17

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

EUeA?ANUeEA AEAAeAI?ss IENOAOeOA

EIEOIA?AA Aai?y A?oae??aia

OAeE 738.81 (09) (477)

OE?A?INUeE? EAOE? XVIII — ii/aoeo OO no.

(?noi??y. Oeiieia?y. ?eiiia?ao?y. Ainaiaeaa?noue)

17.00.06 — aeaei?aoeaia ? i?eeeaaeia ienoaoeoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? ia?iaeiiai ienoaoeoaa

?inoeoooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,

noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii
ia?iaeiiai ienoaoeoaa

?inoeoooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI
Oe?a?ie

NOAIEAAE* Ieoaeei
?anoao?eiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,

i?ioani? a?o?oaeoo?iiai
oaeoeueoaoo

Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
«Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»

AIAeIA? Ieaa ss?ineaaiae/

eaiaeeaeao
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e
ooaeiaeiuei? ea?ai?ee

Euea?anueei? aeaaeai??
ienoaoeoa

AIEOAAOeUe I?ano Ieoaeeiae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee

oa aoiieia?? ?i. I.O.
?eeuenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie,

a?aeae?e ia?iaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «25» /a?aiy 1999 ?ieo i » 14 » aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.103.01 o Euea?anuee?e
aeaaeai?? ienoaoeoa ca aae?anith:

290011, Euea?a, aoe.Eoa?eiae/a, 38

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Euea?anueei?
aeaaeai?? ienoaoeoa.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee «25» o?aaiy 1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa
?.A.AIEIAe

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Eaoe? — oea a?oia ea?ai?/ieo ae?ia?a, ye?
neoaeaoue eiino?oeoeaii-aeaei?aoeaiei iaoa??aeii aeey nii?oaeaeaiiy
ia/ae. Oe?a?inuee? ooaeiaei? eaoe?, ?oiy iiyaa, aeaeiaa nai???aei?noue
oa ienoaoeueea nooi?noue coiiaeai? ??cieie oaeoi?aie: ca?iaeaeaiiyi o
noa?? o?aaeeoe?eiiai aii/a?noaa, ?icaeoeii o ?aeeiiio iai?yieo c
oe?a?inueeei aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiei ienoaoeoaii o eiioaeno?
?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e, aeooiaieie, anoaoe/ieie, ooee?oa?ieie iio?aaaie
noni?euenoaa.

I?iaeaia i?noey ? ?ie? eaoaeue a iaoe?iiaeuei?e eoeueoo?i?e niaaeuei?
/anoeiai ii?o-ooaaeanue o aaeee?e e?eueeino? ioae?eaoe?e oa ?yae?
iiiia?ao?e. I?ioa nueiaiaei? iaiao?aeia neioaoe/ia i?aoey i?i
oe?a?inuee? eaoe? OV??? — ii/aoeo OOno. ye aaaiia ooaeiaei? yaeua.
Cie?aia, ? iio?aaa ooi/ieoe e ocaaaeueieoe aeina?ae iiia?aaei?o
aeine?aeaeaiue, c»ynoaaoe aaiacen, ?eiiia?ao?th, oeiieia?th eaoaeue,
?icaeyiooe iniaeeaino? eiiiiceoe?? eaoeyii? ia/?, ?? ainaiaeaa?noue o
o?aaeeoe?eiiio aeeoe? Oe?a?ie.

Oaeei /eiii, aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, uia
a?aoiaioiaaii, ?c caeo/aiiyi a?oaieia?/ieo, ?noi?e/ieo, a?o?aieo oa
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, ?eiiia?ao?/iiai iaoa??aeo, oaeoieia?/iiai
aea/aiiy oai??a eaoey?noaa, iiaeeaeoe ?icoi?iiy eaoe? ? eaoeyii? ia/? a
oe?a?inuee?e ia?iaei?e oai?/ino? ye eiiieaeniiai ienoaoeueeiai yaeua.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y ?ica’yco? iaeia ?c
caaaeaiue oaie “Oai?aoe/i? oa ?noi?e/i? i?iaeaie ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?”
(oeo? 4.16.6.8.), iaeio ?c i?iaeai oaie «?noi?e/i? ia?aaeeaie ia?aiao??a
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeiiai ienoaoeoaa: o?aaeeoe??, oeiieia?y ?
eieae?caoe?y» (oeo? 3.3.4.9.), ui aeeiiothoueny o a?aeae?e? ia?iaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa ?inoeoooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?? ? eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue ye
nai???aeiiai ienoaoeueeiai yaeua o iaoe?iiaeuei?e eoeueoo??. Aeey
aeinyaiaiiy iaoe noaaeeenue oae? caaaeaiiy:

— i?iaiae?coaaoe oiiae noaiiaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa eaoaeue a
Oe?a?i?;

— ?icaeyiooe iniiai? oeaio?e ? ina?aaeee c ae?iaieoeoaa eaoaeue;

— aeyaeoe eiiieaen oaeoi??a, ui aecia/ea nai???aei?noue
oaoiieia?/ii?, ooaeiaeiueiia?acii?, nthaeaoii-oaiaoe/ii? niaoeeo?ee
eaoaeue Oe?a?ie OV???-ii/aoeo OOno.;

— c»ynoaaoe oeiieia?th eaoaeue, ?eiiia?ao?th ?icien?a;

— ?ice?eoe nai???aei?noue ainaiaeth eaoeyii? ia/? o nenoai? ia?iaeiiai
aeeoea.

Ia»?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeaei?aoeai? eaoe?, ae?iaeai? ia oa?eoi???
Oe?a?ie, oa ainaiae? eaoeyieo ia/ae. Iniiaiee ei?ion iai»yoie
?icaeyaea?oueny o /aniaiio a?ae??ceo OV??? — ii/aoeo OO no.; a
?noi?e/iiio aniaeo? ioiieth?oueny ia??iae OIV-XVIIno. Aeaoaeueiee
aiae?c ooaeiaei?o iniaeeainoae i?enay/aiee oai?ai ia?iaeiiai eaoey?noaa.

Aaia?ao?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue iniiai? aoiia?ao?/i?
?aa?iie Oe?a?ie, ianaiia?aae, Iaaeaei?i?yiueio, Iiae?eey, Iieoaaueio,
I?eea?iaooy, Neiaiaeaiueio, *a?i?a?aueio oa ?i., aea ?icaeaaeiny
eaoey?noai.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa o
ienoaoeoaiciaa/?e iaooe?:

— eiiieaenii aena?oeaii noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue ye
aaaeeeaiai ienoaoeueeiai yaeua, iaa?ae»?iiiai a?ae
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiai ooaeiaeiueiai i?ioeano a eiioaeno? ?a?iiaenueei?
eoeueoo?e;

— ?ic?iaeaii oeiieia?th eaoaeue ca oaeoii?/iith oi?iith, ieanoeeith,
aeaei?ii;

— aia?oa o oaeiio ianyc? i?iaaaeaii ienoaoeoaiciaa/ee aiae?c ?eiiia?ao??
oa ooaeiaei?o iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue;

— caeo/aii aei iaoeiaiai ia?ao iaaio e?euee?noue iaa?aeiieo aein?
oai??a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ??
iaoa??ae?a i?e iaienaii? ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ienoaoeoaa, ?ic?iaoe?
iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a, ie?aieo eaeoe?e c ?noi??? aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa Oe?a?ie o iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao, a oaeiae o iocaei?e
i?aeoeoe? (ao?eaooe?y iai»yoie, aeniiceoe?eia ?iaioa oiui).
Ii?aoeueiaaiee oaenoiaee oa ?ethno?aoeaiee iaoa??ae ? aacith aeey
ioi?ieaiiy e aeaeaiiy iiiia?ao?? oa aeueaiio, i?enay/aieo oe?a?inueeiio
eaoey?noao OV???-ii/.OOno. Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy iieyaa? o iiaeeaeaii?
i?aeoiae?a aei ?icoi?iiy iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue ye
ooaeiaeiueiai yaeua, ?noi??? eiai ?icaeoeo, i?noey o iaoe?iiaeuei?e
eoeueoo?? oa ienoaoeoa?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??:

— ia?iaei? eaoe? — nai???aeia ooaeiaei? yaeua oe?a?inueeiai ienoaoeoaa;

— oi?iaeueii-oeiieia?/i? oa ooaeiaeiuei-oaoiieia?/i? ia?aeae?, aeyaeai?
i?ae ia?iaeieie eaoeyie ? aeaaiueioe?a?inueeith aoae?aaeueiith
ea?ai?eith na?ae/aoue i?i ?o aaiaoe/io nii??aeiai?noue;

— aaiethoe?y oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue O?V-ia?oi? iieiaeie OOno. o?eaaea o
?one? o?aaeeoe?e ?a?iiaenueeiai aeaei?aoeaiiai ienoaoeoaa;

— oeiieia?y iai»yoie aecia/aia ca ooieoe?iiaeuei?noth, oaeoii?/iith
oi?iith ? aeaei?ii;

— ooaeiaeiuei-ia?acia nenoaia aeaei?o oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue ?icaeaaeany o
eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii? oa ?a?iiaenueei? eoeueoo?e, ia i?oei?e
oieueeei?i?e iniia?, a?aeiia?aeii aei ia?iaeiiai na?oiaa/aiiy;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eiiia?ao?? o?aaeeoe?eieo eaoaeue na?ae/eoue i?i ??
o?niee ca»ycie c ?icaeoeii oe?a?inueeiai a?coaeueiiai ienoaoeoaa;

— eaoeyia i?/ — aeya ainaiaeaaino? a ?ioa?»??? ia?iaeiiai aeeoea.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe cae?enithaaeanue ia can?aeaiiyo a?aeae?eo ia?iaeiiai
ienoaoeoaa (I?ioieie ?3 a?ae 9 aa?aciy 1999?.) oa A/aii? ?aaee ?inoeoooo
ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie (I?ioieie ?2 a?ae 16 aa?aciy 1999?.). ?iaioa
aoea ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei caoenoo. ?? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeaieioai? o
aeiiia?aeyo ? oacao ia ?yae? iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?e, cie?aia,
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Nea?ae oe?a?inueei? ia?iaeii? ea?ai?ee
ia Ei?a//ei?»(Ei?aoeue, 1993), iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo
«Oe?a?inueea nae?aeueia ienoaoeoai» (EAI, Euea?a, 1994), «Oe?a?inueea
o?anoieia?y» (?inoeooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie, Euea?a, 1996),
Ae?oaeo i?aeia?iaeieo o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo /eoaiiyo «Ae?aeia
eoeueoo?: Oe?a?ia o na?oiaiio eiioaeno?. Ienoaoeoai ? ina?oa» (Euea?a,
1998). Aaoi?ii iioae?eiaaii i»youe noaoae ianyaii 3,5 ae.a., ui i?noyoue
iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y (ianyaii 195 ae.a.) neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo oiiaieo nei?i/aiue, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (308 iaeiaioaaiue). Aeiaeaoeaie ? aeueaii c 175
?ethno?aoe?yie; 4 aiae?oe/i? oaaeeoe?: ?iciiae?e oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue ca
oaeoii?/iith oi?iith, ieanoeeith, aeaei?ii (1-3); Oe?a?inuee? eaoey??
O?O-ii/aoeo OOno. (4).

INIIAIEE
CI?NO ?IAIOE

O ANOOI? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aii
ia»?eo, iniiaio iaoo, caaaeaiiy, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee, oa?eoi??aeuei?
iaae?, eiai iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? «?NOI??IA?AO?ss, IAOIAeEEA OA AeAEA?AEA
AeINE?Ae-AEAIIss» i?iaaaeaii e?eoe/iee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e ii oai?
aeena?oaoe??, aeeeaaeaii caaaeueio iaoiaeeeo ? iniiai? iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aena?oeaii aeaea?aeiciaa/o iniiao ?iaioe.

Iaoeiaa aea/aiiy eaoaeue ?icii/aeiny o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?Ono. ?
iia»ycaia c ?iaioaie aoiia?ao?a, a?oaieia?a, ?noi?ee?a, aeiiii?no?a,
i?enay/aieie eonoa?iei i?iieneai a Oe?a?i?: I.A?aiaea?aiea (1846),
A.Eaca?aanueeiai (1862), N.Iiaeieeinueeiai (1880), E.Aa?aeoeueeiai
(1880, 1882, 1886), ?.Eiea/eianueeiai (1888), ?.Ca?aoeueeiai (1894),
I.Iaeoeuenueeiai (1898), A.Oooaae/a (1904), I.?oniaa (1905).

O e?ioe? O?O-ii/aoeo OOno. iioe?ththoueny ??ci? iaoeia? i?aeoiaee aei
aea/aiiy eaoaeue: ca»ycie nthaeaoii-oaiaoe/ii? niaoeeo?ee ?o icaeiaeaiiy
c oieueeei?ii (I.Aeaenaiae?iae/, 1883), ioe?iea ca e?eoa??yie
aeaaeai?/iiai ienoaoeoaa (E.Aa?aeoeueeee, 1882), e?eoeea aeaiiai
i?aeoiaeo (I.A?ioianueeee, 1904). E.Ua?ioeueeee aia?oa ?icaeyioa
aaiethoe?th ooaeiaeiuei-noee?noe/ieo iniaeeainoae eaoaeue oa eaoeyieo
ia/ae o nenoai? aeeoeiaiai ?ioa?»??o (1914). A.Iaaeooeueeee iinoaaea
ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue niaoe?aeueiiai aea/aiiy i?iaiaioeee eaoaeue
(1927).

Aea/aiiy eaoaeue ? eaoeyieo ia/ae a Oe?a?i? iiaeeaeth?oueny a ?iaioao
1920-o ?ie?a: ?.Nianueei?, I.O??aea (*a?i?a?aueia), I.?oniaa,
ss.?eaeaiea (Iieoaaueia), N.Oa?aiooaiea (Neiaiaeaiueia), E.Ooeuea?ii?
(Iiae?eey), O.Naaa?eia (Iieoooy) oa ?ioeo aeine?aeiee?a. Oe?ii?
a?aeiiino? i?noyoueny a ?noi?eei-aoiia?ao?/iiio aeine?aeaeaii? E.Iaoaeei
(1959).

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii ? i?ae?icae?ee i?i ea?ai?eo I.Ion??iea oa
TH.Eauoea o oanoe-oiii?e «?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai ienoaoeoaa» (1968),
«Ia?enao c ?noi??? oe?a?inueeiai aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa»
(1969); I.Oeuaiea a «?noi??? aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa
Oe?a?ie O???-OV???no.» (1992). Ooo aia?oa aoea aecia/aii i?noea eaoaeue
o ?one? caaaeueiiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ienoaoeoaa.

Oe?iiee oaeoieia?/iee oa aiae?oe/iee iaoa??ae i?i o?aaeeoe?ei? eaoe?
OV???-ii/aoeo O?Ono. i?noeoueny o ienoaoeoaiciaa/eo ?ica?aeeao 60-80??.,
i?enay/aieo aeine?aeaeaiith ea?ai?ee: Na?aaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia»y
(I.Aeai/aiei), I?eea?iaooy (I.Nieii/aiei, A.Aiaa?iai, TH.Eauoe)
Caea?iaooy (TH.Eauoe), Nieaeueueie (N.*aoiae/, ?.Ao?aoea), *a?i?a?aueie
(A.Aieioae), Iiae?eey (A.Aoaeae), Iieoaaueie (?.Aeieo???aa, I.Iioeaaeei,
I.Eeeiaiei).

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaii? oaie iathoue ioae?eaoe??,
o yeeo iiaeaii aiae?c a?oaieia?/ieo ciao?aeie, eieaeoe?e ioca?a oiui —
I.Aiaeiaaithe (1971?.), E.Aeiia?iaenueea (1975, 1988), A.Oiaeiieyn
(1975, 1990), A.Eo?eeaiei (1986,1989), I.Iioeaaeei (1989, 1993),
A.Caaei?iaeithe (1992), N.Ooeaoei, I.Na?aethe (1993), I.Ae?aeaiei,
E.I?ae (1993), A.Aoiaei, ?.Na?oi?eia, N.Oa?nueeee (1994), I.Na?iei
(1996), I.O?iiaae/ (1998). Iecea ieoaiue ?noi??? ? ooaeiaei?o
iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue c»yniao?oueny o iiiia?ao?yo TH.Eauoea
(1992, 1998). Iaaiee ?ioa?an noaiiaeyoue iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy
O.Iaenenueei, I.Iiae, ?.Oiaaaea oa ?i.

?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e i?i eaoe? Oe?a?ie OV???-ii/aoeo
OOno. na?ae/eoue i?i aaaaoie?oi?e ?ioa?an iaoeiaoe?a aei oe??? aaeoc?
ea?ai?ee, ?? nai???aei?noue oa aaaaoia?aii?noue. Oei /anii iinoa?
iaa?aeeeaaeia iio?aaa ocaaaeueiaiiy iiia?aaei?o aeine?aeaeaiue, ??
aeeaoiai oa a?oioiai?oiai aea/aiiy ia iniia? ae?iaeaieo no/aniei
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaii iaoiae?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?eioeei nenoaiiino? oa
?noi?ecio. O ?iaio? aeei?enoaii ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee iaoiae o
o?iiieia?/iiio ? i?inoi?iaiio aei??ao, iaoiae oi?iaeueii-oeiieia?/iiai
aiae?co, ienoaoeoaiciaa/iai aiae?co ?eiiia?ao?/ii-noee?noe/ieo
iniaeeainoae oa iaoiae ?aeiino?oeoe??.

O caaaeueiiio oai?aoe/iiio, ienoaoeoaiciaa/iio inieneaii? i?iaeai,
ii?ooaieo o aeena?oaoe??, aaoi? nie?aeany ia eiioeaiooaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ia?aeieo oe?a?inueeeo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo I.Ae?aaaia,
ss.Caianea, I.Eaaaia, I.Iae?aniai?, I.Nae?aa/iaa, I.Noaieaae/a,
I.Oeuaiea, a oaeiae oeo a/aieo, ye? aea/aee eaoe? oa eaoeyi? ia/? a
?in?? (A.Iane?o, TH.Ianyiieeia, A.Naeoeeia), A?ei?on? (A.AEoe, I.Naoooa,
I.Oea/io, A.O?onao), Eeoae (A.Oaooaa?/on), Iieueu? (I.Aeaia?ianueea,
ss.Ieueaeaanueea, ?.?aeiooon), I?ia//eie, Aano???, Oaaeoea???
(O.Aethiaeue, ?.O?aioe oa ?io?).

Iniiaieie aeaea?aeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee eieaeoe?? ?yaeo ioca?a:
Aea?aeaaiiai iocath oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeiiai aeaei?aoeaiiai ienoaoeoaa,
Iocath ia?iaeii? a?o?oaeoo?e oa iiaooo Oe?a?ie, Euea?anueeiai
?noi?e/iiai iocath, Iocath aoiia?ao?? oa ooaeiaeiueiai i?iieneo
?inoeoooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie, Iocath ia?iaeii? a?o?oaeoo?e oa
iiaooo o Eueaia?, Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iocath o Eueaia?, Eieiieenueeiai
iocath ia?iaeiiai ienoaoeoaa Aooeoeueueie ? Iieoooy oa eiai o?e?? o
Einia?, e?a?ciaa/eo ioca?a ?aaii-O?aie?anueea, Eooeueea, ??aiiai. Aoei
aeei?enoaii ?oeiieni? oa a?o?ai? aeaea?aea: ii?aoeueiaaii oiiaee
?oeiien?a ?inoeoooo ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa, oieueeei?enoeee oa aoiieia??
?i. I.?eeuenueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie, iaoeiai? a?ae?ioaee ?i. A.Noaoaieea IAI
Oe?a?ie, iaoa??aee Aea?aeaaiiai ?noi?e/iiai a?o?ao o Eueaia?, a oaeiae
iieueia? iaoa??aee c a?ae?yaeaeaiue aaoi?a ia ??aiaiueio oa a ?io?
?aa?iie Oe?a?ie o 1993-1997??., iieueiaee iaoa??ae c aeniaaeeoe?? ia
Iieoooy (1998).

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «C ?NOI??? OE?A?INUeEEO EAOAEUe» ?icaeyaeathoueny
iniiai? aeoiee eaoey?noaa a oe?a?inueeeo caieyo, iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo
aaeoc?, aoaie ooaeiaeiuei-noee?noe/ii? aaiethoe?? oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue
na?aaeeie O?V-ii/. OOno.

2.1. C»ynoaaiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a aaiaceno eaoaeue.

Eiiieaen ??cieo oaeoi??a coiiaea iiyao eaoaeue oa eaoeyieo ia/ae a
Oe?a?i?: i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/iee, caaaeueiee i?ia?an iaoa??aeueii? ?
aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e. Ianaiia?aae, in?aeeee niin?a aeeooy, ui noai?ea
iio?aao e oiiae aeey aeiaeaeaiiy ia/? oa ?? eiino?oeoeaiiai
oaeineiiaeaiiy e icaeiaeaiiy.

Oi?iaeueii-oeiieia?/i? oa ooaeiaeiuei-oaoiieia?/i? ia?aeae? aeathoue
iai i?aenoaae ooeaoe aeoiee eaoaeue o caeiaooeao aeaaiuei?onueei?
a?o?oaeoo?ii-aeaei?aoeaii? ea?ai?ee (aieiniee?a, iaee/eoaaeueieo
ieeoie). Oeiieia?/iee neeaae coiiaea aeaa iai?yiee c»ynoaaiiy aaiaceno
oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue. Ia?oee noino?oueny eiino?oeoeaii? a?oie
(aieiniee?a oa oaoi?ee ?o aeei?enoaiiy) — oi?ioaaiiy eiino?oeoeaii?
ooieoe?? iaeaooi?o eaoaeue. Ae?oaee — aenieee ??aaiue ae?iaieoeoaa
aeaei?aoeaieo ieeoie, ui c O??no. coiiaea ?o aeei?enoaiiy ia o?eueee a
eoeueoiaiio, aea, a??ia?aeii, e aeeoeiaiio ?ioa?»???. Iaeiei c aieiaieo
oaeoi??a, ui aecia/eee iiyao eaoaeue a Oe?a?i?, aaaaea?ii ia?ao?ae a?ae
iai?acaieyieiaiai aeeoea aei iacaiiiai ? iia»ycaia c oeei oaeineiiaeaiiy
eiino?oeoe?? ia/ae.

2.2. Eaoe? O?V-ia?oi? iieiaeie OV?no.

2.2.1. A?oa?/i? eaoe? O?V-ii/aoeo OV?no. O i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi aea?
iiceoe?? uiaei ii/aoe?a ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue, aeneiaeai?
TH.Eauoeii ? I.Oeuaieii. O ?acoeueoao? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae oa
oaeoieia?/iiai iaoa??aeo aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui ia
ii/aoeia?e noaae?? (o O?V-OVno.) oeiieia?/iee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeeo
eaoaeue, iia»ycaiee c o?aaeeoe?yie Ee?anueei? ?on?, iaa ?aa?iiaeuei?
iniaeeaino?, coiiaeai? a?aei?iieie ?noi?eei-iie?oe/ieie ianoaaeiaie
?icaeoeo ?aianea a ??cieo caieyo eieeoiuei? Ee?anueei? ?on?. Eaoey?noai
aaeeoeueei-aieeinueeeo caiaeue, ia»?aeiaieo o iaaeao
iieuenueei-eeoianueei? aea?aeaae ?icaeaaeinue aiaeia?/ii
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeiio. Aeey iueiai oa?aeoa?ia iioe?aiiy oa aaiethoe?y
iinoaeeiiiiae?aieo oi?i. O eaoey?noa? Iiaei?i?ia»y a oe?eiio a?aecia/aii
ia?aaaao ieeoeiaeo eaoaeue, ui a?aeia?aceei ii?aeiaiiy i?noeaaiai
aii/a?noaa c? no?aeiei oeyoii ?icaeoeo aii/a?iiai ?aianea (I.Oeuaiei).

2.2.2. Ieeoeia? eaoe?. Aieea ia?iaeieo oi?iioai?/eo i?eioeei?a a
oe?a?inueeiio aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiio ienoaoeoa? ae?oai? iieiaeie
OVno. aecia/a? nai???aei?noue eaoaeue oeueiai ia??iaeo. ?o iniiaieie
ooaeiaeiuei-eiiiiceoe?eieie canaaeaie ?: ieanoe/ii-oaeoo?ia icaeiaeaiiy
(eiio??aeue?o, caeaa?eueoiai aenieee ?aeue?o), i?e?iaeiy oaeoo?a
/a?aiea. A i?iaiaioao aeyaeaii aeii?ioaaiiy caieiaii? a iaaeao iaei???
eaoe? oeaio?e/ii? eiiiiceoe?? (oeio «eiei o eaaae?ao?»), ui caoiao?
a?caio?enuee? aieeae. Aeey noai?aiiy o?ao?ieo eiiiiceoe?e — oeaio?aeueia
?ici?uaiiy iioeao ia ieeooe?. A aeaei?? i?inoaaeaii aaoa?iaaii?
ii?aeiaiiy a?oa?/ieo oieueeei?ieo ia?ac?a c iioeaaie ienoaoeoaa Eiyaei?
aeiae, aioe/ieie aeaiaioaie oa ia?oeie ?iioeuenaie ?aianaino. Aiie
iia»ycai? c ??cii??aeiei ?ai?nie/ei na?aaeiaeuai n?euenueeeo, i?nueeeo
iicaoeaoiaeo ? oeaoiaeo iaeno??a.

2.3. Eaoe? na?aaeeie OV? — na?aaeeie OV??no.

?ioaineaia c?inoaiiy i?no, noaiiaeaiiy oeaoiaiai ?ai?nie/iai
ae?iaieoeoaa, oi?a?aey ni?eyee ?icoe?aiith ae?iaieoeoaa eaoaeue, ?o
iiaeaeueo?e oaoiieia?/i?e oa ooaeiaeiuei-noee?noe/i?e aaiethoe??. A
icaeiaeaii? eaoaeue iaea?eueoeo oeaio??a (Ee?a,
Eai»yiaoeue-Iiae?euenueeee, Euea?a, Eooeuee, Iiaai?iae-N?aa?nueeee,
Ino?ia oa ?i.) aeyaeaii ci?ie, ye? c»yaeeeny i?ae ae??th ?aianainieo
aieea?a: ieanoe/ia icaeiaeaiiy o aeaeyae? iecueeiai ?aeue?oo,
canoinoaaiiy i?e?iaeii? oa aeca?eaeueii? oaoiieia?/ii? oaeoo?e,
iie?o?ii?y iieeaaie, aiaeyie. A i?iaiaioao i?inoaaeaii oi?o?eaoe?th
i?eioeeio iiaoaeiae, aeii?ioaaiiy a?nueiai? eiiiiceoe??, iiaoaeiaaii? o
aeaeyae? aaiiao?e/ii-?ineeiiiai i?iaiaioo, yeee aeyaey? aieeae
cao?aeii?a?iiaenueei? ?aianainii? oeaieie. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i
aca?iica»ycee eaoaeue c ?ioeie aeaeaie ienoaoeoaa a nenoai? icaeiaeaiiy
?ioa?»??o. Iioe?aiiy «ii?o?aoii?» eaoe? a?aeaoaa?oueny aiaeia?/ii
a?ei?onueeiio, iieuenueeiio eaoey?noao.

2.4. Eaoe? ae?oai? iieiaeie OV?? — OV???no.

O ?acoeueoao? aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e oa iocaeieo ca??ie aeyaeaii
?aa?iiaeuei? a?aei?ie oa cia/iee ?icea?o eaoey?noaa ia Na?aaeiueiio
Iiaei?i?ia»? (20-70-o? ??. OV?? no.), i?aaei? I?aaiaa?aaeaey,
E?aiaa?aaeae? (c ae?oai? iieiaeie OV??no.). O OV???no. ia I?aaiaa?aaeae?
caniiaaii aaeee? aii/a?i? ina?aaeee, oi?iothoueny eieaeuei? oeiee, ui
iicia/eeiny ia iiaeaeueoiio ?icaeoeo eaoey?noaa.

2.4.1. ?aeue?oi? eaoe? na?aaeeie OV??-OV???no. Ia iniia? aiae?co
iaoa??aeo aeyaeaii iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a oa
ooaeiaeiuei-eiiiiceoe?eieo canaae oe?a?inueeiai eaoey?noaa: aaiethoe?th
iecueeiai ?aeue?oo a ieineee, c?inoaiiy a?ao?/ii? aeeiai?ee aeaei?o, a
yeiio iinooiiai ia?aaaaea? ?ineeiia i?iaiaioaoe?y; aeii?ioaaiiy
aeca?eaeueii? neiao???, aeo?ae i?iaiaioo ca iaae? iaei??? eaoe?,
noai?aiiy «eeeeiiaiai» i?iaiaioo. C ae?oai? iieiaeie OV??no. — iiyaa ?
iioe?aiiy n?o/anoeo eiiiiceoe?e. Oea cana?ae/eei iia? oaiaeaioe?? a
?icoi?ii? ainaiaeth iaee/eoaaiiy. O nthaeaoiiio aeaei?? i?inoaaeaii
?icoe?aiiy oaiaoeee iioeaaie, oa?aeoa?ieie aeey oe?a?inueeiai ienoaoeoaa
OV??-OV???no. («Iaiiaeeia eoieia», noeaie c ?aaeueii? ae?eniino?,
eicaoeueeiai aeeooy ? iiaooo, neiaie?/ii-aeaai?e/i? iioeae oiui).

O aeaei?? aeie?aieaii o?e noee?noe/i? a?oie. Ia?oa — aiaeia?/ia
?a?iiaenueeiio eaoey?noao. Ae?oaa ? o?aoy aiioe?eii aeecuee? aa?ieiaei
icaeiaai ia cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo eaoeyo, iaeiae aeei?enoiaothoue
o?aaeeoe?ei? aeaei?aoeai? caniae. Na?aae ieo — aeeiai?/iee ?ineeiiee
i?iaiaio, ui i?noeoue aeaiaioe oe?a?inueeiai aa?ieiaiai ??cueaeaiiy,
aaiooaaiiy oa aaiiao?e/iee i?iaiaio, noai?aiee ca iioeaaie ia?iaeiiai
??cueaeaiiy ii aea?aao. Aiie na?ae/aoue i?i ooaa?aeaeaiiy a
oe?a?inueeiio eaoey?noa? iaoe?iiaeueieo ?en.

2.4.2. ?icieni? eaoe? OV???no. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a icaeiaeaii?
oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue ia ceai? OV?? — OV???no., ?aeue?o iinooia?oueny
?icieno. Oea iaoiiaeei i?iieeiaiiy aieea?a ia?acioai?/iai ienoaoeoaa,
?icoe?aiiy ?aia?ooa?o aeai?iaeie noeaieaie, aeaai?e/ieie oa ?ioeie
nthaeaoieie iioeaaie. Oeiiaith noa? iaaeaeueeiiia eiiiiceoe?y (ia?oa
o?aoeia OV???no.). O eaoeyo ae?oai? iieiaeie OV???no. i?inoaaeaii ci?io
noeeueiaeo aieea?a aa?iei, ?ieiei. Iii?oia ia?aaaaa i?noeaaeo
oieueeei?ii-?noi?e/ieo ia?ac?a, canoinoaaiiy neiao??? oa
ieiueiii-i?iaiaioaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o ?icien?a aea? iai i?aai
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui canai?iiy ?iiiaaoe?e o?eaaei ia canaaeao o?aaeeoe?e
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ienoaoeoaa.

2.5. Eaoe? 80-o ?ie?a OV??? — ia?oi? iieiaeie O?Ono.

Aeyaii aieea?a eeaneoeecio a i?iaiaioeoe? i?ioan?eieo eaoaeue noaei
i?aeii?yaeeo-

aaiiy ?? caaaeuei?e a?o?oaeoii?oe? ia/? — iioe?aiiy e?oiieo
aeaei?aoeaieo iioea?a, ?ici?uaieo ia e?eueeio eaoeyo, iiae?aii aei
?in?enueeiai eaoey?noaa. Aieiaiei i?eioeeiii aeey noai?aiiy eiiiiceoe??
eaoaeue oa oe?ei? ia/? ? neiao??y. A i?iaiaioaoe?? aeii?iothoue
neiaie?/i? oa aeaai?e/i? iioeae, ?ineeiii-ea?oeia? eiiiiceoe??
(a??eyiaee, eioeee c ea?oaie, aoeaoe, aaciie), iioe?ai? a icaeiaeaii?
aeeoeiaeo ?ioa?»???a oeueiai ia??iaeo. O eiei?enoeoe? ?icien?a —
oyae?iiy aei iiiio?iiiino?, iinooiiaa aeo?niaiiy ?icieno ieanoe/iei
aeaei?ii. I?iaiaioaoe?y ie?aii? eaoe? c /anii ao?a/a? nai? ooaeiaei?
cia/aiiy, ui aieeaa? ia ienoaoeueeo aaiethoe?th ia/? a oe?eiio.

2.6. Eaoe? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ii/aoeo OOno.

?icea?o ia?iaeiiai eaoey?noaa iia»ycaiee c? ci?iith
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai aii/a?noaa a O?Ono.,
aeooiaieie oa iaoa??aeueieie iio?aaaie na-?aaeiaeua. Aiaeii/an aaia?ao?y
iaea?eueoiai ?icaeoeo o?aaeeoe?eiiai eaoey?noaa i?yii /e iiina?aaeeiaaii
iia»ycaia ?c iaaieie a?oaie ?icaeoeo iainueei? eaoe? (noaiiaeaiiy
i?i-oan?eiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, iineeaiiy ca»yce?a c i?noii oa ?ioeie
oaeoi?aie), ye? iaoiiaeee i?iieeiaiiy noeeueiaiai ienoaoeoaa o
o?aaeeoe?eia na?aaeiaeua, a a?aeoae — iaiiaiaiiy eaoe? iiaei ci?noii.

Ia iniia? aea/aiiai iaoa??aeo iaie aeyaeaii, ui o O?Ono. o?aaeeoe?eia
eaoey?noai, iaaoei aenieiai ienoaoeueeiai ??aiy oa nai???aeieo
eieaeueieo iniaeeainoae a oaeeo ?aa?iiao — Iaaeaei?i?yiuei?, Iieoaauei?,
I?eea?iaoo?, Neiaiaeaiuei?, *a?i?a?auei? oiui, ina?aaeeao — ?/i?,
Eieiie?, Einia?, Eacueeao, I?aeei?, Ii?oiiio, Ienoei?, Nieae?, ssai?ia?
oiui. Canoinoaaiiy o?aaeeoe?e ia?iaeieo eaoaeue a oe?a?inuee?e
ooaeiaeiuei-i?iieneia?e ea?ai?oe? oa oai?/ino? ooaeiaeiee?a-ea?ai?no?a
OOno. noaei noaa?aeaeaiiyi ?? ienoaoeueei? aa?oino? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii?
cia/eiino?.

O?ao?e ?icae?e «OAOIIEIA?ss AEAIOIAEAIIss ? OEIIEIA?ss OE?A?INUeEEO
EAOAEUe XVIII-II*AOEO OONO.» i?enay/aiee aeeeaaeo oe?ieiai eiea ieoaiue,
iia»ycaieo c oaoiiaaiieie oa ii?oieia?/ieie iniaeeainoyie oe?a?inueeeo
eaoaeue.

3.1. Oaoiieia?y oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue

Aena?oeththoueny iniiai? aoaie oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano aeaioiaeaiiy
o?aaeeoe?eieo eaoaeue: iaoa??ae, niiniae eiai ia?iaee, oaoi?ee, iniiai?
cia?yaeaey oi?iioai?aiiy. Ia iniia? aea/aiiy iaoa??aeo aeyaeaii, ui
oaoi?ea oi?ioaaiiy eaoaeue iia»ycaia c iniaeeainoyie eiino?oeoeaii?
oi?ie. Aiia iaci?iia o an?o ?aa?iiao ? ina?aaeeao oe?a?inueeiai
aii/a?noaa e neeaaeaeany c o?ueio aoai?a: aeaioiaeaiiy ieeoee,
oi?ioaaiiy ia eie? ?oiie, c»?aeiaiiy ?o i?ae niaith.

3.2. Icaeiaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo eaoaeue

Ienoaoeueeo ae?aci?noue ia?iaeieo eaoaeue aecia/aee oae? iniiai? aeaee
ea?ai?/iiai aeaei?oaaiiy oa ?o eiia?iaoe??.

1. Ieanoe/ii-oaeoo?ia icaeiaeaiiy iaiieeaaiiai /a?aiea o aeaeyae?
?aeue?oo ? eiio??aeue?oo (Iieoaaueia-Ia?ayneaaueia, Neiaiaeaiueia);

2. Aeaei?aoeaia iie?eooy- iiiio?iiia iieeaaiiy: a) ieinei? iiaa?oi?
(*a?i?a?aueia); a) ii ?aeue?oo (*a?i?a?aueia, Neiaiaeaiueia,
Caea?iaooy);

3. I?aeiieeaiee ?icien: a) aiaiaaie ?c canoinoaaiiyi oaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a
??aeeoaaiiy (Iaaeaei?i?yiueia, *a?i?a?aueia, Iieoaaueia); ??aeeoaaiiy ?
oeyiae??aee (No?aeia Iiae?eey); a) aiaiaaie ? oa?aaie — ??aeeoaaiiy
(*a?i?a?aueia — ?/iy); ?eooaaiiy, ??aeeoaaiiy, oeyiae??aee
(I?eea?iaooy); a) oa?aaie ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?eooaaiiy (Nieaeueueia).

Aaaaonoai i?eeii?a icaeiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue coiiaeaia oe?ieei
canoinoaaiiyi ?aa?iiaeueieo ? eieaeueieo ooaeiaeiuei-oaoiieia?/ieo
o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai aii/a?noaa.

3.3. Oeiieia?y oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue

O i?ae?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii e?eoe/iee aiae?c oeiieia?/iiai ?iciiae?eo
eaoaeue o i?aoeyo oe?a?inueeeo oa ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a TH.Eauoea,
I.Oeuaiea, A.Iane?oa, I.Aeaia?ianueei? oa ?ioeo. O ?one? eiioeaioe??
ii?oieia?/iiai iiae?eo oai??a aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa,
?ic?iaeaii? I.Noaieaae/ai, cai?iiiiiaaii eeaneo?eaoe?th eaoaeue ca
oaeoii?/iith oi?iith, ieanoeeith, aeaei?ii.

3.3.1. ?iciiae?e oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue ca oaeoii?/iith oi?iith aeyaea
iayai?noue ianooiieo ?noi?e/ii a?aeiieo oeiieia?/ieo a?oi, i?aea?oi,
oei?a. Ia?oa a?oia — iinoaee-iiiiae?ai? eaoe? — c i?aea?oiaie
ai?ueeiaeo, ieneiaeo; oeiaie — c e?oaeeie, eaaae?aoiei, o?ao?iei
ioai?ii. Ae?oaa — i?oaiiae?ai? eaoe?, i?aaenoaaeaia oeiaie — c
ai?ueeiaei, ia-i?aoeee?iae?ie/ei o?eii. O?aoy — ieeoeia? eaoe? c
i?aea?oiaie — eeoeaaeo, eooiaeo; oeiaie- aeiiaithth/eo, iiyneiaeo,
ea?iecieo, eaoaeue caaa?oaiiy. *aoaa?oa — aeaei?aoeai? i?ee?ane, na?aae
yeeo ?ic??ciy?ii oeie — coaoe?, oeoee, eieiiee, i?aeieiiee, eeooae oiui.

3.3.2. ?iciiae?e o?aaeeoe?eieo eaoaeue ca ieanoeeith. O ae??oaii?
iiaa?oi? ieeoeiaeo eaoaeue anoaiiaeaii oae? oeie ieanoeee: aeiiaithth/?
— ?aeue?oi?, ieine?, oa?aioo?; iiyneia? — ieine?, iioee?; ea?ieci? —
i?io?eueiaai?; caaa?oaiiy — ?aeue?oi?, ieine?, i?io?eueiaai?.
Aeaei?aoeai? i?ee?ane — e?oae?, iai?ae?oae?, i?io?eueiaai?.

3.3.3. Nenoaiaoecaoe?y eaoaeue ca aeaei?ii. ?eiiia?ao?/iee ?aia?ooa?
eaoaeue i?aaenoaaeaiee nthaeaoiei oa i?iaiaioaeueiei aeaei?ii. Ia?acia
oa i?iaiaioaeueia aaaaonoai aeaei?o oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue aea? i?aenoaae
a?oioaaoe ?o ca ni?euei?noth oaie. Aeine?aeaeoaai? a?oie noaiiaeyoue
aeaei?aoeai? iioeae aaiiao?e/iiai, ?ineeiiiai, oa?aoieia?/iiai
i?iaiaioo, nthaeaoi? iioeae — ia oaie ?ae?a?eio oa iiaooiao (c
i?aea?oiaie — cia?aaeaiiy iiiaio?a a?aeiinei i?ae ethaeueie, iioea?a
i?aoe?, a?enueeiaeo, ioceeoaaiiy, ?icaaa, naoe?e/ieo oa aoii?enoe/ieo
oiui).

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? «OOAeIAEI? INIAEEAINO? OE?A?INUeEEO EAOAEUe
E?IOess OV??? — II*AOEO OOno.» ?icaeyiooi ?eiiia?ao?/ii-eiiiiceoe?ei?
iniaeeaino? i?iaiaioaeueiiai ? nthaeaoiiai aeaei?o, oeiieia?th noai
o?aaeeoe?eieo eaoaeue. I?iaaaeaii aiae?c canoinoaaiiy iaaieo i?eeii?a ?
ae?aaeaeueieo cania?a. Aecia/aii eieaeuei? ? ca-aaeueiiiaoe?iiaeuei?
?ene.

4.1. Ooaeiaeiuei-eiiiiceoe?ei? iniaeeaino? i?iaiaioaeueiiai aeaei?o

O i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iniiai? oeie eiiiiceoe?e aaiiao?e/iiai,
?ineeiiiai, oa-?aoieia?/iiai i?iaiaioo oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue.

4.1.1. Aaiiao?e/iee i?iaiaio. Na?aae iioea?a oa eiiiiceoe?e, ooai?aieo
c aaiia-o?e/ieo aeaiaio?a ? o?ao?, i?iaiae?ciaaii o?, ui iae/ano?oa
cono??/athoueny a i?iaiaio? oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue — o?ano (oa
o?anoiiiae?ai? iioeae) oa niey?i? iioeae (?icaoee, c??ee).

O?ano oa o?anoiiiae?ai? iioeae a oe?a?inueeeo eaoeyo OV??? — ii/aoeo
OOno. iaoiiaeai? iaa?/ii-iaa?aaiaith, nae?aeueiith neiaie?eith, a oaeiae
aaiiao?e/iith aoaeiaith. A i?iaiaioeoe? eaoaeue o?ano aecia/a?
canoinoaaiiy neiao???, ? noaiith eiiiiceoe?eiiai oeeaaeo aeaiaio?a oa
aeaiaioii eiiiiceoe??. Oeiieia?y iioeao a oe?a?inueeeo eaoeyo aeeth/a?:
ne?niee o?ano o yeino? aieiaiiai iioeao (I?eea?iaooy), ye noaia
eiiiiceoe?? (Iaaeaei?i?yiueia, Iieoaaueia); i?yiee iae/ano?oa
/ioe?ee?ioeaaee o?ano oeio «a?aoeueeiai» ? «iaeueo?enueeiai»
(I?eea?iaooy, Iieoaaueia). Aeyaeaii oae? ae??oaiiy o?anoa: ocaaaeueiaia
i?iaiaioaeueia oi?ia aai i?iaiaio, ciae; oa iiina?aaeeiaaii ?aae?noe/ia
cia?aaeaiiy (I?eea?iaooy).

Niey?i? iioeae: ?icaoee, c??ee, eiea iioe?ai? a eaoeyo caaaeyee
iaa?aaia?e naiaioeoe?, ca»yceo c ooaeiaei?i aea?aaiia?iaieoeoaii.
Oeeee?/ia no?oeoo?a iioea?a aecia/a? oeaio?e/io iiaoaeiao. Aeyaeaii
aeii?ioaaiiy oanoeiaethnoeiaeo ?icaoie o ?aeue?oiiio aeaei?? eaoaeue
(Iieoaaueia). I?inoaaeaii aieea ooaeiaeiuei-ieanoe/iiai ae??oaiiy
iioea?a ia ia?acii-aeaei?aoeaiee eaae eiiiiceoe?e. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o
?icienao eaoaeue oee?eoeuei? iioeae ao?a/athoue /?oeo aaiiao?e/io
aoaeiao, c iii»yeoaiiyi aa?en?a o?ainoi?iothoueny o ?ineeii? oi?ie.

4.1.2. ?ineeiiee i?iaiaio. ?icaeyiooi iniiai? oeie eiiiiceoe?e
?ineeiiiai i?iaiaioo — «a?eea», «aoeao», «aacii», «aea?aai». iniaeeaino?
?o aoaeiae, ?iciiae?eo ooieoe?e i?ae aeaiaioaie, ooaeiaeiueiai ae??oaiiy
oiui.

«A?eea», «aoeao». Ia iniia? aiae?co oai??a aeyaeaii, ui a oe?a?inueeeo
eaoeyo ia?aaaaea? aa?oeeaeueii ni?yiiaaia cia?aaeaiiy «a?eee».
O??ciiiai?oiaiiy i?eeii?a iaethaaiiy i?inoaaeaii o oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee
iioea aenooia? o eiiiiceoe?? aeiiiaithth/ei eiiiiiaioii
(Iaaeaei?i?yiueia, *a?i?a?aueia, Aooeoeueueia oiui). Aeyaeaii a?eee c
i?yiei aai oaeeynoei noaaeii, c neiao?e/iith aai aneiao?e/iith y?oniith
no?oeoo?ith, i?aai?caoe??th aeaiaio?a o «oaoiaiio» ii?yaeeo,
cono??/athoueny eiiiaeoi? oa c ?icaaeoaeaiith aoaeiaith, aeiiiaiai?
iaeiioeiieie oa ??ciioeiieie aeaiaioaie. O iiya? ? iioe?aii? «aoeaoo» a
oe?a?inueeeo eaoeyo i?inoaaeaii ca»ycie c aeaei?oaaiiyi oaa?e/ieo
ae?ia?a 80-o ??. OV??? — ia?oi? o?aoeie O?Ono. (*a?i?a?aueia — I?aeei).

«Aacii» ? «aea?aai» cono??/athoueny o ia?iaeieo eaoeyo OV???-ii/aoeo
OOno. an?o ?aa?ii?a, ?oiiyaa coiiaeaia neiaie?eith «aea?aaa aeeooy» ?
aeaei?aoeai?noth. Ca eiiiiceoe?eieie iniaeeainoyie aeae?eaii «aaciie» c
/?oeith aa?oeeaeueiith a?nnth; iineaaeaiei aai oe?eeii a?aenooi?i ??
cia?aaeaiiyi. Ca nooiaiai ooaeiaeiueiai ocaaaeueiaiiy iioeao ?icaeyiooi
eiiiiceoe??, ui aeyaeythoue ciaeia? aeanoeaino? (Iieoooy), ?ene
aio?iiiii?o?caoe?? (Iieoaaueia), iathoue aecia/aia noeeueiaa
(eeaneoeenoe/ia) iioiaeaeaiiy (*a?i?a?aueia). A iniia? eiiiiceoe?eieo
iniaeeainoae «aacii?a» ? «aea?aa» aeei?enoai? eieaeuei? o?aaeeoe??
oi?iioai?aiiy.

4.1.3. Oa?aoieia?/i? iioeae a oe?a?inueeeo eaoeyo o aeaeyae?
cia?aaeaiue ioao?a, oaa?ei oiui iaoiiaeai? ?oi?i neiaie?/iei (iae/ano?oa
— iaa?aaiaei) ci?noii. I?inoaaeaii, ui a?eueo?noue o?ao?aoeaieo iioea?a
oa?aoieia?/iiai i?iaiaioo c»yaey?oueny ia eaoeyo oeo ina?aaee?a, aea
?icaeioany nthaeaoiee ?icien (Aooeoeueueia, *a?i?a?aueia).
Caaaeueiiiioe?aiei ? oeaio?e/ia ?ici?uaiiy iioea?a — i?io?eueieo
cia?aaeaiue, ui aea? ciiao aeae?eeoe ?o iaeoa?aeoa?i?o? ?ene. Eieaeueii
a?aei?iieie ? iiia?iineiao?e/i? eiiiiceoe??, a yeeo i?inoaaeothoueny
aeaai? a?caio?enuee? aieeae (Aooeoeueueia), ia?aaaaa ae?aaiiaeueiiai
?ici?uaiiy (*a?i?a?aueia), ye? cono??/athoueny o noai?aii? ?ioeo
i?iaiaioaoe?e ia eaoeyo oeeo ?aa?ii?a.

4.2. Oaiaoeea, ?eiiia?ao?/ii-eiiiiceoe?ei? iniaeeaino? nthaeaoiiai
aeaei?o.

O i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iniiai? oaiaoe/i? a?oie, i?aea?oie, oeie
nthaeao?a aeaei?o oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue, i?inoaaeaii ?eiiia?ao?th,
aaiethoe?th oi?iaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eiiai ao?eaiiy.

4.2.1. Eiiiiceoe?? ia ?ae?a?eio oaio. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o o?aaeeoe??
?ae?a?eieo cia?aaeaiue ia eaoeyo o?ainoi?ioaaeeny yce/ieoeuee? oyaeaiiy
i?i iaa?aaiao ooieoe?th ia/? oa nae?aeueii-?eooaeuei? oyaeaiiy
i?aaeaai?o aii/a??a o eiioaeno? ca»yce?a aii/a?noaa c oe?ai?ianueeith
eoeueoo?ith, ?? neiaie?/iei na?oii. Aeyaeaii, ui aea?? ie?aieo
ia?niiaae?a c iaioaiio nayoeo aoa iia`ycaiee c oieueeei?ii,
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeei eaeaiaea?ai, ?aea?th canooiieoeoaa, iao?iiaoo.
?eiiia?ao?y oaie a eaoeyo O?Ono. i?aaenoaaeaia ia?acaie TH??y-Ci??ai?oey
(Iieoaaueia), Aiai?iaeeoe?-Iaeea?o???, na.Ieeiee, na.Aa?aa?e ? Eaoa?eie,
a oaeiae iioeaaie, ui aoee ?ini??iaai? «no?aoiinoaeieie» eiiiiceoe?yie ?
iioeaaie oea?eae, aeca?iieoe? (Aooeoeueueia e Iieoooy). Ia?iaei?
anoaoe/i? oiiaeiaaiiy aecia/eee eiiiiceoe?eiee eaae ?ae?a?eieo
cia?aaeaiue — ianaiia?aae, onoaeaio ?eiiia?ao?th, c iniiaieie ao?eaooaie
ia?ac?a.

4.2.2. Iiaooiaa oaia a eaoeyo c»yaeeany i?ae aieeaii aeai?iaiai
ienoaoeoaa OV???no., yeee coiiaea i?iieeiaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aeai??a a
ae?oa?ia oe?a?inueea eaoey?noai OV???no. Aeooiaia, ia?acii-aeaei?aoeaia
nooi?noue, eieae?caoe?y iiaooiaeo noeaiie iaoiiaeai? aaaii?noth o
iianyeaeaiiiio aeeoo?, /anii oai?aiiy, i?noeai o eiiieaen? aeooiaii?
eoeueoo?e (ienoaoeoa?, oieueeei??, ia?yaeiaino?) iaaiiai ?aa?iio.
Iniiaieie i?aea?oiaie iiaooiai? oaiaoeee a oe?a?inueeeo eaoeyo ? noeaiee
eioaiiy, i?aoe?, a?enueeia?, ioce/i?, ?icaaa,aoii?enoe/i? ? naoe?e/i?
iioeae oiui.

Noeaiee eioaiiy aeeth/athoue aeecuee? ca nthaeaoii ? eiiiiceoe??th
cia?aaeaiiy iieiaei? (aan?eueii?) ia?e, noeaiie caeeoeyiiy (o?eiaiiy ca
?oee, aea?oaaiiy ea?oee, ia?eie, iioe?eoiee) (Iaaeaei?i?yiueia,
I?eea?iaooy, *a?i?a?aueia). Aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?aei?noth noaie oeio
«aea?aaa aeeooy», neiaie?/iei i?aeoaenoii, ?ice?eoei ia ??cieo ??aiyo,
aeei?enoaiiyi naiaioe/ieo iioea?a (aieoae, a?eueoea-aea?aaoea),
ooaeiaeiuei? iaoaoi?e. Aeyaeaii ??aee?ni? cia?aaeaiiy c aeaiaioaie
o?eaieueiino?, aeneiaeaii i?eiouaiiy i?i ?o ca»ycie c o?aaeeoe?yie
aaniyii-e?oiuei? ia?yaeiaino? (aaeeeiaei?o oa eoiaeuenueeeo) oa
aeooiaii-na?oiaeyaeieo canaae o?aaeeoe?eiiai na?aaeiaeua Aooeoeueueie,
aaiaoe/iei ca»yceii c yce/ieoeueeeie ia?oiaeaea?aeaie.

Noeaiee i?aoe? a?oiothoueny o aeaa iniiaieo oeeeee: ainiiaea?/? caiyooy
? i?iienee — cia?aaeaiiy iin?iiy aiaee, ?oaaiiy ae?ia oiui
(*a?i?a?aueia), noeaiee ianooooaaiiy oa i?aiee (Aooeoeueueia),
ieneeanuee? iioeae (Aooeoeueueia, Iaaeaei?i?yiueia, Iieoaaueia);
«?ai?nie/ee» — iioeae «i?yey» (*a?i?a?aueia), «i??ioiee», «oea/»,
«aii/a?» (Aooeoeueueia). Iniaeea?noth noeaiie i?aoe? ? eiie?aoecaoe?y
ia?ac?a iaeiei aai ieceith ao?eaoo?a. Aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
?icaeiaiith oeiieia??th noai, aaaaoei anioe?aoeaiei cao/aiiyi.

A?enueeia? iioeae. Aei caaaeueiiiioe?aieo, o?aaeeoe?eieo oei?a
iaeaaeeoue cia?aaeaiiy aa?oieea. Eiai iniiaieie eiiiiceoe?eieie
iniaeeainoyie a oe?a?inueeeo eaoeyo ? oa?aeoa? ?icoaooaaiiy iioeao ia
ieeooe?, ??ciee nooi?iue ooaeiaeiuei-ia?aciiai ocaaaeueiaiiy,
eiie?aoecaoe??, aeiiiaiaiiy ?ineeiieie, oa?aoieia?/ieie, a?o?oaeoo?ieie
aeaiaioaie. Eieaeueii iaiaaeaiei ? cia?aaeaiiy oa?aiae aeiai???a
(Aooeoeueueia) — 3-5 iaeiaeiaeo o?ao?, ??aiii??ii iiaoi?aieo o
iao?e/i?e, o?ecia?e no?oeoo??.

O noeaieao ioceeoaaiiy oaaaa iaeno??a cina?aaeaeaia ia ciaethaaii?
iocee ? ioce/ieo ?ino?oiaio?a, ??aeoa — ioi/aiiy, na?aaeiaeua.
Iaeiioe?ai?oei ? ia?ac ne?eiaey. Eieaeueii iaoiiaeai? cia?aaeaiiy
e??ieea, oeeiaae?noa, aeoaea?a, no?ia/a, o?aia?oa?a, nii?eea?a, a oaeiae
iiooa?y c ??aeeii, iocee-oaa?ei oiui. Na?aae noai aeii?iothoue iao?e/i?
caieiai? aeaio?ao?i? oa ?eoi?/i? eiiiiceoe??.

Noeaiee ?icaaa i?aaenoaaeai? nthaeaoaie /a?eoaaiiy oa aiae?iiy
aaaeiaaey — oeiiaeie aeey oe?a?inueeiai ienoaoeoaa OV???-O?Ono., a
oaeiae cia?aaeaiiyi oaioe?a. Eiiiiceoe?? ??ciyoueny caniaaie ? nooiaiai
eiie?aoecaoe?? na?aaeiaeua: cia?aaeaeueieie aeaiaioaie — iaae?, iinoae,
a?eia oa ?i.

Aoii?enoe/i? oa naoe?e/i? iioeae aeyaeaii ianaiia?aae o eaoeyo
Aooeoeueueie. Oea ia?ace ei?/ia?y-aaiaeey?y oa oee?eiaeo aeaci?a,
aa??aoeaia iiyaa yeeo iia»ycaia c iniaeea?noth ?eiiia?ao?/iiai
?aia?ooa?o.

O i»yoiio ?icae?e? «EAOEssIA I?* — AEssA AINAIAEAAINO? A ?IOA?»???
IA?IAeIIAI AEEOEA» ?icaeyiooi oeiieia?th oa iniaeeaino? aeaei?aoeaii?
eiiiiceoe?? eaoeyii? ia/? a ia?iaeiiio aeeoe?, eiiiiiaioaie yei? ? oi?ia
? oaeoii?/ii ocaiaeaeaiee c iath aeaei? eaoeyiiai iaee/eoaaiiy. Ca
ooieoe??th eaoeyi? ia/? ?iciiae?eaii ia a?oae ? aa?eno? ia/?. Na?aae
inoaii?o ca eiino?oeoeaieie iniaeeainoyie aeei?aieaii e?aiaa?aaeio ?
i?aaiaa?aaeio a?oie.

Ca oaoiieia?/iei ??ciiaeaeii aeaei?o iaee/eoaaiiy eaoeyi? ia/? ? c
?icienieo iieea»yieo oa ?aeue?oieo oa?aeioiaeo eaoaeue (Iieoaaueia,
Neiaiaeaiueia). Ia?o? aoee oa?aeoa?i? aeey aeeoae c aea?aa»yieie
«ieoeie» no?iaie (I?eea?iaooy, *a?i?a?aueia, Neiaiaeaiueia), ae?oa? —
aa?iii?thaaee c oaoi?ie i?aaeiaoaie, icaeiaeaieie ??cueaeaiiyi
(Iieoaaueia, Neiaiaeaiueia). Oi?iai ia?oeo aeanoeaa iayai?noue
eiino?oeoeaii-ieanoe/ieo /eaioaaiue, ae?oaeo — ?o a?aenooi?noue.

Ooaeiaeiy aeiaa?oai?noue ainaiae?a aecia/a?oueny oa?aeoa?ii
i?aai?caoe?? aeaei?o aeca?eaea eaoeyii? ia/? (yeee ia? ?aii?oio aoaeiao
c ?aii?oii o ianooaa? iaei??? eaoe?). Cie?aia — aca?iiae??th
no?oeoo?ieo, ianooaaieo, ?eoi?/ieo oa ?i. iniaeeainoae aeaei?o eaoaeue.
Ca no?oeoo?ith icaeiaeaiue eaoaeue aeyaeaii ia/? c i?iaiaioaeueiei oa
nthaeaoii-i?iaiaioaeueiei aeaei?ii (I?eea?iaooy, Iaaeaei?i?yiueia,
*a?i?a?aueia — ?/iy). Na?aae i?iaiaioaeueieo i?inoaaeaii ia/? c
iaeiiiai?oiei (Iieoaaueia — Eacueee, *a?i?a?aueia — I?aeei) oa ??ciei ca
i?aeno?oeoo?ith aeaei?ii i?e iaeiioeiiino? eiiiiceoe?e (Iieoaaueia-
Ii?oia, Aieeiue-Nieaeue). Aeyaeaii, ui i?iaiaioaeueiee iaeiiiai?oiee
aeaei? caeaa?eueoiai iaa oeaio?e/io i?aai?caoe?th ca ?aooiie
e?oiiiianooaaieo «eeaei» (Iieoaaueia, *a?i?a?aueia), i?iaiaioaeueiee
??ciioeiiee oa nthaeaoii-i?iaiaioaeueiee — aoaeoaaany c?noaaeaiiyi
eiiiiceoe?e, aeecueeeo aai eiio?anieo ca noaiith, ?eoiii, iai?yiii oiui,
ia»?aeiaieo noee?noe/ii. O nthaeaoiiio aeaei?? i?inoaaeaii oaiaoe/ia
i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy a?aeiinii nae?aeueieo (I?eea?iaooy) aai aa?aeueaee/ieo
iioea?a (Iaaeaei?i?yiueia, *a?i?a?aueia).

Aeyaeaii, ui ainaiae? eaoeyieo ia/ae oa?aeoa?ecothoueny eiiiiceoe?eiith
aeiaa?-oai?noth oa ceaaiaeaeai?noth o ooaeiaei?e nenoai? ?ioa?»??o
o?aaeeoe?eiiai aeeoea Iaaeaei?i?yiueie, Iieoaaueie, I?eea?iaooy,
*a?i?a?aueie, Neiaiaeaiueie, Nieaeueueie oiui. Aiie aenooiathoue
ae?aciei aeaei?aoeaiei aeoeaioii caaaeyee eiiiiceoe?eiei, oiiaeueiei,
eiei?enoe/iei ? oaeoo?iei yeinoyi.

AENIIAEE. INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIIss

Oe?a?inuee? eaoe? — naiiaooi? ooaeiaei? yaeua ia?iaeiiai ienoaoeoaa.
Ia?aaeoiiae ?o aeieeiaiiy nyaathoue iniiaieo eoeueoo?ii-iaoa??aeueieo
caeiaooe?a oe?a?inueeiai aoiino. Ooieoe?iiaeueii-oeiieia?/i? oa
ooaeiaei? ia?aeae? i?ae aeaaiueioe?a?inueeith
a?o?oaeoo?ii-aeaei?aoeaiith ea?ai?eith oa oe?a?inueeeie eaoeyie aeathoue
i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe ?o aaiaoe/io nii??aeiai?noue. Aaaeeeaith
oiiaith aeey iiyae eaoaeue ia oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie aoea aeaaiuei?onueea
o?aaeeoe?y aeei?enoaiiy iinoaeei «aieiniee?a» o aoae?aieoeoa? oa
iaee/eoaaeueieo ieeoie o nenoai? icaeiaeaiiy ?ioa?»??o.

Aeyaeaii, ui ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? XIV-XVno.) oeiieia?/iee ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue iaa ?aa?iiaeuei? a?aei?ie, ye? a?aeia?aceee
aca?iiae?th o?aaeeoe?e oe?a?inueeiai aii/a?noaa ?c cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeei
(Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinuee? caie?) oa no?aeiei (Na?aaei? Iiaei?i?ia»y)
oeyoaie ?icaeoeo aii/a?iiai ?aianea.

O i?ioean? ooaeiaeiuei-noee?noe/ii? aaiethoe?? eaoey?noai ana oe?oa
aca?iiae?yei c ??cieie aaeocyie ooaeiaeiuei? oai?/ino?. Oea i?ecaaei aei
caaaa/aiiy ooaeiaei?o iniaeeainoae, ?icoe?aiiy ?eiiia?ao?/iiai
?aia?ooa?o, oaeineiiaeaiiy, o??ciiiai?oiaiiy oaoi?/ieo i?eeii?a ?
cania?a ae?aciino?. O ae?oa?e iieiaei? OV??no. a oe?a?inueeiio
eaoey?noa? ooaa?aeeeeny iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ene, ui ni?e/eieeiny aei
oi?ioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueieo ooaeiaei?o nenoai I?eea?iaooy, Iiaei?i?ia»y,
E?aiaa?aaeaey.

Oeiieia?y oi?ie oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue ?noi?e/ii i?aaenoaaeaia oaeeie
a?oiaie, i?aea?oiaie, oeiaie: iinoaeeiiiiae?ai? — ai?ueeia?, ieneia?
(eaoe? c e?oaeei, eaaae?aoiei, o?ao?iei ioai?ii); i?oaiiae?ai? (c
ai?ueeiaei, iai?aoeee?iae?e/iei o?eii); ieeoeia? — eeoeaa?, eooia?
(aeiiaithth/?, iiyneia?, ea?ieci?, caaa?oaiiy); aeaei?aoeai? i?ee?ane
(coaoe?, oeoee, eieiiee, eeooae oiui). Ca ieanoeeith eaoe?
iiae?eythoueny ia ?aeue?oi?, ieine?, oa?aioo?, iioee?, i?io?eueiaai?.
Ia?acia oa i?iaiaioaeueia aaaaonoai aeaei?o oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue
OV???-ii/aoeo OOno. aeaei ciiao a?oioaaoe ?o ca aeaeii i?iaiaioo,
ni?euei?noth oaie, nthaeaoo, iioeao.

?eiiia?ao?y icaeiaeaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo eaoaeue na?ae/eoue i?i o?niee
ca»ycie c ?eiiia?a-o?/ieie canaaeaie oe?a?inueeiai a?coaeueiiai
ienoaoeoaa. ?? iniaeea?noth ? ia?aieaoaiiy aeaai?o ? i?aaeaai?o
aeaiaio?a oa o?enoeyinueei? neiaie?ee.

Aieiaiith iniaeea?noth aeaei?o eaoaeue ? ocaiaeaeai?noue i?iaiaioo
(nthaeaoiiai iioeao) c oaeoii?eith eaoe?, canai?iiy eieaeueieo
o?aaeeoe?e oi?iioai?aiiy, canoinoaaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo ae?aaeaeueieo oa
naiaioe/ieo cania?a.

A aeaei?? oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue OV??? — ii/aoeo OOno. niinoa??aa?oueny
aaiethoe?y oi?-iaeueii-eiiiiceoe?eiiai ao?eaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo iioea?a ia
iniia? ?o aa??aoeaiiai a?aeoai?aiiy. Aiia eoea o iai?yiao ocaaaeueiaiiy
? aeaoae?caoe?? oi?ie. Ia oeueiio oeyoo oaeineiiaethaaeeny aeaei?aoeaia
no?oeoo?a icaeiaeaiue eaoaeue, i?eeiie ieine?niiai oi?iioai?aiiy, aoee
ae?iaeai? iaai? eiiiiceoe?ei? oeie.

Noee?noeeo aeaei?oaaiue ia eaoeyo aecia/aee o?aaeeoe?ei? iaoa??aee oa
ae?iaeai? oaoi?/i? i?eeiie ooaeiaeiueiai ii?aoethaaiiy. Iniaeeaino?
?aeue?oiiai icaeiaeaiiy oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue iia»ycai? c o?aaeeoe??th
aeaioiaeaiiy ??cueaeaieo oi?i aeey a?aeieiaiiy eaoaeue. ?icieniee aeaei?
eaoaeue, aeei?enoiaoth/e a?ao?/ii-aeeaiieni? caniae, ?icaeaaany o ?one?
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeiiai ?icieno oa a?aath?e.

Ia?acia, ooaeiaeiuei-eiiiiceoe?eia, anoaoe/ia aeiaa?oai?noue ye
ie?aiiai oai?o ia-?iaeiiai aeaei?aoeaii-i?eeeaaeiiai ienoaoeoaa, oae ? a
ainaiae? aeeoeiaiai ?ioa?»??o aea? iiaeeea?noue noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
oe?a?inuee? eaoe? — nai???aeia ienoaoeueea yaeua ? aaaeeeaa neeaaeiaa
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie.

CIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??.

1. ?ae?a?eia oaiaoeea a icaeiaeaii? oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue OV-O?Ono. //
Ia?iaeiciaa/? Cioeoe.- Euea?a: ?inoeooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie,
1996.- ?4.- N.230-237.

2. O?ano oa o?anoiiiae?ai? iioeae ia oe?a?inueeeo eaoeyo // Oe?a?inueea
o?anoieia?y: niaoe?aeueiee aeione «Ia?iaeiciaa/eo Cioeo?a:
Aoiiienoaoeuee? aeine?aeaeaiiy».- Euea?a: ?inoeooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI
Oe?a?ie, 1997. -N.119-124.

3. Aei ieoaiiy aaiethoe?? eaoeyii? ia/? a Oe?a?i? // Ia?iaeiciaa/?
Cioeoe.- Euea?a: ?inoeooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998.- ?5.-
C.510-514.

4. Noee?noe/i? aeaea?aea oe?a?inueeiai eaoey?noaa ae?oai? iieiaeie OV —
ia?oi? iieiaeie OV?no. // Ae?oa? i?aeia?iaei?
o?einionueei-eoeueoo?ieia?/i? /eoaiiy «Ae?aeia eoeueoo?: Oe?a?ia o
na?oiaiio eiioaeno?. Ienoaoeoai ? ina?oa».- Euea?a, 1998.- N.436-447.

5. Oeiieia?y oe?a?inueeeo eaoaeue // Ia?iaeiciaa/? Cioeoe.- 1999.- ?2.-
C. 235-240.

6. O?ano oa o?anoiiiae?ai? iioeae ia oe?a?inueeeo eaoeyo // Oe?a?inueea
o?anoieia?y: Oace ? ?acthia iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? 24 aeiaoiy 1996?.-
Euea?a: ?I IAI Oe?a?ie.- N.23-30

EIEOIA?AA A.A. Oe?a?inuee? eaoe? OV??? — ii/aoeo OOno. (?noi??y.
Oeiieia?y. ?eiiia?ao?y. Ainaiaeaa?noue). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
ienoaoeoaiciaanoaa ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 17.00.06 — aeaei?aoeaia ?
i?eeeaaeia ienoaoeoai.- Euea?anueea aeaaeai?y ienoaoeoa, Euea?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? ?icaeyiooi oe?a?inuee? eaoe? ye naiiaooi? ienoaoeueea
yaeua. Ooi/iaii aeoiee, aena?oeaii ?noi??th oe?a?inueeiai eaoey?noaa.
?icaeyiooi oaoi?ee oi?ioaaiiy e aeaei?oaaiiy ia?iaeieo eaoaeue.
?ic?iaeaii oeiieia?th oai??a ca oaeoii?/iith oi?iith, ieanoeeith,
aeaei?ii. C»yniaaii ainaiaeaa?noue eaoeyieo ia/ae o nenoai? ?ioa?»??o
ia?iaeiiai aeeoea.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Oe?a?ia, ea?ai?ea, eaoey, aeaei?, ainaiaeaa?noue.

EIEOIAAAA A.A. Oe?aeineea eaoee OV??? — ia/aea OOno. (Enoi?ey.
Oeiieiaey. Eeiiia?aoey. Ainaiaeaainoue). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa eneonnoaiaaaeaiey
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 17.00.06 — aeaei?aoeaiia e i?eeeaaeiia eneonnoai. —
Eueaianeay aeaaeaiey eneonnoa, Eueaia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniio?aiu oe?aeineea eaoee eae naiiauoiia
ooaeiaeanoaaiiia yaeaiea. Ooi/iaiu enoiee, inaauaia enoi?ey oe?aeineiai
eaoey?noaa. ?anniio?aiu oaoieee oi?iiaaiey e aeaei?e?iaaiey ia?iaeiuo
eaoeae. ?ac?aaioaia oeiieiaey ecaeaeee ii oaeoiie/aneie oi?ia, ieanoeea,
aeaei?o. Auyniaia ainaiaeaainoue eaoaeueiuo ia/ae a nenoaia eioa?uea?a
ia?iaeiiai aeeeeua.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?anniio?aiu oe?aeineea eaoee eae naiiauoiia
ooaeiaeanoaaiiia yaeaiea. Ooi/iaiu enoiee, inaauaia enoi?ey oe?aeineiai
eaoey?noaa. Aaaeiie i?aaeiinueeie aeey iiyaeaiey eaoeae ia Oe?aeia auea
ae?aaia?onneay o?aaeeoeey eniieueciaaiey iinoaeei “aieinieeia” a
no?ieoaeuenoaa, a oaeaea aeaei?aoeaiuo iaeeoeiai/iuo ieeoie — a ioaeaeea
eioa?uea?a. Ooieoeeiiaeueii-oeiieiae/aneea e ooaeiaeanoaaiiua ia?aeeaee
iaaeaeo ae?aaiaoe?aeineie a?oeoaeoo?ii-aeaei?aoeaiie ea?aieeie e
oe?aeineeie eaoaeyie aeatho aiciiaeiinoue ooaa?aeaeaoue eo aaiaoe/aneia
n?iaenoai.

Iaia?oaeaii, /oi ia ia/aeueiie noaaeee (O?V-XVaa.) oeiieiae/aneia
?acaeoea oe?aeineeo eaoeae eiaei ?aaeiiaeueiua ioee/ey, eioi?ua
ioia?aceee acaeiiaeaenoaea o?aaeeoeee oe?aeineiai aii/a?noaa n
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneei (Aaeeoeei-Aieuineea caiee) e ainoi/iui (N?aaeiaa
Iiaeiai?iauea) iooyie ?acaeoey aii/a?iiai ?aianea. A i?ioeanna
ooaeiaeanoaaiii-noeeenoe/aneie yaiethoeee eaoey?noai an? aieueoa
acaeiiaeaenoaiaaei n ?acee/iuie io?aneyie ooaeiaeanoaaiiiai oai?/anoaa.
Yoi niinianoaiaaei iaiaauaieth ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo iniaaiiinoae,
?anoe?aieth eeiiia?aoe/aneiai ?aia?ooa?a, oniaa?oainoaiaaieth
oaoie/aneeo i?e?iia e n?aaenoa au?aceoaeueiinoe. Ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
OV??a ieii/aoaeueiia ooaa?aeaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiuo /a?o a oe?aeineii
eaoey?noaa iaoneiaeei oi?ie?iaaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo ooaeiaeanoaaiiuo nenoai
I?eea?iaouey, Iiaeiai?iauey, Eaaiaa?aaeuey.

?anniio?aiu oaoieee oi?iiaaiey e aeaei?e?iaaiey ia?iaeiuo eaoeae.
Ia?aua iaoneiaeaiu iniaaiiinoyie eiino?oeoeaiie oi?iu ecaeaeee; aoi?ua —
oe?ieei eniieueciaaieai ?aaeiiaeueiuo e eieaeueiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo
o?aaeeoeee oe?aeineiai aii/a?noaa.

?ac?aaioaia oeiieiaey ecaeaeee ii oaeoiie/aneie oi?ia, ieanoeea,
aeaei?o. Oeiieiaey oi?i oe?aeineeo eaoaeae enoi?e/anee i?aaenoaaeaia
oaeeie a?oiiaie, iiaea?oiiaie e oeiaie: iinoaeeiiaeaeiua —
ai?oeiaeaeiua, ieneiaeaeiua (eaoee n e?oaeui, eaaae?aoiui, oeao?iui
onoueai); ieoaaeaeiua (n ai?oeiaeaeiui, iieooeeeeeiae?e/aneei oaeii);
ieeoi/iua — eeoeaaua, oaeiaua (caiieiythuea, iiyneiaua, ea?ieciua, eaoee
caaa?oaiey); aeaei?aoeaiua oe?aoaiey (coaoeu, oeoee, eieiiee e o.ae.).
Ii ieanoeea n?aaee eaoeae ?acee/athony ?aeueaoiua, ieineea, aiaiooua,
auioeeua, i?ioeee?iaaiiua. Ia?aciia e i?iaiaioaeueiia aaaaonoai aeaei?a
oe?aeineeo eaoeae OV???-ia/aea OOno. aeaei aiciiaeiinoue a?oiie?iaaoue
eo ii aeaeo i?iaiaioa, aeecinoe oaiu, nthaeaoa, iioeaa.

I?ineaaeaia oaniay naycue iaaeaeo eeiiia?aoeae i?aiaiaioaoeee
o?aaeeoeeiiiuo eaoeae e eeiiia?aoe/aneeie iniiaaie oe?aeineiai
aecoaeueiiai eneonnoaa. Iniaaiiinoueth ia?aie yaeyaony ia?aieaoaiea
ae?aaieo yeaiaioia n o?enoeaineie neiaieeeie.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ainaiaee eaoaeueiuo ia/ae a nenoaia eioa?uea?a
ia?iaeiiai aeeeeua oa?aeoa?ecothony eiiiiceoeeiiiui niaa?oainoaii e
niaeaniaaiiinoueth a ooaeiaeanoaaiiie nenoaia eioa?uea?a ia?iaeiiai
aeeeeua Iaaeaeiai?yiueiu, Iieoaaueiu, I?eea?iaouey, *a?ieaiaueiu,
Neiaiaeaiueiu e o.ae. Iie aunooiatho au?aceoaeueiui aeaei?aoeaiui
aeoeaioii aeaaiaea?y eiiiiceoeeiiiui, oiiaeueiui, eiei?enoe/aneei e
oaeoo?iui ea/anoaai.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Oe?aeia, ea?aieea, eaoey, aeaei?, ainaiaeaainoue.

A.V. KOLUPAYEVA. Ukranian Ceramic Stove Tiles of XVIIIth to the early
XXth cc. (History. Typology. Iconography. Ensemble compatibility). —
Manuscript.

Dissertational thesis for obtaining a scientific degree of Candidate
in Art Sciences, History and Theory of Arts; speciality 17. 00. 06.-
Decorative and Applied Art.- Lviv Academy of Arts, Lviv, Ukraine, 1999.

The dissertation contains a research work on Ukranian ceramic stove
tiles that are being considered as a distinctive artistic phenomenon.
The sourses of Ukranian tile production are shown more precisely. The
history of this craft have been lightened up. Main technological cycles
of tile moulding and processes in decoration of units are restored and
represented. The typology of ceramic tiles built on the basis of forms,
plastic features and ornamentations. Some combinatorial abilities of
tiles as well as ensemble possibilities of tiled stove in interior and
furniture design of folk residenses made clear.

Key words: Ukraine, ceramic, folk tiles, ornamentation, ensemble
compatibility.

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