IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?i. ?.?. IA*IEEIAA

EOCUeIAIEI Aieiaeeie? Ai?eniae/

OAeE 93/99 “1890-1900” (477.7)

OE?A?INUeEEE EOEUeOO?II-IAOe?IIAEUeIEE ?OO

A 90-O ?IEAO O?O no.

(IA IAOA??AEAO I?AAeIss OE?A?IE)

07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

IAeANA – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? o?einio??, ?noi??? ? iie?oieia?? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oea?ethe Naiai Aioiiiae/,

eaoaae?a o?einio??, ?noi??? ?
iie?oieia?? Iaeanueeiai

aea?aeaaiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Na?aae A?oae?e A?eai?iae/,

caa. a?aeae?eii ?noi??? Oe?a?ie O?O –
ii/aoeo OO no.

?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eoeue/eoeueeee Noai?neaa
Aeaaeeneaaiae/,

cano. aee?aeoi?a ?inoeoooo ?noi???
Oe?a?ie

IAI Oe?a?ie

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Naiieeia Oaae?? Ieaenaiae?iae/,

caa. eaoaae?e iiai? ? iia?oiuei?
?noi??? ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i

Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “15” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 41.051.08 a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith: 270057, i. Iaeana,
aoe. Uaie?ia, 12, aoae.9.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa ca aae?anith: 270100,
i. Iaeana, aoe. I?aia?aaeainueea, 24.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “14”o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio
EICIANUeEEE A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. I?iaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie
caii/aoeoaaei iiaee aoai ?? ?noi?e/iiai iinooio. ?icaoaeiaa iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaae iio?aao? caeo/aiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ieioeeo iieie?iue oa
aeiaaa? anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy ieioaoeie oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, iniaeeai
oeo noi??iie eiai ?noi???, eio?? i?ioyaii aeiaaeo ?ie?a iaaei?aaaeaii
caiia/oaaeenue aai aeine?aeaeaiiy yeeo ciaoiaeeeinue i?ae aieeaii
iie?oe/ii? eii’thieoo?e. Aei oaeeo i?iaeai iaeaaeeoue ?noi??y
oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo.

A oiiaao o?eaaei? a?aenooiino? iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaaieo ?inoeooo?a,
ia?a?aiino? aea?aeaaieoeueeeo o?aaeeoe?e oa ?iei?ii?aoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo
oea?eiaii-?ae?a?eieo no?oeoo? ?in?enueeith aea?aeaaith oeae ?oo
caeeoaany iaeiei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo cania?a oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Eeoa noai?aiiy ? a?aeoai?aiiy
eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, caeo/aiiy aei iaaeaaiue
eoeueoo?e oa ?noi??? oe?ieeo e?e oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy, cie?aia
i?ina?oieoeueeeie caniaaie, iiaei noi?ioaaoe no?eea ii/oooy
iaoe?iiaeueii? a?aeiino? oa a?ae/oooy iaeaaeiino? aei ia?iaeo, yeee ia?
neaaio ?noi??th, a ?acii c oei ? a??o a eiai aaeeea iaeaooi?. Ioaea,
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo aoa ? ? oei ooiaeaiaioii, ia yeiio
aaco?oueny oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay, ui ciaeoea ao?eaiiy a
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieuei?e ai?iouea? oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo i?ioyaii
OO no.

Iniaeeai? aeooaeueiino? iaaoaa? aea/aiiy aeina?aeo
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a ie?aieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, cie?aia
I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie, a yeeo aeiiii?/i?, nioe?aeuei?, aaia?ao?/i?, aoi?/i?,
ineoieia?/i? oa ?noi?e/i? /eiieee iaeeaaeaee na?e a?aeaeoie ia
?ioaineai?noue, niaoeeo?eo, iaoiaee, i???ioe?e oa ni?yiiaai?noue
oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?ioeano.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaiee c oaiith aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e o?einio??,
?noi??? ? iie?oieia?? Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo: “Nioe?aeueiee ?icaeoie naea a
oiiaao ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei”, a ?aieao yei? ?noi?e/ia naeoe?y eaoaae?e
aeine?aeaeo? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? a
oe?a?inueeiio nae? I?aaeaiiiai ?aa?iio.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aoiaoth/e aeooaeuei?noue aeaii?
i?iaeaie, iaoeiaa ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy oa caaaeath/e ia iaaeinoaoi?e
??aaiue ?? ?ic?iaeaiino? c iiceoe?e iiaeo aeiia ? caaaeaiue, aeena?oaio
iinoaaea ia?aae niaith iaoo: aecia/eoe nooue oe?a?inueeiai
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo oa eiai i?noea a nenoai? noni?eueieo
?oo?a, i?iaiae?coaaoe oaiaeaioe?? oa iai?yiee ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a 90-o? ?iee O?O no. oa aeyaeoe eiai
nai???aei?noue ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie.

A?aeiia?aeii c iinoaaeaiith iaoith a ?iaio? aecia/ai? ianooii? iniiai?
caaaeaiiy: c’ynoaaoe ?ieue ? i?noea eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia
I?aaei? Oe?a?ie a ?icaeoeo aecaieueii? ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
aecia/eoe eiai iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ? iai?yiee a 90-o ??. O?O no. oa
?oo?ei? neee; anoaiiaeoe oe?e?, iaoiaee, ci?no ? niaoeeo?eo ae?yeueiino?
oe?a?inueeeo eoeueoo?ieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie
o 90-o ??. O?O no. oa anoaiiaeoe ia?niiae?? oe?a?inueeeo a?iiaaenueeeo
ae?y/?a i?aaeaiiiai ?aa?iio; aeine?aeeoe oe?a?inueea eieaiae?oeoaaiiy ?
?icaeoie ia??iaee/ii? i?ane ia I?aaei? a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y O?O no. oa
ianoaaeeoe ?o ?ieue o iioe?aii? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? na?aae
an?o aa?noa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo; i?iaiae?coaaoe ae?yeuei?noue oa
aecia/eoe aianie oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o o ni?aao iioe?aiiy oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? o I?aaeaiiiio ?aa?ii?; c’ynoaaoe ?ieue ?
i?noea I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie a oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii?
inoaiiueiai aeanyoe??//y O?O no.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaa ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y O?O no. ia
I?aaei? Oe?a?ie.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?ioean caeo/aiiy aei iaaeaaiue oe?a?inueei?
?noi??? ? eoeueoo?e oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy a I?aaeaiiiio ?aa?ii?
Oe?a?ie oa oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ioiieththoue ia??iae 90-o
?ie?a O?O no., yeee caii/aoeoaaa caaaeueiiia?iaeiee aoai a i?ioean?
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa a?aecia/aany iiyaith
ia?oeo i?ioiiie?oe/ieo ia?o?e – “A?aonoaa oa?an?aoe?a”, Anaoe?a?inueei?
caaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? (AOCI). Oeae ia??iae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye?nieie
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieie ci?iaie, iia’ycaieie c ?icaeoeii eai?oae?cio,
iniaeeai ia i?aaei? ?in?enueei? ?iia???, ui ni?e/eieee iaai? iie?oe/i?
c?ooaiiy. ?acii c oei aeaui iineaaoaea ?ai?aneaia iie?oeea oea?aoo. Ana
oea noai?thaaei iniiao aeey i?ioeano ye?nii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? c eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai a
iie?oe/ii-iaoe?iiaeueiee, yeee caaa?oeany oi?ioaaiiyi oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ia ii/aoeo OO no. Ioaea, ia??iae c 1890
ii 1900 ??. iiaeia aaaaeaoe a?aeiinii ie?aiei ? eia?/ii ie?aneaiei a
?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue Caii??cueeo,
Ieeiea?anueeo, Iaeanueeo, Oa?niinueeo, /anoeio Aei?i?iiao?ianueei? ?
E??iaia?aaenueei? iaeanoae oa ?anioae?eo E?ei. A aeine?aeaeoaaiee
ia??iae aiie neeaaeaee oa?eoi??? Oa?niinueei?, Eaoa?eiineaanueei?,
Oaa??enueei? oa I?aaeaiii? /anoeie Aanna?aanueei? aoaa?i?e.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?? ? i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio,
ia’?eoeaiino?, nenoaiiino?, aeaoa?i?i?cio oa nioe?aeueii-iaoeia?
i?eioeeie: i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee, ?ao?iniaeoeaiee. O ?iaio?
aeei?enoai? no/ani? iaoiaee ? i?aeoiaee a ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo:
iaineaioeoeeci; ?noi?eei-ineoieia?/iee iaoiae; oeea?e?caoe?eiee
nenoaiiee iaoiae; eiiia?aoeaiee iaoiae; iaoiae aiaeia?e; iaoiaee
noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aia?oa ia
iniia? oe?iei? aeaea?aeueii? aace, ca oiiae caeo/aiiy iiaeo aeaea?ae ?
aeine?aeieoeueei? e?oa?aoo?e c?iaeaia ni?iaa aeae?eeoe oa eiiieaenii
aeine?aeeoe iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? oa iai?yie oe?a?inueeiai
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie a inoaii?
aeanyoe??//y O?O no. a on?o eiai aaaaoia?aiieo i?iyaao. Ii?ooaii
o?aaeeoe?th a ?noi??ia?ao??, eiee aeaiee ia??iae ?icaeyaeaany ye ia??iae
neaaei? aeoeaiino? oe?a?inueeeo e?e ia I?aaei?. C iiaeo iiceoe?e
aiae?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue ??ciiiai?oieo a?iiaaenueeeo oa
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, ui cae?enith?oueny ia iniia?
?icaeyaeo ?o ?iaioe e??cue i?ecio ae??oaiiy caaaeaiiy a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
aeooiaieo iniia oe?a?inueei? iaoe??. Iiaee i?aeo?ae i?inoaaeo?oueny a
aeine?aeaeaii? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o, eieae ? ia??iaee/ii? i?ane
c oi/ee ci?o ?o ?ie? o ni?aa? iioe?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?
oe?ieeo e?e oe?a?inoaa. A aeine?aeaeaii? anoaiiaeaii e ooi/iaii ?iaia
aeanyoe?a oe?a?inueeeo a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a I?aaeiy oa i?inoaaeo?oueny
?o aeoeaia o/anoue o eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on?, c’yniao?oueny
o?iiieia?/iee ia?aa?a iiae?e, aecia/a?oueny i?noea I?aaeaiiiai ?aa?iio a
oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii?. Aaaaeaii aei iaoeiaiai
ia?ao nenoaiaoeciaai? aeai? uiaei ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
eieaiae?oeoaaiiy ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie a 90-o? ?iee O?O no., aeiiiaiaiee
nienie /eai?a Iaeanueei? A?iiaaee c ?o aeaoeo?iaaieie aaoia?aoaie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio,
ui aiie iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e iiaeaeueoiio iaoeiaiio
aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeaie, i?e aea/aii? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa i?e aeeeaaeaii?
?? o aeu?e ? na?aaei?e oeie?, aeey i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?? aeeeaaea/?a
?noi???. Iaoa??aee ? aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeia canoinoaaoe i?e
iaienaii? niaoe?aeueieo ? ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, i?e i?aeaioiaoe? eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a oa
iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a o ?ic?iaeo oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o
io?eiaii? iiaeo aeniiae?a i?i ?icaeoie eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo
ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie o 90-o ?ieao O?O no. ye ia??iaeo iaea?eueoi?
i?aeoe/ii? ae?yeuei?no? iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo nee I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie a
O?O noie?oo? oa anoaiiaeaii? aecia/ii? ?ie? I?aaeaiiiai ?aa?iio a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? Oe?a?ie: i?iaaaeaii? noaoenoe/iiai
aiae?co a?o?aieo aeaea?ae c ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai eieaiae?oeoaaiiy ia
I?aaei? Oe?a?ie oa a?oioiai?e nenoaiaoecaoe?? eiai ?acoeueoao?a;
?icaeyae? ?iaioe ienoaoeueeeo oa eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e i?ae eooii ci?o ?o eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueii? ae?yeueiino?;
caeo/aii? aei aiae?co i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai ?ooo
?in?enueeiiiaieo oe?a?iiieney/eo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue oiai /ano;
anoaiiaeaii? iniaeeainoae oaiaeaioe?e oa iai?yie?a
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo 90-o ?ie?a O?O no. ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a aeiiia?aeyo ia i?aeia?iaeieo, anaoe?a?inueeeo oa
?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo: “No/ania aoiieoeueoo?ia
oa aoiiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie ? aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy” (Iaeana, 1996); “N?i’y a nenoai? nioe?aeueieo
?inoeooo?a” (Iaeana, 1997); “Eiioeaioe?y aoiai?cio a ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii? ina?oe” (Iaeana, 1997); “Aoiieoeueoo?i? i?ioeane ia
I?aaei? Oe?a?ie a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no.” (Caii??aeaey,
1998); “Na?oiaeyaei? oa iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy
iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano” (Iaeana, 1998); a oaeiae o 8-ie
ioae?eaoe?yo aeena?oaioa caaaeueiei ianyaii 2,65 ae?. a?e.

Aeena?oaoe?y iaea?aeaea iiceoeaio ioe?ieo a ?acoeueoao? iaiaeii?aciaiai
iaaiai?aiiy ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e o?einio??, ?noi??? ? iie?oieia??
Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeiai ?inoeoooo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa e?oa?aoo?e ?
aeiaeaoe?a. Ianya aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue 179 noi??iee, e??i oeueiai,
nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (386 iaeiaioaaiue) ia?aoiao? 34 noi??iee,
4 aeiaeaoee – 11 noi??iie. Caaaeii – 222 noi??iee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/a?oueny iaoa,
caaaeaiiy, o?iiieia?/i? oa aaia?ao?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeaco?oueny
ia iaoiaeieia?th ?iaioe, ?ice?eaa?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??, a oaeiae nooi?iue ?? ai?iaaoe??.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “?noi??ia?ao?/iee oa aeaea?aeiciaa/ee iaeyae
i?iaeaie” aecia/a?oueny ??aaiue ?noi??ia?ao?/ii? ?ic?iaee oaie,
ie?aneth?oueny aeaea?aeueia aaca aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui ia?o? ni?iae aiae?co oe?a?inueeiai
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo aoee c?iaeai? aaea iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. 
Caeaa?eueoiai oea aoa nai???aeiee naiiaiae?c, ine?eueee ?iaeee eiai,
ia?aaeon?i, aeoeai? o/anieee icia/aiiai noni?eueiiai ?ooo. Iaeii/anii
?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo caa?oaa ia naaa
oaaao ? aeine?aeiee?a, ui noiyee ia iiceoe?yo i?ioeae?? ?icaith
oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, ye? oaae iaiaaaeenue inyaiooe ci?no oeueiai
noni?eueiiai oaiiiaio .

*anoeiaa neanoaaiiy iaiaaeaiue oe?a?inueeiai ae?oeiaaiiai neiaa,
aiane?aeie Ia?oi? ?in?enueei? ?aaiethoe??, noai?eei a?eueo ni?eyoeea?
oiiae aeey ?icaeoeo oe?a?iiciaa/eo nooae?e. A aei?aaiethoe?ei?e
?noi??ia?ao?? iniaeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue ?iaioai a?aeiieo oe?a?inueeeo
aeine?aeiee?a: I. A?ooaanueeiai, Ae. Aei?ioaiea, N. ?o?aiiaa,
E. Noa?eoeueei?-*a?iyo?anueei?, A. Aeiiaieoeueeiai, a yeeo iiaeaii ye
caaaeueiee aiae?c eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo 90-o ?ie?a, oae ?
ie?aieo eiai neeaaeiaeo: ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e, oaao?o,
i?ina?oieoeoaa, aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae oiui . Iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiaothoue
ca??iee noaoae, i?aeaioiaeaiee ni?a?ia?oieeaie aeo?iaeo “Oe?aeineay
aeeciue”, oa iiiia?ao?y A. Aei?ioaiea, ye? iiaeia aaaaeaoe ia?oeie
ni?iaaie oi/ ? ei?ioeiai, aea eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai
?ooo: eiai eoeueoo?ieoeueeiai ? iie?oe/iiai aniaeo?a .

Cia/iei aianeii o ?ic?iaeo ?icaeyaeoaaii? i?iaeaie ? iaoeia?
aeine?aeaeaiiy 20-o ?ie?a. ?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y oeueiai ia??iaeo
aaaaoi a /iio ua caa??aaea o? iaaeaaiiy noa?i? oeiee, ye? ?iaeee
?noi?e/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeinoaoiuei ia’?eoeaieie ? oiea?aioieie. ?acii
c oei o aaaaoueio aeine?aeiee?a aia?oa c’yaeeanue iiaeeea?noue caeo/eoe
aei ?iaioe oe?ii? ?noi?e/i? aeaea?aea, ui caa??aaeeny a oea?nueeeo
a?o?aao.

Oi?iaeiaae 20-o ??. aeoiaeeoue ?yae ?ia?o A. ?aiao??iea, i?enay/aieo
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, a yeeo aieiaio oaaao aaoi?
i?eae?ey? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeei /aniienai .

Aeaui a?eueoa e?euee?noue e?oa?aoo?e i?enay/aia aaiethoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
eieaiae?oeoaaiiy. Ia?aaeon?i, iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
N. ?o?aiiaa, o yeeo aaoi? aiae?co? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei?
aeaeaaie/i? ni?aae . Iia?aeiee iaeyae ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai
eieaiae?oeoaaiiy iiaea?oueny a ?iaioao I. Iaeoey oa A. Eica/aiea .
Iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiaothoue ?ica?aeee A. Aa?aneiaiea,
E. Eiia?aeeinueeiai, Ae. Eene/aiea oa I. ?ya?i?ia-Neey?aanueeiai, a yeeo
aeine?aeieee ia iniia? a?o?aieo iaoa??ae?a aia?oa c?iaeee ni?iao
i?inoaaeeoe aeaye? aniaeoe oe?a?inueeiai eieaiae?oeoaaiiy ia I?aaei?
Oe?a?ie inoaii?o aeanyoe??/ O?O no. /a?ac i?ecio ae?yeueiino?
?iia?nueei? oeaico?e .

Na?aae iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o a oeae ia??iae
caneoaiaothoue iniaeeai? oaaae aeine?aeaeaiiy I. Eenaey oa O. Neaa/aiea,
ye? i?noyoue oe?eaaee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, iaa?oioiaai? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?
aeniiaee .

Ia??iae 20-o ?ie?a aoa ie?aeiei aeey aeine?aeaeaiue ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo o I?aaeaiiiio ?aa?ii?.
Ia?aaeon?i, oea ?iaioe I.I. ?ya?i?ia-Neey?aanueeiai , i?enay/ai?
A?iiaaeai I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie, ui iiaoaeiaai? ia iniia? oe?iei? a?o?aii?
aeaea?aeueii? aace. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe oaeiae aeine?aeaeaiiy I. Aa?iaeca
oa I. ssai?nueeiai, ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ona?aeiieoe aeoiee, oiiae
? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo .

Ia ii/aoeo 30-o ?ie?a a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a, ui caeiaeenue
i?iaeaiaie oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, io?eiaee c
ia?o?eii-o?yaeiaeo ono oaa?i “oe?a?inueeeo ao?aeoacieo iaoe?iiae?no?a” ?
aoee o?ce/ii cieuai?. I?ioa, oeae ia??iae ia aoa ao?a/aiee aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo aniaeo?a oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo. Ca?nii, iaiao?aeii iaoe ia oaac?, ui iaioaaiiy o oie /an
eiioi?noe/ii? ?aeaieia?? ia aeaaaei iiaeeeaino? aeey anaa?/iiai
aena?oeaiiy oeo /e ?ioeo iiae?e, i?ioean?a, ae?yeueiino? aeaeaoieo
iniaenoinoae. Aea i? a yeiio ?ac? ia iiaeia a?aeeeaeaoe noai?aiiai o o?
/ane aaee/aciiai aei?iaeo a?o/eciyieo ?noi?ee?a, yeee ? oe?iiith
niaaeueiith aeey ianooiieo iieie?iue aeine?aeiee?a.

I?ioyaii 30-80-o ?ie?a c’yaeythoueny ?yae oe?eaaeo aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?enay/aieo ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? ia??iaee/ii? i?ane . Ca?eueoo?oueny
oaeiae e?euee?noue aeine?aeaeaiue c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
eieaiae?oeoaaiiy . Iaeiae – a?aeiia?aeii aei aeiia /ano, aieiaia oaaaa
i?eae?eyeany aeine?aeaeaiith /aniien?a aeaiie?aoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy oa
oai??a ienueiaiiee?a-aeaiie?ao?a, caeeoath/e oae caaio iaoe?iiae?noe/io
i?ano ? oai?e ienueiaiiee?a-iaoe?iiae?no?a iica iaaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aaaeeeaeie aeey aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie ? iecea ?ia?o c ieoaiue
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o . Aea i?e ae??oaii? ieoaiue i?noey ? ?ie?
oaao?o a iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on? cia/iee a?aeaeoie ia aeniiaee oeeo aaoi??a
iaeeaea iaioth/a ia oie /an o noni?euenoa? ?aeaieia?y.

Aeey ??ciia?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aii? oaie aaaiieie ? oaeiae ?iaioe,
ui oi?eaeenue i?iaeai iaoee ? i?ina?oieoeoaa a Oe?a?i? ia ?oaaae?
O?O-OO no., ye? ca ianyaii ia?iaeaiiai iaoa??aeo ? iaoeiaith oe?ii?noth
iin?aeathoue aecia/ia i?noea a ?noi??ia?ao?? aeaii? i?iaeaie .

Iacaaaeath/e ia oia?aaeaeai?noue i?aeoiaeo, yeo aeiaaaea o aeine?aeiee?a
iaioth/a ?aeaieia?/ia nenoaia, cia/io oe?ii?noue aeey aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie caa??aathoue i?aoe?, i?enay/ai? aea/aiith ?noi??? noni?eueieo
?oo?a a Oe?a?i? .

A oeae ia??iae c’yaeythoueny oaeiae ?yae aaaeeeaeo, oi/ ? ia iicaaaeaieo
?aeaieia?/ieo iaoa?oaaiue, ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue c
?noi??? Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae a?oioiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? ie?aieo
aaeocae oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e .

Iiaee aoai aea/aiiy i?iaeaie ?icii/aany c i?iaieioaiiy aea?aeaaii?
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie. A?i oa?aeoa?eco?oueny caeo/aiiyi aei iaoeiaiai
ia?ao oe?ieiai eiea ?noi?e/ieo aeaea?ae, iiaeieaiiyi aeiaiaoe/ieo
ooaii?a o aena?oeaii? ?noi?e/iiai i?ioeano.

C’yaey?oueny ?yae ?ia?o A.A. Na?aay, ye? iinyoue caaaeueii-oai?aoe/iee
oa?aeoa? uiaei ?icoi?iiy iniaeeainoae iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? O?O no., c’ynoaaiiy oiia, a yeeo ca?iaeaeoaaeany e
oi?ioaaeany oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia ?aeay, yeee aieea i?ioeane oeueiai
ia??iaeo iaee ia iiaeaeueoo ?noi??th Oe?a?ie . Aaaeeeaeie c aeaii?
i?iaeaiaoeee ? eiiieaeni? ?iaioe A. Eanueyiiaa, I. Oei oa ?i., ye?
i?enay/ai? aea/aiith oa inieneaiith cia/aiiy ae?yeueiino? ?ioae?aaioe??
aeey ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, aecia/aiith ?? i?noey oa ?ie? a
oe?a?inueeiio aecaieueiiio ?on? ia ?oaaae? O?O – OO no.  A?oioiaiee,
caaaeueiee “Ia?en ?noi??? eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie” iiaeaa I.O. Iiiiae/ .
?icaeoie i?ina?oieoeueeiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? ciaeoia a?aeia?aaeaiiy o
?iaio? I. Eiiiaoey . Aiae?co iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ii? aeo?iae?noeee
Oe?a?ie i?enay/aia iiiia?ao?y ?.A. E?oinueeiai .

Oe?eaaei aei?iaeii e?a?ciaa/i? i?iaeaiaoeee ? iiiia?ao?y O.I. Naiieeiaa,
I.I. Ne?eiieea oa I.O. ss?auaiea, a ye?e ia iniia? oe?iei?
?noi??ia?ao?/ii? oa aeaea?aeueii? aace iiaeaii oe?e?niee ia?en ?noi???
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ? eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy Iaeane iai?ee?ioe? O?O –
ii/aoeo OO no. 

Aeine?aeaeaiith ae?yeueiino? Iaeanueei? A?iiaaee i?enayoeee nai? ?iaioe
I.A. Aieaee??a oa A.I. Eao?aiei . ?o oaaao, ia?aaeon?i, i?eaa?oaea
i?iaeaia ?icaeoeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? neeaaeiai?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ciaaaiue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Ieoaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, cie?aia e I?aaeaiiiai
?aa?iio, a 90-o ?ieao O?O no. noaee i?aaeiaoii ?icaeyaeo ?yaeo
anaoe?a?inueeeo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo eiioa?aioe?e. Aea aeiiia?ae? ?
iia?aeiieaiiy ia ieo iineee caeaa?eueoiai ?ioi?iaoe?eiee oa?aeoa?, oiio
?o iiaeia aaaaeaoe eeoa i?aeoiaeii aei oe??? aaaeeeai? ? aeooaeueii?
i?iaeaie .

Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith ?noi??ia?ao?/ii? aace aeena?oaoe?? ? ?iaioe
?noi?ee?a ae?anii?e. Iaeieie c iaeiii?oi?oeo aoee a?oioiai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, cae?eniai? a 30-o ?ieao ca
?aaeaeoe??th Ae.A. Aioiiiae/a oa ?.I. E?ei’yeaae/a . Aiie ? oi?eaeueieie
ni?iaaie oe?e?niiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oaiiiaio oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e c
iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a aei iia?oi?o, ui aeathoue a?oioiaia oyaeaiiy i?i
?ica?e a?o/eciyii? ina?oe oa eieaiae?oeoaaiiy, o?einio?? oa ?ae?a??,
??cieo aeae?a ienoaoeoaa oiui. O 80-o ?ieao ?ic?iaeo caaaeueieo ieoaiue
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e i?iaeiaaeea I. Nai/eoei .

Caa?oathoue ia naaa oaaao a?oioiai? aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo aaeocae
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e Ae. Aioiiiae/a, A. AEeaioea, Ae. Aei?ioaiea,
N. *i?i?y oa ?i.  ?o oa?aeoa?iith ?enith ? iane/ai?noue oaeoe/iei
iaoa??aeii, iaa?oioiaaieie ocaaaeueiaiiyie, a oaeiae ia’?eoeaiee
i?aeo?ae aei aena?oeaiiy i?iaeai. Oe?eaaeie ? noaoo?
?. Eenyea-?oaeieoeueeiai, a yeeo aaoi? iiaea? caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa aecia/a? aieiai? aoaie
eiai ?icaeoeo . A 90-o ?ieao a Oe?a?i? ia?aaeaeathoueny ia?ene
oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? a?aeiieo aeine?aeiee?a ae?anii?e .

Ioaea, i/aaeaeiei ? oaeo, ui a onueiio ianea? iayaii? e?oa?aoo?e
i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi? eiiieaeni? ?iaioe c ia?aii? oaie. Iaeiae a?oioiai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo aniaeo?a eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo caeeaee
iniiao aeey noai?aiiy ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?iea ? ??ciiiai?oia.
Iniiao ??, ia?aaeon?i, neeaaeathoue aeieoiaioaeuei? aeaea?aea, ye?
caa??aathoueny o oiiaeao Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao
Oe?a?ie o i. Ee?a? (OeAe?A Oe?a?ie), Oeaio?aeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai
a?o?ao-iocath e?oa?aoo?e oa ienoaoeoaa Oe?a?ie (OeAeAIEI Oe?a?ie),
Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei (AeAA? E?ei), Aea?aeaaieo
a?o?a?a Ieeiea?anueei? (AeAII) e Iaeanueei? iaeanoae (AeAII). O?yaeia?
iinoaiiae , iaoa??aee ne?ae/eo oa aeaiaea?inueeeo onoaiia , oeaico?iiai
a?aeiinoaa  oiui, ye? caa??aathoueny o oiiaeao aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a
Oe?a?ie, aeathoue ciiao cia/iith i??ith ?aeiino?othaaoe ?noi?e/ia
ieioea, i?iaiae?coaaoe ci?no aeine?aeaeoaaiiai i?ioeano. O aeena?oaoe??
aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oaeiae iioae?eiaai? oa aaaaeai? aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao
aeieoiaioe . Iaeiae ?o eiei iaaeoi iaea, ui coiiaeth?oueny a?aenooi?noth
niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue c ia?aii? iaie i?iaeaie.

Aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith aeaea?aeueii? aace ? niiaaaee aeaeaoieo
oe?a?inueeeo a?iiaaenueeeo ? eoeueoo?ieo ae?y/?a, a?eueo?noue c ieo aoee
aeaeai? o 20-o ??. . Ie??i oiai aei aeaea?aeueii? aace aaaaeai?
iaeiaeinooii? iaioa?i? aeaea?aea, ui caa??aathoueny o a?aeae?eao
?oeiien?a aea?aeaaieo a?ae?ioae . Niiaaaee i?ieeaathoue na?oei ia
aaaaoia?aiiee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo
iai?ee?ioe? O?O no., aeathoue iiaeeea?noue i?inoaaeeoe ae?yeuei?noue oa
aioo??oi? aeeooy A?iiaae oiui. Oe?eaaeie ? oaeiae iaioa?e i?aaenoaaiee?a
oeaico?iiai a?aeiinoaa, ye? iaaeathoue ciiao i?inoaaeeoe iiaeyaee oa
aeoeaio i?ioeae?th aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, ni?yiiaaio ia i?eaeooaiiy ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy .

Aacoe?iio ?ioi?iaoe?th aeey iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? eenooaaiiy
ae?y/?a oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, cia/ia /anoeia
yeiai caa??aa?oueny a i?eaaoieo oiiaeao aea?aeaaieo a?o?a?a  oa o
a?aeae?eao ?oeiien?a aea?aeaaieo a?ae?ioae . A iueiio, ia?aaeon?i,
i?inoaaeothoueny oai?/? ieaie oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? oa ?o
?aae?caoe?y, i?noeoueny ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i i?noeaa? iiaeie oe?a?inueeiai
aeeooy. Eenooaaiiy aeicaiey? i?inoaaeeoe ca’ycee ?ioae?aaioe?? I?aaeiy
oa aecia/eoe ?ieue oeueiai ?aa?iio a iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii?
Oe?a?ie.

Aaaiia eiei aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue oe?a?iiiiai? oai?e ae?y/?a
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ye? aoee iaae?oeiaai? ca
ni?eyiiy iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo nee I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie.

Aaaeeeao a?oio aeaea?aeueii? aace aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue iaoa??aee
ia??iaee/ii? i?ane, cie?aia /aniiene “Aeiai?”, “Noaiue”, “I/aeea”, “Ii
ii?th e nooa”, ye? oi/ ? ae?oeoaaeeny ?in?enueeith iiaith, aea
ia?aaoaaee a ?oeao oe?a?inueei? ?ioae?aaioe?? I?aaeiy oa iaee ae?acia
oe?a?inueea iaee//y. Aeoeaii caeo/aeeny iaoa??aee /aniien?a “Eeaaneay
noa?eia”, “Iaeanneee aanoiee” ? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo “Ci?y”, “I?aaaea”
oa ?i.

A ?iaio? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue iaoeia? aeia?aeieee, a?ae?ia?ao?/i?
iieaae/eee oa noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee .

Ioaea, aeei?enoaiiy aeuaiacaaieo aeaea?ae c e?eoe/iith ?o ioe?ieith aea?
iiaeeea?noue aaoi?o aeena?oaoe?? ?ice?eoe iniiai? aniaeoe ia?aii? oaie,
iiaeeaeoe ?icoi?iiy ie?aieo iiiaio?a ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo nee I?aaeiy a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y O?O no.,
aaanoe aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao iia? a?o?ai? iaoa??aee, c?iaeoe iaa?oioiaai?
aeniiaee.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Oiiae, oaiaeaioe?? oa ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo inoaiiueiai aeanyoe??//y O?O no. a
?in?enuee?e ?iia???” iiaea?oueny caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea i?ioeano
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, aiae?cothoueny ia’?eoeai?
oa noa’?eoeai? ia?aaeoiiae oeueiai i?ioeano, aecia/a?oueny
nai???aei?noue I?aaeaiiiai ?aa?iio, aeine?aeaeothoueny oaiaeaioe??
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a ?in?enuee?e
?iia??? 90-o ??. O?O no.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui iaoe?iiaeueia iie?oeea oea?ecio aoea ni?yiiaaia ia
ci?oeiaiiy ?aeiino? ?in?enueei? aea?aeaae oeyoii aeaiaoe?iiae?caoe?? ?
ianeeueieoeueei? ?oneo?eaoe?? i?eaiiaeaieo iaoe?e ? ia?iaeiinoae, a
aiane?aeie Aaeo?anueeiai oee?eoey?o 1863 ?. oa Ainueeiai oeaco 1876 ?.
aoaeue-ye? i?iyae aeooiaiiai aeeooy oe?a?inoaa a iaaeao ?in?enueei?
?iia??? noaaaee iaiiaeeeaeie.

I?ioa 90-o? ?iee O?O no. noaee /anii cia/ieo ci?i o
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? Oe?a?ie, a a?aeiiee oe?a?inueeee ?noi?ee
oa a?iiaaenueeee ae?y/ Ae. Aioiiiae/ ioa?aeoa?ecoaaa oeae ia??iae ye
iaeoe?eaa?oee /an a ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai noni?eueiiai ?ooo, eiee aoee
caeeaaeai? ii/aoee a?iiaaenueeiai ?aianaino.

Ia /ie? i?ioeano iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo
aenooieea iaoe?iiaeueia ?ioae?aaioe?y, aaea noi?iiaaia ye ie?aia
nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eia aa?noaa. Aieiaia nai? caaaeaiiy aiia aaa/aea o
noai?aii? e a?aeoai?aii? iaoe?iiaeueieo iaaeaaiue iaoee ? eoeueoo?e oa
ni?eyii? i?ina?o? ia?iaeieo ian c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy ?o iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino?. O ?icae?e? aiae?cothoueny iniiai? oeyoe eiai ?aae?caoe??, a
naia, a?aeiiaeaiiy aeaeaaie/i? ae?yeueiino? ? iioe?aiiy na?aae ia?iaeo
aeinooiieo eieaeie, iaoeiaa oa i?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue
iaoe?iiaeueieo o/aieo, a oaeiae aeiianaiiy aei ia?iaeieo ian aeeaiai
oe?a?inueeiai neiaa caniaaie oaao?o.

Niaoeeo?/ieie ina?aaeeaie iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i?
noaee A?iiaaee – naiiae?yeuei? iai?aeaaaeuei? aai iaeaaaeuei?
noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? i?aai?caoe?? e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii?
?ioae?aaioe??. ?aaeeeaeueii iano?i?ia iieiaeue ooai?th? nai?
i?aai?caoe?? – Iieiae? A?iiaaee, “A?aonoai oa?an?aoe?a”, a yeeo aia?oa
/?oei i?inoaaeo?oueny naiino?eieoeueea ia?niaeoeaa ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie c
aeeaieeie nioe?aeueieie ia?aoai?aiiyie. C noai?aiiyi o 1897 ?.
Anaoe?a?inueei? caaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? ae?yeuei?noue a?iiaae cia/ii
aeoea?co?oueny, a anoaiiaeaiiy o?nieo eiioaeo?a i?ae a?iiaaeaie ?
eii?aeeiaoe?y ae?e ciaiaioaaee ii/aoie i?aai?ciaaiiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo a Iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e Oe?a?i?.

Ioaea, i?ioyaii 90-o ??. O?O no. a?aeaoaaeinue iiaeaaaeaiiy ae?yeueiino?
oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo nee, ui cia/iith i??ith
i?aeaiooaaei iiaeaeueoo aaiaco oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Aoei
?icaeiooi eoeueoo?ia i?aea?oioy, ia yeiio ?icaeaaeeny iia? iieie?iiy
a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a oa caa?aaeaii o?aaeeoe?th ? aeina?ae i?aai?ciaaii?
noni?eueii? ae?yeueiino?, aac yeeo aeo?ae ia ??aaiue
iie?oe/ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo aoa iaiiaeeeaee.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “I?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue iaoe?iiaeueii
na?aeiieo nee I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie a 90-o ?ieao O?O no.” /a?ac i?eioeei
iiae?eo ia ia?aa?aoe ?icaeyiooi ianooii? ieoaiiy: a?iiaae?anueeee ?oo a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio a?ae?iaeaeaii? Oe?a?ie; eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oi?,
ienoaoeuee? oa cainuee? onoaiiae a ai?iouea? ca i?aaa oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? c?iaeaii ni?iao aeiaanoe, ui I?aaeaiiee ?aa?ii aoa
oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiee ia?aaeath oe?a?inueeeo iaeaaaeueieo oiaa?enoa.
A?aecia/a?oueny, ui iaeiei ?c iaeaaaii?oeo, /enaeueieo oa ae??aeo
ina?aaee?a oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a Iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e
Oe?a?i? aoea Iaeanueea A?iiaaea. Na?aae ?? /eai?a aoee oae? aaoi?eoaoe
ye E. Niieainueeee, I. Eiia?ia, ?. *eeaeaiei, A. Ai?iaee,
I. Aiae???anueeee. Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith iaeanueeeo a?iiaae?aoe?a aoea ?o
aeoeaia iaoeaiaonueea ae?yeuei?noue, ni?yiiaaia ia i?aeo?eieo ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e. A?iiaae?aoe? aeaaai caeo/aeeny aei ae?yeueiino?
oe?a?inueeeo oaao?aeueieo o?oi a Iaean?, ni?eyee i?ioiaeaeaiith
oe?a?inueeeo oai??a /a?ac eaioeaey??th iaeanueeiai ie?aiiai oeaici?a oa
?o aeaeaiith a iaeanueeeo ae?oea?iyo, aeoeaii ?iciianthaeaeoaaee
aenieiooaeiaei? oe?a?inuee? oai?e, aeaeaaaee aeaniee ia??iaee/iee i?aai
– “Ii ii?th e nooa”. Neaaiith noi??ieith ae?yeueiino? Iaeanueei?
A?iiaaee aoei oii?yaeeoaaiiy aaeeeiai ?in?enueei-oe?a?inueeiai neiaieea,
noai?aiiy yeiai aoei aeeeeeaii iaaaeueieie iio?aaaie ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ? noaei aaaeeeaith i?aoeath
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai ianooaao.

Aeoeaii ae?yee ia I?aaei? ?eenaaaoa?aaenueea oa Oa?niinueea A?iiaaee,
/eaie yeeo ?iciianthaeaeoaaee iaeaaaeueio oe?a?inueeo e?oa?aoo?o,
ni?ai?aoethaaee o iaae?eueieo oeieao, iaiaaath/enue aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o
ye ae??aee can?a o ni?aa? iioe?aiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino?, caeo/aeenue aei ni?ai?aoe? c i?noeaaeie /aniienaie,
a?aenoithth/e i?aaa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ni?eyee ae?yeueiino?
i?ioan?eiiai oa ?icaeoeo aiaoi?nueeiai oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o. Iiae?aiith
aoea ae?yeuei?noue A?iiaae, ye? ?nioaaee o iaaaee/eeo i?noa/eao oa
naeao. Iaeae?yeuei?oeie c ieo aoee iaeaaaeuei? ao?oee a Aiaiue?a? oa
Ieaenaiae???, /eaie yeeo ca naith aeoeaio ae?yeuei?noue caciaee
o?yaeiaeo ?ai?an?e.

A I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i? aeoeaii ae?yee ao?oee “Iieiae? A?iiaaee” oa
“A?aonoaa oa?an?aoe?a”, cie?aia, a Iaean? ? Eaoa?eiineaa?. Ia /ie?
iaeanueeeo Oa?an?aoe?a noiya iaeei ?c caniiaiee?a A?aonoaa A.A. Ai?iaee.
Na?aae aecia/ieo /eai?a iaeanueeiai ao?oea aa?oi iacaaoe
I. Eioethaeinueeiai. Iniiaia ae?yeuei?noue Oa?an?aoe?a Iaeane
cina?aaeaeoaaeanue ia oa?aiao Aanna?aa??, aea a?eueo?noue /eai?a
A?aonoaa a?aea o/anoue o ?iaio? o?eiena?ii? eii?n??, yeo i/iethaaa
a?aeiiee iaeanueeee a?iiaae?aaoeue A.?. Iia?aei. Oa?an?aoe? i?iiaaoaaee
aeeaei oe?a?inueeei neiaii iaoe?iiaeuei? ?aea? na?aae ianaeaiiy I?aaeiy
Oe?a?ie oa ?iciianthaeaeoaaee iaeaaaeueio oe?a?inueeo e?oa?aoo?o.

Iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiia ?ioae?aaioe?y I?aaeaiiiai ?aa?iio a?ae?a?aea
cia/io ?ieue o ae?yeueiino? AOCI. I?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee a
i?e aeineoue oe?iei, a ?yae c’?cae?a I?aai?caoe?? a?aeaoeeny a Iaean? oa
Eaoa?eiineaa?.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? aiae?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue eaaaeueieo
a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue o ni?aa? iioe?aiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? na?aae an?o aa?noa oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.
A?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?ioyaii 90-o ?ie?a ana aeoeai?oa aeeth/athoueny o
ai?ioueao ca iaoe?iiaeuei? i?aaa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo cainuee? onoaiiae
I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie. Iaea?eueo aeoeaieie ? iine?aeiaieie c ieo aoee
Oa?niinueea oa ?eenaaaoa?aaenueea cainoaa. I?aei?iath/e ia?aae
o?yaeiaeie no?oeoo?aie oa a?iiaaenuee?noth i?iaeaio aeeeaaeaiiy a
iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao ??aeiith iiaith, aaaeo/e ?iaioo c ieoaiue
caa?aaeaiiy i?noeaaeo iai’yoie ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?, aeine?aeaeoth/e
?noi??th oa aoiia?ao?th e?ath, aoaiiaoth/e aeaeaoieo ae?y/?a
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ? caa??aath/e oe?a?inuee? o?aaeeoe?? a
a?o?oaeoo??, cainoaa ni?eyee ?icaith naiiaooiuei? oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e, caeo/aiith aei ?? iaaeaaiue oe?ieeo aa?noa oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo oa ni?eyee oi?ioaaiith a ieo iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?.

Iii?oiee aianie o ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, cie?aia
ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa, c?iaeei Oiaa?enoai I?aaeaiii-?in?enueeeo
ooaeiaeiee?a, iaeiei ?c caniiaiee?a yeiai aoa E. Neaaeianueeee. *eaie
oiaa?enoaa ?icaeyaeathoueny, ia?aaeon?i, ye iao??ioe ??aeiiai e?ath.
*anoeia c ieo na?aeiii i?aoethaaea aeey ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.
Oaaao ieooe?a ia?o ca ana i?eaa?oaee iaeueiaie/? e?a?aeaee Noaiiai?
Oe?a?ie, e?ana *i?iiai ii?y oa aaee/ Aei?i?a-Neaaooe, iinoao? aecia/ieo
ae?y/?a oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? ? eoeueoo?e oa nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie
oiai/aniiai aeeooy. Oea caaaa/oaaei oe?a?inueeo eoeueoo?o ?
iaoe?iiaeueia ia?acioai?/a ienoaoeoai, cie?aia, oa ni?eyei oi?ioaaiith
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? ia?iaeo Oe?a?ie.

Iaaia oe?a?inueea i???ioaoe?y o 90-o ?ieao O?O no. i?inoaaeoaaeany ? a
ae?yeueiino? Iaeanueeiai Neia’yinueeiai Aeia?iae?eiiai oiaa?enoaa
?i. na. Ee?eea ? Iaoiae?y, aieiaith yeiai aoa I. Caeaiee, aeoeaieie
/eaiaie I. Eiia?ia, I. Ia?eaae/. Iaeanueeiai e?oa?aoo?ii-a?oenoe/iiai
oiaa?enoaa, a ?iaio? yeiai a?aee o/anoue A. Ni??iii, I. Aiae???anueeee
oa ?i. I?ae aea?neith iacaaieo onoaiia iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeii? neee
iaiaaaeenue io?eioaaoe a?ae oeaico?e aeica?e ia ioae?eaoe?th
oe?a?inueeeo oai??a, nayoeoaaoe aecia/i? tha?ea? oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? oa
eoeueoo?e, aeaooiaoaaee e ?io? caoiaee, ye? ni?eyee ?icaeoeia?
oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e.

C iaoith ni?eyiiy i?ina?o? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeii? neee
I?aaeiy ?i?oe?thaaee noai?aiiy ia?aae? iaae?eueieo oe?e, ae?yeuei?noue
yeeo iaea ae?acia oe?a?inueea eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueia ni?yioaaiiy.
Iaiaaath/enue iioe?thaaoe nai? ?aea? o ?ia?oie/iio na?aaeiaeu?,
oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y caeo/aeany aei ?iaioe Ia?iaeieo aoaeeoi??e.
?acii c oei a eie? iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiii? ?ioae?aaioe?? aoei aaaaoi
aecia/ieo iaaeaaia?a, ye? i?iaeiaaeoaaee aanoe ni?aao iaoe?iiaeueii?
i?ina?oe a io?oe?ei?e oeie?. I?aeiyooy ina?oiueiai ??aiy oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo noai?eei iniiao aeey ni?eeiaiiy iei iaaeaaiue oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e, a iaaia ?aeaeii-iaoe?iiaeueia ni?yiiaai?noue ?iaioe
aeeeaaea/?a ni?eyea i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy ?o iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino?.

Cia/io ?ieue o iioe?aii? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo a?ae?a?aa iaoe?iiaeueiee oaao?, yeee i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo caeeoaany ?aeeiei i?noeai, aea i?eethaeii iiaea cao/aoe ??aeia
iiaa. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?ioyaii ia?oi? iieiaeie 90-o ?ie?a O?O no.
I?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie noaa iniiaiei ina?aaeeii ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeiai
i?ioan?eiiai oaao?o, yeee, ?aae?noe/ii cia?aaeoth/e ia noeai? ieioea ?
nueiaiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, caaithaaa nai?i ienoaoeoaii na?oiao
neaao ? aaoi?eoao. ?acii c oei aaeeeo i?ina?oieoeueeo ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaa
? oe?a?inueeee aiaoi?nueeee oaao?. Ethaeoaeuenuee? oaao?aeuei? o?oie
?nioaaee a a?eueoino? aoaa?i?aeueieo ? iia?oiaeo i?no, i?noa/ie ?
aaeeeeo naeeu I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie. Aei ieo aoei caeo/aii oeny/? oe?a?inueeeo
iao??io?a, a eiai aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy anoaoe/ieo niae?a oe?ieeo e?e
ia?iaeo oa aeoiaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? aaaeei ia?aioe?ieoe.

Ioaea, i?ioyaii 90-o ?ie?a O?O no. oe?a?inuee? iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeii?
eiea I?aaeiy iiaeaaaeee ae?yeuei?noue, ni?yiiaaio ia ?icaeoie ?
iiioey?ecaoe?th oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e, i?iaoaeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? ia?iaeo, i?aeiyooy eiai eoeueoo?iiai ??aiy. Ana oea
noai?eei oiiae oa ni?eyei i?ioeano ye?nii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a iie?oe/ii-iaoe?iiaeueiee.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Ia??iaee/ia i?ana ? eieaa a
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on? I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie iai?ee?ioe? O?O no.”
oaeiae ?icaeyiooi aeaa ieoaiiy: ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy o ni?aa? iioe?aiiy
oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?; oe?a?inueea eieaa o
ai?iouea? c ?iia?nueeith oeaico?ith.

Ci?noii ia?oiai ia?aa?aoo aeiaiaeeoueny, ui iaeiei ?c aaaeeeaeo cania?a
oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai iao??ioecio aoei i?iiaaoaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aea? /a?ac ia??iaee/i? ae?oeiaai? i?aaie. Naia aeey ?ic’yniaiiy ?
i?iiaaoaaiiy nai?o ?aeae, iaoe oa caaaeaiue, a oaeiae aeey iino?eiiai
aeeaiai ca’yceo c oe?ieeie eieaie ianaeaiiy oe?a?inueeei iaoe?iiaeueii
na?aeiiei neeai aoei iaiao?aeia aeania ia??iaee/ia aeaeaiiy.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui aiane?aeie caai?iie oe?a?iiiiaieo ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiue a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? oe?a?iiiiaia aeo?iae?noeea a oeae ia??iae
?icaeaaeany eeoa ca ei?aeiiii. I?aaenoaaieee iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo e?e
I?aaeiy a?aee o/anoue o aeaeaaieoeoa? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo /aniien?a
“Ae?ei”, “I?aaaea”, “Aaouee?aueia”, “Aeca?iie”, “Ci?y”. Aiie iaaeaaaee
?i iaoa??aeueio aeiiiiiao, ae?oeoaaee ia ?o noi??ieao aeani? oai?e,
aeoeaii caeo/aeeny aei i?ioeano ye eaaaeueiiai, oae ? iaeaaaeueiiai
?iciianthaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue.

Iaeii/anii oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y I?aaeiy ni?ai?aoethaaea ? c
aeayeeie ?in?enueeiiiaieie /aniienaie, aeei?enoiaoth/e ?o ca nai???aeio
o?eaoio aeey i?iiaaoaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea?. Ia
noi??ieao ?yaeo i?noeaaeo ?in?enueeeo aeaeaiue aaeaaaeiny aena?oethaaoe
oe?a?inuee? iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?i? ieoaiiy. Aeoeaii ni?ai?aoethaaa c
oe?a?inueeith ?ioae?aaioe??th “Iaeanneee aanoiee”, “Aeenaaaa?aaeneee
aanoiee”, “Aeaoa?eiineaaneee eenoie” oa ?io? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy.

A inoaii? aeanyoe??//y O?O no. iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeii? eiea I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie aeieeaaeathoue coneeue aei noai?aiiy aeanieo, oi/a a ?
?in?enueeiiiaieo, /aniien?a, ye? aoee a i?enay/ai? oe?a?inueeei
i?iaeaiai. Oae, oe?a?inueeeie ca ci?noii noaee eaoa?eiineaanuee?
/aniiene “Aeiai?” oa “Noaiue”, iaeanuee? – “I/aeea”, “Ii ii?th e nooa”.
Oe? /aniiene i?ioyaii cia/iiai /ano ia’?aeioaaee ? ci?aai?ciaoaaee
oe?a?inuee? iao??ioe/i? neee c on??? Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie,
i?iiaaoaaee oe?a?inueeo iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeath.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? iaaieioo?oueny ia oiio, ui oe?a?inueea
aenieiooaeiaeiy eieaa ? aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? ia?iaeo. O ia?aa?ao? ciaeueiao?oueny aeiey oe?a?inueei?
eieae a ?in?enuee?e ?iia??? oa ii-??/ii aiae?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue
?iia?nueei? oeaico?e uiaei iaaeaiiy aeicaieo ia ae?oe oe?a?iiiiaieo
oai??a o I?aaeaiiiio ?aa?ii?. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui oai?e oe?a?inueeith
iiaith i?aeeyaaee iaea?eueo?e aeene?ei?iaoe??. ?o /anoea ai?iaeiaae
90-o ??. O?O no. iaeaea i?eiee ia nyaaea 1 % a?ae caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
aeicaieaieo aei ae?oeo iaia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, caoa a nieneao
caai?iiaieo ?ieiee aiie neeaaeaee aeecueei 40 %. Oe?a?inuee? oai?e
caai?iiyeeny ia?aaaaeii ia ca iie?oe/iith, ci?noiaith
iaaeaaiiaae?ei?noth, a ca iiaiith, oiaoi naia ?nioaaiiy oe?a?inueei?
iiae ?icaeyaeaeiny o?yaeiaeie eieaie ye naia?aoeci. Iaea?eueoeo aii?iue
caciaaaee aenieiooaeiaei? oa iaoeia? oe?a?inuee? oai?e. ?acii c oei
a?aecia/a?oueny, ui oe?a?inueea eieaa ei?enooaaeany aaeeeith
iiioey?i?noth a I?aaeaii?e Oe?a?i?. ?? oe?aae, yeee aeeeth/ii caeaaeaa
a?ae iiieoo, caaaeaee ia?aaeuoaaa na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/i? iieacieee
?in?enueeiiiaieo iaia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue.

I?aaeaiiee ?aa?ii ?, ia?aaeon?i, Iaeana, caaaeath/e ia iaaiee
aeaiie?aoeci aeaaee oa ?icaeoie iie?a?ao?/ii? aace, cia/iith i??ith
i?eoyaoaaa ieooe?a ooaeiaeiueiai neiaa c on??? Oe?a?ie. Aaaaoi c ieo
iaiaaaeenue naia ooo iaae?oeoaaoe nai? aaea aeicaieai? oeaico?ith oai?e.
Oeueiio ni?eyea ? aeoeaia ae?yeuei?noue a?iiaae?aoe?a i?noa.

Ai?iaeiaae 90-o ?ie?a O?O no. aeoeaii c?inoa? cia/aiiy Iaeane, ye
ina?aaeeo oe?a?inueeiai ae?oeo, aea aeoiaeeoue iiiaae 45 iaeiaioaaiue
eiea, aei oiai ae aaoi??a c on??? Oe?a?ie. A inoaiiueiio aeanyoe??//?
O?O no. a Oe?a?i? eeoa iaeanuee? ae?oea?i? aeathoue a?eueo ye iiaea?eia
ca?eueoaiiy, i?ioe 80-o ??., oe?a?inueeeo aeaeaiue, ui ia?aoai?th? oea
i?noi a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae o aecia/iee oeaio? oe?a?inueeiai
eieaiae?oeoaaiiy.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy o ni?aa? iioe?aiiy aenieiooaeiaeiueiai oe?a?inueeiai
neiaa iaeaaeeoue oe?a?inueeei aeueiaiaoai, ae?oeoaaiiy yeeo iaae?a? a
oeae /an iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiiino?aoeaiiai cia/aiiy. ?o aiooaaee aei
ae?oeo ao?oee iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiii? ?ioae?aaioe??. Iaeaeoeai?oeie c
ieo o I?aaeaiiiio ?aa?ii? aoee Iaeanueea A?iiaaea oa Oa?niinueeee
ao?oie.

Ioaea, i?ioyaii 90-o ??. O?O no. i?inoaaeo?oueny cia/ia aeoea?caoe?y
aeaeaaie/i? ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo e?e,
iaoith yeeo aoei i?iaoaeaeaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
naiina?aeiiino? oe?ieeo aa?noa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeai? i?aenoiee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a
yeeo a?aeia?aaeaii iiaecio eiai ?acoeueoao?a, ?ice?eoi iniaenoee aianie
aaoi?a o ae??oaiiy eiie?aoii? ?noi?e/ii? i?iaeaie, ui aeiineoueny ia
caoeno. Aieiai? iieiaeaiiy aeniiae?a oae?:

Oe?a?inueeee eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie o
90-o ?ieao O?O no. i?iaeiaaeoaaa oi?ioaaoe iniiao i?ioeano iioe?aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? na?aae on?o aa?noa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo,
caeeaaeaa iaiao?aeia aeooiaia, ?aeaeia, ?aeaieia?/ia i?aea?oioy
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. A?i
oa?aeoa?ecoaaany oaeeie oaiaeaioe?yie: 1) caeo/aiiy aei
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo on?o aa?noa oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy; 2)
?iciianthaeaeaiiy eoeueoo?ieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ii an?e oa?eoi???
I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie; 3) ia?aoai?aiiy e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a ?ooo o ye?ni?,
ui ae?aaeaeiny o /anoeia?e o?ainoi?iaoe?? eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?ooo o iie?oe/ii-iaoe?iiaeueiee. Oeae ?oo ?aae?coaaany a ianooiieo
aieiaieo iai?yieao: aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? ia??iaee/ii? i?ane ? eieae oa
?o ?iciianthaeaeaiiy; iaoeiaa ? i?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue; iioe?aiiy
aeeaiai oe?a?inueeiai neiaa caniaaie oaao?o. Iniiaiith ?oo?eiith neeith
oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo aenooiaea iaoe?iiaeueia
?ioae?aaioe?y.

I?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie a inoaii? aeanyoe??//y O?O no. aoa aecia/iei
?ai?acaioaioii oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, ia oa?aiao
yeiai yne?aai i?iyaeeeny iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? icia/aiiai i?ioeano.
Niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ?aa?iio, eiai nioe?ieoeueoo?ia na?aaeiaeua,
noeioeueiaaia oaeaeeei nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iei ?icaeoeii, a?eueoei
aeaiie?aoeciii aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo oa iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei,
ni?eyee i?ioeano i?aeianaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia I?aaei?
Oe?a?ie.

Iniiaieie ina?aaeeaie i?aai?ciaaiiai oe?a?inueeiai
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo aoee iaeaaaeuei? oiaa?enoaa – A?iiaaee.
I?aaeaiiee ?aa?ii aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee oe?ieith ia?aaeath oe?a?inueeeo
iaeaaaeueieo ao?oe?a, ui ai?iaeiaae 90-o ?ie?a O?O no. aeoea?coaaee
naith ae?yeuei?noue, iaoa yei? iieyaaea o oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino? oe?a?inoaa, caeo/aii? eiai aei iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai
?ooo. Iaeanueea A?iiaaea aoea iaeiei c iaeaaoi?eoaoi?oeo,
iae/enaeuei?oeo ? iaea?eueo ae??aeo a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue
Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie. Caa?aaeaiiy A?iiaaeaie aeina?aeo ?
o?aaeeoe?e i?aai?ciaaii? ai?ioueae, aeieeiaiiy Iieiaeeo A?iiaae,
“A?aonoaa Oa?an?aoe?a”, Anaoe?a?inueei? caaaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? oa
o/anoue a ieo i?aaenoaaiee?a I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie aeaiaeeei oe?a?inuee?
iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeii? neee ia ye?nii iiaee nooi?iue ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie o 90-o? ?iee coneeeyie oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii
na?aeiii? ?ioae?aaioe?? iii?oii c?inoa? e?euee?noue iaae?eueieo oe?e ia
nae? oa o i?no?. Aiane?aeie cia/iiai ca?eueoaiiy e?eueeino? ?ia?oiee?a c
?icaeoeii eai?oae?cio a?aeaoaa?oueny ona?aeiieaiiy ina?/aiith aa?noaith
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa aaaeeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
na?aeiiino? o ?ia?oie/iio na?aaeiaeu? oa caeo/aiiy ?? i?aaenoaaiee?a aei
ae?yeueiino? Ia?iaeieo aoaeeoi??e. Aaaaoi aecia/ieo oe?a?inueeeo
iaaeaaia?a i?iaeiaaeoaaee aanoe ni?aao iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ina?oe a
io?oe?ei?e oeie?. Oaea i?ina?oieoeueea ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo
iao??io?a coiiaethaaea i?aeaeuaiiy ina?oiueiai ??aiy ia?iaeo, noai?eea
aaco aeey ni?eeiyooy neooa/aie ina?oi?o caeeaae?a iaaeaaiue oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e, ni?eyea oi?ioaaiith ?o iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?.

A 90-o ?ieao aeoea?co?oueny ae?yeuei?noue cainoa I?aaeaiiiai ?aa?iio o
ni?aa? caa?aaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e. Aiie ii?oooaaee
i?iaeaio aeeeaaeaiiy a iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao ??aeiith iiaith, i?iaiaeeee
?iaioo c ieoaiue caa?aaeaiiy i?noeaaeo iai’yoie ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?,
aeine?aeaeoaaee ?noi??th oa aoiia?ao?th e?ath, aoaiiaoaaee aeaeaoieo
ae?y/?a eoeueoo?e, caa??aaee iaoe?iiaeuei? o?aaeeoe?? a a?o?oaeoo??
oiui.

Oai?/? ienoaoeuee? ia’?aeiaiiy e?oa?aoi??a, a?oeno?a oa ooaeiaeiee?a
I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie ci?aai?ciaoaaee ? ni?yiiaoaaee ?iaioo ieooe?a
I?aaeaiiiai ?aa?iio, ui ni?eyei aeaaaeaiith oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e ia
ye?nii iiaee nooi?iue ?icaeoeo, aeiiiiaaaei iin?noe ?e iaeaaeia i?noea
o na?oia?e eoeueoo??.

Oi?iaeiaae 90-o ?ie?a O?O no. I?aaeaiiee ?aa?ii aoa aaciaei ina?aaeeii
ae?yeueiino? i?ioan?eiiai oe?a?inueeiai oaao?o. O oeae /an cia/ii
c?inoa? ?ioa?an aei aiaoi?nueeiai oaao?o: ethaeoaeuenuee? oaao?aeuei?
ao?oee ?nioaaee iaeaea a on?o aoaa?inueeeo ? iia?oiaeo i?noao, o
aaaaoueio i?noa/eao oa aaeeeeo naeao. ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueiiai oaao?o
ci?oeithaaa aaoi?eoao oniiai oe?a?inueeiai neiaa, ui a?ae?a?aei aecia/io
?ieue o c?inoaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie.

Cia/io ?ieue o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo
iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. a?ae?a?aaaea ia??iaee/ia i?ana oa eieaa. *aniiene
“Aeiai?” ? “Noaiue” (Eaoa?eiineaa), “I/aeea” oa “Ii ii?th e nooa”
(Iaeana), ui aeoiaeeee ca ni?eyiiy oe?a?inueeeo iaeaaaeueieo ao?oe?a
I?aaeaiii? Oe?a?ie, ai?iaeiaae cia/iiai /ano ia’?aeioaaee ?
ci?aai?ciaoaaee oe?a?inuee? iao??ioe/i? neee c on??? Iaaeaei?i?yinueei?
Oe?a?ie. C?inoaa aeione oe?a?inueei? eieae, iniaeeai a Iaean?. Aeoeaia
ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo iao??io?a, ?icaeoie iie?a?ao?/ii? aace oa
iayai?noue ooo ie?aiiai oeaici?a ia?aoai?eee oea i?noi ia iaeei ?c
oeaio??a oe?a?inueeiai eieaiae?oeoaaiiy.

Oaeei /eiii, ie?aeia iao??ioe/ia ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueii na?aeiieo nee aoea ni?yiiaaia ia a?aeoai?aiiy ? ?icaeoie
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e, caeo/aiiy aei ia? oe?ieeo e?e ianaeaiiy,
cie?aia caniaaie i?ina?oieoeoaa, oaao?o, i?ane oiui. ?icaeoie
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, eiai aeina?ae ? iaaeaaiiy na?ae/aoue
i?i oa, ui eeoa ooaa?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino? a?iiaaeyi
Oe?a?ie ? iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith ?nioaaiiy noaa?aiii? iacaeaaeii?
aea?aeaae. Aeoea?caoe?y eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a inoaiiueiio
aeanyoe??//? O?O no. aaciina?aaeiuei i?aeaiooaaea eiai iiaeaeueoo
aaiaco, noai?eea iniiao aeey i?ioeano ye?nii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? c eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai a
iie?oe/ii-iaoe?iiaeueiee, ui caaa?oeany ia ii/aoeo OO no. oi?ioaaiiyi
oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiaeueieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ye? ?icai?ioee ai?ioueao
ca nioe?aeueia ? iaoe?iiaeueia aecaieaiiy naiai ia?iaeo, ca
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO I?AOeUe

CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??:

Eocueiaiei A.A. I?iaeaie n?i’? a iaoe?iiaeueii-eoeueoo?iiio ?on? a
Oe?a?i? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. (ia i?eeeaae? ae?yeueiino?
Iaeanueei? A?iiaaee) // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iie?oeee: Ca. iaoe. i?. Iae.
aea?ae. th?eae. aeaaeai??. – Aei.1-2. – Iaeana: Ano?ii?eio, 1997. –
N.198-201. (0,2 ae?. a?e.)

Eocueiaiei A.A. AEo?iae “Ii ii?th e nooa” – aeaeaiiy Iaeanueei? A?iiaaee
// Iaoeia? caienee Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa: Nioe.-aoiai?o. aeenoeeie?ie. – Aei.
“Eoeueoo?ieia?y”. – E.: OIA “I?aeia?. o?i. aaaioe?y”, 1998. – N.10-14.
(0,3 ae?. a?e.)

Eocueiaiei A.A. C aeina?aeo ni?ia aeeeaaeaiiy ??aeiith iiaith a Oe?a?i?
o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iie?oeee: Ca. iaoe.
i?. Iae. aea?ae. th?eae. aeaaeai?y. – Aei.3-4. – Iaeana: Ano?ii?eio,
1998. – N.155-159. (0,3 ae?. a?e.)

Eocueiaiei A.A. Oe?a?inueea i?ana ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no. oa ?? ?ieue o
oi?ioaaii? iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? // Aa?a?iee a?niee I?e/i?iiii?’y:
Ca. iaoe. i?. Iae. aea?ae. n?eueaini. ?i-oo. – Aei. ?3: “Na?oiaeyaei? oa
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano”. –
Iaeana: Ae?oe, 1998. – N.170-179. (0,6 ae?. a?e.)

Eocueiaiei A.A. Oe?a?inueeee oaao? a eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?on?
80-90-o ?ie?a O?O no. // Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie iie?oeee: Ca. iaoe. i?.
Iae. aea?ae. th?eae. aeaaeai?? – Aei. 3-4. – Iaeana: Ano?ii?eio, 1998. –
N.107-111. (0,3 ae?. a?e.)

Eocueiaiei A.A. Oe?a?inuee? iaia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy a 1891-1899 ??. /a?ac
i?ecio ae?yeueiino? eaioeaey??? iaeanueeiai ie?aiiai oeaici?a // Iaoeia?
caienee Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?i. I.I. Ae?aaiiaiiaa: Nioe.-aoiai?o. aeenoeeie?ie. – Aei. “Aeooaeuei?
i?iaeaie no/anii? eoeueoo?ieia??”. – E.: OIA “I?aeia?. o?i. aaaioe?y”,
1998. – N.71-75. (0,3 ae?. a?e.)

Eocueiaiei A.A. Aeaye? i?iaeaie i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei a
Iaeanuee?e iaeano? // No/ania aoiieoeueoo?ia oa aoiiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y
ia I?aaei? Oe?a?ie ? aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.
Iaoa??aee ?aa?iiaeueii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??. – Iaeana, 1996.
– N.94-95. (0,15 ae?. a?e.) ( o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.N. Aaa??i) 

Eocueiaiei A.A. Aei ieoaiiy i?i aca?iia?aeiineie oe?a?inueeeo oa
?in?enueeeo iao??ioe/ieo nee o O?O no. // Aa?a?iee a?niee I?e/i?iiii?’y:
Ca. iaoe. i?. Iae. aea?ae. n?eueaini. ?i-oo. – Aei. ?3: “Na?oiaeyaei? oa
iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy iaa/aeueii-aeoiaiiai i?ioeano”. –
Iaeana: Ae?oe, 1998. – N.211-218. (0,5 ae?. a?e.) (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
N.A. Oea?etheii) 

AIIOAOe??

Eocueiaiei A.A. Oe?a?inueeee eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo a 90-o ?ieao
O?O no. (ia iaoa??aeao I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie – Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.?. Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeana, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? niaoe?aeueiei aeine?aeaeaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo a 90-o ?ieao O?O no., aeeiiaiei ia
iaoa??aeao I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie. A i?e aiae?cothoueny iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? oa
iai?yiee oe?a?inueeiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo ? ?icaeyaea?oueny
i?ioean iioe?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? naiina?aeiiino?. A ?iaio? iieacaia
aaiethoe?y iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy o 90-o ??. O?O no.,
i?inoaaeo?oueny oi?ioaaiiy ia iniia? eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo
iie?oe/ii-iaoe?iiaeueii? neeaaeiai? aecaieueieo ciaaaiue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoe?iiaeueia naiina?aeii?noue, iaoe?iiaeueia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, I?aaeaiue Oe?a?ie, oe?a?inueeee
eoeueoo?ii-iaoe?iiaeueiee ?oo.

Eocueiaiei A.A. Oe?aeineia eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiia aeaeaeaiea a 90-o
aiaeao O?O a. (Ia iaoa?eaeao THaa Oe?aeiu). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – enoi?ey Oe?aeiu – Iaeanneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. E.E. Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeanna, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony niaoeeaeueiui enneaaeiaaieai oe?aeineiai
eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey a 90-o aiaeao O?O a. auiieiaiui ia
iaoa?eaeao THaa Oe?aeiu. A iae aiaeece?othony iniiaiua oaiaeaioeee e
iai?aaeaiey oe?aeineiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey, a oaeaea
?anniao?eaaaony i?ioeann ?ani?ino?aiaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey.

A ?aaioa ?anniio?aii nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea eco/aiiinoe i?iaeai
oe?aeineiai eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey a eiioea O?O a. Aiaeec
enoi?eia?aoee iieacae, /oi nouanoaoao ?yae enneaaeiaaiee ioaeaeueiuo
aniaeoia eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey, eioi?ua iiaeaioiaeee
iniiao aeey nicaeaiey iaiauathueo ?aaio. Eiiieaeniua, iaiauathuea ?aaiou
ii oaia enneaaeiaaiey a enoi?eia?aoee i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaotho.
Ii?aaeaeaia enoi/ieeiaay aaca enneaaeiaaiey, iniiao eioi?ie ninoaaeytho
aeieoiaioaeueiua enoi/ieee, iaoiaeyueany a oiiaeao OeAEA Oe?aeiu,
OeAAIEI Oe?aeiu, ainoaea?noaaiiuo a?oeaao thaeiuo iaeanoae Oe?aeiu e
Aaoiiiiiie ?anioaeeee E?ui, iioaeeeiaaiiua aeieoiaiou, iaoa?eaeu
ia?aienee aeayoaeae oe?aeineiai aeaeaeaiey, iaoa?eaeu ia?eiaee/aneie
ia/aoe oiai a?aiaie.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony oneiaey e oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey oe?aeineiai
eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey a 90-o aiaeao O?O a.,
aiaeece?othony iauaeoeaiua e noauaeoeaiua i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey yoiai
i?ioeanna, ?ane?uaaaony naiaia?acea oneiaee THaa Oe?aeiu. Aeaaony iauay
oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee aeayoaeueiinoe oe?aeineeo
eoeueoo?iuo e iauanoaaiiuo iauaaeeiaiee: ecaeaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea
oe?aeineie ia?eiaeeee e eieae, iao/iay e i?inaaoeoaeueneay
aeayoaeueiinoue, ?acaeoea iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?ioanneiiaeueiiai e
aiaoi?neiai oaao?a.

I?iaaaeaii enneaaeiaaiea naoe iaeaaaeueiuo oe?aeineeo iauanoa. Auyaeaii,
/oi iaeiie ec naiuo aeeyoaeueiuo e iiiai/eneaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee a
Iaaeaeiai?yineie Oe?aeia auea Iaeanneay A?iiaaea. Ii?aaeaeai aa ninoaa,
onoaiiaeaiu e aaaaeaiu a iao/iue iai?io aaoia?aou aieueoeinoaa /eaiia
Iaeanneie A?iiaaeu. Aiaeece?oaony aeayoaeueiinoue ia THaa Oe?aeiu
Aeenaaaoa?aaeneie e Oa?niineie A?iiaae, e?oaeeia “Iieiaeuo A?iiaae”,
“A?aonoaa Oa?aniaoeaa”, Anaoe?aeineie iauae i?aaiecaoeee, iaeaaaeueiuo
e?oaeeia a iaaieueoeo ai?iaeao e naeao. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi /eaiu yoeo
i?aaiecaoeee ?ani?ino?aiyee iaeaaaeueioth oe?aeineoth eeoa?aoo?o,
i?iaiaeeee iaoeeiiaeueioth eeieth a aine?aniuo oeieao, ionoaeaaee i?aaa
oe?aeineiai ia?iaea ia no?aieoeao ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe, niinianoaiaaee
aeayoaeueiinoe e ?acaeoeth i?ioanneiiaeueiiai e ethaeoaeueneiai
oe?aeineiai oaao?a. Iaeioi?ua ec ieo iiaeaa?aaeenue i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiui
?ai?anneyi.

Naie aeeaae a ?acaeoea oe?aeineiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey aianee
eaaaeueiua iauanoaaiiua i?aaiecaoeee e iauaaeeiaiey aeayoaeae eoeueoo?u
THaa Oe?aeiu, cainoaa.

Enneaaeiaaiea iieacaei, /oi aaaeouoth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee oe?aeineiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai naiiniciaiey ea?aea i?inaaoeoaeueneay aeayoaeueiinoue.
Iniciaaay yoi, oe?aeineay eioaeeeaaioeey THaa Oe?aeiu nicaeaaaea
aine?aniua oeieu, o/anoaiaaea a ?aaioa Ia?iaeiuo aoaeeoi?ee, i?iaiaeeea
eeieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?inayuaiey a ioeoeeaeueiie oeiea.

A aeenna?oaoeee naeaeai aiaeec ?iee ia?eiaee/aneie ia/aoe a oe?aeineii
eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiii aeaeaeaiee. Ioia/aaony, /oi iaoeeiiaeueii
niciaoaeueiua neeu THaa Oe?aeiu nicaeaaaee naie ia?eiaee/aneea ecaeaiey,
nio?oaeie/aee n ianoiie ?inneeneie e caiaaeiioe?aeineie i?annie,
eniieuecoy eo aeey inaauaiey oe?aeineeo eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiuo
i?iaeai, ionoaeaaiey i?aa oe?aeineiai ia?iaea, i?iiaaaiaeu oe?aeineie
iaoeeiiaeueiie eaeae.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oe?aeineay eieaa a 90-a aiaeu XIX a., ianiio?y ia
aeene?eieiaoeeth e i?eoaniaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo no?oeoo? e oeaico?u,
ecaeaaaeanue iiiaiouny/iuie oe?aaeaie ia anae oa??eoi?ee thaeiiai
?aaeiia. A enneaaeoaiue ia?eiae iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oeaio?ia
oe?aeineiai eieaiia/aoaiey noaea Iaeanna. Oa?aeoa?iie /a?oie ecaeaaaaiie
caeanue oe?aeineie ia/aoiie i?iaeoeoeee aue aa aunieee ooaeiaeanoaaiiue
o?iaaiue.

A ?aaioa iieacaii, /oi aeoeaecaoeey oe?aeineiai
eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey a 90-a aiaeao O?O a. nicaeaea
iniiao aeey oi?ie?iaaiey iieeoe/aneie ninoaaeythuae iaoeeiiaeueiiai
aeaeaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoeeiiaeueiia naiiniciaiea, iaoeeiiaeueiia
aic?iaeaeaiea, THa Oe?aeiu, oe?aeineia eoeueoo?ii-iaoeeiiaeueiia
aeaeaeaiea.

Kuzmenko V.B. Ukrainian cultural-naional movement of the 1890’s (based
on materials originating from southern Ukraine) – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate of historical science by speciality number
07.00.01 – History of Ukraine – Odesa I.I.Mechnikov State University,
Odesa, 1999.

This dissertation is special research on the ukrainian cultural-national
movement during the 1890’s based on materials originating from Southern
Ukraine. The fundamental tendencies and directions of the ukrainian
cultural-national movement and the process of the spreading of national
self-consciousness are analyzed. The evolution of the national revival
in the 1890’s is shown. The formation of a national political component
of a struggle for liberation the basis of the cultural-national movement
has been studied.

Key words: national self-consciousness, national revival, Southern
Ukraine, the ukrainian cultural-national movement.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 10.05.99. Oi?iao 60o90 1/16

Iae. ae?oe. a?e. 1,0. Oe?aae 100 i?ei. Iai?? ionaoiee.

A?aeae?oeiaaii a iie?a?ao?/iiio oeaio?? o??ie “A-I?ioeo”

Iaeana, aoe. Iiaa, 4, io?n 23.

Oae. (04882) 28-71-15, 28-71-45.

 A??i/aiei A.Ae. Ia?iaeiee oaao? // E?oa?aoo?ii-iaoeiaee a?niee. – 1900.
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Ci?y. – 1891. — ?8. – N.159-160; E?einueeee A. I?i eoai/io oe?a?inueeo
e?oa?aoo?o // Ci?y. – 1893. — ?17. – N340-341; ?18. – N.361-362.

Oei?eineee O.Ae. Iaei?onneee ycue e “oe?a?inueei-?onueeee” eeoa?aoo?iue
naia?aoeci. – NIa., 1900; eiai ae. Ianeieueei neia i iaei?onneii ycuea
(ia?a/ee) e iiaaeoeo iiieoeao onaieoue aio ?ieue i?aaia iaoee e aunoae
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i?ienoiaeaeaiea, ?ino e caaea/e. – E., 1914; eiai ae. Oe?aeineia
aeaeaeaiea eae nia?aiaiiue yoai thaeii?onneiai naia?aoecia. – E., 1912.

 A?ooaaneee I.N. I/a?e enoi?ee oe?aeineiai ia?iaea. – NIa., 1906;
Aeiiaieoeueeee A.I. Oe?a?inueeee aeaeaaie/ee ?oo a ?in?? ca inoaii?
i’yoiaaeoeyoue e?o // Ia?oee oe?a?inueeee i?ina?oiuei-aeiiii?/iee
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 Aei?ioaiei A. Oe?a?inoai a ?in??. Iia?o? /ane. –A?aeaiue, 1916;
Oe?aeineee aii?in / Ninoaaeaii nio?oaeieeaie aeo?iaea “Oe?aeineay
aeeciue” – I., 1917.

 ?aiaoaiei A. Oe?a?inueea i?ana (1816-1923). – Oa?uee?a, 1926; eiai ae.
A?ae?ia?ao?y oe?a?inueei? i?ane 1816-1916. – Oa?e?a-E., 1930.

 ?o?aiia N.I. A o?nieo ?yioeyo: oe?a?inueea eieaa 1793-1916. – E., 1926;
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1925. — ?1-2. – N.109-112.

 Iaeoeue I. Eieaa: Enoi?e/aneee i/a?e. – Oa?ueeia, 1923; Eica/aiei A.
Ieioea eieae ia Oe?a?i?. – Oa?e?a, 1930.

 Aa?aneiaiei A.ss. Caai?iiai? oe?a?inuee? ?oeiiene 80-o ?ie?a O?O
noie?ooy (Ca aeaieie Iaeanueeiai Ie?. a?o?ao) // Caienee oe?a?inueeiai
a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai oiaa?enoaa a Iaean?. – *.1. – Iaeana, 1928;
Eiia?aeeinueeee E.I. A?ae?ia?ao?/i? oaaae aei ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? eieae
a Iaean? 80-90-o ?ie?a O?O noie?ooy // I?aoe? Iaeanueei? oeaio?aeueii?
iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee. – Iaeana, 1927; eiai ae. I.O. Eiia?ia o noia?a/eao
c oeaico?ith iai?ee?ioe? 80-o ? ia ii/aoeo 90-o ?ie?a // Oe?a?ia. –
1929. — ?6. – N.50-65; Eene/aiei Ae. Ei?ioeee iaeyae oe?a?inueei?
aeaeaaie/i? ae?yeueiino?, i?ane oa eieaioi?a?ae? ia eieeoi?e
Eaoa?eiineaauei? // A?ae?ieia?/i? a?no?. – 1930. — ?2. – N.57-69;
?ya?i?i-Neey?aanueeee I.I. Oe?a?inueeee ae?oe ? eii?oao oeaico?e
caei?aeiiii? 1890-o ?ie?a // E?oa?aoo?iee a?o?a. – Ei.1-2. – Oa?e?a,
1930. – N.221-236.

 Eenaeue I.A. Oe?a?inueeee oaao?: Iiioey?iee ia?en ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai
oaao?o. – Oa?e?a, 1925; Neaa/aiei O. Oaao? Noa?eoeueeiai a Iaean?
1883-1885 ?ieo // Caienee Iaeanueeiai iaoeiaiai i?e OAI oiaa?enoaa.
Naeoe?y ?noi?e/ii-o?eieia?/ia. – Iaeana, 1928. — ?1. – N.40-49.

 ?ya?i?i-Neey?aanueeee I.I. C aeeooy Iaeanueei? A?iiaaee 1880-o ?ie?a //
Ca noi e?o: iaoa??aee c a?iiaaenueeiai e e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie
O?O ? ii/aoe?a OO noie?ooy. – Ei.4. – 1929. – N.161-180; eiai ae. C
?aaiethoe?eiiai oe?a?inueeiai ?ooo 1870-80 ??.: ?eecaaaoa?aaenueeee
ao?oie // Oe?a?ia. – 1927. — ?4. – N.112-123; eiai ae. Iaeanueea
a?iiaaea 1870-o ?ie?a O?O no. // Oe?a?ia. – 1926. — ?5. – N.118-137.

 Aa?iaeca E. Ia?ene c ?noi??? ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo ia Oe?a?i?. – O.1.:
?aaiethoe?eia Oe?a?inueea ia?o?y (?OI). – E., 1926; ssai?nueeee I.
Ia?ene c ?noi??? ?aaiethoe?eii? ai?ioueae ia Oe?a?i?. – O.1. – E., 1927.

 Aa?aneiaiei A.ss. Oe?a?inueea aeo?iae?noeea a Iaean? (80-90-o? ?iee
O?O no.) // ?noi?e/i? aeaea?aea oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy. – 1969. – Aei.4. –
N.73-86; Aeae I. Oe?a?inueea ?aaiethoe?eii-aeaiie?aoe/ia aeo?iae?noeea.
– E., 1959; Aeieo?oe A. Ia?en ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? aeo?iae?noeee O?O no.
– Euea?a, 1969; ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? aeiaeiaoiaai? aeo?iae?noeee. –
Euea?a, 1983.

 Aeae I. Eieaa ? ae?oea?noai ia Oe?a?i? c 60-o ?ie?a O?O no. aei
Aaeeeiai AEiaoiy // Eieaa ? ae?oea?noai ia Oe?a?i?. – E., 1964. –
N.128-205; C ?noi??? eieae ia Oe?a?i?. – E., 1978; Oe?a?inueea eieaa. –
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 Aaneeueei A. I. Naaeianueeee oa eiai oaao?. – E., 1962; Aeo?ee?i N.
Ia??y Caiueeiaaoeueea. AEeooy ? oai?/?noue. – E., 1955; Eineiaiei I.
Ia?ei Eoee/ E?iieaieoeueeee. – E., 1958; Eaceie?ia A.A. Oe?a?inueeee
aiaoi?nueeee oaao? (Aeiaeiaoiaaee ia??iae). – E., 1965; Eieii??oeue ?.
Oaao? Naenaaainueeiai ? Ea?iaiea-Ea?iai. – E., 1984; Eo?eeaiei E. Ia?oa
?in?enueea ia?iaeia ?aaiethoe?y ? aeiaeiaoiaaee oe?a?inueeee
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A?ia?ao?/i? ?iciia?ae?. – E., 1970; ?iiaieoeueeee A. Oe?a?inueeee oaao?
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 A?a/aa A. Eeaaneay a?oaia?aoe/aneay eiienney (1843-1917) // Aanoiee
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I?aaiecaoeey iaoee a ii?aoi?iaiiie ?innee. – E., 1983.

 Aieiuaiei A.E. Ia?ene c ?noi??? noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo ia Oe?a?i?
a 70-o – ia ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. – E., 1974; Ia?oeia C.A. I/a?ee
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 ?noi??y i?no ? n?e Oe?a?inueei? ?N?: A 26 o. – O.: Aei?i?iiao?ianueea
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 Na?aae A.A. Aoaie oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
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 Eanueyiia A. Oe?a?inueea ?ioae?aaioe?y ia ?oaaae? O?O – OO no.:
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 Eiiiaaoeue I. I?ina?oieoeueeee ?oo a Oe?a?i? O?O – ia?oi? o?aoeie
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 E?oinueeee ?.A. Iaoe?iiaeueii-iao??ioe/ia aeo?iae?noeea Oe?a?ie.
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 Naiieeia O.I., Ne?eiiee I.I., ss?auaiei I.O. Iaeana ia ceai? noie?oue
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 Aieaee??a I.A. Iaeanueea a?iiaaea: ?noi?e/iee ia?en i?i oe?a?inueea
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 Canaeaiiy I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie: I?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa ?aa?iiaeueiiai
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 ?noi??y oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e / Ca caaae. ?aae. ?. E?ei’yeaae/a. – E.,
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 Nai/eoei I. Oeny/a ?ie?a oe?a?inueei? eoeueoo?e (?noi?e/iee iaeyae
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 Eenye-?oaeieoeueeee ?. I?ae ?noi???th ? iie?oeeith: noaoo? aei ?noi???
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 Aei?ioaiei Ae.?. Ia?en ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. – Euea?a, 1991;
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 OeAe?A Oe?a?ie. – O.335. – Ii.1. – Ni?.26; O.442. – Ii.829. – Ni?.416;
AeAA? E?ei. – O.26. – Ii.2. – Ni?.4305; AeAII. – O.230. – Ii.1. –
Ni?.10885; AeAII. – O.2. – Ii.1. – Ni?.1504; O.5. – Ii.1. – Ni?.1239,
1689.

 OeAe?A Oe?a?ie. – O.274. – Ii.1. – Ni?.536; O.313. – Ii.1. –
Ni?.56/42; O.419. — Ii.1. – Ni?.1193.

 OeAe?A Oe?a?ie. – O.294. – Ii.1. – Ni?.213, 226, 287, 323; AeAII. –
O.9. – Ii.1. – Ni?.36, 41, 119, 189, 249; AeAII. – O.11. – Ii.1. –
Ni?.92, 94-95.

 Nei Oe?a?ie: Aieiaeeie? Aii?oao?eiae/ Aioiiiae/. O 3 o. / Oii?yae.
A. Ei?ioeee, A. Oeueyiianueeee. – O.1. – E., 1997.

 Eieea?ae TH. Niiaaaee thiaoeueeeo aei?a 1897-1906: Oe?a?inueea
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– Oi?iioi, 1972; ?aoiiaa-Ua?aeia N. Iaeanueea A?iiaaea e?ioey 1870-o
?ie?a: Niiieie // Ca noi e?o: iaoa??aee c a?iiaaenueeiai e e?oa?aoo?iiai
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N. 189-199; Ianyieei-Eoeeeianeee Ae. Ainiiieiaiey //
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1989. – O.2. – N.306-486; ?oniaa N. Ii? niiieie (1879-1915) // Ca noi
e?o: iaoa??aee c a?iiaaenueeiai e e?oa?aoo?iiai aeeooy Oe?a?ie O?O ?
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oaao?aeuei? caaaeee. – E., 1956; Naenaaainueeee I. Ii oeyoo aeeooy.
Iaioa?e. – Oa?e?a, 1930.

 Oeaio?aeueia iaoeiaa a?ae?ioaea ?i. A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie,
?inoeooo ?oeiien?a. – O.181.(??anoia N.?.) – Ni?.12.; Iaeanueea
aea?aeaaia iaoeiaa a?ae?ioaea ?i. I.I. Ai?ueeiai, a?aeae?e ?oeiien?a. –
O.62.(Oanaiei ?.?.) – Ni?.33.

 Aai?ia (Eiinia?ia) A. No?aieoeu ec i?iaeeoiai. ??. Ec ie?a oeaico?u (ni
aeeth/aieai a?oeaiuo auai?ie 1850-1865 aa.) e ec o?iieee Iaeanneie
ie?iie e niooiie aeecie. 1881-1906 aa. – Iaeanna, 1913; Oaieoenoia A. Ca
eoeenaie iieeoeee e eeoa?aoo?u. – I., 1991.

 AeAII. – O.468. – Ii.1. – Ni?.2, 6, 8,19-20, 26.

 Oeaio?aeueia iaoeiaa a?ae?ioaea ?i. A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie,
?inoeooo ?oeiieno. – O.?. – Ni?.8050, 8052; O.???. – Ni?.37487-37509;
O.170. – Ni?.181-201; Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia iaoeiaa a?ae?ioaea
?i. I.I. Ai?ueeiai, a?aeae?e ?oeiien?a. – O.28. – Ni?.1-10.

 Aieei ?.C. Oe?a?inuee? e?oa?aoo?i? aeueiaiaoe ? ca??ieee O?O – ii/aoeo
OO no. A?ae?ia?ao?/iee iieaae/ee. – E., 1967; Aeae I. Neiaiee
oe?a?inueeeo inaaaeii?i?a oa e?eioii?i?a (OVII – OO no.) – E., 1969;
Aei?ioaiei Ae.?. Iieaae/ee e?oa?aoo?e oe?a?inueeith iiaith a ?in?? ca
1798-1897 ?iee // Iaoeiaee tha?eaeiee ca??iee Oe?a?inueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
a I?ac?, i?enay/aiee … O.A. Iana?eeia?. – I?aaa, 1925. – *.1. –
N.142-238; Ia?aay anaiauay ia?aienue ianaeaiey ?inneeneie Eiia?ee
1897 a. – Aui.7. – NIa., 1905; Oe?a?inueea eieaa a oiiaeao Iaeanueei?
aea?aeaaii? iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?iai? I.I. Ai?ueeiai (1574-1923 ?iee).
Eaoaeia. – Aei.1-5. – Iaeana, 1991; Neaei?aiei I. Iacae?eniaii?
aeaeaiiy. Aiioiaaiee iieaae/ee ia?aae?ciaaieo i?iaeo?a oe?a?inueeeo
aeaeaiue e?ioey O?O – ii/. OO no. – E., 1990.; Oe?a?iiiiaia eieaa o
oiiaeao Iaoe?iiaeueii? a?ae?ioaee Oe?a?ie ?i. A.?. Aa?iaaenueeiai,
1798-1916. – Aei. 2: 1886-1900 – E., 1998.

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