16

EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? ?AAIA O?AIEA

OAAeEE ?aai ?ai?iae/

OAeE – 9(477.8) «1925–1932»

OE?A?INUeE? IIE?OE*I? NA?AAeIAEUA AAEE*EIE

O NOAAEAII? AeI IIEUeU? (1925 – 1932 ??.)

07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EIIAe?AOTHE Einoyioei Einoyioeiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

NEEAEA TH??e TH??eiae/, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo iia?oiuei? ?noi???
?inoeoooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?i. ?.E?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Euea?a

Eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

CAEOeAA Ieaenaiae? TH??eiae/, aeioeaio eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai e?nioaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo ?noi??? IAI Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 12 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E.35.051.12 o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea (i.Euea?a, 290602, aoe.
Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,

(i. Euea?a, 290005, aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 10 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Nooee I.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?ioaa?oaaiiy Oe?a?ie a ?a?iio oa
caaaeueii?a?iiaenuee? no?oeoo?e ? iaiiaeeeaa aac icia/aiiy
aca?iia?aeiinei ?c Iieueuath, /ey ?noi?e/ia aeiey ia?aieaoaia c aeeooyi
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a ieioeiio. O iao /an aeooaeueiei ? ia’?eoeaia
aea/aiiy onueiai eiiieaeno oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo noinoie?a a
?noi?e/iiio aniaeo?, ui aeiiiiiaea a?aooaaoe iiia?aaei?e aeina?ae
noinoie?a i?ae iaoeie ia?iaeaie, iaiao?aeiee aeey i?iaiicoaaiiy
iaeaooi?o aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae aeaiia aea?aeaaaie. O oeueiio eiioaeno?
ie?aiiai anaa?/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiaaa? i?iaeaia noaaeaiiy aei
Iieueu? oa iieuenueei? aeaaee oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo na?aaeiaeu, ye?
aeieeaee o 20-o — 30-o ?ieao OO no. ia oeo oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, ui
aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo Iieueu?, ? ye? cia/ii aieeaaee ia iie?oe/ia aeeooy
caaaeii. A oe?a?inuee?e ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? ? /eiaei aeine?aeaeaiue,
i?enay/aieo ae?yeueiino? oa oi?ioaaiith ??cieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa
a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, ye? ae?yee ia oa?aiao iieuenueei? aea?aeaae,
iaeiae i?iaeaia noaaeaiiy ?o aei Iieueu? ye oaeoi?, ui aecia/aa ?oith
no?aoaa?th ? oaeoeeo, a oaeiae aieeaaa ia oe?ieee oe?a?inueeee caaae, ia
aoea i?aaeiaoii ie?aiiai aea/aiiy. C iaeyaeo ia oea, ? iaoeiaa
iaiao?aei?noue, nie?ath/enue ia oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae, ?noi?e/i?
aeieoiaioe, iicaoaoenue ?aeaieia?/ieo noa?aioei?a oa iaoa?oaaiue
eiioi?noe/ii? aeiaiaoeee, ui aoee oa?aeoa?i? aeey ?aaeyinueei?
?noi??ia?ao??, i?iaiae?coaaoe aeeiai?eo noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oe/ieo ooai?aiue aei Iieueu?, aei ae?yeueiino? iieuenueeeo /eiiee?a,
aei iie?oeee iieuenueei? aea?aeaae uiaei oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy. O
?iaio? canoiniaaii nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? aena?oeaiiy
i?iaeaie noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu? ??cieo ca iie?oe/iei ni?yioaaiiyi oa
i???ioaoe??th oe?a?inueeeo oa/?e, ui cia/ii i?aeneeth? aeooaeuei?noue
oaie.

I?aaeiaoii iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?: 1)noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oe/ieo na?aaeiaeu aei naiiai oaeoo ieoiaoe?? Iieueuath oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue; 2)iie?oe/ia ioe?iea ae?yeueiino? iieuenueei? aeaaee uiaei
oe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinoaa oa aeyaeaiiy ??cieie ca iie?oe/iith
i???ioaoe??th ia?o?yie ? i?aai?caoe?yie ni?eueieo oaiaeaioe?e o
oi?ioaaii? iiceoe?e uiaei Iieueu?; 3)a?aeiioaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo
na?aaeiaeu aei Iieueu? ye oaeoi? aieeao ia na?aeii?noue oe?a?inueeiai
caaaeo; 4)?icaeoie noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo oi?ioaaiue aei
Iieueu? ye /eiiee aeoeaieo iie?oe/ieo aeoe?e; 5)ia?aianaiiy a?aeiinei
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e oa iieuenueei? aeaaee ia
i?aeia?o?ei? oa i?aeiaoe?iiaeuei? ca’ycee. Ananoi?iii? aena?oeaiiy
i?iaeaie noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo na?aaeiaeu aei Iieueu? o
1925–1932 ?ieao ? iaiiaeeeaei aac aeine?aeaeaiiy i?e/eiii-iane?aeeiaeo
ca’yce?a o iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoieao aeaiiai ia??iaeo, a oaeiae
oaeoi??a, ye? aecia/aee noaaeaiiy o??? /e ?ioi? iie?oe/ii? neee aei
Iieueu?.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? oaeiae ? iaoiaee oa caniae iie?oe/ii?
ai?ioueae, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo oe?a?inuee? ia?o?? ae?aaeaee nai?
noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu?: a?/a, aeaiiino?aoe??, i?oeiae, ??ciiai oeio
i?ioanoe, i?aeia?iaei? caa?iaiiy, i?iiaaaiaeeai? caeeeee, i?ania?
ioae?eaoe??, i?ia?aii? aeieoiaioe, ca?ieia ai?ioueaa oa ?ioa.

Ia’?eoii iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? on? oiai/ani? oe?a?inuee? ia?o??,
ye? oi?ioaaee noaaeaiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinoaa aei
iieuenueei? aea?aeaae.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
?: noai?aiiy iaoeiai? eiioeaioe?? a?aeiioaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo
na?aaeiaeu aei Iieueu?, yea ae?aaeaei iie?oe/io iiaaae?ieo oe?a?ioe?a o
20-o — 30-o ?ieao OO noie?ooy; icia/aiiy noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu? ye
iaoeiai? eaoaai???, ui eaaeeoue a iniia? iioeaaoe?? iie?oe/ii?
ae?yeueiino?. I?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? noaaeeinue caaaeaiiy: 1)c?a?aoe
oa nenoaiaoecoaaoe oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae, iiaeaoe iiaio oa oe?e?nio ea?oeio
noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo na?aaeiaeu aei iieuenueei? aeaaee ? ??
iie?oeee, aei iieuenueei? aea?aeaae caaaeii; 2)nie?ath/enue ia ?noi?e/i?
oaeoe, ?ice?eoe iioeaaoe?th no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee ??cieo ia?o?e uiaei
iieuenueei? aea?aeaae ? ?? iie?oe/ieo /eiiee?a; 3)c’ynoaaoe, ye
iicia/aeany iiey?i?noue «oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? na?aaeiaeua — iieuenueea
aeaaea» ia noni?euenoa? caaaeii ? ia oe?a?inueeiio a?iiaaeyinoa?
cie?aia; 4)aeyaeoe iie?oe/i? ? nioe?aeuei? i?e/eie ai?iaeino? /e
ni?ai?aoe? oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e oa i?aai?caoe?e ? iieuenueei? aeaaee;
5)iieacaoe a?aei?iiino? oa ni?euei? iciaee o noaaeaii? aei Iieueu?
ia?o?e, ye? noaaeee ia?aae niaith ??cio iie?oe/io iaoo; 6)iaa?oiooaaoe
i?e/eie iie?oe/ieo aeoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo i?ioe iieuenueei? aea?aeaae /e ia
ei?enoue ni?ai?aoe? c iath.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. O aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii
ni?iao i?iaiae?coaaoe noaaeaiiy ??cieo iie?oe/ieo na?aaeiaeu aei
ieoiaoe?eii? aea?aeaae ? ?? i?aai?a aeaaee ye iaeei ?c aecia/aeueieo
/eiiee?a o iioeaaoe?? iie?oe/ii? iiaaae?iee oeeo na?aaeiaeu. O ?iaio?
iieacaii, ui a?aeiioaiiy aei Iieueu? ? iaa?ae’?iiei neeaaeieeii
iie?oe/ieo aeieo?ei ??cieo ca nai?th noooth ia?o?e, ?iciaaeiaaii
noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu? ye /eiieea iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? ? noaaeaiiy aei
Iieueu? ye iie?oe/iiai i?ee?eooy. Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa?
? o iaiaaaiiyo iieacaoe aca?iica’ycie o a?aeiineiao oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oe/ieo na?aaeiaeu ? iieuenueei? aeaaee, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
i?inoaaeeoe aca?iicaeaaei?noue i?ae oeeie aeaiia iie?oe/ieie ?aae?yie,
ye? ?nioaaee oa ooieoe?iioaaee a iaei?e ?noi?e/i?e ieiuei?, ui
aeyaeyeiny o aca?iinoeioethaaii? i?ioenoiyiiy ia ??cieo ??aiyo – a?ae
ineoieia?? — aei ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee.

Aaoi? aaiaeeoue o iaoeiaee ia?a a?o?ai? iaoa??aee, ye? ua ia aoee
i?aaeiaoii iaoeiaiai aiae?co.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeai? aaiethoe??th iie?oe/ieo
na?aaeiaeu, yea aecia/aeany iie?oe/iith neooaoe??th, ui neeaeanue ia
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo a 20-o — 30-o ??. OO no. a ia??iae ?o
ia?aaoaaiiy o neeaae? ?? ?a/? Iiniieeoi?. Ieaeiy iaaea aeine?aeaeaiiy
icia/aia 1925 ?ieii, ui noaa ia?aeiiiei o oi?ioaaii? ?aeaieia?e
oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e oa i?aai?caoe?e. O 1925 ?ioe? aoei noai?aii
iaeaieeaia?oo oe?a?inueeo ia?o?th oeo /an?a — Oe?a?inueea
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia’?aeiaiiy, iie?oe/ia i?ia?aia yeiai
aieeaaea ia o?eueee ia no?aoaa?th ? oaeoeeo ?ioeo ia?o?e, aea ? ia
na?aeii?noue onueiai aaeeoeueeiai a?iiaaeyinoaa. O oeueiio ae ?ioe?
Aeieo?i Aeiioeia ?icii/aa oe?oa ?icai?oaoe naith ioae?oeenoe/io
ae?yeuei?noue, ui noaei aaaeeeaei aoaiii o ?icaeoeo ?aaiethoe?eiiai
iaoe?iiae?cio ? iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e. O 1925 ?ioe? eieeoi?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe ia /ie? c *a?iaoeueeei noai?eee eii?oao aeey
i?aeaioiaee noai?aiiy Oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae?noe/ii? ia?o??, yeee i?ci?oa
noaee iaceaaoe nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/iith a?oiith “Aia?aae”, ia iniia? yei?
aoei a ianooiiiio ?ioe? noai?aii Oe?a?inueeo nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/io
ia?o?th. 1925–1926 ?iee aoee ia?aeiiieie aeey eiioi?noe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e
a oiio ieai?, ui i?ney 1925 ?ieo cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? eiioi?noe ii/aee
i?aoethaaoe a i?aaiaiio iie? ?a/? Iiniieeoi?, canioaaaoe Naeue-?ia.

Aa?oiy iaaea aeine?aeaeaiiy — 1932 ??e — aoea aea?aia o ca’yceo ?c
?aaeeeaeueiith ci?iith noaaeaiiy OIAeI aei Iieueu?, ui aeyaeeiny ia IV
Ia?iaeiiio c’?cae?, aieiaiei ieoaiiyi iaaiai?aiiy ia yeiio aoei:
ia?ao?ae ia’?aeiaiiy ia aaoiiii?noe/i? iiceoe??. Oey iiae?y ni?e/eieea
eiioe?eoi?noue o noinoieao oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa
i?aai?caoe?e, ui iaaiei /eiii aieeioei ia a?iiaaenuee?noue ?
caii/aoeoaaei i?ioean ia?aoiaeo aei “ii?iae?caoe??” o a?aeiineiao ?c
iieuenueeith aea?aeaaith.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oa?eoi??aeuei? ?aiee
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aneai? iaaeaie oeo oe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue, ye? i?ney oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? a?eie iieieeeny i?ae aeaaeith
?? ?a/? Iiniieeoi?, oea Aaee/eia ? Cao?aeia Aieeiue, ine?eueee naia ia
oe?e oa?eoi??? oe?a?ioe? ciiaee iaeoe?oa ?icaoaeoaaoe ia?o?eia aeeooy, a
noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu? aoei iaeiei ?c aieiaieo oaeoi??a oe??? ?icaoaeiae.
I?e oeueiio iniiaiee aeoeaio c?iaeaii ia ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo
ia?o?e oa i?aai?caoe?e naia a Aaee/ei?, ine?eueee ye?ac oey /anoeia
Oe?a?ie, ia?aaoaath/e ?acii ?c iieuenueeeie caieyie o neeaae? iaeii?
aea?aeaae – Aano?i-Oai?nueei? ?iia???, ia? cia/ii aeiaoee ia??iae
ni?aaeeooy c iieyeaie o ii??aiyii? c Cao?aeiith Aieeiith.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeaeooue nai? i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy o aeeeaaeaii?
eo?no iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ia ?noi?e/iiio oa ?ioeo oaeoeueoaoao o
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao Oe?a?ie; aiie iiaeooue aooe aeeth/ai? o
iaa/aeuei? eaoaae?aeuei? i?ia?aie c iaoith iiaeeaeaiiy aea/aiiy ie?aieo
oai. I?iaeaia, iinoaaeaia a iacaai?e ?iaio?, iiaea noaoe iniiaith
a?aeiia?aeiiai niaoeeo?no. Aecia/aeuei? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee, c?iaeai?
o aeena?oaoe??, iiaee a aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy
aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee ? aeey ?ic?iaee iiaeo eiioeaioe?e aeine?aeaeaiiy
?noi??? i?aeiaoe?iiaeueieo noinoie?a ia Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? a 20-o — 30-o
?ieao OO noie?ooy, a oaeiae — aeey iiaeo eiioeaioe?e iiaoaeiae
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo aca?iia?aeiinei ia no/aniiio aoai?.

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeena?oaoe??. Iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeaiiai
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaeathoue i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio,
ia’?eoeaiino?, nenoaiiino?, ye? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue iiaoaeoaaoe
oe?e?nio iaoeiao eiioeaioe?th, ui a?aeia?aaea? oaanue niaeo?
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo na?aaeiaeu oa i?iaeaio ?o noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu?,
aei ae?yeueiino? iieuenueeeo aea?aeaaieo /eiiee?a, aei iieuenueeeo
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e. O ?iaio? canoiniaaii ii??aiyeueiee
iaoiae, yeee aeiiiiaaa? ioioiaeithaaoe ? aeeoa?aioe?thaaoe no?aoaa?/i?
e?i?? ? iie?oe/i? oaeoeee ??cieo iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aeeeaaeai? ia o?ueio iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a ? ani??aio?a ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, ia iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? Iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, ia
i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e ?noi??? Eueaiaa, yea a?aeaoeany
o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea a 1998
?ioe?, o o?noueio iaoeiaeo noaooyo ? a eieaeoe? «OIAeI, IOI: noaaeaiiy
aei Iieueu?».

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. A iniiao iiaoaeiae aeena?oaoe?? iieeaaeaii
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee i?eioeei. ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, naie
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e oa aeaea?ae. Aeena?oaoe?y caeia?
199 noi??iie, c ieo 21 noi??iea – nienie e?oa?aoo?e ? aeaea?ae (n.
179-199), o yeiio – 350 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe??, ie?aneaii ??
oa?eoi??aeuei? oa o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, iaoeiao iiaecio, aecia/aii
i?aaeiao iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo e caaaeaiiy
?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «?noi??ia?ao?y oa aeaea?aeueia aaca i?iaeaie»
iieacaii, ui i?iaeaia noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo na?aaeiaeu 20-o
—30-o ?ie?a OO no. aei Iieueu? ia aoea i?aaeiaoii ie?aiiai iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi/a aeiaeai c ?noi?ee?a-aeine?aeiee?a i?aeai?iiiai
ia??iaeo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie ia i?a iieiooe aeaii? oaie ye iaa?ae’?iiiai
neeaaeieea iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo Aaee/eie ? Cao?aeii? Aieei?.

Iaoeia? ? ioae?oeenoe/i? i?aoe? aeine?aeiee?a 20-o — 30-o ?ie?a
aeathoue iiaeeea?noue c?icoi?oe iie?oe/i? iiae?? /a?ac iiaeyaee
caaiaaaeiaaieo, aai iacaaiaaaeiaaieo a oeeo i?ioeanao no/aniee?a. Oea
noino?oueny eiea N.Oiiao?anueeiai, I.Iaca?oea, A.Eooi??a,
I.Eiceinueeiai, N.Aaiaea?e, ?.Eai?inueeiai Aeea.: Oiiao?anueeee N. Iaoa
/?eueia ia?o?y o aeaniiio aeca?eae?. – Euea?a, 1929. – 62n.;
Oiiao?anueeee N. I?i ?aea?. Aa?i?a ? iie?oeeo. A?aee?eoee eeno aei
A.Eeieinueeiai. – Euea?a, 1929. – 132n.; Iaca?oe I. Ay/aneaa Eeieinueeee
— a?aeiiaeoaeue aea?aeaaieoeueei? ?aeaieia?? Oe?a?ie ? i?iiiia?o?no. –
*?eaai, 1926. – 31n.; Iaca?oe I. A?aei-Eaoieeoeueea Oea?eaa ?
oe?a?inueea e?aa?aeueia ?ioae?aaioe?y. – Euea?a, 1921. – 148 n.; Eooi??
A. Ni?iaa oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aeaeieo i?aenoaa oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai
?onio?euenoaa. – I?aaa-Aa?e?i: Iiaa Oe?a?ia, 1924. – 42n.; Aaiaea?a N.
Ia?niaeoeae oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe??. – Ithioai, 1968. – 640n.;
Eaieineee E. Iaoeeiiaeueiia naiiniciaiea iaoaai ia?iaea. – Oaeai?iae,
1925..

Ie?aio a?oio aeaeaiue neeaaeathoue ?iaioe ?aaeyinueei? ?noi??ia?ao??
?noi??? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie 20-o — 30-o ?ie?a OO no. Iacaaaeath/e ia
?aeaieia?/iee oene ia aeine?aeiee?a ? oaiaeaioe?ei? i?aeoiaee aei
iaienaiiy i?aoeue, ?aaeyinueea ?noi??ia?ao?y aena?oethaaea i?iaeaie
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a 20-o — 30-o ?ie?a OO noie?ooy aeineoue
iiaii. Aaaaoi ?noi?e/ieo oaeo?a iiaeaaaeiny i?e aeine?aeaeaii? ?noi???
eiioi?noe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e: Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie ?
Oe?a?inueeiai naeyinueei-?ia?oie/iai ia’?aeiaiiy Aeea.: A?iy?nueeee E.
O?ao?e c’?cae EICO i?i iaoe?iiaeueia ieoaiiy ia Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i?. – E.:
Aea?aeaaia aeaeaaieoeoai Oe?a?ie, 1929; Iieeoe/aneea ia?oee a Iieueoa,
Caiaaeiie Aaei?onnee e Caiaaeiie Oe?aeia / ca ?aae. Neoeueneiai I. – I.,
1935.. O aeine?aeaeaiiyo ?aaeyinueeeo aaoi??a iiai?iiiai ia??iaeo ?
ia??iaeo canoith iiaeia caoaaaeeoe iaioa ?aeaieia?/ieo iaoa?oaaiue ?
iineeaiiy iaoeiaeo e?eoa???a o oa?aeoa?enoeoe? oeo /e ?ioeo oaeo?a. O
oeueiio eiioaeno? ne?ae iacaaoe ca??iee iaoa??ae?a i?i ae?yeuei?noue
EICO ? Naeue-?iao i?ae iacaith “EICO — i?aai?caoi? ?aaiethoe?eii?
ai?ioueae” EICO — i?aai?caoi? ?aaiethoe?eii? ai?ioueae. – Euea?a:
Eieaeeiai-aeo?iaeueia aeaeaaieoeoai, 1958. ? eieao I.Iai/oea “Ai?ioueaa
EICO ca i?aai?caoe?eia ci?oeiaiiy ia?o?eieo eaa ? iineeaiiy aieeao ia
iane” Iai/oe I. Ai?ioueaa EICO ca i?aai?caoe?eia ci?oeiaiiy ia?o?eieo
eaa ? iineeaiiy aieeao ia iane. – E.: Aeua oeiea, 1982. – 200n..

Ui noino?oueny caaaeueii?noi?e/ieo i?aoeue, oi iiiia?ao?y N.Iaea?/oea
“Yoiinioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea e iaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey ia
caiaaeii-oe?aeineeo caieyo a ia?eiae eiia?eaeecia” Iaea?/oe N.
Yoiinioeeaeueiia ?acaeoea e iaoeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey ia
caiaaeii-oe?aeineeo caieyo a ia?eiae eiia?eaeecia. – Eueaia, 1983. –
255n., i?noeoue aaaaoee oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae ye i?i
iieuenueei-oe?a?inuee? noinoiee i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo, oae ? i?i
ae?yeuei?noue EICO oa ?? noaaeaiiy aei i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c ae??oaiiyi
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieoaiiy ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo. Aiae?c iie?oeee
iieuenueei? aeaaee a Aaee/ei? ? ia Cao?aei?e Aieei? iiaeaiee a i?aoe?
TH.Neeaee “Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia a ?aaeoe?ei?e iie?oeoe? iieuenueei? oa
oe?a?inueei? ao?aeoac??” Neeaea TH. Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia a ?aaeoe?ei?e
iie?oeoe? iieuenueei? oa oe?a?inueei? ao?aeoac?? (1920–1932). – E.:
Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1985. – 271n.. Eieae, iaienai? ? iioae?eiaai? a ia??iae
ia?aaoaeiae a ?aaeyinueeiio Nithc?, ??ciyoueny a?ae iiia?aaei?o i?aoeue
oei, ui ooo ia o?eueee cia/ii iaioa ?aeaieia?/ieo iaoa?oaaiue, a ? oei,
ui a ieo aeoaea /anoi ni?inoiaothoueny oaa?aeaeaiiy iiia?aaei?o
aeaeaiue. Oea noino?oueny iiiia?ao?e TH.Neeaee “Noi??iee ?noi??? EICO”
Neeaea TH. Noi??iee ?noi??? EICO. – Euea?a: Eaiaiy?, 1989. – 91n. ?
I.Iai/oea “A?e? ieyie” aa?i?/iiai e?oiieno. ?c ?noi??? Eiioi?noe/ii?
ia?o?? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie” Iai/oe I. «A?e? ieyie» aa?i?/iiai e?oiieno. ?c
?noi??? Eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie. – E.: Aeae-ai iie?oe/ii?
e?oa?aoo?e Oe?a?ie, 1989. – 129 n..

I?ioyaii inoaiiueiai aeanyoee?ooy iie?oe/ia aeeooy Aaee/eie ? Cao?aeii?
Aieei? a 20-o — 30-o ?ieao OO noie?ooy aoei ia?ainieneaia ye a
?noi?e/iiio, oae ? a iie?oieia?/iiio oa nioe?ieia?/iiio ieaiao, aeieeee
iia? eiioeaioe??, a?aeeeiooi ?aeaieia?/i? noa?aioeie ?aaeyinueei? aiioe.
Aeine?aeiee ?.Niey? coieieany ia ?noi??? ae?yeueiino? oa ?aeaieia??
OIAeI a eiioaeno? eiai noinoie?a c ?ioeie oe?a?inueeeie ia?o?yie oa c
iieuenueeith aeaaeith ? c iieuenueeeie iie?oe/ieie /eiieeaie. ?noi??y oa
i?iaeaie ?aeaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo Oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii?
ia?o?? aeine?aeaeai? ?.?aee?anueeei. Noinoiee oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e ? iieuenueei? aeaaee oa iieuenueeeo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ?icaeyaeathoueny o ?iaio? I.Aaaaia Aeea.: Niey? ?.
Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia’?aeiaiiy: ia?oee ia??iae
ae?yeueiino? (1925–1929). – Euea?a, 1995. – 71n.; ?aee?anueeee ?.
Oe?a?inueea nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia?o?y. 1928–1939. –
?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1995. – 66n.; Aaaai I. Iaoe?iiae?ci ?
iaoe?iiae?noe/iee ?oo. – Ae?iaiae/, 1994. – 192n..

O noaoo? A.Iaea?/oea ? N.Iaea?/oea “Aeiaa noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo
iiey?iinoae ? iai?oae” Iaea?/oe A., Iaea?/oe N. Aeiaa
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo iiey?iinoae ? iai?oae // Euea?a. ?noi?e/i? ia?ene.
– Euea?a, 1996. – N.389-409. aaoi?e a?ae?eoee a?ae o?aaeeoe?eiiai
iienaiiy oaeo?a ? caaeeaeeeny o aea/aiiy aca?iei iieuenueei? aeaaee c
ie?aieie i?aaenoaaieeaie oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo na?aaeiaeu. Oea
noino?oueny ? ?iaioe I.Oaaaoeyea “Iaoeeo?eaoe?y” Oaaaoeye I.
Iaoeeo?eaoe?y. – Euea?a, 1993. – 52n., aea aaoi? iieno? ia o?eueee
iiae?? o Aaee/ei? ? ia Cao?aei?e Aieei? i?ae /an “iaoeeo?eaoe??”, aea ?
aioo??oi? oa ciai?oi? i?e/eie oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei? eiio?iioaoe??, a
oaeiae ?? aieea ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueea iie?oe/ia aeeooy.

Nooo?ai aeiiiaith? i?iaeaio iaoeiaa ioae?eaoe?y ss.Aeaoeaae/a “Oeyoe
iiaeieaiiy oia?aaeaeaiue. (Ia?aoeiaee ii?iae?caoe??
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a)”. Aaoi? aena?oeth? i?e/eie ?
iane?aeee oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeiai i?ioenoiyiiy a eiioaeno? ?noi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo Aeaoeaae/ ss. Oeyoe iiaeieaiiy oia?aaeaeaiue (Ia?aoeiaee
ii?iae?caoe?? iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoie?a) // Oe?a?ia–Iieueua:
?noi?e/ia niaaeueia ? noni?eueia na?aeii?noue. – E.: Eea?aeue, 1992. –
N.23-28..

I?ea?iaeuei? aeoiee noiniaii iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo a?aeiinei
i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo iiaeai? a ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeyo oe?a?inueeeo
aaoi??a. O oeeo ?iaioao aaaaoi oaaae i?eae?eaii noinoieai oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? iieuenueei? aeaaee Aeea. Aoi/ae O. Oe?a?ia. Ia?oa
iieiaeia OO noie?ooy. – E.: Eea?aeue, 1993. – 288 n.; Eoaooye I.
Aaee/eia: noi??iee ?noi???. – ?aaii-O?aie?anuee, 1993. – 199n.; A?eoeae
ss. Ia?en ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Oi?ioaaiiy iiaea?ii? oe?a?inueei? iaoe??
O?O–OO noie?ooy. – E.: Aaiaca, 1996. – 356n..

O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii iaoeia? oa ioae?oeenoe/i? aeaeaiiy,
iioae?eiaai? i?aaenoaaieeaie oe?a?inueei? ae?anii?e, na?aae yeeo i?aoe?
o/aniee?a iie?oe/ieo iiae?e 20-o — 30-o ?ie?a. Aeaii? i?iaeaie
oi?eathoueny ? oae? a?aeii? aeine?aeieee ?noi??? oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e, ye Ceiia?e Eieo ? Iao?i I??/oe, a oaeiae
I.Ioae?ee, yeee iiaea? ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i iiceoe?? eaoieeoeueeeo ia?o?e
20-o — 30-o ?ie?a noiniaii a?aeiinei c iieuenueeith aea?aeaaith, oa
I.Niniianueeee, yeee aena?oeth? i?iaeaio aieeao a/aiiy Aeieo?a Aeiioeiaa
ia noaaeaiiy iie?oe/ieo /eiiee?a aei Iieueu? Aeea. Eieo C. Aoaioao ia
i?aceaeaioa Iieueu? Noai?neaaa Aieoeaoianueeiai // N??aia no?ia. Ii/aoee
OAI a Aaee/ei? / ca ?aae. Eieoa C. – Oi?iioi, 1963. – N. 96-123; Eieo C.
Aeoo, ui o?ei ?aa aei aith. – A?ii?iaa, 1951. – 198n.; Eieo C. ?aaai
Eiiiaaeaoeue a i/ao iieiaei? aaia?aoe?? OAI // ?aaai Eiiiaaeaoeue ? eiai
aeiaa. – Ithioai, 1974. – N.274-287; Eieo C. Ia iiai? a?o?eea. –
Oi?iioi. –423n.; Eieo C. Noaiiaeaiiy IOI. – E., 1994. – 186n.; Eieo C.
Ni?aaa No?aeieo oi?a?a o Eueaia?. – Oi?iioi, 1965. – 206n.; I??/oe I.
Ia?en ?noi??? IOI. – Ithioai-Eiiaeii-Iueth-Ei?e, 1968. – 632n.; Ioae?ee
I. Ia?en ?noi??? oea?eae a Oe?a?i?. – ?ei, 1996; Niniianueeee I. Aeieo?i
Aeiioeia. Iie?oe/iee ii?o?ao. – Iueth-Ei?e–Oi?iioi. 1974. – 419n..

Aeaia oaia aoea aeine?aeaeoaaia ? iieuenueeeie ?noi?eeaie: A.Uaniyeii,
A.Oioith, A.Aaoianueeei oa A.Aa?e?oeueeei. O nai?o ?iaioao
A.Oieiianueeee ? O.Ieio?eaa?/, ?.Oiaeaoeueeee i?eae?eeee iniiaio oaaao
aea/aiith ?aeaieia?/ieo aniaeo?a eiio?iioaoe?? oa ni?ia ii?icoi?iiy o
iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeeo noinoieao Aeea.: Szczesniak A., Szota W. Droga
do nic?d. – Warszawa, 1973. – 588 str.; Batowski H. Trzydziestolecie
Ukrainy i Bialorusi Radzieckej. – Krakow, 1949. – 8 str.; Garlicki A.
Pierwsze lata Drugej Rzeczypospolitej. – Warszawa, 1989. – 80 str.;
Chojnowski A. Koncepcje polityki narodowosciowej rz?dow polskich w
latach 1921-1939. – Wroclaw, 1979. – 253 str.; Piotrkiewicz T. Kwestia
Ukrai?ska w koncepcjach Pilsudczyzny. 1926–1930. — Warszawa, 1981. – 165
str.; Torzecki R. Polacy i Ukrai?cy. Sprawa ukrai?ska w czasie II Wojny
Swiatowej na terenie II Reczypospolitej. – Warszawa, 1993. – 348 str..
Aaaii? aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeeo i?iaeai aoee c?iaeai? i?ney ii/aoeo
iie?oe/ii? a?aeeeae o iieuenuee?e aea?aeaa?, eiee ?noi?eee iaea?aeaee
iiaeeea?noue a?aenooieoe a?ae ?aeaieia?/ieo aeiai, i?eeiyoeo
eiioi?noe/iei ?aaeeiii, ? i?aoethaaoe, ea?oth/enue eeoa i?eioeeiaie
iaoeiaino? oa ?noi?ecio.

Oaeei /eiii, iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e cana?ae/o?, ui eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeaii? oaie a?aenooi?.

Aeaea?aea aei aeaii? oaie oiiaii iiae?eythoueny ia /ioe?e a?oie.
Ia?oith a?oiith aeaea?ae ? ii?iaoeai? aeieoiaioe iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa
i?aai?caoe?e; na?aae yeeo – ??oaiiy ia?o?eieo eiioa?aioe?e, can?aeaiue
oeaio?aeueieo eii?oao?a; ?aciethoe?? oa aenooie ia ia?o?eieo c’?caeao,
i?oeiaao; aenooie iine?a aei naeio; i?aeia?iaei? aiaeyoe??; caa?iaiiy
aei ianaeaiiy, caeeeee, iioae?eiaai? o ca??ieeo «Oe?a?inueea
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeoiea a OO noie?oo?» oa o oiai/ani?e ia??iaeeoe?.

Ae?oaith a?oiith aeaea?ae ? ae?eiaiae/? aeieoiaioe oe?a?inueeeo oa
iieuenueeeo ia?o?e oa i?aai?caoe?e, th?eaee/ieo oa o?ce/ieo in?a,
aeaaee. Aiie ?acii ?c ii?iaoeaieie aeieoiaioaie aoee ii?aoeueiaai?
aaoi?ii o Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? Oe?a?ie o
Eueaia? (oiiaee ? 205 – “I?ieo?aoo?a aiaeyoe?eiiai noaeo o Eueaia?”; ?
309 – “Iaoeiaa oiaa?enoai ?i.Oaa/aiea, i.Euea?a”; ? 344 – “Oe?a?inueea
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ia ia’?aeiaiiy”; ? 351 – “Oeaio?aeueiee eii?oao
Oe?a?inueeiai Naeyinueei-?ia?oie/iai ia’?aeiaiiy “Naeue-?ia”, i.Euea?a”;
? 358 – “Oaioeoeueeee Aiae?ae–Ieaenaiae? (1865-1944), ieo?iiieeo
a?aei-eaoieeoeueei? oea?eae, a?ao”; ? 392 – “Oe?a?inueea ia?eaiaionueea
?ai?acaioaoe?y” oa ?io?), Aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a? Euea?anueei? iaeano?
(oiiaee ? 1 – “Euea?anueea ai?aiaenueea oi?aae?iiy”; ? 11 –
“Euea?anueeee ie?oaeiee noae”; ? 108 – “Euea?anueea iia?oiaa oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaii? iie?oe??”; ? 110 – “Euea?anueea i?nueea noa?inoai”; ? 139 –
“I?ieo?i? ie?oaeiiai noaeo”; ? 243 – “Euea?anueea i?nueea oi?aae?iiy
aea?aeaaii? iie?oe??” oa ?io?), Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio a?o?a?
a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e Oe?a?ie a Ee?a? (oiiae ? 6 – “Eiioi?noe/ia
ia?o?y Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie”), A?o?ao aeo?a iiaeo o Aa?oaa? (oiiaee
I?aceae?? ?aaee I?i?no??a oa I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa).

O?aoueith a?oiith aeaea?ae ? iaoa??aee i?aeai?iii? i?ane, cie?aia oaeeo
aacao ? aeo?iae?a: “Aia?aae”, “Aieinu ia?iaea”, “A?iiaaenueeee aiein”,
“Ae?ei”, “Caiey ? aiey”, “Iaoa”, «Iaoa i?aaaea», “Iaoa i?aoey”, “Iaoa
caiey”, “Iiaa ci?y”, “Iiaee /an”, “I?ioan?eiee a?niee”, “?aaea”,
“?icaoaeiaa iaoe??”, “?onneee aieinu”, “Naiaiaea”, “Naeue-?ia”,
“Dziennik Ludowy”, “Dziennik Lwowski”, “Lwowski Kurjer Poranny”, “Wiek
Nowy” ? ?ioeo.

*aoaa?oith a?oiith aeaea?ae ? iaioa?e o/aniee?a iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a
i?aeai?iiiai ia??iaeo, na?aae yeeo — niiaaaee TH.A?othoaiea,
I.Aieaeoieea, N.Eaieaanueeiai, I.Iaa?ioeueeiai. O.Ooeea, ?.Aeiianueeiai
Aeea.: A?othoaiei TH. Eaa?y Oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiae?no?a // ?aaai
Eiiiaaeaoeue ? eiai aeiaa. – Ithioai, 1974. — N. 380-394; Aaeaeoiee I.
sse ae?eoei aei noai?aiiy IOI // Oai aea. – N. 359-379; Eaieaanueeee N.
Iaoe?iiae?noe/iee ?oo ia COC oa ?-ee Eiia?an oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiae?no?a
// Oai aea. – N. 395-425; Iaa?ioeueeee I. Ii/aoee OAI o Eueaia? //
N??aia no?ia. Ii/aoee OAI a Aaee/ei? / ca ?aae. Eieoa C. – Oi?iioi,
1963. – N. 25-62; O.O. A ia?oeo ?ieao OAI o Eueaia? // Oai aea. – N.
63-95; Dmowski R. Polityka Polska i odbudowanie panstwa. – Warszawa,
1988. – T. 1. – 353 str..

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? – «Oe?a?inueeee ?aaiethoe?eiee iaoe?iiae?ci ?
iieuenueea aeaaea» – ?icaeyiooi aaiethoe?th noaaeaiiy iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo
i?aai?caoe?e aei Iieueu? a?ae /ano noai?aiiy Oe?a?inueei? a?enueeiai?
i?aai?caoe?? aei 1932 ?ieo. I?ioyaii 1921-1923 ?ie?a OAI noi?ioethaaea
nai? noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu?, aaaaeath/e ?? ai?iaeith oe?a?inuee?e iaoe??
aea?aeaaith ? i?iaieineea naith aaceiii?ii?ni?noue o ai?iouea? i?ioe
ia?. OAI ia aeciaea ??oaiiy ?aaee Aiaanaaei??a oa ?ioeo i?aeia?iaeieo
oaiae, ui cae??iethaaee Aaee/eio oa Cao?aeio Aieeiue ca Iieueuath. O
1926 ?ioe? aeeoea a na?o eieaa Aeieo?a Aeiioeiaa «Iaoe?iiae?ci», yea
nooo?ai aieeioea ia ?icaeoie ?aeaieia?? iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e.
Aeneiaethth/e nai? noaaeaiiy aei ia?aai?ioo THcaoa I?enoaenueeiai,
e?aea?e OAI cayaeyee, ui ae?yeuei?noue I?enoaenueeiai ? iaaacia/i?oith
aeey oe?a?ioe?a, i?ae iie?oeea iiia?aaei?o o?yae?a, oiio ui, ia aeoieo
OAI, i?eoeeueieee naiaoe?? caaoaeueiaothoue nai? ?noeii? ieaie uiaei
ae??oaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy.

O iacaaiiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeaii oaeiae noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu? ?ioeo
oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiae?noe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e, ye? 28 n?/iy 1928 ?ieo ia
?-io Eiia?an? oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiae?no?a ?acii ?c OAI ia’?aeiaeeny a
I?aai?caoe?th oe?a?inueeeo iaoe?iiae?no?a. Ia?oith aaaiiith aeoe??th IOI
aoea ae?oaa naaioaaeia eaiiai?y, i?iaaaeaia ae?oeo 1930 ?ieo, yea ?acii
?c «iaoeeo?eaoe??th» noaea eoeuei?iaoe??th oe?a?inueei-iieuenueei?
eiio?iioaoe??. ?acoeueoaoii oeeo iiae?e aoei oa, ui noinoiee IOI ?
oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e aeaui iia??oeeeny aiane?aeie oiai, ui eaaaeuei?
ia?o?? i?ae aieeaii oeneo c iieuenueeiai aieo a?aeiaaeoaaeeny a?ae ae?e
IOI.

O ae?yeueiino? IOI ii/aoie 30-o ?ie?a aoa a?aeaiiiiii «iaoeeo?eaoe??»:
iaoe?iiae?noe iaiaaaeeny aeei?enoaoe ae?? iieuenueei? aeaaee aeey
eiii?iiaioaoe?? iieuenueei? aea?aeaae, aiaeii/an i?aai?ciaoth/e
ai?ioueao i?ioe ?i?oe?aoi??a ? aeeiiaaoe?a «iaoeeo?eaoe??», a oaeiae
i?ioe iiaeaeueoeo ni?ia iaoe?iiae-aeaiie?ao?a iaeaaiaeeoe ae?aeia ?c
iieuenueeith noi?iiith, ui aoei ua iaeiei iane?aeeii «iaoeeo?eaoe??».

Oa?aeoa? noaaeaiiy iaoe?iiae?no?a aei Iieueu? aoa coiiaeaiee oaeeie
/eiieeaie: 1) iiai?iiith i?aeia?iaeiith neooaoe??th, yea i?ecaaea aei
oiai, ui cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? caie? iio?aieee i?ae aeaaeo Iieueu?; 2)
iie?oeeith iieuenueei? aeaaee, ui aoea ni?yiiaaia ia anei?eyoe?th ?
iiaio ?iei?ii?aoe?th cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue a iieuenueeo
aeo?aeaao; 3) ?icaeoeii oai??? iaoe?iiae?cio, a i?ioean? yeiai
noi?ioaaeany ?aeaieia?y OAI-IOI; 4) ae?yeuei?noth ?ioeo oe?a?inueeeo
ia?o?e; 5) aeoieith a?iiaaenueeino?, yea ia o?eueee aieeaaea ia
ae?yeuei?noue ??cieo i?aai?caoe?e, aea ? aeiaaaea ?? ei?aeoe??.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? – «Oe?a?inuee? eaoieeoeuee? i?aai?caoe?? ? ?o
noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu?» – iieacaii niaoeeo?eo noinoie?a oe?a?inueeeo
eiina?aaoi??a oa iieuenueei? aeaaee, yea iieyaa? o oiio, ui noaaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo eaoieeoeueeeo ia?o?e aei Iieueu? ??cieeiny a?ae noaaeaiiy
?ioeo iie?oe/ieo na?aaeiaeu oei, ui eaoieeoeuee? ia?o?? o nai?e
ae?yeueiino? ia?ane?aeoaaee ?ioo iaoo: iioe?aiiy o?enoeyinueei? aoeee ?
ii?ae? ia an? noa?e a?iiaaenueeiai ? iie?oe/iiai aeeooy Cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie, i?iiaaaiaea eaoieeoeecio ? ni?eyiiy eiai iioe?aiith. Aaeeea
i?noea a ?aeaieia?? eaoieeoeueeeo ia?o?e caeiaee eiina?aaoeai? ?aea?,
iniaeeai o?, ye? aoee ae?aaeai? a i?aoeyo A.Eeieinueeiai. Oaea
niaoeeo?ea ia aeaaaea ?i iiaeeeaino? aanoe aei?noeo iie?oe/io ai?ioueao,
ui aieeaaei ? ia noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu?.

4 na?iiy 1925 ?ieo aoei noai?aii Oe?a?inueeo o?enoeyinueeo
i?aai?caoe?th, e?aea?e yei? aeaeea?oaaee ?? aiie?oe/i?noue ?
eiyeuei?noue aei iieuenueei? aea?aeaae. Iacaaaeath/e ia oae? cayae,
iie?oeea iieuenueei? aeaaee ? iieuenueeeo /eiiee?a iaiaeii?aciai
aeeeeeaea e?eoeeo c aieo OOI, ui noai?thaaei i?ioe??//y a ae?yeueiino?
i?aai?caoe??. O aeiaoi? 1930 ?ieo /anoeia ae?y/?a OOI ia /ie? c
N.Oiiao?anueeei ? I.Iaca?oeii noai?eee Oe?a?inueeo eaoieeoeueeo ia?iaeio
ia?o?th, yea i?iaieineea aaoiiii?th Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie o neeaae? ?a/?
Iiniieeoi? iaei??th ?c oe?eae nai?? ae?yeueiino?, aiaeii/an
aeneiaethth/e i?ioano i?ioe «iaoeeo?eaoe??». Iniiaiith i?e/eiith
iaii?icoi?iue o noinoieao iieuenueei? aea?aeaae c iaoe?iiae?noe/ieie
iaioeiaie OEII aaaaeaea oeaio?ae?ci ?a/? Iiniieeoi?. Aaeeeee aieea ia
noaaeaiiy OEII aei Iieueu? iaa ?ieneii Noai?neaanueeee Oiieoei, yeee
caeeeeaa i?eieieoe aoaeue-ye? aenooie i?ioe aea?aeaae.

15 aa?aciy 1931 ?ieo aoei iioae?eiaaii iineaiiy ieo?iiieeoa Aiae?ay
Oaioeoeueeiai, o yeiio a?i caeeeeaa aei noai?aiiy ua iaeii?
eaoieeoeueei? ia?o?? — Oe?a?inueeiai eaoieeoeueeiai nithco, yea iiaeiia
aoea eaaaeueieie iaoiaeaie a?aenoithaaoe ?icaoaeiao oe?a?inueeiai
a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/iiai, eoeueoo?iiai oa aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy. E?aea?e
OEN (A.Aeaoeaae/, A.Eocueiiae/ oa ?i.) iaiaeii?aciai cayaeyee, ui
oe?a?ioe? ia iiaeooue a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae ai?ioueae ca naiino?ei?noue, aea
aiie iiaeii? oo?eioaaoeny a?ae iaaei??ii? ai?iaeino? aei Iieueu?.

Ni?eueiith ?enith OOI, OEII, OII, OEN aoea ?oiy eiyeuei?noue uiaei
Iieueu?, i?iaeeeoiaaia o?enoeyinueeith aoeeith, ?ioa?anaie eaoieeoeecio.
Oea ni?e/eieei a?ae/oaeaiiy, ia?o ca ana OOI ? OEII a?ae ?aooe
oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e, ui ni?eyei oiio, ui OEN, noai?aiee o iiiaio
caaino?aiiy eiioe?eoiino? a oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo noinoieao,
oo?eioaaany a?ae caya i?i aeciaiiy eaa?oeiiino? aiaen?? Iieueuath
Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? – «A?aeiineie c iieuenueeith aea?aeaaith o
iie?oe/i?e no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeoe? iineaio?euenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e» –
aeoeaioiaaii ia oiio, ui iineaio?euenuee? i?aai?caoe?? i?eiee ia
aaaaeaee naaa oe?a?inueeei iie?oe/iei na?aaeiaeuai, a ?oiy ?aeaieia?y
aoea aioaaii?noe/iith aei ?aeaieia?? oe?a?inueeeo /eiiee?a, ?oith
ae?yeuei?noue aecia/aee cian?i ?io? oaeoi?e, i?ae ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?aooe
oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e, a?aei?iiith aoea ? ?oiy iie?oe/ia iaoa.

A 1923 ?ioe? aoei i?eeiyoi i?ia?aio ?onei? ia?iaeii? i?aai?caoe??, o
ye?e i?iaieioaii, ui ?II aenooia? ca i?e?aeiaiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue aei ?in??, /ei i?aai?caoe?y aenooieea i?ioe aiaen?? Cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie Iieueuath. ?II iinoaaeea oe?a?inuee? ? iieuenuee? iie?oe/i?
/eiieee a iaeei oaa?? — ye ai?iae? ?ioa?anai “?oneiai” ia?iaeo.
A?aenooi?noue aioeaea?aeaaieo aanae ? e?eoeee iieuenueei? aea?aeaae
i?eaa?ioee oaaao aeaaee, yea i/?eoaaea eiyeueiino? a?ae iineaio?e?a.
Neaae?noue ? canoa??e?noue iie?oe/ii? eiioeaioe?? ia aeicaieeee ?II
aenooieoe i?ioe iieuenueei? iie?oeee, ? oey ae eiioeaioe?y oo?eioaaea
i?aai?caoe?th a?ae a?aeaa?oiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa c aeaaeith. Aiaeii/an
?II iaiaeii?aciai caa?oaeany aei ia? c i?ioaiiyi ni?eyoe ae?yeueiino?
iineaio?euenueeeo /eiiee?a. Iaeiae iieuenuee? iie?oeee ?ic/a?oaaeeny o
aeioe?eueiino? i?ioaaoaaiiy iineaio?euenueeeo /eiiee?a ia i?ioeaaao
oe?a?inueeei. ??? c’?cae ?II, yeee a?aeaoany o 1927 ?ioe?, caaeaeea?oaaa
ia?ao?ae ?II ia aaoiiii?noe/i? iiceoe?? ? aeciaiiy aiaen??, i?e oeueiio
ia a?aeiiaeaoenue a?ae ai?ioueae ca ia’?aeiaiiy c ?in??th. Oae?
i?ioe??//y o iie?oeoe? i?aai?caoe?? ni?e/eieee ?? ?iceie, ?acoeueoaoii
yeiai aoei aeieeiaiiy aeaio iiaeo ia?o?e, Aaeeoeueei? ?onei? ia?iaeii?
i?aai?caoe?? oa ?oneai? aa?a?ii? ia?o??. A 1928 ?ioe? A?II aoea
ia?aeiaiiaaia ia ?oneo naeyinueeo i?aai?caoe?th, yea i?iaieineea i?i
naith eiyeuei?noue aei iieuenueei? aea?aeaae, cai?iiiioaaaoe oaiaeo,
ca?aeii c yeith o a?aeiia?aeue ia aeciaiiy aiaen?? iieuenueea aeaaea
iiaeiia aoea iaaeaoe ?NI iiaeeea?noue oe?oa ?icai?iooe naith
ae?yeuei?noue.

O ?icae?e? i’yoiio – “I?iaeaia noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu? a iie?oeoe?
Oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy” – aena?oeaii
i?e/eie noai?aiiy OIAeI ? ?? i?noea o iie?oe/iiio niaeo?? Cao?aeii?
Oe?a?ie o 20-o — 30-o ?ieao OO noie?ooy. ??oaiiy ?aaee Aiaanaaei??a,
“ci?ia a?o”, aioo??oiueiiie?oe/i? i?iaeaie a iieuenuee?e aea?aeaa?
i?ecaaee aei oiai, ui aeioaia??oi? i?ia?aie ? oaeoeea oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e noaee iaaeooaeueieie. Oea ii?iaeeei noia?a/iino? ye
i?ae ia?o?yie, oae ? ana?aaeei? naieo na?aaeiaeu. Oe?a?inueea ia?iaeia
o?oaeiaa ia?o?y, niaaeei?ieoey Oe?a?inueei?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii?., ia aoea aeiyoeii. Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui
naia noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu? noaei ia’?aeiaa/ei oaeoi?ii aeey iie?oee?a,
ye? aoiaeeee a ??ci? a?oie OIOI, a oaeiae a OAI i?e noai?aii?
Oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ia’?aeiaiiy. Oiai/ania
noaaeaiiy OIAeI aei Iieueu? aacoaaeiny ia oiio, ui ia’?aeiaiiy
a?aeiiaeeiny aeciaaaoe eaa?oeii?noue aiaen?? cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caiaeue Iieueuath ? i?iaieineei e?ioeaaith iaoith nai?? ae?yeueiino?
noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. I?e oeueiio a na?aaeiaeu?
iaoe?iiae-aeaiie?ao?a ?nioaaea a?oia i?eoeeueiee?a (ia /ie? c
A.Aa/einueeei) aeciaiiy i?eiaeaaeiino? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie aei Iieueu? ?
i?iaieioaiiy eo?no oae caaii? “?aaeueii? iie?oeee”, oiaoi ai?ioueae ca
aaoiiii?th Aaee/eie ? Cao?aeii? Aieei? a neeaae? ?? ?a/? Iiniieeoi?. Ui
noino?oueny iiceoe?? iaoe?iiae-aeaiie?ao?a noiniaii ia?aai?ioo,
i?aai?ciaaiiai THcaoii I?enoaenueeei a o?aai? 1926 ?ieo, oi aiia
aeiaiaeeoue, ui OIAeI iieeaaeaei iaae?? ia iaai? ci?ie o noaaeaii?
iieuenueei? aeaaee aei oe?a?ioe?a, caaaeath/e ia iiia?aaei? cayae
i?eoeeueiee?a naiaoe??. Nai aea ia?aai?io ye niin?a i?eoiaeo aei aeaaee,
aoa ioa?aeoa?eciaaiee iaeiicia/ii iaaaoeaii, i?ney /iai
iaoe?iiae-aeaiie?aoe a?aeiiaeeenue a?ae aoaeue-yeeo niiae?aaiue ia
iie?ioaiiy oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo noinoie?a, ui aoei ae?aaeaia ieie
i?ae /an ia?aaeaeai?/i? eaiiai?? 1928 ?. Aieea “iaoeeo?eaoe??” ia
noaaeaiiy OIAeI aei Iieueu? iieyaaa o oiio, ui ia’?aeiaiiy noaei ooeaoe
aeoiaeo ?c eiioe?eoii? neooaoe??, yea neeaeany o noinoieao oe?a?ioe?a ?
iieye?a, ca aeiiiiiaith ni?ia iaeaaiaeaeaiiy ae?aeiao ?c iieuenueeith
noi?iiith, aiaeii/an i?iaeiaaeoth/e aenooie i?ioe aioeoe?a?inueeeo ae?e
iieuenueei? aeaaee, ?icai?ioaoe o E?c? Iaoe?e eaiiai?th aee?eooy
ii?ooaiue i?aa ethaeeie a Iieueu?.

Noaaeaiiy OIAeI aei Iieueu? aoei ni?e/eiaia oaeeie oaeoi?aie ye:
ieoiaoe?y Iieueuath cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caiaeue ? iani?eeiyooy
oe?a?inueeei ianaeaiiyi iieuenueei? aeaaee, iie?oeea iieuenueei?
aea?aeaae, yea aeeeeeaea iaaaoeai? ioe?iee c aieo iaoe?iiae-aeaiie?ao?a
? ni?e/eiyea aaiethoe?ei?noue noinoie?a iaoe?iiae-aeaiie?ao?a ?
iieuenueei? aeaaee.

O oinoiio ?icae?e? – “Oe?a?inuee? nioe?ae?noe/i? na?aaeiaeua: ioe?iea
iie?oeee iieuenueei? aea?aeaae o i?ia?aiieo aeieoiaioao ? iie?oe/i?e
oaeoeoe?”– i?inoaaeaii iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueeiai nioe?ae?cio, ye?
iieyaathoue o oiio, ui a?i oa?a?aa o naaa ? iaoe?iiaeueio ?aeath, ui,
cae/aeii, ae?aaeaeiny o eiai noaaeaii? aei Iieueu?. 1 ea?oiy 1923 ?ieo
a?aeaoany ia?oee iiai?iiee c’?cae Oe?a?inueei? ?aaeeeaeueii? ia?o??,
yeee aeneiaeany i?ioe aiaen?? Aaee/eie ? Cao?aeii? Aieei? Iieueuath ?
cayaea, ui, caeeoath/enue nioe?ae?noe/iith ia?o??th, O?I aenooieea ca
noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae. O 1925 ?ioe? ?aaeeeaee
?icii/aee i?ioean noai?aiiy Oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae?noe/ii-?aaeeeaeueii?
ia?o??. 14 ethoiai 1926 ?ieo ia nai?io /a?aiaiio c’?cae? Oe?a?inueea
?aaeeeaeueia ia?o?y ia’?aeiaeany c Oe?a?inueeith ia?o??th
nioe?ae?no?a-?aaiethoe?iia??a Aieei?, canioaaaoe ON?I. A iioae?eiaai?e o
1927 ?ioe? i?ia?ai? ON?I aoei iii?uaii caeeee aei ai?ioueae i?ioe
iieuenueei? aea?aeaae, yea aaaaeaeany ai?ioueaith ca iaoe?iiaeueio ?
nioe?aeueio naiaiaeo. Nioe?ae?noe-?aaeeeaee o nai?e i?ia?ai? aeneiaeee
aeoieo i?i oa, ui ia o?eueee iieuenueea aeaaea, aea ? an? iieuenuee?
ia?o?? ? an? aa?noae iieuenueeiai noni?euenoaa ? ai?iaea iaeaooiaai? aei
oe?a?ioe?a. Ui noino?oueny noaaeaiiy ON?I aei ia?aai?ioo THcaoa
I?enoaenueeiai, oi nioe?ae?noe-?aaeeeaee aaaaeaee, ui ia?aai?io i?eiana
oe?a?ioeyi ua a?eueo? ooenee, ine?eueee, iacaaaeath/e ia cayae ie?aieo
iie?oee?a – i?eoeeueiee?a naiaoe??, i?i oiea?oaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
iaioei, aiie, ia aeoieo ON?I, i?/ei ia a?ae??ciythoueny a?ae
iiia?aaeiuei? aeaaee. I?eeeaaeii oiai, ui iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei
Iieueu?, ni?e/eiaia iie?oeeith iieuenueei? aeaaee, /anii aenooiaei
oaeoi?ii ia’?aeiaiiy oe?a?inueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, ? ni?eueiee eiioi?eao,
i?eeiyoee ON?I, OIAeI ? ONAeI a /an? “iaoeeo?eaoe??“, a oaeiae ?oi?e
ni?eueiee ia?aaeaeai?/ee aeie ia aeai?ao 1930 ?ieo. Noaaeaiiy ON?I aei
Iieueu? i?ioyaii 1925-1932 ?ie?a caciaei aeoaea iaei ci?i, ui
caaacia/eei nioe?ae?noai-?aaeeeaeai iaci?iio e?euee?noue i?eoeeueiee?a ?
na?ae/eei i?i ?aeaieia?/io no?ee?noue oa iaeii??aei?noue ia?o??. Aeae?
eaeaoueny i?i ?noi??th aeieeiaiiy oa ?aeaieia?/iee ?icaeoie Oe?a?inueei?
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/ii? ia?o??, i?i caai?iio ONAeI o 1924 ?ioe? /a?ac ??
ca’ycee ?c eiioi?noe/iith ia?o??th. O 1925 ?ioe? /anoeia
nioe?ae-aeaiie?ao?a ia /ie? c *a?iaoeueeei noai?eea eii?oao aeey
canioaaiiy Oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae?noe/ii? ia?o??. A?oia aenooieea ca
noai?aiiy iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae?noe/ii? aea?aeaae, caeeeeaea
oe?a?inueeeo ?ia?oiee?a aei ai?ioueae i?ioe iieuenueei? aeaaee. 8-9
a?oaeiy 1928 ?ieo ia iniia? a?oie “Aia?aae” aoei noai?aii Oe?a?inueeo
nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe/io ia?o?th ia /ie? c Eaaii Aaieaae/ai. Ia aeai?ao
1928 ?ieo nioe?ae-aeaiie?aoe a?aeiiaeeeny aeieoaaoeny c iieuenueeeie
nioe?ae?noaie, aaaaeath/e, ui aiie ? i?ioeaieeaie oe?a?inueeeo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, i?e oeueiio aeaeea?oth/e, ui ONAeI i?aeo?eia?
?o o ai?iouea? i?ioe oiai/aniiai o?yaeo. Oaea noia?a/i?noue aeyaeyea
?aeaieia?/io ianoi?iiaai?noue ia?o?? o noaaeaii? aei Iieueu?.
?acoeueoaoii “iaoeeo?eaoe??” aoei oa, ui ONAeI, ona?aeiieaoe naith
neaae?noue, ii/aea ooeaoe nithciee?a na?aae iieuenueeeo nioe?ae?no?a,
oi?ioth/e nai? noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu? nei??oa c eeaniaeo, i?ae c
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a.

O nueiiiio ?icae?e? – «Oe?a?inuee? eiioi?noe/i? oa ?aaeyiio?euenuee?
na?aaeiaeua ? Iieueua» ?icaeyaea?oueny aaiethoe?y noaaeaiiy EINA-EICO
aei Iieueu?, ii/eiath/e a?ae canioaaiiy ia?o??. Oey i?iaeaia aia?oa
iinoaea ia?aae aaeeoeueeeie eiioi?noaie a a?oaei? 1920 ?ieo, eiee
i?aaenoaaieee Oeaio?aeueieo eii?oao?a EINA ? Eiioi?noe/ii? ?ia?oie/i?
ia?o?? Iieueu? aeiiiaeeeny i?i ia’?aeiaiiy iaio i?aai?caoe?e. EINA
aenooiaea ca i?e?aeiaiiy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie aei ?aaeyinueei? Oe?a?ie, o
oie /an ye EII ianoithaaea ?aeeio nioe?ae?noe/io Iieueuo. EINA, a
i?ci?oa EICO a?aeiiaeeany ia?aeoe ia iiceoe?? aaoiiii?cio, ye oiai
aeiaaaea EII, ui, a naith /a?ao, aoea eiio?ieueiaaia ?in?enueeeie
eiioi?noaie. Inoaii? i?eioneee EICO i?eieieoe nai? aioeiieuenuee?
aenooie ? i?iaieineoe eicoia i?i ia’?aeiaiiy on?o ?ia?oiee?a ? naeyi o
ai?iouea? i?ioe oiai/aniiai iieuenueeiai o?yaeo. Ia?aai?io 13 o?aaiy
1926 ?ieo aoa iacaaiee eiioi?noaie oaoenonueeei, a I?enoaenueeee –
aeeeoaoi?ii. Iaaaeiac? i?ney ia?aai?ioo OeE EICO cayaea, ui oe?a?inueeei
?ia?oieeai ? naeyiai ne?ae /aeaoe iineeaiiy ooene?a c aieo o?yaeo.
Iaeiae aoaeue-ye? ni?iae EICO ?aaeueii ioe?ieoe oiai/ania iie?oe/ia
noaiiaeua ?, aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aoaeoaaoe naith iie?oe/io oaeoeeo ?
no?aoaa?th, ni?e/eithaaee eiioe?eo ?c caa?oieeaie, ui i?ecaaei aei
?iceieo ia?o?? ia EICO-a?eueo?noue, yea oaia? o?aeooaaeany ye aaaioo?a
iieuenueeiai o?yaeo ? aoea aeeeth/aia c ia?o?? a 1928 ?ioe?, ?
EICO-iaio?noue. I?ney oeeo iiae?e iie?oeea EICO caaeany aei
aeaeea?aoeaieo caya i?i nithc iieuenueei? ? oe?a?inueei? ao?aeoac?? o
ai?iouea? i?ioe ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco oa aei noai?aiiy ooo/ieo o?iio?a. O
1930 ?ioe? eiioi?noe aeneiaeeeny ca i?aeo?eieo no?aeeoth/eo naeyi, aea
iio?i a?aeiaaeoaaeeny a?ae ieo, caaaeath/e ia o/anoue IOI o eaiiai??,
ui, cae/aeii, ia a?aeiia?aeaei ?aeaeiei iinooeaoai ia?o??.

A 1931 ?ioe? EICO aenoioea aano?aeoia aanei – i?i ai?ioueao ca
iaoe?iiaeueia naiiaecia/aiiy aae aei a?aeie?aieaiiy, yea aoei
ocaiaeaeaia ye c EII, oae ?c EI(a)O. I?ioa, iacaaaeath/e ia oea,
cao?aeiioe?a?inuee? eiioi?noe aoee i?aeaeai? ?ai?an?yi.

Eiioi?noe/ia ia?o?y Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie oi?ioaaea naith ?aeaieia?th i?ae
aieeaii, a a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao i?ae oeneii Eiioi?noe/iiai
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeo, eiioi?noe/ii? ia?o?? a?eueoiaee?a Oe?a?ie, ye? aoee
eiio?ieueiaai? ?in?enueeeie eiioi?noaie. Ae?yeuei?noue ia oa?eoi???,
aeacai?e o iaca? EICO, aeiaaaea ioe?iee iie?oeee iieuenueei? aea?aeaae c
oi/ee ci?o iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a. Aei oeueiai i?aeooiaooaaea ia
o?eueee aeoiea a?iiaaenueeino?, aea ? iie?oeea iieuenueei? aeaaee. Oea
i?ecaiaeeei aei oiai, ui noaaeaiiy cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo eiioi?no?a aei
iieuenueei? aeaaee aoei noia?a/eeaei.

O 1926 ?ioe? eiioi?noe aeciaee ca iaiao?aeia aeeoeny a i?aaiaa iiea ??
?a/? Iiniieeoi?, uia oe?oa i?aaenoaaeoe eiioi?noe/io ?aeaieia?th ia
o?eueee ia?aae iieuenueeeie iie?oeeaie, aea ? ia?aae
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeith a?iiaaenuee?noth. 10 aeiaoiy 1926 ?ieo Oe?a?inueea
nioe?ae?noe/ia ia’?aeiaiiy «Naeyinueeee nithc» ? Ia?o?y ia?iaeii? aie?,
ui aoea i?ae aieeaii iineaio?euenueei? ?aeaieia?? ia’?aeiaeeny,
noai?eaoe Oe?a?inueea naeyinueei-?ia?oie/a ia’?aeiaiiy (Naeue-?ia).
Iinee Naeue-?iao anooieee aei Oe?a?inueeiai ia?eaiaionueeiai eeoao ?
aenooiaee ?acii ?c ?ioeie ia?o?yie o e?eoeoe? iieuenueei? iie?oeee,
aiaeii/an OeE Naeue-?iao a?a ia?aaiai?e c IIN i?i ni?euei? aenooie. Oea
aeeeeeaei e?eoeeo c aieo e?aeo i?oiaeien?a ? ?iceie. Oae? iiae??
i?ecaaee aei oiai, ui aaea o ia?aaeaeai?/?e eaiiai?? 1928 ?ieo Naeue-?ia
aenoioa aanea, ye? aecia/aeeny ia iie?oe/iith neooaoe??th ? ia
iie?oeeith iieuenueei? aeaaee, a eeoa ?ioa?anaie eiioi?noe/ieo
caa?oiee?a Naeue-?iao. Naeue-?ia a?eueoa caa?oaa oaaao ia eeania?
aeaeea?aoe??, ia e?eoeeo oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e, i?ae ia ioe?ieo
iie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, a?aeiiny/e ye iieuenueeo
aeaaeo ?acii ?c iieuenueeeie ia?o?yie, oae ? oe?a?inuee? /eiieee aei
ai?iaeiai oe?a?inueeei ?ia?oieeai ? naeyiai oaai?o.

A ?icae?e? ?ice?eoi i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy ?aaeyiio?euenoaa a na?aaeiaeu?
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai a?iiaaeyinoaa ? ?noi??th Oe?a?inueei? ia?o??
i?aoe?, ye i?iaeiaaeaiiy Iacaeaaeii? a?oie Oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii?
o?oaeiai? ia?o??. ?aeaieia?y OII, ae?aaeaia o ieaooi?i?, iioae?eiaai?e a
aacao? «?aaea» 22 o?aaiy 1927 ?ieo, yaeyea niaith neioac
iaoe?iiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aeae oa ?aaeyiio?euenoaa. OII aeciaea, ui
?aeeia ??cieoey i?ae ?aeaieia??th OII ? OIAeI iieyaa? o oiio, ui OII
aaa/a? a ?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i? ?aaeueii ?nioth/o oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaao.
Uiaei noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu?, oi OII cayaeyea, ui any iieuenueea iaoe?y ?
ai?iaeith aei oe?a?ioe?a. Iaoith nai?? ai?ioueae OII aaaaeaea
i?e?aeiaiiy Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie aei ?aaeyinueei?, ui a?aeiia?aeaei iao?
EICO. I?e oeueiio OII a?aeeeaeaea nioe?ae?ci. Oae? noia?a/iino?, a
oaeiae caiaiaae ?aaeyiio?euenoaa ni?eyee iiioey?iino? OII. Noaaeaiiy aei
Iieueu? aoei ?aeeiei oaeoi?ii, ca aeiiiiiaith yeiai OII ciiaea i?iaanoe
iaeiiai iinea aei naeio ia aeai?ao 1928 ?ieo. I?ney 1930 ?ieo OII
i?eieieea naith ae?yeuei?noue.

O e?ioe? aeena?oaoe?? c?iaeaii aeniiaee, o yeeo aeiaaaeaii, ui
noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa i?aai?caoe?e aei Iieueu?
oi?ioaaeiny i?ae aieeaii oaeeo noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oa
caaaeueii?noi?e/ieo oaeoi??a: 1) ieoiaoe?y iieuenueeith aea?aeaaith
Aaee/eie ? Cao?aeii? Aieei?, cae??ieaia iiai?iieie aeiaiai?aie, yea
noai?eea ?aeaieia?/io e?eco a na?aaeiaeu? oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a ?
i?eioneea iie?oe/i? ia?o?? ia?ai???ioiaoaaoe nai? i?ia?aie ca?aeii c
iiaeie ?noi?e/ieie ?aae?yie, a oaeiae ni?eyea aeieeiaiith iiaeo
/eiiee?a, ye? ae?iaeyee nai? ?aeaei? i?eioeeie aeeeth/ii i?ae aieeaii
aioo??oiuei- ? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe??; 2) iie?oeea iieuenueei?
aeaaee oa iieuenueeeo aea?aeaaieo /eiiaiee?a noiniaii oe?a?ioe?a
ni?e/eieeanue aei oiai, ui oe?a?inuee? ia?o?? ocaeaaeithaaee nai?
noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu? a?ae eiaeiiai ie?aiiai caoiaeo ?? aeaaee; oea
iaaeaaaei oeueiio noaaeaiith neooaoeaiiai ? aaiethoe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o; 3)
aeiai?iia iie?oe/ia niaaeueia oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e, ui aeoiaaea oe?ea
iieie?iiy iie?oee?a, ye? caeeee ai?ioeny ca nai? i?aaa, aeei?enoiaoth/e
eaaaeuei? ? aeaiie?aoe/i? iaoiaee ? ia iniia? oeueiai aoaeoaaoe nai?
a?aeiineie c aea?aeaaith; 4) iiae?? Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie, i?iaieioaiiy
iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie, ye? noeioethaaee aeieeiaiiy iiaeo oaiaeaioe?e o
aca?iia?aeiineiao i?ae ?a?iiaenueeeie aea?aeaaaie; iaa/eee oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oee?a a?aenoithaaoe nai? i?aaa neeith ca?i? ? ni?eyee aeieeiaiith a
na?aaeiaeu? oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii? ae?oe ?aea? i?i iiaeeea?noue
a?aeiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?, ui oo?eioaaei oe?a?inuee?
ia?o?? a?ae ni?ai?aoe? c iieuenueeeie /eiieeaie /e iieuenueeith aeaaeith
? a?ae aeciaiiy eaa?oeiiino? oe??? aeaaee. Oea aiineei aeaiaio
ia?iaiaioiino? o neooaoeai?noue noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oee?a aei
Iieueu?.

Oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? na?aaeiaeua o noaaeaii? aei Iieueu? iaee
aeae?eueea ni?eueieo ?en: 1) iaaaoeaia /e ae?oaeiy iaeaooiaai?noue aei
iieuenueei? aeaaee aoea ?aaeoe??th ia ?? iie?oeeo noiniaii oe?a?ioe?a,
ui /anii i?eioooaaei iaa?oue eiyeuei? aei Iieueu? ia?o?? aenooiaoe c
e?eoeeith ?? iie?oeee; 2) aeey oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu?
aoei oei oaeoi?ii, yeee aieeaaa ia ioe?ieo oe?a?inueeei a?iiaaeyinoaii
?o ae?yeueiino?: ca aeiiiiiaith aioeiieuenueeeo ? aioeaea?aeaaieo
aenooi?a aiie iaiaaaeeny i?aeianoe na?e ?aeoeia; 3) noaaeaiiy aei
Iieueu? aecia/aei ??aaiue noinoie?a oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e oa
i?aai?caoe?e c iieuenueeith aeaaeith ? iieuenueeeie /eiieeaie; 4) aiii
aieeaaei ia aca?iia?aeiineie i?ae oe?a?inueeeie ia?o?yie ?
i?aai?caoe?yie; 5)ae?aaeaiiy iiceoe?? noiniaii iieuenueei? aea?aeaae ?
iie?oeee ?? aeaaee ia oe?a?inueeeo caieyo aoei iaia’yceiaei eiiiiiaioii
?aeaieia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e oa ?aeaieia?/iiai ?icaeoeo on?o, aac aeiyoeo,
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e. Noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu? aoei oaeiae caniaii aeey
i?iaaaeaiiy ? ei?aaoaaiiy iie?oeee o??? /e ?ioi? ia?o??. Eiaeiee ?c
oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo /eiiee?a iaiaaaany aeei?enoaoe eiai aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iaaieo oe?eae.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeaiee aaoi?ii o oaeeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. OIAeI, IOI: noaaeaiiy aei Iieueu?. – Euea?a, 1998. – 80 n.

2. Iineaio?ee ? Iieueua // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. – 1998. –
?109. – N. 28-38.

3. Aaeeoeuee? nioe?ae?noe/i? na?aaeiaeua o noaaeaii? aei iieuenueei?
aeaaee (1923–1933) // I?eaei?i?ianueeee iaoeiaee a?niee. – 1998. – ?119.
– N. 17–40.

4. Noaaeaiiy Oe?a?inueei? nioe?ae?noe/ii-?aaeeeaeueii? ia?o?? aei
iieuenueei? ieoiaoe?? Cao?aeii? Oe?a?ie (1923–1932) // Iaoeia? cioeoe
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo. – Euea?a, 1999. – N. 171-176.

5. O a?aeiia?aeue ia iieuenueeee ai?o // A?no? eiiaaoaioa. –
Oi?iioi–Iueth-Ei?e, 1997. – ?1. – N. 52-54.

6. Oe?a?inueeee eaoieeoeueeee nithc // Na?oei. – Aanoii, 1998. – ?1. –
N. 24-25.

AIIOAOe?ss

Oaaeee ?.?. Oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? na?aaeiaeua Aaee/eie o noaaeaii? aei
Iieueu? (1925–1932). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01. – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – Euea?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia i?iaeai? noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo
na?aaeiaeu aei iieuenueei? aea?aeaae, aei ?? iie?oeee noiniaii
oe?a?inueeiai ianaeaiiy o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae. Iieuenueea aea?aeaaa
ae??oaeueiei /eiii aieeaaea ia iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a Aaee/ei? ?
Cao?aei?e Oe?a?i? a oe?eiio, oi?ioaaea a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo, iaiaaaeanue
aecia/aoe iie?oe/io no?aoaa?th ? oaeoeeo ??cieo ia?o?e oa i?aai?caoe?e.
Ii?aoethaaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie ni?ey? aea/aiith onueiai eiiieaeno
oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo noinoie?a o i?aeai?iiee ia??iae, ui ?
iaa?ae’?iiei eiiiiiaioii iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie. Iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?eaia aiae?co noaaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo na?aaeiaeu aei
io?oe?eieo i?aai?a iieuenueei? aea?aeaae, aaiethoe?? a?aeiioaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo ia?o?e oa i?aai?caoe?e aei iieuenueeeo iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo?.
I?e iaienaii? aeena?oaoe?? iniiaiee oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae aoei ii/a?iiooi
?c ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a oiai/anieo ia?o?e, c ??ciiiai?oii? ae?eiai?
aeieoiaioaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai oa noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? i?iaeaie iaiao?aei? aeey ?ic?iaee iiaeo iai?yie?a
iiaoaeiae oe?a?inueei-iieuenueeeo noinoie?a ia no/aniiio aoai?,
aaciaaieo ia ?noi?e/iiio aeina?ae?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? na?aaeiaeua, noaaeaiiy aei
Iieueu?, Aaee/eia, i?aeai?iiee ia??iae, iie?oe/ia no?aoaa?y ? oaeoeea.

AIIIOAOeEss

Oaaeee E.E. Oe?aeineea iieeoe/aneea e?oae Aaee/eiu ii ioiioaieth e
Iieueoa (1925-1932). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01. – Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. – Eueaianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei, Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia ioiioaiey oe?aeineeo iieeoe/aneeo
e?oaia Aaee/eiu e Iieueoa, e iieeoeea aa aeanoe ii ioiioaieth e
oe?aeineiio ianaeaieth, eae e iaeiiio ec aeaaiuo oaeoi?ia, ii?aaeaeyaoeo
o?iaaiue oe?aeinei-iieueneeo ioiioaiee a ia?eiae 20-o – 30-o aiaeia, a
oaeaea oi?ie?iaaaoeo iieeoe/aneoth no?aoaaeth e oaeoeeo ?aciuo ia?oee e
i?aaiecaoeee. Ioiioaiea e Iieueoa oi?ie?iaaeinue iiae aicaeaenoaeai
oaeeo oaeoi?ia eae ieeoiaoeey iieueneei ainoaea?noaii Aaee/eiu e
Caiaaeiie Aieuie, iieeoeea iieueneeo aeanoae, iieeoe/aneee iiuo
oe?aeineeo iieeoeeia, niauoey Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu. I?e iaienaiee
aeenna?oaoeee iniaia aieiaiea auei oaeaeaii eniieueciaaieth a?oeaiuo
iaoa?eaeia e ae?oaeo enoi/ieeia, n?aaee eioi?uo — i?ia?aiiiua aeieoiaiou
ia?oee e i?aaiecaoeee. Iie aeieacuaatho, /oi ioiioaiea aaeeoeeeo
iieeoe/aneeo e?oaia e Iieueoa auei iaiouaieaiui eiiiiiaioii iieeoe/aneeo
eaeaieiaee yoeo e?oaia, eoiaai eaeaieiae/aneiai ?acaeoey, a oaeaea
n?aaenoaii iiauoaiey ?aeoeiaa aeey ?aciuo ia?oee e i?aaiecaoeee.
Ioiioaiea e iieueneie aeanoe ii?aaeaeythuei ia?acii aeeyei ia ioiioaiey
iaaeaeo ia?oeyie aioo?e oe?aeineiai iieeoe/aneiai eaaa?y. I?eia?ii yoiio
auee ?anoiaeaeaiey, eioi?ua aicieeee a ioiioaieyo iaaeaeo Oe?aeineei
iaoeeiiaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneei iauaaeeiaieai e I?aaiecaoeeae oe?aeineeo
iaoeeiiaeenoia iinea oiai, eae OIAeI ?ane?eoeeiaaei aeaenoaey IOI a 1930
aiaeo. Eiaiii ioiioaiea e Iieueoa iaiaeiie?aoii ii?aaeaeyei oa?aeoa?
eiioeeeoiuo neooaoeee aioo?e ii/oe anao ia?oee. A naiai ioiioaiee e
Iieueoa oe?aeineea iieeoe/aneea e?oae Aaee/eiu eiaee ioee/eoaeueiua
/a?ou, eioi?ua caaenaee io ?aeoeiaa ia?oee, io eo aeeyiey, io iaoiaeia
aeayoaeueiinoe, io eaeaieiae/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe. Iai?eia?,
Eiiioienoe/aneay ia?oey Caiaaeiie Oe?aeiu aace?iaaea naie
acaeiiioiioaiey n iieueneeie iieeoe/aneeie e?oaaie, enoiaey ec aee?aeoea
Eiieioa?ia, Ananithciie eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee aieueoaaeeia e
Eiiioienoe/aneie ia?oee aieueoaaeeia Oe?aeiu. I?aaiecaoeey oe?aeineeo
iaoeeiiaeenoia, n/eoay naay i?aaiecaoeeae ?aaiethoeeiiiiai
iaoeeiiaeecia, i?iaicaeaneea eo?n ia aaceiii?iienioth ai?ueao i?ioea
iieueneiai ainoaea?noaa. Niaoeeoe/aneee noaoon eaoiee/aneeo ia?oee ia
iicaieye ei aanoe aeanoeoth iieeoeeo, iiyoiio iie aeieaeiu auee
i?eciaoue Iieueoo eae naia ainoaea?noai. Aioeoe?aeineay nouiinoue
eaeaieiaee iineaioeeueneeo e?oaia oieeaea ec ia nio?oaeie/anoai n
aeanoueth, /oi iiiiaaei ei aaeaioe?iaaoueny a oiaaeaoieo iieeoe/aneeo
oneiaeyo. Ioiioaiea ?aciuo iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee e Iieueoa, iaace?ay ia
nouanoaiaaiea aaeeiuo no?aoaae/aneeo eeiee, ai iiiaeo neo/ayo caaenaei
io oie eee eiie enoi?e/aneie neooaoeee,. Iai?eia?, OIAeI i?iaicaeaneei,
/oi ia i?eciaao e ieeiaaea ia i?eciaao eaaeoeiiinoe aiiaenee Aaee/eiu e
Caiaaeiie Aieuie e ia aoaeao nio?oaeie/aoue n iieueneie aeanoueth,
n/eoay aa ieeoiaoeeiiiie, iaeiaei iinea neo/aaa iaeaieaa neeueiie
eiio?iioaoeee iaaeaeoaiaiiiai ia?eiaea, eioi?ua i?iecioee a 1930 aiaeo,
iii naeaeaei ianeieueei iiiuoie i?iaanoe ia?aaiai?u n iieueneie noi?iiie
i nio?oaeie/anoaa. Eciaiaieyi iiaeaeaaaeinue ioiioaiea e Iieueneiio
ainoaea?noao Oe?aeineie nioeeae-aeaiie?aoe/aneie ia?oee. Aieaa
iineaaeiaaoaeueiuie a yoii ioiioaiee auee Oe?aeineay
nioeeaeenoe/anei-?aaeeeaeueiay ia?oey e I?aaiecaoeey oe?aeineeo
iaoeeiiaeenoia.

Ii?aaeaeaiea naiaai ioiioaiey e Iieueoa oe?aeineeie iieeoe/aneeie
i?aaiecaoeeyie noaei iaeiei ec n?aaenoa aeinoeaeaiey ?aciuo iieeoe/aneeo
oeaeae, a oaeaea aeey ei??aeoe?iaaiey ia?oeeiuo eo?nia e aeey iiaeiyoey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai niciaiey ianaeaiey.

Enneaaeiaaiea i?iaeaiu ioiioaiey oe?aeineeo iieeoe/aneeo e?oaia Aaee/eiu
e Iieueoa a oeacaiiue ia?eiae iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaii aeey au?aaioee
iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiie iieeoeee Oe?aeiu a ioiioaiee ?anioaeeee Iieueoa ia
nia?aiaiiii yoaia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oe?aeineea iieeoe/aneea e?oae, ioiioaiea e Iieueoa,
Aaee/eia, iaaeaeoaiaiiue ia?eiae, iieeoe/aneay o?aoaaey e oaeoeea.

ANNOTATION

Fedyk I.I. Ukrainian Political Circles in Galicia in Attitude to Poland
(1925-1932 years). – Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by speciality 07.00.01 – History of
Ukraine. – Ivan Franko State University of Lviv, Lviv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the problem of the attitude of Ukrainian
political circles to Polish authorities and their policy concerning
Ukrainian population, the attitude of Ukrainian political circles to
Polish state, which formed the political situation in Western Ukraine
during the period between two World wars and tried to determinate the
popular opinion and political strategy and tactics of different parties
and organizations. The study of this problem helps to understand the
whole complex of the relations between Ukrainian people and Polish
authorities, which is the part of Ukrainian modern history. The special
attention was paid to analysis of the attitude of Ukrainian political
circles to official organs of Polish State and the evolution of this
attitude to Polish political structures. The main facts were taken from
different programmatic and official documents. The study of such
problems is necessary for the elaboration of new directions in the
relations between Ukraine and Poland, based on historical experience.

Key words: Ukrainian political circles, the attitude to Poland, Galicia,
the period between two World wars, political strategy and tactics.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 2.09.1999. Oi?iao 60 o 90 1/16. Iai?? ionaoiee.
Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 1. Iaeeaae 100 i?ei. Aac i?aaa i?iaeaaeo.

Iaeeaae a?aeae?oeiaaii o AEI «AIN»:

290035, Euea?a-35. Aoe. Eeiiaa Aeay, 9,

oae. (0322) 42-10-41, 42-10-46.

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