?.Eo?ana.
I.Eeoaeia, N.Iaea?/oea, E.Iaoiaiea, A.Ianeaanueeiai, I.Iaaethea,
A.Na?a?e/oea, A.Oeaaia?ioa, TH.Oaiiaaea, I.Oaaaoeyea oa ?ioeo, o yeeo
aeine?aeieee ii-iiaiio i?ae?eoee aei aea/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?, ia’?eoeaii ioe?ieee noaaeaiiy iieuenueeeo
o?yaeiaoe?a oa ??cieo iie?oe/ieo nee aei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy.

??ciiiai?oi? aniaeoe oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo aca?iei ia oe?ieiio
?noi?e/iiio oe? aeine?aeaeoaaeeny iieuenueeeie ?noi?eeaie i?ney 1945 ?.
Iaie i?iaiae?ciaai? i?aoe? ?.Aai?inueeiai, I.Aaeicaea, A.Aa?e?oeueeiai,
A.Aea?oae, O.Aeiiaeianueeiai, I.AEo?aanueeiai-A?a?anueeiai, A.C?iae,
I.Ee?iaoeueeiai, I.Eiceianueeiai, E.E?anianueeiai, ?.Eiei, TH.Eoeoeee,
TH.Eoiaiaoeueeiai, TH.Eaaaiaeianueeiai, A.Eoeiinueeiai, E.I?i/ee,
I.I?oca, *.Ia?oa/a, A.Ia?oeee, I.I??ee, A.Iieyea,
I.Iai?aeeinueei?-Oo?ae, ss.?aaec?eianueeiai, O.?oaeieoeueeiai,
?.Oiaeaoeueeiai, oa ?i., o yeeo eeoa aeioe/ii ?icaeyaeathoueny ie?ai?
neeaaeia? aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie.

Aiae?c nooiaiy iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie i?aea?a aeena?oaioa aei aeniiaeo,
ui iii?e ?nioaaiiy aeineoue cia/iiai ianeao e?oa?aoo?e, a ye?e a?eueoith
/e iaioith i??ith aena?oeththoueny ??ci? aniaeoe ia?aii? aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie, noai ?? iaoeiaiai inieneaiiy ia ? aeinoaoi?i.
Aiae?oe/iee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e i?aeoaa?aeaeo?, ui aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeeo
ae eiiieaenii aea/aeenue iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? aca?ieie ia??iaeo
aecaieueieo ciaaaiue 1918-1923 ??., iie?oeea iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo
oa?oiiaaiue uiaei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy, ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa ?o aca?iia?aeiineie c Iieuenueeith aea?aeaaith,
aein? ua iaia?. Oeth i?iaeaio iaiaaa?oueny ?ica’ycaoe aeena?oaio.

Cia/ia /anoeia ?icae?eo i?enay/aia aeine?aeaeaiith aeaea?aeueii? aace.
Aeena?oaio aeyaea ? aa?a aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao iia? a?o?ai? aeieoiaioe,
cie?aia iaoa??aee Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao aeueo i?aai?a
aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI) oa Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
a?o?ao a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue Oe?a?ie (OeAeAAI) o Ee?a?,
Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao Oe?a?ie o Eueaia?
(OeAe?AE), a?o?ao iiaeo aeo?a (AAN) oa Oeaio?aeueiiai a?enueeiaiai
a?o?ao (CAW) o Aa?oaa?, Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Aaaa??? (Ithioai),
aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a Euea?anueei? oa ?aaii-O?aie?anueei? iaeanoae.

Aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao caeo/aii iia? aeieoiaioe aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?
Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei? Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee: ooaaee, ?icii?yaeaeaiiy,
oee?eoey?e, iioe I?aceaeaioa, ?? io?oe?eieo aeaeaaaoe?e aei
aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa e?a?i-o/anieoeue ie?ieo eiioa?aioe?e o
Ia?eae?, ?ec?, Nia, aei E?ae Iaoe?e oiui. Oe?iiei aeaea?aeii aeey
aea/aiiy oaie noaee ?aciethoe?? c’?cae?a oa eiioa?aioe?e iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e ? i?aai?caoe?e, ia yeeo ?icaeyaeaeeny ieoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
iie?oeee oeeo ia?o?e, ?o noaaeaiiy aei iieuenueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoai? iaiioae?eiaai? i?ioieiee can?aeaiue
Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa??aoo COI?, aenooie oa eenooaaiiy eiai ae?y/?a.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo
aca?iei iathoue aeieoiaioe AAN o Aa?oaa?: i?ioieiee can?aeaiue ?aaee
I?i?no??a, iie?oe/iiai eii?oaoo ?aaee I?i?no??a, io?oe?ei? o?yaeia?
aeieoiaioe, iaoa??aee oiiae?a ICN Iieueu?, cie?aia No?aeiiai a?aeae?eo,
iieuenueeeo aeeieiiaoe/ieo i?aaenoaaieoeoa o ?ioeo e?a?iao, iaoa??aee
iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo oi?ioaaiue ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. Aeey
?ethno?aoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee Iieueu? iineoaeeee iaoa??aee oiiaeo
i?i?noa?noa aioo??oi?o ni?aa oa a??iniia?aeaiue.

Nooo?aei aeiiiaiaiiyi aei a?o?aieo aeaea?ae noaee ca??ieee iioae?eiaaieo
aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii?
aeoiee, aeaeai? a Oe?a?i? oa ca ei?aeiiii, cie?aia aaaaoioiii? aeaeaiiy
aeieoiaio?a Ia?ecueei? ie?ii? eiioa?aioe??.

Aeey iaienaiiy i?aoe? oe?iei aeei?enoaia ia??iaee/ia i?ana. Aaoi?
ii?aoethaaa oe?a?inuee?, iieuenuee? oa ?aaeyinuee? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy.
Aiae?c ia??iaeeee aeaa iiaeeea?noue aeeaoa i?inoaaeeoe oiai/ania
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy No?aeii? Aaee/ei?.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie noaee iaioa?e a?aeiieo
oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a.

C aaeeeiai ia?ae?eo aeaea?ae iniaeeai oe?iieie ? noaoenoe/i? ca??ieee,
cie?aia o?, a yeeo i?noyoueny aeai? uiaei ia?aien?a ianaeaiiy 1921 ?
1931 ??.

Ioaea, o aeaiiio ?icae?e? c’yniaaii noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee oaie,
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii nooi?iue ? ye?noue ?? aeieoiaioaeueiiai caaacia/aiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee ae?oai? iieiaeie
XIX-ii/aoeo XX noie?ooy” aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy noaiiaeaiiy ?
?icaeoie i?aeaoi?/ieo oa aoiiiie?oe/ieo aca?iei i?ae aeaiia ia?iaeaie a
oiiaao oe?a?inueeiai oa iieuenueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

Ia oe? aaiiie?oe/ieo ci?i a ?a?ii? aiae?co?oueny iaoe?iiaeueiee neeaae
ianaeaiiy No?aeii? Aaee/eie. Eiai ci?oai?noue, a?aeiinii aenieee
a?aenioie iieuenueeiai i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy ia aoi?/i?e oe?a?inuee?e
oa?eoi??? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iieuenueeeie iie?oeeaie aeey aeiaaaeaiiy
“?noi?e/ieo” i?aa iieye?a ia No?aeio Aaee/eio, ui aoei iaei??th c
iniiaieo i?e/ei iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai i?ioeai?noaa oa iaii?icoi?iue.

Aeena?oaio aeia?a, ui aei caaino?aiiy iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo
noia?a/iinoae ni?e/eieeany ? iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea aano??enueeiai
o?yaeo, yeee aaaaeaa anth Aaee/eio /anoeiith iieuenueei? oa?eoi??? ?
a?aeiia?aeii ni?eya ci?oeiaiith iieuenueeiai aieeao a e?a?,
a?aeeeaeath/e aeiiaaaiiy oe?a?ioe?a c??aiyoe ?o o i?aaao ?c iieuenueeei
ianaeaiiyi. Aiaeii/an ?aoi?ie “ina?/aiiai” aaniethoecio noai?thaaee
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?ioe?a oa caeo/aiiy ?o aei ?a?iiaenueei? iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e.
A?aei-eaoieeoeueea oea?eaa c??aithaaeanue o i?aaao c ?eii-eaoieeoeueeith
? iinooiiai ia?aoai?thaaeanue ia aeooiaiee iieio oe?a?inoaa.

Cia/io oaaao aeena?oaio i?eae?eea aena?oeaiith ?ie? a?aei-eaoieeoeueeiai
aeooiaainoaa o iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? a Aaee/ei?, ui
?icii/aeiny a 30-o ?ieao XIX no. ? a iiaeaeueoiio ia?aoai?eeiny ia
oe?ieee aoiieoeueoo?iee iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a.
Aaaeeeao ?ieue o oeueiio a?ae?a?aei a?iiaaenueei-eoeueoo?ia
aeaiie?aoe/ia oa?oiiaaiiy “?onueea O??eoey”. ?? ae?yeuei?noue
caii/aoeoaaea iiaee aoai iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ? iie?oe/iiai ?ooo
o No?aei?e Aaee/ei?. Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? aca?ieie noaee
aecia/aeueieie a iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? e?ath.

Ia?aeiiiei iiiaioii o aeeoo? iieye?a ? oe?a?ioe?a Aaee/eie noaea
?aaiethoe?y 1848 ?. O ?icae?e? ia cia/iiio oaeoe/iiio iaoa??ae?
aena?oeaii ia?aa?a iiae?e o Eueaia? oa caaaeii o Aaee/ei? a ia??iae
“aanie ia?iae?a”; aeiaaaeaii, ui ?aaiethoe?y aeoea?coaaea iie?oe/i?
aeiiae oe?a?ioe?a ? cana?ae/eea ?o iaoooaaiiy iieyeaie. Coneeey
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a iaooiaooaaeeny ia aia?oee ii?? iieye?a oa
iaaaaeaiiy io?oe?eiiai A?aeiy caaeiaieueiyoe caeiii? aeiiae oe?a?ioe?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaaieioaii, ui iineeaiiy iieuenueeeo aieea?a o Aaee/ei?,
?ic/a?oaaiiy oe?a?inueei? ae?oe iiaea?eiith a?ith A?aeiy ni?e/eieei
iiyao iineaio?euenueeiai ?ooo. Aiaeii/an iieacaii eiai nooue oa
aaiethoe?th. Cia/ia oaaaa i?eae?eaia ?icaeoeo oa nioe?aeuei?e aac?
ia?iaeianueeiai ?ooo, eiai ?ie? a iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiio
a?ae?iaeaeaii? Aaee/eie. Ia eiai canaaeao noai?th?oueny ia?aaea
iie?oe/ieo oa ina?oi?o onoaiia, ?icaeaa?oueny i?ana, ca?eueoo?oueny
oe?a?inueea i?aaenoaaieoeoai a Aaeeoeueeiio E?aeiaiio naei? oa o
A?aeainueeiio ia?eaiaio?. Iaaaeyea ?ieue a aaiethoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oa oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo aca?iei o Aaee/ei?
iaeaaeaea I.Ae?aaiiaiiao ? I.Eoe?oo. Iaeiae i?iiiceoe?? i?i ii?icoi?iiy
i?ae aeaiia ia?iaeaie ia i?eiineee i/?eoaaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Na?ae/aiiyi
iaoe?iiaeueieo oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo noia?a/iinoae, ui
iiaeeaethaaeeny, noaea iiyaa ?aaeeeaeueiiai iai?yio, yeee i?aaenoaaey?
noai?aia o 1890 ?. ?onueei-oe?a?inueea ?aaeeeaeueia ia?o?y.

O ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii nooue oa iane?aeee iie?oeee “iiai? a?e” 1890
?. a oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo aca?ieiao, yea ni?e/eieea aeoea?caoe?th
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy Aaee/eie ? aeeeeeaea ?iciaaeoaaiy
ia?iaeiaoe?a c ?aaeeeaeaie. Iacaaaeath/e ia iaaia ?? iani?eeiyooy
/anoeiith oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai i?iaiaeo, iiooiaoii noai?aiiy iiaeo
oe?a?inueeeo ?inoeoooe?e, a oaeiae ni?eya ci?oeiaiith oe?a?iio?euenoaa
oa iineaaeaiith iineaio?euenueeeo aieea?a. Cie?aia, o 1899 ?. aoee
noai?ai? Oe?a?inueea nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ia ? Oe?a?inueea
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o??. Noi?ioaaeany iiaa ia?o?eii-iie?oe/ia
nenoaia, ae?yeuei?noue yei? a?aeiia?aeaea iio?aaai ia?iaeiiai ?ooo ca
iaoe?iiaeuei? oa iie?oe/i? i?aaa oe?a?ioe?a. Iniiaiei aaneii iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e noaea ?aeay iie?oe/ii? naiino?eiino? Oe?a?ie.

A aeine?aeaeaii? iieacaii ?icaeoie iieuenueeiai iie?oe/iiai ?ooo, yeee
aoa cia/ii neeuei?oei, i?ae oe?a?inueeee. I?iaiae?ciaaii ae?yeuei?noue
iieuenueei? ia?o?? caieaaeaniee?a – oae caaieo iiaeieye?a oa
Iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o?? (aiaeae?a). Iieuenueea iiiceoe?y
oaeoe/ii ?icai?oaea eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueio a?eio i?ioe
iacaeaaeieoeueeeo ono?aie?iue oe?a?ioe?a. Iniaeeaa iai?oaeaiiy o
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo noinoieao ia ia?aeii? XIX – XX no. ni?e/eieea
ai?ioueaa ca oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao o Eueaia? oa oe?a?inueeo a?iiac?th
o Noai?neaa?, ?oo ca ?aoi?io aeai?/i? nenoaie. Aeena?oaio ?icaeyioa
ia?aa?a oeeo iiae?e, a?aeia?acea nooue i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo i?ioenoiyiue o
oiae? aa?a?ieo no?aee?a 1902 ?., i?iaiae?coaaa o?ae aeai??a aei
Aea?aeaaii? ?aaee o 1908 ?., ye? aeeeeeaee iiao oaeeth
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo i?ioenoiyiue. Caaaeai? iiae?? cana?ae/eee
aeeaeio i?ioe??/ o iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo aca?ieiao, ye? iio?aaoaaee
iaaaeiiai ?ica’ycaiiy. C’yaeeany iaaaciaea caaaeueiiai
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai eiioe?eoo a e?a?.

*?eueia oaaaa i?eae?eaiia a aeena?oaoe?? ni?ia? “icaei?iaeaiiy”
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a iiaei iai?nieeii Aaee/eie
I.Aiaaeeinueeei, yeiio, ia aeaeue, ia aaeaeiny aeinyaoe niiae?aaii?
caiaee. Eeoa o 1914 ?. i?e ni?eyii? ieo?iiieeoa A.Oaioeoeueeiai aoei
aeinyaiooi ?aaeueieo iinooiie: noaaeaii, cie?aia, aeai?/ee caeii ?
e?aeiaee noaooo, ui noaei aeey oe?a?ioe?a cia/iith ia?aiiaith. Onoaaeeny
ia?aoeiaee ia oeyoo oe?a?inueeiai oe?eueieoeoaa, ia?aaeaa/aeiny
a?aee?eooy o Eueaia? oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Oe? caeiaooee
oe?a?inuee? iie?oeee ?icoe?ithaaee ye iaaiee aoai ia oeyoo aeinyaiaiiy
iie?oe/ii? aaoiiii?? Aaee/eie oa iiae?eo ?? ia aea? /anoeie ca aoi?/iith
iciaeith, ui i?ae?eaaei iiiiiie?th iieye?a ia aeaaeo.

O ?icae?e? i?inoaaeaii ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo iaia?aaeiaei? oa a ?iee Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie, yea ua a?eueoa
caaino?eea eiio?iioaoe?th i?ae iieuenueeith ? oe?a?inueeith
noni?euei?noth. Cacia/aii, ui ia?iaee, ye? i?iaeeaaee ia ii??aiyii
iaaaeee?e oa?eoi???, ia ciaoiaeeee eiii?ii?no. I?e/eiith oeueiai
i?ioenoiyiiy caeeoaeanue iaci?ii?noue iiceoe?e iieuenueeiai iie?oe/iiai
i?iaiaeo, a ieaiao yeiai ia aoei i?noey oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? a
Aaee/ei?. Oiio ia ii/aoeo na?oiai? a?eie ye i?aaenoaaieoeoai
oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e ? a?oi aoea noai?aia Aieiaia Oe?a?inueea ?aaea
(AO?), yea i?aai?coaaea eaa?ii Oe?a?inueeeo N?/iaeo No??eueoe?a (ONN).

Cia/io oaaao aeena?oaio i?eae?eea aena?oeaiith ae?yeueiino? AO? oa
noai?aii? ia ?? iniia? Caaaeueii? Oe?a?inueei? ?aaee (CO?), ye?
ni?yiiaoaaee iine?aeiaio ai?ioueao oe?a?ioe?a ca naith aea?aeaai?noue.
Iaae?? ia oni?o o oe?e ai?iouea? aiie iia’ycoaaee c a??iii?aeaeainoaii
oe?na?th. I?ioa aano??enueea iie?oeea uiaei oe?a?ioe?a ia aoea oaeith
ue?ith ? aecia/aeany iaiine?aeiai?noth oa eaa??oaaiiyi i?ae oe?a?ioeyie
? iieyeaie, ui cia/ii caaino?thaaei noia?a/iino? i?ae iaiia ia?iaeaie.

Cia/iee aieea ia iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? aca?ieie, ye iaa?oioiao?
aeena?oaio, iaee iiae??, iia’ycai? c ?aaiethoe??th 1917 ?. o ?in??
(i?iaieioaiiy OI?, i?aeienaiiy o A?ano? 9 ethoiai 1918 ?. aeiaiai?o i?ae
Aano?i-Oai?ueiith oa OI? uiaei No?aeii? Aaee/eie ? I?ai?/ii? Aoeiaeie,
aecia/aiiy ei?aeii?a i?ae Iieueuath oa Oe?a?iith). Eiee c oe?a?inueeiai
aieo aeiaia?? aoa ni?eeiyoee c aaeeeei caaeiaieaiiyi, oi ?aaeoe?y
iieye?a aoea i?ioeeaaeiith. No?aeia Aaee/eia ia?aoai?eeany a e?ae, yeee
o iaaeaeaeiio iaeaooiueiio noaa a?aiith, aea eiio?iioaoe?y ia?a?inea o
a?aee?eo? aieia? ae??.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Oe?a?inueea i?iaeaia o iie?oeoe? Ae?oai?
?a/?iiniieeoi? oa iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo oa?oiiaaiue” oaaaa
cina?aaeaeaia ia aeine?aeaeaii? eiioeaioe?e aieiaieo iieuenueeeo
oa?oiiaaiue uiaei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy, ?icaeyae? ai?iiiai i?ioeai?noaa
a ia??iae COI?, aiae?c? iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae iaaeiei no?aeiiaaeeoeueei?
i?iaeaie oa ?? iaaiai?aiiy ia Ia?ecuee?e (1919 ?.) ? ?ecuee?e (1921 ?.)
ie?ieo eiioa?aioe?yo. Aena?oethth/e oe? ieoaiiy, aeena?oaio aiae?co?
oaeiae noni?eueii-iie?oe/io neooaoe?th o No?aei?e Aaee/ei?.

O ?icae?e? iaaieioo?oueny, ui aeey a?ae?iaeaeaii? o 1918 ?. Ae?oai?
?a/?iiniieeoi? iaeaieiai?oith i?e/eiith ?? neaaeino? aoea iaoe?iiaeueia
no?oeoo?a noni?euenoaa, 30 a?aenioe?a yeiai noaiiaeee iaoe?iiaeuei?
iaioeie, iae/eneaii?oith c yeeo aoea oe?a?inueea. O ca’yceo c oeei o
aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny aea? iniiai? eiioeaioe?? ?ica’ycaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy, ye? oae?acieeeny o iieuenuee?e
iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?: ?iei?ii?aoe?eia, noi?iiaaia
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iei oaai?ii (aiaeaoe??th) ? oaaea?ae?nonueea,
ae?iaeaia ? i?aeo?eioaaia TH.I?enoaenueeei oa eiai ioi/aiiyi. Iaeaea?
eiioeaioe?? iaa?oioiaoaaee iieuenuee? i?aoaic?? ia cao?aeii-oe?a?inuee?
caie? ? a?ae??ciyeeny i?ae niaith eeoa caniaaie aeinyaiaiiy iaoe.

Iiae?? 1918-1921 ??., ?ecueeee aeiaia?? 1921 ?. cana?ae/eee oaeoe/io
ia?aiiao i?ia?aie aiaeae?a, ye? noaaeee ca iaoo iiaoaeoaaoe aea?aeaao
eeoa aeey iieuenueei? iaoe?? ? ai?ieeny c on?i , ui noia?a/eei ?oi?i
ieaiai. Oiaoi, aiaeaee aeiiaaaeeny iiaii? iieii?caoe?? oe?a?inueei?
No?aeii? Aaee/eie. O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny ci?ia iie?oe/ieo
iiaeyae?a i?enoae/ee?a, a oaeiae eiioeaioe?y O.Aieoaea i?i iaaeaiiy
No?aei?e Aaee/ei? aaoiiii??, i?iaeo I.Iaaecyeianueeiai uiaei
oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? e?ath; i?ia?aia aaeeoeueeeo nioe?ae?no?a
A.Aaocia?a oa A. Eaaaiaa?oea i?i i?eeo/aiiy e?ath aei neeaaeo Iieueu? ye
?? i?aai?/ii? /anoeie c iaeii/aniei ianoithaaiiyi oace uiaei iaaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiio ianaeaiith eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueii? aaoiiii?? a iaaeao
Euea?anueeiai, Noai?neaanueeiai ? Oa?iii?euenueeiai ai?aiaenoa.
?icaeyaeathoueny oaeiae i?iaeoe i?ia?ai Iieuenueei? ia?o?? ethaeiai?
“I’yno”, Iieuenueeiai no?iii?oeoaa “Aecaie?i?” oiui.

Aeena?oaio ?icaeyaea? ai?iia i?ioeai?noai iieye?a ? oe?a?ioe?a o
eenoiiaae? 1918 – /a?ai? 1919 ??., c’yniao? noai oa /enaeuei?noue
oe?a?inueeeo ? iieuenueeeo ca?ieieo nee o Eueaia? iaia?aaeiaei? 1
eenoiiaaea 1919 ?., aena?oeth? o?ae iiae?e a i?/ ia 1 eenoiiaaea oa a
ianooii? aei?, ye? iaoiiaeee ooai?aiiy Aea?aeaaiiai nae?aoa??aoo ?
i?iaieioaiiy COI?. Aiaeii/an aeieeaaeii ? a?oiaioiaaii i?iaiae?ciaaii
i?i?aooiee oa iiieeee eiiaiaeoaaiiy a?i?? COI? i?e iai?ii? Eueaiaa oa a
oiae? ai?iieo ae?e ia oa?aiao Aaee/eie ? Eaie?aueie, caoiaee o?yaeo,
ni?yiiaai? ia ci?oeiaiiy iai?iiicaeaoiino? ?anioae?ee.

Ia /eneaieo oaeoao aeena?oaio aeia?a, ui a?eia ua a?eueoa iiaeeaeea
iaiaaenoue i?ae iieyeaie e oe?a?ioeyie. Ia?aiiaa iieye?a icia/aea
e?ea?aeaoe?th Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae oa anoia?a/ aie? i?noeaaiai
ianaeaiiy i?eeo/aiiy oe?a?inueei? oa?eoi??? aei neeaaeo Ae?oai?
?a/?iiniieeoi?.

Ooaaeaia Iaeaeuith ?aaeith iinoaiiaa uiaei No?aeii? Aaee/eie ia
?ica’ycoaaea ieoaiiy i?i ?? inoaoi/iee iie?oe/iee noaoon ? ia aeaaaea
Iieueu? th?eaee/iiai i?aaa aieiae?oe oeei e?a?i. Ia iniia? oe?ieiai
oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo aaoi? aeena?oaoe?? aeia?a, ui ainaie 1919 ?.
iie?oe/ia neooaoe?y iaaeiei oe?a?inueei? i?iaeaie neeaaeaeany ia
ei?enoue Iieueu?. Ii?acea a?i?? OI? o a?ei? c Aeai?e?iei i?aeooiaooaaea
N.Iaoeth?o aei nithco c TH.I?enoaenueeei. Oea i?ecaaei, c?aooith, aei
aeiaiai?o OAA c Aeai?e?iei oa inoaoi/iiai ?iceieo i?ae aaeeoeueeeie ?
iaaeaei?i?yinueeeie oe?a?ioeyie. 2 a?oaeiy 1919 ?. aeaeaaaoe?y
iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo oe?a?ioe?a, i/iethaaia i?i?no?ii caei?aeiiieo ni?aa
OI? A.E?aeoeueeei o Aa?oaa? neeaea aeaeea?aoe?th, a ye?e ?icaeyaeaea
no?aeiiaaeeoeueea ieoaiiy ye aioo??oiueiiieuenueea oa c??eaeany nai?o
i?aa ia No?aeio Aaee/eio. Oni?oe Aeia?iaieue/i? a?i?? noeeeee aea?aeaae
Aioaioe aei ni?eyiiy noaa?e?caoe?? Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae. 21 eenoiiaaea
Iaeaeua ?aaea ca i?iiiceoe??th i?aaenoaaiee?a O?aioe?? ooaaeeea ??oaiiy
i?i iaaeaiiy Iieueu? 25-??/iiai oei/aniaiai iaiaeaoa ia oi?aae?iiy
No?aeiith Aaee/eiith. Caoaa?aeaeaii aoei oaeiae noaooo i?i aaoiiii?th
oa?eoi??? ia no?ae a?ae Nyio. Eeoa /a?ac 25 ?ie?a ?aoa?aiaeoi iaa
ae??oeoe aeieth oeueiai e?ath. Iaeiae oey ooaaea ia aoea ao?eaia o
aeeooy. Aiia ni?e/eieea iaaaoeaio ?aaeoe?th o Aa?oaa? oa oaeeth
?i?oe?eiaaieo iieuenueeith aeaaeith i?ioano?a o an?e aea?aeaa?. I?ae
aieeaii oeueiai ia aiaei-o?aioeocueeeo ia?aaiai?ao aoei ae??oaii
oei/aniai neanoaaoe ae?th noaoooo uiaei No?aeii? Aaee/eie, ianaiia?aae
i?i 25-??/iee iaiaeao Iieueu? ia oi?aae?iiy oe??th oa?eoi???th. Oae?
??oaiiy na?ae/eee, ye aeiaiaeeoue aeena?oaio, i?i ia?aiiao iieuenueei?
aeeieiiao?? ia Ia?ecuee?e ie?i?e eiioa?aioe??. No?aeiiaaeeoeueea ieoaiiy
ia Ia?ecuee?e ie?i?e eiioa?aioe?? i?aei?iaeiny caeaaeii a?ae oiai,
iane?eueee oeueiai aeiaaaea i?aeia?iaeia ianoaiiaea. Aeey aaeeeeo
aea?aeaa aiii iaei ae?oai?yaeia cia/aiiy. Iieueua coi?ea aeiiiaoeny
i?eoeeueiino? Aioaioe ? NOA, aaeaei aeiiaethth/e aioea?eueoiaeoeueeeie
aaneaie. Iaeiae i?iaeaia No?aeii? Aaee/eie caeeoaeany ia?ica’ycaiith, ui
? iaaeae? aoei aeaea?aeii iai?oaeaiiy oa iaiaaiino?.

O eiioaeno? ai?ioueae iieye?a ca No?aeio Aaee/eio aeena?oaio
i?iaiae?coaaa noinoiee TH.I?enoaenueeiai c OI?. O ieaiao aieiaiiai
eiiaiaeoaaiiy A?enueea Iieuenueeiai, ye? aeoiaeeee c aeieo?eie e?a?i
Aioaioe ? NOA, Oe?a?ia iiaeiia aoea noaoe aa?’??ii i?ae Iieueuath ?
?in??th. Ia aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe ? ni?yiiaaia aoea iie?oe/ia
eiiaaioe?y i?ae o?yaeaie OI? oa Iieueu?, i?aeienaia o Aa?oaa? 21 ea?oiy
1920 ?. Aaoi? iieacaa oiiae aeiaiai?o, aeaa eiio ioe?ieo,
ioa?aeoa?ecoaaa ?aaeoe?th ia iueiai ye c oe?a?inueeiai, oae ? c
iieuenueeiai aieo. O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaeathoueny oaeiae oe?e? oa
iane?aeee iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai ianooio i?ioe ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e,
oni?oe yeiai aeyaeeeny oei/aniaeie. A eiioa?aioe?y c o?aaoethaaiiy
?a?iiaenueeeo aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai o aaeuea?enueeiio i?no? Nia aena?oeeea
??ci? i?aeoiaee aei iieuenueeiai ieoaiiy ? no?aeiiaaeeoeueeeo caiaeue.
Ia oea ianaiia?aae aieeioee, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, aiaei-o?aioeocuee?
noia?a/iino? uiaei ?in??: O?aioe?y ia eoea ia aeiaei? noinoiee c
Iineaith, a Aiae?y i?aeienaea c ?in??th aea?aeiee oi?aiaee aeiaia??.
Oiio Eeieae Aeaei?aeae iaiieyaaa ia ia?aie?’? iieye?a c a?eueoiaeeaie.
Eiioa?aioe?y o i.Nia ciaia’ycoaaea Iieueuo oeeanoe ia?aie?’y c ?in??th.

?aaeyinueei-iieuenuee? ia?aaiai?e ?icii/aeeny a ?ec? 21 aa?ani? 1920
?ieo. O ?o oiae? 12 aeiaoiy aoei i?aeienaii i?ae?i?ia?iee ie?iee
o?aeoao, ca yeei Iieueua aeciaaaea ON??, a ?aaeyinueea noi?iia —
iieuenuee? no?aei? ei?aeiie. ?ecueeee ie?iee aeiaia?? a?ae 18 aa?aciy
1921 ?. i?ae Iieueuath ? ?aaeyinueeeie ?anioae?eaie, ?in??th ? Oe?a?iith
aeciaaaa iaeaaei?noue No?aeii? Aaee/eie aei Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi?. Aei
Iieueu? a?aeoiaeeee oaeiae Aieeiue, Iie?nny ? Oieiueia. ?ecueeee ie?iee
aeiaia?? noaa ia?oei i?aaiaei aeoii, yeee aeciaaaa aoiaeaeaiiy No?aeii?
Aaee/eie aei Iieueu? e cana?ae/ea ua iaeio ia?aiiao iieuenueei?
ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee. I?ioanoe oe?a?ioe?a caeeoaeeny aac?acoeueoaoieie.

*?eueia i?noea a aeena?oaoe?? caeia? aiae?c noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii?
neooaoe?? a Aaee/ei? oa c’ynoaaiiy iie?oeei-i?aaiaiai noaoono
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy. Aeieeaaeii aena?oeaii aioo??oith iie?oeeo
Iieueu?, ni?yiiaaio ia iiaio ?ioaa?aoe?th No?aeii? Aaee/eie o neeaae?
Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi?. Caoiaee aeey oeueiai ?icii/aeeny, aaaaea?
aeena?oaio, oaea ae?oeo 1919 ?., a ia iaae? 1920-1921 ??. ii/aeany
e?ea?aeaoe?y aaei?i?no?aoe??, yea aein? ?nioaaea a ?aa?ii?.
Iiaiiianooaai? caoiaee no?eioaaeeny, ine?eueee ua inoaoi/ii ia aoee
ae??oai? i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? ii?ie aea?aeaaii? iaeaaeiino? oe???
oa?eoi???.

Iieii?caoe?? e?ath, aeiaiaeeoue aeena?oaio, ni?eya ooaaeaiee 10 eeiiy
1919 ?. caeii “Iniiae caiaeueii? ?aoi?ie”, ca?aeii c yeei ia noiae?
e?a?ie iiaeii? aoee noai?thaaoeny ainiiaea?noaa eieii?no?a-inaaeiee?a.
O ca’yceo ?c “caiaeueiei aieiaeii” inaaeieoeuee? ainiiaea?noaa noaee
aeaea?aeii iino?eii? iai?oaeaiino? oa i?aeiaoe?iiaeueiiai i?ioenoiyiiy a
e?a?.

O eiioaeno? caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia ?ioaa?aoe?th No?aeii? Aaee/eie a
neeaae? Iieueu?, aoei i?iaaaeaii 1921 ?. ia?aien ianaeaiiy, yeee iiaeiai
aoa a?aoiaiooaaoe i?aaii??i?noue i?eeo/aiiy iiaeo oa?eoi??e aei neeaaeo
aea?aeaae. I?ioe ia?aieno, aaa/ath/e o iueiio i?aaiaiiy o?yaeo
noaeueneo?eoaaoe aoiiiaoe?iiaeueio ae?eni?noue ?aa?iio, aenooieee
ai?a?aionueeee o?yae COI? oa oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??. ?o
i?aeo?eiaee naeyie. Ia?aienia? aoa iaieioaiee caaaeueiee aieeio.

I?aaia? ii?ie uiaei oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy No?aeii? Aaee/eie
?aaeaiaiooaaea Eiinoeoooe?y 1921 ?ieo, yea ia?aaeaa/aea iaai? naiaiaee
aeey iaoe?iiaeueieo iaioei. Iaeiae noaoo? Eiinoeoooe?? i?aeoe/ii ia
aieeaaee ia ?aaeuei?noue. O e?a? iaaeae? iaioaaea iie?oeea
iaoe?iiaeueii? iaoa?ieiino?. I?iaiaeeeeny iania? a?aooe na?aae on?o
aa?noa oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy, iaooee oa ?aa?c?? i?eaaoieo iiiaoeaiue,
?aaeaeoe?e aacao, i?ei?uaiue oe?a?inueeeo noni?eueii-eoeueoo?ieo
oiaa?enoa. Caai?iiyany aeione oe?a?inueeeo aacao. Iniiaiith ca?i?th
o?yaeiaeo e?e i?ioe oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeeooy noaea nenoaia
ina?oe. Aoea cae?eniaia iiaia iieii?caoe?y Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo,
oe?a?ioe? oaeoe/ii iicaaaeyeeny iiaeeeaino? a/eoeny. Ia i?ioeaaao
oeueiio o Eueaia? noai?thaaeany ia?aaea iaeaaaeueii? ina?oe, a a 1921 ?.
aoa noai?aiee oa?iiee Oe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao, yeee i?i?nioaaa aei 1925
?. Aino?a iie?oe/ia i?iaeaia a aaeoc? ina?oe, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa,
noaea oaeiae iaeiei ?c aeaea?ae iino?eieo iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo
eiioe?eo?a.

Aioeoe?a?inueeei ni?yioaaiiyi ae??ciyany ?ic?iaeaiee niaoe?aeueiith
eii?n??th noaooo aeey No?aeii? Aaee/eie, ooaaeaiee naeiii 26 aa?aciy
1922 ?. i?ae iacaith “Caeii i?i i?eioeeie caaaeueiiai ai?aiaenueeiai
naiioi?aae?iiy, cie?aia Euea?anueeiai, Oa?iii?euenueeiai ?
Noai?neaanueeiai ai?aiaenoa”. Aeena?oaio aeieeaaeii i?iaiae?coaaa ci?no
oeueiai caeiio ? anoaiiaea, ui caeii iaae?aa /eiiino? c aeiy eiai
i?iaieioaiiy. Iaeiae, ine?eueee a?i ia aoa eiie?aoeciaaiee aeeiiaa/eie
?ino?oeoe?yie oa iinoaiiaaie, oi caeeoaany ia iaia??. Caeii aoa
i?eeiyoee c oaeoe/ieo i??eoaaiue ? iaa aeiyoeiai i?iiaaaiaeenonueeee
oa?aeoa?. Oeei e?ieii iieuenueea aeaaea aeiiaaaeany i?aeo?eiee cao?aeieo
aea?aeaa ? inoaoi/iiai aeciaiiy ieie no?aeieo ei?aeii?a Iieueu?.

“?ica’ycaaoe” o oaeee niin?a aioo??oith no?aeiiaaeeoeueeo i?iaeaio oa
?icoe?ieaoe iaaecia/ai?noue cao?aeieo aea?aeaa o oeueiio ieoaii?,
iieuenueeee o?yae ?icii/aa aeoeaio eaiiai?th aeai?oe?a aei naeio oa
naiaoo. Aeey oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy ia aeai?ao aaiaeeeeny iaiaaeaiiy,
/ei iieuenueea aeaaea iaea iai?? caaacia/eoe o iiaiia?aiiio naei?
aeinoaoith ia?aaaao iieye?a iaae iaoe?iiaeueieie iaioeiaie. O Aaee/ei?
oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o?? iaieineee aieeio aeai?ai, yeee i?aeo?eiaee
oe?ie? aa?noae ianaeaiiy oa Oe?a?inueea a?aei-eaoieeoeueea oea?eaa.
Aioeaeai?io eaiiai?th ?icai?ioea oe?a?inueea i?ana, i?iaiaeeeeny iania?
i?oeiae, /eaiaie OAI cae?enithaaeeny aeeaa?n?ei? aeoe??. A?aeiia?aei?
caoiaee aaeea ? iieuenueeee o?yae — aoei ci?oeiaii iie?oeaenueeee
aia?ao, ca?eueooaaeany /enaeuei?noue aa?i?cii?a, a?aeiiaeaii
ae?yeuei?noue iaaecae/aeieo noae?a. Ia?aae na?oiaith a?iiaaenuee?noth
aoei cayaeaii, ui oe?a?ioe? aioothoue iianoaiiy, ? i?aeoi ia i?ioeaaao
oeueiio i?iaiaeeeeny iania? a?aooe. I?ioa oe? caoiaee o?yaeo ia
i?ecoieieee aieeioo aeai??a c aieo oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy.

Aeena?oaio cacia/a?, ui i?ney cae?i/aiiy oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie
oa anoaiiaeaiiy iieuenueei? aaei?i?no?aoe?? o No?aei?e Aaee/ei?,
oe?a?inueea iie?oe/ia aeeooy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny /e ia iaea?eueoith ca ana
i?aeai?iia aeaaaeoeyoe??//y eiinie?aeaoe??th, caniiaaia ia i?aaiaii?
oe?a?ioe?a caa?aaoe naith aea?aeaai?noue. Ianiaee noi?ioea
no?aeiiaaeeoeueeiai noni?euenoaa a?oiooaaany ia aeeaieiio ona?aeiieaii?
iei iaiao?aeiino? iaoe?iiaeueii? iacaeaaeiino? oa iiaeaeueoi? ai?ioueae
ca ooai?aiiy noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae.

Ioaea, oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy a aeine?aeaeoaaeueiee ia??iae, ia aeoieo
aeena?oaioa, aoei iaei??th c iaeneeaaei?oeo i?iaeai ye o iie?oeoe?
?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa, oae ? o aioo??oi?e ? ciai?oi?e iie?oeoe?
Iieueu?. I?e eiai ?icaeyae? aea?aeaae Aioaioe oa NOA, caaaeath/e ia
?aaeueio iaaaciaeo iioe?aiiy a?eueoiaecio, ?iaeee noaaeo oa Iieueuo.
Iieuenueea aiaen?y ia?aoai?eeanue ia caeiiia i?aai aieiae?iiy
oe?a?inueeeie no?aeiiaaeeoeueeeie caieyie, ui iaeiae ia ciyei i?e/eie
iai?oaeaiino? oa ianoaa?eueiino? o oeueiio ?aa?ii?.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Oe?a?inuee? ia?o?? oa i?aai?caoe?? ? ?o noinoiee
c Iieuenueeith aea?aeaaith” aena?oeaii iniiai? iai?yie ae?yeueiino?
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e No?aeii? Aaee/eie, ?o nioe?aeueio aaco, i?ia?aii?
iieiaeaiiy oa noaaeaiiy aei Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae.

Iaeiei c ina?aaee?a oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo
No?aeii? Aaee/eie o ia??iae ai?ioueae ca noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaaiino? ia ii/aoeo 20-o ?ie?a aenooiaea Oe?a?inueea
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y (OIAeI), c aa?aciy 1919 ?. —
Oe?a?inueea ia?iaeii-o?oaeiaa ia?o?y, yea aeio?eioaaeany oeaio?enonueeeo
iiceoe?e. ?? i?ia?aii? iieiaeaiiy, ye ? naia ae?yeuei?noue, na?ae/eee
i?i aea?aeaaioai?/ee oa?aeoa? ? iaiaaaiiy ia?aoai?eoeny ia
anaoe?a?inueeo. Aieiaiei iie?oe/iei caaaeaiiyi ia?o?? aoei noai?aiiy
iacaeaaeii? niai?ii? aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? nai?o
oe?eae, aeiaiaeeoue aeena?oaio, OIOI aaaaeaea i?eeiyoieie an? caniae,
ie??i eiii?ii?n?a uiaei ieoaiue aea?aeaaiino?. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai
ia?o?y aeciaaaea iie?oe/iith aeaaeith o No?aei?e Aaee/ei? eeoa
ai?a?aoe?eiee o?yae ?.Iao?ooaae/a, i?aeo?eioaaea eiai aeeieiiaoe/i?
aeoe?? ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?. Iieuenueeo ae aaei?i?no?aoe?th
eaae?o?eoaaea ye ieoiaoe?eio, aioeiaoe?iiaeueio aeaaeo. Ia eiie?aoieo
i?eeeaaeao aeena?oaio iieaco? ai?ioueao OIOI i?ioe noaoooo
naiioi?aae?iiy i?aaeaiii-no?aeieo ai?aiaenoa, aieeioo iath ia?aieno
ianaeaiiy oa i?eciao iieiae? aei iieuenueei? a?i??.

Iaeiae, aaea ?c na?aaeeie 1920 ?. o OIOI c’yaeeeny oaiaeaioe??
oaiaeianoaa c o?yaeiaeie eieaie. O cay’ceo c oeei o aeena?oaoe??
i?iaiae?ciaaii i?ioean caeeaeaiiy ie?aieo ae?y/?a ia?o??, cie?aia
N.Aieoaiae/a, E.Eaaeoeueeiai oa ?ioeo c i?aaenoaaieeaie aeaaee.
Ca?iaeaeaiiy oa iineeaiiy oaiaeianueeeo oaiaeaioe?e i?ecaaee aei ooaaee
Ia?iaeiei Eii?oaoii OIOI o o?aai? 1920 ?. ?aciethoe?? i?i ia?aaeyae
iie?oe/ii? ieaooi?ie ia?o??.

Iiceoe?y ae a?eueoino? OIOI ia /ie? c ?.Iao?ooaae/ai noiniaii
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai eiii?ii?no caeeoaeany iaci?iiith. ??
i?aeo?eiaee c’?caee ia?o??, ui a?aeaoeeny o /a?ai? 1921 ? n?/i? 1922
??. Aea iiiceoe?y aei iie?oeee aaniethoii? iaaaoe?? Iieuenueei?
aea?aeaae a OIOI, ae?acieeii yei? aenooiea aieiaa Ia?iaeiiai Eii?oaoo
A.Aa/einueeee, ci?oeithaaeany. Aiane?aeie a?aeaoeiny caaino?aiiy
noinoie?a i?ae o?yaeii COI? ? e?aeiaith i?aai?caoe??th OIOI, cie?aia a
ia??iae i?aeaioiaee aeai??a aei iieuenueeiai naeio ? naiaoo.

C e?ioey 1922 ?. oaiaeianuee? iano?i? oa noia?a/iino? a OIOI
iineeeeeny. ?o coiiaeee ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i? ianoaaeie, cie?aia ci?ia
no?aeii? iie?oeee Aaeeeia?eoai??, ?oae?? oa Aaoeeaio. Iai?ee?ioe? 1922
?. oaiaeianueeo e?i?th i?aeo?eiaea a?eueo?noue o?oaeiaee?a o aecee?, a a
OIOI a e?a? ii/aee a?aee?eoi iaaiai?thaaoe aeioe?euei?noue i?aeienaiiy
oaiaee c iieuenueeei o?yaeii. I?i oea ae?acii cayaea A.Aa/einueeee o
iie?oe/i?e aeiiia?ae? a a?oaei? 1922 ?ieo ia c’?cae? Oe?a?inueeiai
iaaeaaia?/iiai oiaa?enoaa. Iaeiae, iacaaaeath/e ia ?ica?aeiino?, OIOI
i?iaeiaaeoaaea iaaeae? aenooiaoe ye ?aeeia i?aai?caoe?y.

Eiyeueio iiceoe?th uiaei Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae caeiyea ia/eneaiia
Oe?a?inueea oe?ai?ianueea ia?o?y, noai?aia 1922 ?. ca ni?eyiiyi
iieuenueei? aeaaee. Ia?o?y i?aeo?eiaea aeai?e o iieuenueeee naei ? naiao
o 1922 ?. ? io?eiaea i’youe iaiaeao?a o naei?. Oaeo ae iiceoe?th caeiyee
e?eueea ?ioeo ae??aieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ye? aeaui i?ci?oa ia’?aeiaeeny
a Oe?a?inueeee ia?iaeiee nithc, yeee aenooiaa ca oa?eoi??aeueio
aaoiiii?th ai?aiaenoa c ia?aaaaeath/ei oe?a?inueeei ianaeaiiyi o iaaeao
Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae.

Aeena?oaio aeine?aeea i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy i?aai?aaeeeaeueii? oa/?? a
oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiio oaai??. O No?aei?e Aaee/ei?
?o i?aaenoaaeyea Oe?a?inueea A?enueeiaa i?aai?caoe?y (OAI),
i?eoeeueieeaie yei? aoee eieeoi? aiyee ca?ieieo oi?ioaaiue, naeyie,
?ia?oieee, ?ioae?aaioe?y ? iniaeeai iieiaeue.

OAI ieaioaaeany ye anaoe?a?inueea, iaeiae o ca’yceo e?ea?aeaoe??th
i?aei?eey ia Iaaeaei?i?yiuei? ?? ae?yeuei?noue oaeoe/ii iaiaaeeeanue
oa?eoi???th Iieueu?. O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyaea?oueny i?ioean ca?iaeaeaiiy
OAI, i?ia?aii? canaaee oa neeaae ea??aieo i?aai?a. Aei ii/aoeo 1922 ?.
OAI aee?enoae?coaaeany a ?aaiethoe?eio a?enueeiao aacia?o?eio
i?aai?caoe?th, aeey yei? ia?oi/a?aiaeie aoee ?ioa?ane oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?? ? yea ioiiethaaea nai?i aieeaii on? oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? ia?o??
Aaee/eie. ?? ae?yeuei?noue o?nii ia?aie?oaeany c iie?oeeith aeceeueiiai
oeaio?o COI?. Aeena?oaio ?ice?ea nooue noia?a/iinoae ? oaeoe/ieo iacaiae
i?ae ?.Iao?ooaae/ai ? ?.Eiiiaaeueoeai, iieacaa i?e/eie iaaaoeaiiai
noaaeaiiy ea??aieoeoaa OAI aei iie?oeee o?yaeo ?.Iao?ooaae/a.

I?ae ea??aieoeoaii ?.Eiiiaaeueoey OAI ?icai?ioea aeoeaio ?iaioo ii
iia?e?caoe?? ian ia ai?ioueao i?ioe iieuenueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??. Aiia
?i?oe?thaaea naaioaae ia?aieno ianaeaiiy o aa?ani? 1921 ?., aieeio
aeai??a aei iieuenueeiai naeio ? naiaoo a eenoiiaae? 1922 ?. oa ?yae
?ioeo ianiaeo aeoe?e. Aaaeeeaei iai?yieii ae?yeueiino? OAI noaea
i?iiaaaiaea iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? ?aea?. Nai? aieeae OAI iioe?eea ia
oe?a?inuee? eaaaeuei? iie?oe/i? ia?o??, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?, ?ae?a?ei?,
nii?oeai? i?aai?caoe??. Iniaeeaa oaaaa i?e oeueiio caa?oaeanue ia
nooaeaionuee? oa iieiae?aei? i?aai?caoe?? ye aieiaiiai iin?y
iaoe?iiae?noe/ii? ?aeaieia??. Ioaea, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, OAI aoea
neeith, caeaoiith i?ioenoiyoe ye iieuenueeiio ?aaeeiia?, oae ? ianooio
?aaeyiio?euenoaa, ui ca?iaeaeoaaeinue.

Cia/io oaaao a aeena?oaoe?? cina?aaeaeaii ia aeine?aeaeaii? ae?yeueiino?
e?ai-oeaio?enonueeeo ia?o?e, ye? noiyee ia ieaooi?i? aeaiie?aoe/iiai
nioe?ae?cio – Oe?a?inueei? ?aaeeeaeueii? ia?o?? (O?I) ? Oe?a?inueei?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o?? (ONAeI).Cie?aia, aaoi? ?ice?eaa?
aea?aeaaioai?/o ?ieue O?I a ia??iae COI? oa i?e/eie e?ece a ia?o?? i?ney
cae?i/aiiy oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie.

sse ? ?io? iie?oe/i? ia?o?? no?aeii? Aaee/eie, a O?I ?icii/aany i?ioean
ia?aioe?iee ii?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo oe?iiinoae oa iiooeo iiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eieo oi?i, yeee i?ea?a aei a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia?o??. 1921–1923
??. aoee ia??iaeii a?aeiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii? ?iaioe oa iiiaeaiiy
no?aoaa?? e oaeoe/ii? e?i?? O?I. Ia?o?y ia?aoai?thaaeanue ia
iaoe?iiaeueio. Nai?i aieeaii aiia coi?ea ioiieoe aeiiii?/i?,
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?, iieiae?aei? i?aai?caoe?? ? ia?aoai?eeany ia
aieeaiaee /eiiee iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo.

E?aioeaio?enueeee iai?yi i?aaenoaaeyea oaeiae Oe?a?inueea nioe?ae–
aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y, iaoith yei? aoei ooaa?aeaeaiiy niai?ii?
Oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae.

Ia ii/aoeo 1919 ?., ye aeiaiaeeoue aeena?oaio, ONAeI ia?aeoea o
a?aee?eoo iiiceoe?th aei o?yaeo COI?, e?eoeeoth/e eiai
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/io iie?oeeo oa i???ioaoe?th ia Aioaioo. Ia?o?y
aeiaaaea iaaaeiiai i?iaaaeaiiy ?aoi?i, noai?aiiy nioe?ae?noe/iiai
o?yaeo, i?aeienaiiy ie?ii? oaiaee c ?aaeyinueeith ?in??th i?e oiia?
aeciaiiy iacaeaaeiino? OI?. ONAeI i?aeo?eioaaea iie?oe/iee eo?n
N.Iaoeth?e ia nithc ?c Iieueuath, iaeiae Aa?oaanueeo oaiaeo, ca yeith
Aieiaiee ioaiai c??eaany No?aeii? Aaee/eie, ia?o?y ni?eeiyea iaaaoeaii.

Ia ii/aoeo 1920 ?. ONAeI ?icii/aea a?aeo?ae a?ae oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaai?o, ana a?eueoa caeiath/e i?ia?eueoiaeoeuee?
iiceoe?? oa i???iooth/enue ia ?aaeyinueeo Oe?a?io. Ni?a?ia?oieoeoai
ia?o?? c o?yaeii COI? i?eieieeinue, ui i?ecaaei ?? aei aeeaiei? ?aeaeii?
oa i?aai?caoe?eii? e?ece.

O ?icae?e? i?iaiae?ciaaii ca?iaeaeaiiy e?ai?aaeeeaeueiiai ?ooo, yeee
?ai?acaiooaaea Eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y No?aeii? Aaee/eie (EINA). Aena?oeaii
aca?iia?aeiineie EINA ? Eiioi?noe/ii? ?ia?oie/i? ia?o?? Iieueu? (E?II),
nooue noia?a/iinoae i?ae yeeie caiaeeeany ia?aaaaeii aei oeyo?a
?ica’ycaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy. Ca i?aeienaiith 6 eeiiy 1921 ?.
i?aeia?o?eiith oaiaeith, EINA aeciaaaeany e?aeiaith i?aai?caoe??th E?II.
Onoiooe eiioe?eo i?ae ia?o?yie iiaeiia aoea ? eiioa?aioe?y EINA
iai?ee?ioe? aeiaoiy 1921 ?., iaeiae /a?ac a?aooe ?? o/aniee?a
eiinie?aeaoe?eiee i?ioean aoa ia?a?aaiee. Ia ii/aoeo 1922 ?.
?ica?aeiino? i?ae EINA ? E?II iineeeeeny. Ua a?eueoa aeyaeany ?iceie o
EINA i?ae EINA-io?oe?eiith – (“eaa?iai?aoe?”) ? EINA-iiiceoe?eiith
(“aaneeuee?aoe?”). Ia i?ioeaaao “aaneeuee?aoeyi”, ye? ana a?eueoa
caeo/aeeny aei iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo, “eaa?iai?aoe?” aea i???iooth/enue ia
caaaeueiiiieuenueeo ?aaiethoe?th, iaoooaaee iacaeaaeieie iano?iyie
no?aeiiaaeeoeueeeo eiioi?no?a.

?c ci?iith i?aeia?iaeii? ianoaiiaee, aecia/aiiyi i?aaiai noaoono
No?aeii? Aaee/eie ? niaaeii ?aaiethoe?eii? ai?ioueae, no?aeiiaaeeoeuee?
eiioi?noe ci?iththoue oaeoeeo uiaei iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy. Aiie
aenoaathoue aanei aicc’?aeiaiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue c
?aaeyinueeith Oe?a?iith oeyoii nioe?ae?noe/ii? ?aaiethoe?? a Iieueu?. O
1923 ?. EINA oeiinoeooeiao?oueny ye Eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y Cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie (EICO).

O ?icae?e? aaoi? aeaoaeueii aiae?co? i?noea Oe?a?inueei?
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae o iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?on?, o oiio
/ene? e o iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoieao.

Oeae aiae?c cae?enith?oueny ia i?aenoaa? cia/ii? e?eueeino? iiaeo
a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a, ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ia‘?eoeaii ioe?ieoe
noaaeaiiy oea?eae oa ?? aeooiaieo i?ia?aeiee?a, cie?aia ieo?iiieeoa
A.Oaioeoeueeiai aei ieoiaoe?eii? aeaaee. Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui
A.Oaioeoeueeee ?acii c oi?aonueeei aeooiaainoaii aioiaee aoa acyoe ia
naaa ?i?oe?aoeao ii?icoi?iiy i?ae iaiia ia?iaeaie a
oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee?e a?ei? 1918-1919 ??. Iaeiae oea aoei iiaeeeaei
eeoa ca oiiae aeciaiiy Iieueuath iacaeaaeiino? No?aeii? Aaee/eie.

Iaoe?iiaeueii-aea?aeaaioai?/a iiceoe?y a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae
ni?e/eieea i?ioeae?th iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo nee. I?aaey/? eiea ?iaeee
ona iiaeeeaa aeey oiai, uia iaeo?ae?coaaoe aieea e?aea??a oea?eae, ?
iniaeeai A.Oaioeoeueeiai ia iane, i?ioenoaaeoe eiai ?ioei aeooiaiei
i?ia?aeieeai, cie?aia A.Oiieoeio, aai onoioiooe c ieo?iiiee/iai
i?anoieo. Aaoi? aiae?co? oaeiae iiceoe?th eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae
eaoeinueeiai ia?yaeo uiaei noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae a No?aei?e
Aaee/ei?, yea ?icaeyaeaea iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo ye caiao ia oe?e?ni?noue Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae.

Aea?aeaaioai?/a ?ieue A..Oaioeoeueeiai, ye na?ae/eoue aiae?c,
i?iyaeeanue a iniaeeai yne?aai a /an eiai ii?caeee a e?a?ie ?a?iie oa
Aia?eee o 1920 – 1923 ??. Ia iniia? aiae?co ?aii?o?a iieuenueeeo
iinieuenoa, i?ane aeena?oaio oa?aeoa?eco? oiai/anio ae?yeuei?noue
ieo?iiieeoa, iieaco? eiai ?ieue o ae??oaii? no?aeiiaaeeoeueeiai
ieoaiiy, ai?iouea? ca iacaeaaei?noue Aaee/eie, a oaeiae noaaeaiiy aei
Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae. O /eneaiieo i?iiiaao oa ?ioa?a’th ieo?iiieeo
e?eoeeoaaa aeiiii?/io ? iaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo Iieueu? uiaei No?aeii?
Aaee/eie, ni?yiiaaio ia aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe?th e anei?eyoe?th
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, i?ioanooaaa i?ioe eieii?caoe?? e?ath iieuenueeeie
a?enueeiaeie oa oeea?eueieie inaaeieeaie. Eia?/iee iai?yi ?ica’ycaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy a?i aa/ea o ia’?aeiaii? No?aeii? Aaee/eie ?c
Aaeeeith Oe?a?iith.

Caaaeii o iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio ?on? a?aea o/anoue a?eueo?noue
a?aei-eaoieeoeueeeo nayuaiee?a. Aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui OAEOe
ia?aoai?eeany ia oeaio? iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, noaaoe
aeooiaiith iniiaith iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?.

O i’yoiio ?icae?e? “??oaiiy ?aaee Aiaanaaei??a 14 aa?aciy 1923 ?. ?
eiai cia/aiiy aeey Iieueu? oa oe?a?ioe?a” aeine?aeaeothoueny i?e/eie,
nooue oa iane?aeee oeueiai i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaiaiai aeoo,
iaaieioo?oueny, ui iai?ee?ioe? 1922 ?. noaaeaiiy cao?aeieo aea?aeaa aei
i?iaeaie No?aeii? Aaee/eie iii?oii ci?ieeiny ia ei?enoue Ae?oai?
?a/?iiniieeoi?. Iiaeaeueoa iaaeciaiiy ieie iieuenueei? iie?oeee
“aeieiiaieo oaeo?a” iiaei a oaia? ?i caoeiaeeoe. ?aaea Aioaioe
a?aeeeaeaea iiaeeea?noue noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? no?aeiiaaeeoeueei?
aea?aeaae ? ia?aeiioaaeany a iaiao?aeiino? inoaoi/iiai aeciaiiy i?aa
Iieueu? ia oeth oa?eoi??th ca oiiae iaaeaiiy i?noeaaiio ianaeaiith
oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii??. I?eoeeueio iiceoe?th uiaei Iieueu? caeiyea ?
E?aa Iaoe??, aeciaaoe ?nioth/? no?aei? ei?aeiie Iieueu?.

O aeena?oaoe?? ia iiaiio a?o?aiiio iaoa??ae? ?icaeyaeathoueny i?iaeoe
iaeaooiuei? ooaaee ?aaee iine?a aea?aeaa Aioaioe uiaei iieuenueeeo
no?aeieo ei?aeii?a oa iie?oe/iiai a?aaoethaaiiy no?aeiiaaeeoeueei?
i?iaeaie. C’yniao?oueny ?ieue ie?aieo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa o
i?aeaioiaoe? oa i?eeiyoo? oeueiai aeieoiaioa. Cie?aia, ye
cana?ae/othoue iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??, oe?a?inuee? iacaeaaeieoeuee?
aeiiaaaiiy i?aeo?eioaaea Aaeeeia?eoai?y, yea ia ?icae?eyea
i?iiieuenueei? iie?oeee O?aioe?? oa ?oae??. Aea a?a Aiae?? aoea
oei/aniaith. I?ae oeneii caoe?eaaeaieo aea?aeaa oa ai?eei
iai?ioethaaiiyi iieuenueei? aeeieiiao?? a?eueoiaeoeueeith caa?icith,
aiae?enueeee o?yae noeeeany aei i?iiiceoe?? eii?oaoo aenia?o?a i?i
ocaeiiaiiy ?nioth/eo ei?aeii?a o No?aei?e ?a?ii?. Uiaei No?aeii?
Aaee/eie aoa i?aeaioiaeaiee aeieoiaio, yeee 14 aa?aciy 1923 ?. ?aaea
Aiaanaaei??a caoaa?aeeea. Iieueua io?eiaea th?eaee/i? i?aaa ia
aieiae?iiy e?a?i ? aoea ciaia’ycaia iaaeaoe oe?a?inueeiio ia?iaeia? an?
a?iiaaeyinuee? oa iie?oe/i? i?aaa.

O aeena?oaoe?? iieacaii ?aaeoe?th oe?a?inueei? a?iiaaenueeino? oa
iie?oe/ieo ia’?aeiaiue ia ooaaeo ?aaee Aiaanaaei??a. An? aiie aeneiaeee
??oo/ee i?ioano i?ioe oaeiai ??oaiiy. O aaaaoueio i?noao oa naeao
a?aeaoaaeeny aeaiiino?aoe??-i?ioanoe. ??oaiiy canoaeeee oaeiae o?yaee
?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e Oe?a?ie oa ?in??. Iaeiae ana oea ia caaaaeeei
Aa?oaa? iine?aeiaii cae?enithaaoe eo?n ia iiaio ?ioaa?aoe?th e?ath o
neeaae? aea?aeaae.

O ?icae?e? aiae?co?oueny iie?oeea iieuenueeiai o?yaeo uiaei ianaeaiiy
No?aeii? Aaee/eie i?ney aa?aciy 1923 ?. Aeena?oaio aeiaiaeeoue, ui
Aa?oaaa, io?eiaaoe naieoe?th cao?aeieo aea?aeaa ia aieiae?iiy e?a?i,
a?aeiiaeeanue a?ae iiia?aaei?o ia?oeyiie i?i iaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiio
ianaeaiith oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii??. 7 ea?oiy 1923 ?. o?yae
A.N?ei?nueeiai ?ic?iaea i?iaeo “Caaaeuei? iai?yiee iie?oeee ia no?aeieo
e?anao”, o yeiio iaeaaaeeea?oeie noaee i?iaeaie no?aoaa?/iiai oa?aeoa?o:
aea?aeaaia anei?eyoe?y oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy, ni?eyiiy a?enueeiaiio oa
oeea?eueiiio inaaeieoeoao, iieii?caoe??? i?noeaaiai oe?eueieoeoaa,
ooo/ia ?aa?iiae?caoe?y Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie, noai?aiiy ooo oaiaeianueeeo
ia?o?e ? a?oi. Oiaoi o?yaeiaa i?ia?aia aoea ni?yiiaaia ia ?ioaa?aoe?th
no?aeieo caiaeue c Iieueuath oa aea?aeaaio anei?eyoe?th i?noeaaiai
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy.

??oaiiy ?aaee Aiaanaaei??a a?ae 14 aa?aciy 1923 ?., cacia/a?
aeena?oaio, iaee aaeeeee aieea ia iiaeaeueoo aeieth oe?a?ioe?a. Aeey
oe?a?inueeiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo ?icii/aany ia??iae iiooeo
iiaeo i???ioe??a oa eiioeaioe?e ?icaeoeo. Ia ci?io i?aeia?o?eiiio
ii?icoi?iith i?eeoee ?ica??ae ? iaaiaaiai?noue. Ia?aae e?aea?aie
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo iinoaee i?iaeaie noinoie?a c
Iieuenueeith aea?aeaaith, ioe?iee i?ioean?a o ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i? oa
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? i???ioaoe??, ?aeaeii?, iie?oe/ii? ? i?aai?caoe?eii?
?aeiino? oe?a?inueeiai aecaieueiiai ?ooo. Iaae?? ia aeiiiiiao aea?aeaa
Aioaioe o a?aeaoaeia? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? inoaoi/ii ?ica?yeenue.
?icii/aany ia?aaeyae i?ia?ai oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e.

Oeae i?ioean ia iaieioa ? Oe?a?inueeo ia?iaeii-o?oaeiao ia?o?th —
iaea?eueo ianiao ? iaeaieeaia?oo iie?oe/io neeo a e?a?. Ci?ie iie?oe/ieo
iano?i?a a OIOI i?iyaeeenue ia o?aaiaaiio 1923 ?. c’?cae? ia?o??.
Ia?aae oe?a?inueeeie iie?oeeaie aoee iinoaaeai? aeaa iniiaieo caaaeaiiy:
ia iaeaooi? ? ia iioi/iee iiiaio. Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a?eueo?noue /eai?a ia?o?? aaaaeaee
ai?ioueao ca ia’?aeiaiiy an?o oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue ? noai?aiiy
iacaeaaeii? niai?ii? aea?aeaae. Aiaeii/an, aeoiaey/e c ?aaeueieo oiia,
aiie aenooieee i?iiiceoe??th aeinyaiaiiy oaiaee c Iieuenueeith
aea?aeaaith ? ocaeiiaiiy ia oe?e iniia? oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? e?ath.

Iaeiae caaaeii oe?a?inueea noni?euei?noue No?aeii? Aaee/eie ia iiae?eyea
iiae?aieo iiaeyae?a. On?eye? oaiaeianuee? iai??e, a oiio /ene? ? uiaei
oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? aiia ni?eeiaea ye c?aaeo iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a. A ia?o?? ?icii/aeanue ai?ioueaa i?ae “aaoiiii?noaie” oa
oa?oiiaaiiyi, yea aoei i?ioeaieeii aoaeue-yeeo oaiae c iieuenueeei
o?yaeii. Aaaeeea?oei ?o a?aoiaioii o iieai?oe? c iiiiaioaie, ye
na?ae/eoue aiae?c aeieoiaio?a noaaa oie oaeo, ui aaoiiii?nonueeo
?aciethoe?th ia i?aeo?eiaee i? a o?yaeiaeo eieao, i? a iieuenueeiio
noni?euenoa?. Oi ae oe?eeii caeiiii??ii, ui oaiaeianueea iie?oeea
o?oaeiaee?a i?ecaaea aei ciaioaiiy nioe?aeueii? aace ia?o?? oa
ci?oeiaiiy iiceoe?? “iacaeaaeiee?a” o ?? neeaae?. A ?acoeueoao?
ia?aaiai??a oa eiii?ii?n?a i?ae /eaiaie ia?o?? iaio i???ioaoe?e aoa
ia?aiee iiaee Ia?iaeiee Eii?oao, yeee neanoaaa aaoiiii?nonueeo ooaaeo
a?ae 21 o?aaiy 1923 ?. Oaea ??oaiiy i?aeoaa?aeea iaeaaaeueiee c’?cae
OIOI, ui a?aeaoany 20-21 ea?oiy 1924 ?. Ia?o?y ciiao ia?aeoea a
iiiceoe?th aei Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae. Aiaeii/an a ia?o?? oi?io?oueny
aieeaiaa a?oia iie?oee?a, ye? aenooieee ? i?ioe ?aaeyiio?euenueeeo
iano?i?a, ui oe?eeeny a e?a? i?ae aieeaii iiae?e a ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?ai?
oa ae?yeueiino? EINA. Ae?y/? oe??? a?oie canioaaee Oe?a?inueeo ia?o?th
iaoe?iiaeueii? ?iaioe (OII?), aieiaiei ?aeaieiaii yei? noaa oe?a?inueeee
iaoe?iiae?no Ae.Aeiioeia. Caiaeii aaaaoi ?? /eai?a ia?aeoei a
Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia’?aeiaiiy (OIAeI), yea
ooai?eeiny aiane?aeie ia’?aeiaiiy ie?aieo a?oi OIOI oa OII? ?
Oe?a?inueei? ia?eaiaionueei? ?ai?acaioaoe??. Iniiaiith iie?oe/iith
e?i??th ia?o?? noaea ai?ioueaa ca naiino?eio, niai?io Oe?a?inueeo
aea?aeaao.

Iiaee noaoon No?aeii? Aaee/eie i?ney ??oaiiy ?aaee Aiaanaaei??a
ni?e/eiea ci?oeiaiiy aioeiieuenueeeo iano?i?a a Oe?a?inuee?e
?aaeeeaeuei?e ia?o??, iane?aeeii /iai noaei ia’?aeiaiiy ia?o?? c
nioe?ae?noaie-?aaiethoe?iia?aie Aieei? a iaeio Oe?a?inueeo
nioe?ae?noe/ii-?aaeeeaeueio ia?o?th. ON?I caeiyea iaaaoeaio iiceoe?th
uiaei OIAeI oa ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ca aeiyoeii
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a. ??oaiiy ?aaee Aiaanaaei??a, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa,
i?enei?eei ia?ao?ae ONAeI ia ieaooi?io eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o??. Oeae
ia?ao?ae i?aeoaa?aeea VI c’?cae ia?o?? (aa?acaiue 1923?.).
Nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe aaa/aee iaeaooi? iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie o oaaea?aoeaiiio
nithc? ?aaeyinueeeo ?anioae?e.

Ia iniia? aiae?co aeieiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a aeena?oaio i?eeoia aei
aeniiaeo, ui ??oaiiy ?aaee Aiaanaaei??a cana?ae/eei ii?aceo
no?aeiiaaeeoeueei? aeeieiiao??, iaoiiaeei ?icione o?yaeo COI?,
ia?ae?coth/e aieeae oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? ai?a?aoe??. A oe?a?inueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiio ?on? a?aeaoaaeanue iiey?ecaoe?y nee oa
aeoea?coaaany iiooe iiaeo oi?i ? iaoiae?a aecaieueieo ciaaaiue.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaeoi i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Cacia/a?oueny, cie?aia,
ui ie?ai? neeaaeia? aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie aena?oeaii a i?aoeyo ye
a?o/eciyieo, oae ? ca?oa?aeieo ?noi?ee?a. Aiaeii/an ?noi??ia?ao?/iee
aiae?c ae?anii?ii? oa ca?oa?aeii? e?oa?aoo?e na?ae/eoue, ui
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aeine?aeieeaie ie?aieo aniaeo?a aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie
iaaeinoaoiuei a?aoiaioiaaii, ia? aeeneon?eiee oa?aeoa?, a eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a ia??iaeo aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue 1918-1923 ??., iie?oeee iieuenueeeo oa?oiiaaiue a oe?a?inueeiio
ieoaii?, ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa ?o
aca?iia?aeiineie c Iieuenueeith aea?aeaaith, a?aenooi?. Oei /anii
aeaea?aeueia aaca oaeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeineoue oe?iea ?
??ciiaeai?iaa.

?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo oa aeiiae oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e uiaei naiiaecia/aiiy No?aeii? Aaee/eie ni?e/eieee
i?ioeae?th iieuenueeiai iie?oe/iiai i?iaiaeo, yeee aaa/aa o oeueiio
caa?ico nai?io “noaio iin?aeaiiy” a ?aa?ii?. ?aeay noai?aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii-oa?eoi??aeueii? aaoiiii?? oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o neeaae?
Aanoi-Oai?ueie ia ca?aaeany c iie?oe/ieie eiioeaioe?yie a?aeiiaeaiiy
?a/?iiniieeoi? ? aaea aei iiaeaeueoiai oneeaaeiaiiy noinoie?a i?ae
iieyeaie oa oe?a?ioeyie. Ni?iaa ii?icoi?iiy 1890 ?., ui aa?eoea a
?noi??th i?ae iacaith “iiaa a?a”, ia i?eianea aaaeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. C
ii/aoeii Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie oa oiaeii ai?iieo ae?e
iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noia?a/iino? a Aaee/ei? ua a?eueoa
caaino?ththoueny. A i??o iaiaa?oaaiiy aano??enueeiai o?yaeo oa iaaeaiiy
aeayeeo iie?oe/ieo, aeaeaei ia iaeeiaeiaeo i?aa iieyeai ? oe?a?ioeyi,
No?aeia Aaee/eia ia?aoai?eeany o e?ae, yeee a iaaeaeaeiio iaeaooiueiio
noaa a?aiith eiio?iioaoe?? i?ae iaiia ia?iaeaie, yea ia?a?inea o
a?aee?eo? aieia? ae?? c ?o o?aa?/ieie iane?aeeaie.

Aiae?c aeieoiaio?a cana?ae/o?, ui oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy a
aeine?aeaeoaaiiio ia??iae? aoei iaei??th c iaeaaae/eo i?iaeai ye o
iie?oeoe? oeaio?aeueieo ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa, oae ? o aioo??oi?e oa
ciai?oi?e iie?oeoe? Iieueu?. Iiaeyaee ia ?ica’ycaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
ieoaiiy, ui ?nioaaee a iieuenuee?e iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? ua caaeiaai aei
noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae, caiaeeeeny aei aeaio
iniiaieo eiioeaioe?e: ?iei?ii?aoe?eii?, yeo a?aenoithaaa
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee oaa??, ? oaaea?ae?nonueei?, i?ea?/ieeaie
yei? aoa TH.I?enoaenueeee oa eiai ioi/aiiy. Iaa?oioiaoaoth/e i?aoaic??
ia no?aeiiaaeeoeuee? caie?, aiie a?ae??ciyeenue i?ae niaith eeoa
caniaaie aeinyaiaiiy oe?eae. Ia aoai? a?aeiiaeaiiy ?a/?iiniieeoi? oe?
eiioeaioe?? aoee i?enoiniaai? aei iie?oe/ieo oiia ? ci?ithaaeeny a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ci?ie aioo??oiuei? ? ciai?oiuei? noaiiaeua Iieueu?.

Cae?i/aiiy Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie oa noai?aiiy iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa o
?a?ii? iaoiiaeee aeoea?caoe?th ? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/iiai
?ooo, iane?aeeii yei? noaei noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee. Iieuenueea aa?an?y i?ioe No?aeii? Aaee/eie
icia/aea aeey oe?a?ioe?a ao?aoo iaoe?iiaeueii? oa?eoi???, ia ye?e iiaea
aooe iiaoaeiaaia naiino?eia Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa. Aiaeii/an caaithaaiiy
No?aeii? Aaee/eie icia/aea aeey Iieueu? ca?eueoaiiy aea?aeaaii?
oa?eoi??? ia iaeio i?ia?ioe?th. A?eia i?ecaaea aei caaino?aiiy
i?aeiaoe?iiaeueii? ai?iaeia/?, noai?aiiy iaaaoeaieo oyaeaiue, ia yeeo
aeoiaoaaeeny e?eueea iieie?iue aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a ? iieye?a. Ie??i
oiai, o?aaeeoe?y aeanii? aea?aeaaiino? oa ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo ca ?? ?nioaaiiy, a ianooiieo ?ieao iaee aaeeeee aieea ia ?icea?o
iie?oe/ii? aeoeaiino? oe?a?ioe?a, caa?aaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aeaioe/iino?.

Iieuenueea ia?aiiaa o a?ei? ua ia ae??ooaaea inoaoi/ii? aeie? No?aeii?
Aaee/eie ? ia icia/aea, ui e?ae noaa /anoeiith Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi?.
Iiia?aaeo aoea o?eaaea ? neeaaeia ai?ioueaa ia aeeieiiaoe/iiio iie? ca
aeciaiiy no?aeieo ei?aeii?a Iieueu?, a ioaea, ? ca aeciaiiy e?a?iaie
Aioaioe oa NOA ?? i?aa ia aieiae?iiy No?aeiith Aaee/eiith.

Aea/aiiy aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a aea? iiaeeea?noue noaa?aeaeoaaoe,
ui oe?a?inueea i?iaeaia caaaeii ?icaeyaeaeanue ia Ia?ecuee?e ie?i?e
eiioa?aioe?? ye /anoeia caaaeueii?in?enueei?. Iaae?th/enue ia
a?aeaoaeiao “aioea?eueoiaeoeueei?” ?in??, cao?aei? nithcieee aioia? aoee
aeiiiiaaaoe aoaeue-yeei aea?aeaaai — eiieo?aioai Oe?a?ie: Iieueu?,
?oioi??, “a?e?e” ?in??. Aa?o/e aei oaaae oaea ni?yioaaiiy eiioa?aioe??,
Aioaioa i?aeo?eioaaea oe? aea?aeaae o ?ica’ycaii? i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c
oe?a?inueeeie oa?eoi??yie, cie?aia c? No?aeiith Aaee/eiith.

Aea?aeaaio iacaeaaei?noue o aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae No?aeia Aaee/eia
iiaea caeiaooe eeoa oeyoii ca?ieii? ai?ioueae. O?ce/io ia?aaaao iaee, ye
oaea cacia/aeiny, iieyee, oiio iie?oe/ia ??oaiiy e?a?i Aioaioe aoei
i?eeiyoa c o?aooaaiiyi ?ioa?an?a neeuei?oi? noi?iie. Aeiiae
aaaaoii?eueeiiiiai cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy Aioaioith aei oaaae
ia a?aeenue. Aiane?aeie oeueiai iieuenueea aiaen?y ia?aoai?eeanue ia
caeiiia i?aai aieiae?iiy oe?a?inueeeie no?aeiiaaeeoeueeeie caieyie, ui
noaei i?e/eiith iai?oaeaiino? oa ianoaa?eueiino? a ?aa?ii?.

An? oe?a?inuee? ia?o?? iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy
i?aeo?eioaaee oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaai?noue. Iniiaiei ci?noii
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy aaeeoeueeeo oe?a?ioe?a o aeine?aeaeoaaiee
ia??iae aoea ai?ioueaa i?ioe iieuenueei? aeaaee, ca a?aeiiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. A oeueiio ?one? ?icai?oaeanue ae?yeuei?noue
OIOI, ui noiyea ia e?aa?aeueii-oeaio?enonuee?e ieaooi?i? e a?ae?a?aaaea
aieiaio ?ieue o noni?eueiiio aeeoo? e?ath; ca?iaeeeanue ? ?icii/aea
aeoeaio aioeiieuenueeo ae?yeuei?noue iie?oe/ia neea i?aaiai iai?yio —
OAI, iniiaiith iaoith yei? aoea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aaiethoe?y ? a?aeiiaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Aioeiieuenueeeo iiceoe?e aeio?eioaaeeny
oaeiae ? ia?o?? aeaiie?aoe/iiai nioe?ae?cio — O?I oa ONAeI. ?iciao
aioeiieuenueei? ai?ioueae a e?a? cana?ae/oaaa i?i anaia?iaeia
iani?eeiyooy iieuenueei? aaei?i?no?aoe??. Iii?e aioo??oi? i?ioe??//y, ui
aoee iane?aeeii ??cieo i???ioaoe?e ? aea?aeaaieoeueeeo eiioeaioe?e,
oe?a?inueea noni?euei?noue No?aeii? Aaee/eie oa ?? iie?oe/i? no?oeoo?e
caaaeii aeaiiino?oaaee neiinie?aeiaai?noue iaaeiei iniiaii? ?aea? —
a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?. Oaea iie?oeea aoea caii?oeith
oni?oiiai aieeioo aeai??a aei iieuenueeiai naeio oa naiaoo,
aioeaa?aoieiai? aeoe?? iieiae? a iieuenueeo a?i?th, anacaaaeueiiai iii?o
oe?a?ioe?a ia?aieno ianaeaiiy.

Aieea ia noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy Aaee/eie iaee iiae?? a
?aaeyinueeiio Nithc?. Ii?acea OAA oa caeiyooy iieyeaie No?aeii?
Aaee/eie, iieii?caoe?eia iie?oeea iieuenueeiai o?yaeo, caii/aoeoaaiiy
oe?a?i?caoe?? a ON?? ni?eyee iioe?aiith ?aaeyiio?euenueeeo ?
eiioi?noe/ieo aieea?a o cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?. Ia oeueiio
a?oio? ? a?aeaoaaany ia?ao?ae ONAeI ia i?ia?eueoiaeoeuee? iiceoe??.
E?aea?e ONAeI aenooieee c eiioeaioe??th ?aeeiiai oe?a?inueeiai
nioe?ae?noe/iiai o?iioo oa iiaoaeiae nioe?ae?noe/ii? aea?aeaae ia c?acie
?aaeyinueei?.

A eiioaeno? ?aaeyiio?euenoaa ?icaeaaany eiioi?noe/iee ?oo o No?aei?e
Aaee/ei?, yeee c /anonaiai ca?iaeaeaiiy aoa aeecueeei aei
iaoe?iiae-eiioi?cio ? aenooiaa ca iiaoaeiao nioe?ae?noe/ii? oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae. Iaeiae a?aenooi?noue /?oei? i?ia?aie c iaoe?iiaeueiiai
ieoaiiy oa i?ea’ycai?noue no?aeiiaaeeoeueeeo eiioi?no?a aei iie?oeee
Eii?ioa?io i?ecaaee ia?o?th aei iaiaaeaiiy ?? aieeao ia oe?a?inuee? iane
? i?ioeai?noaa c iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iei oaai?ii.

Iin??i iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?, aeooiaiith iii?ith a ai?iouea? ca
oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaai?noue aenooiaea i/iethaaia ieo?iiieeoii
A.Oaioeoeueeei Oe?a?inueea a?aei-eaoieeoeueea oea?eaa. A?eueo?noue
aeooiaainoaa a?aea o/anoue o iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieuei?e ai?iouea?
1918-1919 ??., ni?ai?aoethaaea c iie?oe/ieie ia?o?yie. Aiaeii/an aeua
aeooiaainoai eoei ia eiii?ii?n c iieuenueeith aeaaeith, aiooaaei a?oio
aeey iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai i?eie?aiiy.

I?ney 14 aa?aciy 1923 ?. iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiee ?oo iiey?eco?oueny o
iiooeo iiaeo oi?i ? iaoiae?a aecaieueieo ciaaaiue. Oa?aeoa?iith
iniaeea?noth oeueiai ia??iaeo noaea oaeiae ?aaeeeae?caoe?y oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, ui i?ecaaei, c iaeiiai aieo, aei ooai?aiiy iiaeo
i?aai?caoe?e i?aaiai iai?yio (Oe?a?inueea ia?o?y iaoe?iiaeueii? ?iaioe),
a c ?ioiai — aei iie?a?iiy ian, ui aeyaeeiny o iioe?aii? a Cao?aei?e
Oe?a?i? eiioi?noe/ieo aieea?a. Inoaoi/ia ao?aoa iaae?? ia aeiiiiiao
Aioaioe ni?e/eieea oa, ui o cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa? ii?yae c
iinoaeuea??th ca aeaniith aea?aeaai?noth iineethaaeiny iaaaoeaia
noaaeaiiy aei Iieuenueei? aea?aeaae. Oe?a?inueea ianaeaiiy caa?oaei
iiaeyaee aei ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie. Oea iiynithaaeiny ianaiia?aae
iaoe?iiaeueiith iie?oeeith ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee, yea caaeaeea?oaaea
noai?aiiy “a?eueieo ?anioae?e o a?eueiiio a?aoa?nueeiio nithc?”, a
oaeiae ae?yeuei?noth EINA. Iaeiae i?ioe iioe?aiiy eiioi?noe/ieo iano?i?a
aenooieee i?aaioeaio?enonuee? neee. Na?aae i?aaenoaaiee?a oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aeaiie?ao?? eeoa iacia/ia /anoeia aeio?eioaaeany
?aaeyiio?euenueei? i???ioaoe??.

Oa?aeoa?iei aeey aeaiiai ia??iaeo aoei iineeaiiy aieeao a na?aaeiaeu?
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a oaiaeianueeiai iai?yio c Iieueuath. Aea eiai
i?eoeeueieee iaee iacia/io i?aeo?eieo. Na?aae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo
iieuenueea aeaaea o?aeooaaeany ye ieoiaoe?eia, a iaaeaaiy iaaaoe?y
iieuenueeino? ua a?eueoa oei?aieeany a eiai na?aeiiino?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

a) iiiia?ao??:

1. E?an?anueeee I.ss. No?aeia Aaee/eia ? Iieueua a 1918-1923 ??.
I?iaeaie aca?iia?aeiinei.- E.:OAAeO, 1998. – 302 n.

2. E?an?anueeee I. Ca Oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao ? oea?eao. A?iiaaenueea oa
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia ae?yeuei?noue Ieo?iiieeoa Aiae?ay Oaioeoeueeiai a
1918-1923 ??. — Euea?a: ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i.?.E?ei’yeaae/a,
1996.- 84n.

a) a?ioo?e, ?icae?ee a eieaeoeaieo i?aoeyo:

3. E?an?anueeee I. Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie a Aaee/ei? (ae?oaa
iieiaeia O?O – ii/aoie OO no.). – E.: OAAeO, 1998. – 67 n.

4. E?an?anueeee I. COI? ? Iieueua: iie?oe/ia oa ai?iia i?ioeai?noai
(eenoiiaae 1918 — eeiaiue 1919). – Euea?a: ?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i.
?.E?ei’yeaae/a, 1999. – 43 n.

5.Ai?oe? ca aicc’?aeiaiiy: a?ia?ao. aeia?aeiee /?aaeeie. TH.TH.Neeaea
oa ?i.- Euea?a: Eaiaiy?, 1989. – 359 n.

6. E?an?anueeee I.ss. oa ?i. ?noi??y noni?eueieo ?oo?a ? iie?oe/ieo
ia?o?e Oe?a?ie (O?O-OO no.). – Euea?a: Aeaeaai. oeaio? Euea?a.oi-oo,
1998. – 328 n.

7. E?an?anueeee I.ss.. ?aaai Iao?ooaae/ oa eiai aeiaa. — Euea?a, 1994.
– 20n.

8. E?an?anueeee I. Aaoaean ?c?a?eue // Iie?oe/i? ia?o?? Cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie. — Euea?a, 1991.- N.4-5.

9. E?an?anueeee I. Aoiae // Iie?oe/i? ia?o?? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie.-
N.5-7.

10.E?an?anueeee I. A?oaoaeoo // Iie?oe/i? ia?o?? Cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie.- N.8-9.

11.E?an?anueeee I. C?II // Iie?oe/i? ia?o?? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie.- N.9-10.

12.E?an?anueeee I. Iiaeae-Oe?ii // Iie?oe/i? ia?o?? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie.-
N.30-31.

13.E?an?anueeee I. N?ii?nonueea i?aai?caoe?y Iieueu? // Iie?oe/i? ia?o??
Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie.- N.49-50.

14.E?an?anueeee I. I?c?ao? (no?aeiee) // Iie?oe/i? ia?o?? Cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie.- N.18-19.

15.E?an?anueeee I. Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia’?aeiaiiy
(OIAeI) // Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie. Oa?i?ie, aecia/aiiy,
ia?niiae?? / A?aei.?aae.TH.?.?eia?aiei, ?.O.Eo?an – E.,1993. –
N.122-123.

16.E?an?anueeee I.Oe?a?inueea nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y //
Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie. Oa?i?ie, aecia/aiiy, ia?niiae??. –
N.120.

17.E?an?anueeee I. Oe?a?inueea nioe?ae?noe/ia ?aaeeeaeueia ia?o?y //
Aoiiiaoe?iiaeueiee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie. Oa?i?ie, aecia/aiiy, ia?niiae?? .-
N.122.

18.E?an?anueeee I.ss., Ieeei?a ?.A. Eiioa?aioe?y, i?enay/aia 70-??//th
EICO // Oe?. ?no. aeo?i., — 1989. — ? 6.- N.150-152.

a) noaoo? a iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao,

iaoa??aee ? oace iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e:

19.E?an?anueeee I.ss. I?iaeaia aaoiiii?? a ae?yeueiino? EICO //
Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie ?noi??? EICO. Aei 70-??//y noai?aiiy ia?o??. —
Euea?a: Na?o, 1990. – N.157-164.

20.E?an?anueeee I.ss., *iiianueeee I.ss. Ae?yeuei?noue aeaeaaieoeoaa
Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie “Eieaeea” o Eueaia? // Iie?a?ao?y
? aeaeaaie/a ni?aaa. ?anioae..i?aea?ae.iaoe.ca. — Euea?a:Na?o, 1990. —
aei.20.- N.150-155.

21.E?an?anueeee I. Oe?a?inueeee iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee oaa??
No?aeii? Aaee/eie oeaio?enonueeiai iai?yieo (1918-1925 ??.) // ?noi??y
Oe?a?ie. — 1998.- ? 10. aa?ac. — 0,5 ae?oe.a?e.

22.E?an?anueeee I. I?iaeaia No?aeii? Aaee/eie ia Ia?ecuee?e ie?i?e
eiioa?aioe?? 1919-1920 ??. a eiioaeno? iieuenueei? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee
// Iaoe. cai: Ca.- E.: ?IA?I, 1997. — Na?. Iie?oieia?y ? aoiieia?y. —
Aei.2. – N.50-56.

23.E?an?anueeee I.ss., Iai/oe A.I. I?aceaeaio Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee (?aaai Iao?ooaae/) // Oe?a?inueea ?aeay. Iinoao? ia
oe? ?aaiethoe??. Eie.aao.- E.: O-ai «Ciaiiy Oe?a?ie”, 1994. – N.156-173.

24.E?an?anueeee I. Iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee a oiiaao ca?iaeaeaiiy
? ?icaeoeo ia?o?eii-iie?oe/ii? nenoaie oa ci?oeiaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueii-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo // Aaiaca. — 1997. — ? 1.- N.66-75.

25.E?an?anueeee I. A?iiaaenueea oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia ae?yeuei?noue
ieo?iiieeoa Aiae?ay Oaioeoeueeiai a 1918-1923 ??. // Aaiaca. — 1996. — ?
1. – N.68-79.

26.E?an?anueeee I. I?eaia ?oaeieoeueea a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio ?on?
Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie a 20-30-o ?ieao // Aaiaca. — 1995. — ? 1. – N.68-72.

27.E?an?anueeee I. Iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? eiioe?eoe ? eiii?ii?ne e?oa
1930-ii/aoeo 1931 ??. // Iaoe. ca. Oe?. A?eueiiai Oi?-oo. –
Ithioai-Euea?a, 1995. — O.17. – N.50-56.

28.Aoiiiie?oeea Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi? o No?aei?e Aaee/ei? a 1918-1923
??. // Iaoe. cai. ?IAAe IAI Oe?a?ie. — E, 1999. – Aei. 8. – N.165-175.

29.E?an?anueeee I. Ae?yeuei?noue Nithco oe?a?inueeeo aeo?iae?no?a ?
ienueiaiiee?a (1919-1925 // Eieaa a nioe?ieoeueoo?iiio i?inoi??
(Aeina?ae eieaiaeaeaiiy O?O-OO no. ? no/ani? i?iaeaie):
I?aeia?iaei.iaoe.eiio. Aeiiia?ae? ? iia?aeiieaiiy 3-5 o?aa. 1995. –
Euea?a, 1995. – N.97-99.

30.E?an?anueeee I. ?ieue ieo?iiieeoa A.Oaioeoeueeiai o ai?iouea? ca
oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaai?noue o No?aei?e Aaee/ei? a 1918-1923 ??. //
Aeaiie?ao?y ? aea?aeaai?noue a Oe?a?i?: i?iaeaie aa?iii?caoe??.
Anaoe?.iaoe.-i?aeo.eiio.- E., 1997. — N.89-91.

31.E?an?anueeee I., Ieeei?a ?. Ieo?iiieeo A.Oaioeoeueeee ? Iieuenueea
aea?aeaaa// Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee? a?aeiineie a Aaee/ei? o OO no.:
I?aeia?iae. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: Ieae, 1997. –
N.151-155.

32.E?an?anueeee I. Aei ieoaiiy i?i iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? ia?aaiai?e oa
eiii?ii?ne i?ae /an a?eie 1918-1919 ??. // Oe?a?inueei-iieuenuee?
a?aeiineie a Aaee/ei? o OO no.- ?aaii-O?aie?anuee: Ieae, 1997. –
N.95-98.

33.E?an?anueeee I., Ieeei?a ?. OAI-IOI oa iiae?? a Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? a
1930 ?ioe? // Iaoa??aee iaoe.eiio. Anaoe?. a?aonoaa aiye?a OIA
/I?aai?caoe?y Oe?a?inueeeo Iaoe?iiae?no?a ? Oe?a?inueea Iianoainueea
A?i?y. ?noi??y, o?iee, no/ani?noue, 16-17 n?/. 1993?. —
?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1993

34.E?an?anueeee I. Iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee iaia?aaeiaei? oa
ii/aoeo ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie // Iaoa??aee iaoe.-oai?ao. eiio. “Oe?a?ia
a ?iee ae?oai? na?oiai? a?eie 1939-1945”, 9-10 eenoii. 1994. – E.,1994.
– N.13-16.

35.E?an?anueeee I. Iieuenueea iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea ia Aieei? o
i?aeai?iiee ia??iae // Aaeeea Aieeiue: ieioea ? no/ania. Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaei. e?a?ciaa/.iaoe eiio. AEiao. 1994. –
Oiaeueieoeueeee-?cyneaa- Oaiao?aea, 1994. – N.158-161.

36.E?an?anueeee I. Ai?ioueaa A?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae ca
iacaeaaei?noue No?aeii? Aaee/eie a 1918-1923 // Iaoa??aee ca?oi. iaoe.
eiio. IAN eaoaae?e oe?a?iiciaanoaa ca 1995 ?. — Euea?a, 1996. – N.
46-50.

37.E?an?anueeee I. I.A?ooaanueeee i?ae /an ai?a?aoe?? 1919-1924 ??. //
Ieoaeei A?ooaanueeee ? Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia. (Aeii. ? iia?aeiieaiiy iaoe.
eiio. i.Euea?a, 26-28 aeiao. 1994?.).- Euea?a: Na?o, 1995. – N.59-61.

38.E?an?anueeee I. Ae?yeuei?noue aeceeueiiai o?yaeo COI? ii caoenoo
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy No?aeii? Aaee/eie (1919-1923??.) //
I?aeia?iaei.iaoe.eiio., i?enay/aia 75-??//th Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei?
Ia?iaeii? ?anioae?ee 1-3 eenoii. 1993 ?. — ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1993.
–N.92-93.

39.E?an?anueeee I. Noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeeooy Eueaiaa i?ney aa?aniy
1939 ?. // Euea?a: ?noi??y, ianaeaiiy, eoeueoo?a. Oac. aeii. oa
iia?aeiieaiue oe?.-iieuenuee. eiio., 18-20 o?aa. 1994 ?. – Euea?a, 1994.
– N.42-44.

40.E?an?anueeee I.ss. Iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea Iineae ? Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia a
20-30-o? ??. // Ca?oia iaoe.-oaoi. eiio. IAN, iaoe.i?aoe?aiee?a ?
ani??aio?a (2-5 etho. 1993.). Oac. aeii. — Euea?a, 1993.- Aei. 1. –
N.143.

41.E?an?anueeee I.ss. Iaoe?iiaeueia i?ia?aia EICO // Oe?a?inueea
iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy: i?iaeaia ?aeiino? caiaeue: Iaoa??aee iieiae?aei.
iaoe. eiio. 22 aeiao. 1989 ?.- Euea?a, 1989. – N.24-26.

42.E?an?anueeee I.ss. Aei ieoaiiy i?i iaoe?iiaeueio iie?oeeo EINA // 50
?ie?a aicc’?aeiaiiy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie c Oe?a?inueeith ?aaeyinueeith
Nioe?ae?noe/iith ?anioae?eith o neeaae? Nithco ?N?. Oac. aeii. oa
iia?aeiieaiue iaoe. eiio. Euea?a, 27-29 aa?an. 1989 ?. – Euea?a, 1989. –
N.107-109.

E?an?anueeee I?ano sseoaiae/. Iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee o No?aei?e
Aaee/ei? a eiioaeno? iieuenueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iie?oeee (1918 – 1923
??.). – ?oeiien (435 noi?.).

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a ?noi?e/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.05 – aoiieia?y. ?inoeooo iie?oe/ieo ?
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie. Ee?a, — 1999 ?.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia eiiieaeniiio aiae?cia? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo
noinoie?a ia??iaeo ai?ioueae ca oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaai?noue o 1918–1923
??. Aeine?aeaeaii ?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae, aaiaca i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo
noinoie?a o Aaee/ei? oa aieea ia ieo ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ieo
oaeoi??a. I?iaiae?ciaaii iie?oeeo o?yaeiaeo no?oeoo?, iieuenueeeo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa oa?oiiaaiue uiaei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy, ?? ci?no,
oa?aeoa?, iniaeeaino? oa iai?yie; aena?oeaii o?ae aioo??ia?o?eieo ?
i?aeia?o?eieo aeeneon?e, iiaeyaee ie?aieo ae?y/?a, a oaeiae iie?oe/ia
aaiethoe?y oeeo iiaeyae?a noiniaii aeaii? i?iaeaie. Aecia/aii iniiai?
aoaie iieuenueei? iie?oeee uiaei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy. ?icaeyiooi
no?oeoo?o oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo, i?ia?aie
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e c iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy oa noaaeaiiy aei Iieuenueei?
aea?aeaae. ?ice?eoi aieea a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae ia aca?ieie i?ae
iieuenueeei oa oe?a?inueeei ia?iaeaie, eiiieaen aioo??oi?o oa ciai?oi?o
oaeoi??a, ui aieeaaee ia i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? noinoiee a ?aa?ii?.
I?iaiae?ciaaii aieea ia iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a No?aei?e Aaee/ei? oa
iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee a iiaeo iie?oe/ieo oiiaao ooaaee ?aaee
Aiaanaaei??a uiaei no?aeieo ei?aeii?a Ae?oai? ?a/?iiniieeoi?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Oe?a?ia, No?aeia Aaee/eia, oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy,
Iieueua, aoiiiie?oeea, aoiiiaoe?iiaeuei? oa aoiiiieeoe/i? eiioeaioe??,
iaoe?iiaeueia iaioeia, iaoe?iiaeueia anei?eyoe?y, i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei?
noinoiee.

Krasivskiy Orest Jakubovich. Polish – Ukrainian relations in Eastern
Europe in the context of Polish national policy (1918-1923) – Manuskript
(435 pages).

The essay for a Doctor’s degree, speciality 07-00-05 – ethnology.
Institute of Political and Ethnonational recearches of the National
Academy of Sciences of Ukraine– Kyiv, — 1999.

The essay is devoted to the complex analysis of Polish – Ukrainian
relations in the period of struggle for Ukraine’s independence.
Relations in Galcia and influence of external and internal policy
factors on them are being researched. The policy of Polish parties and
groups relating the Ukrainian issues is under study; its content,
character, peculiarities and directions have been analyzed; way of intra
and and interparty discussions, opinions of some statesmen, and public
figures political evolytion are being eludicated. The main stages of the
Polish policy about the Ukrainian issues are defined. The structure of
Ukrainian national – political movement, its programme concerning
national problem and attidude to Poland are researched. The influence of
Greek Catholik Church on the interrelations between Polish and Ukrainian
peoples is being discovered. The complex of internal and external
factors, which influenced the international relations in the region are
studied. The influence of the resolution of Ambassadors Council
concerning the eastern borders of the Second Commonwealth the political
situation in Eastern Galicia and Polish – Ukrainian relations under new
political conditions is analised.

Key words: Ukrainian, Eastern Galicia, ukrainian question, Poland,
ethnopolicy, ethnonacional and ethnopoliticak conceptons, national
minority, national assimilation, internacional relations.

E?aneaneee I?ano sseoaiae/. Iieuenei-oe?aeineea ioiioaiey a Ainoi/iie
Aaeeoeee a eiioaenoa iieueneie iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee (1918 — 1923
aa.). — ?oeiienue (435 no?.).

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a enoi?e/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.05 — yoiieiaey. Einoeooo iieeoe/aneeo e
yoiiiaoeeiiaeueieo enneaaeiaaiee IAI Oe?aeiu. Eeaa, — 1999 a.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiiieaeniiio aiaeeco iieuenei-oe?aeineeo
ioiioaiee ia?eiaea ai?ueau ca oe?aeineoth ainoaea?noaaiiinoue 1918 —
1923 aa. Enneaaeothony enoi?e/aneea i?aaeiinueee, aaiacen
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiuo ioiioaiee a Aaeeoeee e aeeyiea ia ieo aiaoieo e
aioo?eiieeoe/aneeo oaeoi?ia. Aiaeece?oaony iieeoeea i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
no?oeoo?, iieueneeo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e a?oiie?iaie ioiineoaeueii
oe?aeineiai aii?ina, aa niaea?aeaiea, oa?aeoa?, iniaaiiinoe e
iai?aaeaiey; inaauaaony oiae aioo?eia?oeeiuo e iaaeia?oeeiuo
aeeneonnee, acaeyaeu ioaeaeueiuo aeayoaeae, a oaeaea iieeoe/aneay
yaiethoeey yoeo acaeyaeia ioiineoaeueii aeaiiie i?iaeaiu. Ii?aaeaeaiu
iniiaiua yoaiu iieueneie iieeoeee ii oe?aeineiio aii?ino. ?anniio?aia
no?oeoo?a oe?aeineiai iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey,
eco/aiu i?ia?aiiu iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee ii iaoeeiiaeueiiio aii?ino e
ioiioaia e Iieueneiio ainoaea?noao. ?ane?uaaaony aeeyiea
a?aei-eaoiee/aneie oea?eae ia ioiioaiey iaaeaeo iieueneei e oe?aeineei
ia?iaeaie, eiiieaen aioo?aiieo e aiaoieo oaeoi?ia, eioi?ua aeeyee ia
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey a ?aaeiia. I?iaiaeece?iaaii aeeyiea ia
iieeoe/aneoth neooaoeeth a Ainoi/iie Aaeeoeee e iieuenei-oe?aeineea
ioiioaiey a iiauo iieeoe/aneeo oneiaeyo iinoaiiaeaiey Niaaoa
Aiaannaaei?ia ioiineoaeueii ainoi/iuo a?aieoe Aoi?ie ?a/eiiniieeoie.

A aeenna?oaoeee aiaeece?oaony iieeoeea iieueneiai ?oeiaiaenoaa, eioi?ia
?anniao?eaaei Aaeeoeeth eae aaeeioth ninoaaioth /anoue aoaeouaai
Iieueneiai ainoaea?noaa; eco/aii aai ioiioaiea e oe?aeineiio
iaoeeiiaeueiiio aeaeaeaieth, eioi?ia iieueneea oiaeienou ?anniao?eaaee
eae aano?eeneoth eio?eao, i?oaeea aaineiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?ioea
iieueneeo iacaaeneiuo ono?aieaiee. Eiaiii iiyoiio iieuenei-oe?aeineea
i?ioeai?a/ey iaoiaeeeenue a oeaio?a iieeoe/aneeo ioiioaiee a ?aaeiia.

Iao/iay iiaecia aeenna?oaoeee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aaoi? nouanoaaiii
oaeoaee eiathueany a iao/iie eeoa?aoo?a ioeaiee eiioeaioeee iniiaiuo
iieueneeo iieeoe/aneeo iauaaeeiaiee ioiineoaeueii oe?aeineiai aii?ina.
Eniieueciaaiea iiaiai oaeoe/aneiai iaoa?eaea aeaei aiciiaeiinoue
aeenna?oaioo ?anniao?eaaoue ioiioaiey ia?oee i?aaioeaio?enoneiai,
eaaiaeaiie?aoe/aneiai e eaai?aaeeeaeueiiai iai?aaeaiee e
iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiiio aeaeaeaieth aaeeoeeeo oe?aeioeaa,
oi?ie?iaaiea e niaa?oainoaiaaiea eo eiioeaioeee, oeaeae e iaoiaeia
inouanoaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie iieeoeee. A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaiaeece?iaaii
eiei?ii?aoeeiiioth i?ia?aiio yiaeyoeee, oaaea?aeenoneea ieaiu
ieenoae/eeia, aaoiiiienoneea i?iaeou aaeeoeeeo nioeeaeenoia
ioiineoaeueii Ainoi/iie Aaeeoeee.

Enoi?eia?aoe/aneay e enoi?eiaaae/aneay iiaecia aeenna?oaoeee
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aaoi? eioaa?e?iaae a iao/iii aiaeeca ?aaiou
oe?aeineeo e ca?oaaaeiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae, aaae a iao/iue iai?io oe?ieee
e?oa a?oeaiuo enoi/ieeia e iaoa?eaeia ec oiiaeia oe?aeineeo e
ca?oaaaeiuo a?oeaia. Ana yoi niinianoaiaaei ia?ainiuneaieth auaiaeia e
iieiaeaiee i?aaeoanoaaiieeia e eceiaeaieth aaoi?neie eioa?i?aoaoeee
oe?aeinei-iieueneeo ioiioaiee a enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Oe?aeia, Ainoi/iay Aaeeoeey, oe?aeineee aii?in,
Iieueoa, yoiiiieeoeea, yoiiiaoeeiiaeueiua e yoiiiieeoe/aneea
eiioeaioeee, iaoeeiiaeueiia iaiueoeinoai, iaoeeiiaeueiay anneieeyoeey,
iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey.

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