Euea?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

I?IOeEE ??EIA ?IIAI?AIA

OAeE
811.161.2c373.46:53

OE?A?INUeEA O?CE*IA OA?I?IIEIA?ss Ae?OAI?

IIEIAEIE O?O — IA?OI? O?AOEIE OO NOIE?OOss

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.02.01 — oe?a?inueea iiaa

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeoaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? oe?a?inueei? iiae Euea?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

I?eaoeueeee Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/

Euea?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee
oi?aa?neoao

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei?
iiae

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iiethaa Eaa Ieoaeeiae/
?inoeooo oe?a?iiciaanoaa ?iai?

?aaiaE?ei’yeaae/a IAI Oe?a?ie,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee;

eaiaeeoao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

Iaeiia/ia Aaeeia Aanee?aia

Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao
«Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea»,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oaeai?iaenueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao,

eaoaae?a oe?a?inueei? iiae

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 22 ethoiai 2000 ?. i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.35.051.06 o Euea?anueeiio
iaoe?iiaeueiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith: 79001, i.
Euea?a, aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? ?i.
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa Euea?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.O?aiea
(79005, i. Euea?a, aoe. Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 21 n?/iy 2000 ?.

O/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

aeioeaio
C.I.Oa?eae

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A inoaii? aeanyoe??//y OO no.
oe?a?inueea iaoeiaa oa?i?iieia?y noa? ia’?eoii oe?ieiai caoe?eaaeaiiy ?
iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui coiiaeaii iio?aaith aii?yaeeoaaiiy no/anieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo oa?i?iinenoai.

Oiane?aeie i?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie ? eiinoeoooe?eiiai
cae??ieaiiy oe?a?inueei? iiae ye aea?aeaaii? aeooaeueiei caaaeaiiyi
iiaiciaanoaa ? aea/aiiy oeyo?a noaiiaeaiiy ? c’ynoaaiiy niinia?a
oii?yaeeoaaiiy oa ii?iae?caoe?? aaeocaaeo oa?i?iieia?/ieo nenoai.

Oe?a?inueea iaoeiaa oa?i?iieia?y ??cieo aaeocae ii?aoeueiaaia
iaiaeiaeiai. Ia??aiii??ii cae?enith?oueny e aea/aiiy ie?aieo
oa?i?iinenoai, oi/a ca inoaii? ?iee c’yaeeiny /eiaei i?aoeue,
i?enay/aieo aeine?aeaeaiith ??ciiaaeocaai? oa?i?iieia??. A?eueoa e
iiai?oa c’yniaaii ?noi??th oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?thaaiiy oa?i?i?a
noni?eueieo iaoe, ye? aoee ia’?eoii aea/aiiy o i?aoeyo A.Ao?y/ea
(nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia), E.Aaeeeiaoeue (ineoieia?/ia), I.AEiaoia?tho oa
Ae.Ee?eea (o?einionueea), A.Caoa?/ei (iiaiciaa/a), A.Einothe
(oaao?aeueia), I.Iineaeaiei (a?aiaoe/ia), O.Iaiueei (aeiiii?/ia),
I.?icoiaeei (iaaeaaia?/ia), I.Na?aainueei? (th?eaee/ia). Ie?aiei
oa?i?iinenoaiai i?enay/aii i?aoe? A.Eieiiieoey
(n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea), ?.Ei/ai (?aae?ioaoi?/ia), AE.E?aniiaeai
(aeiia?aaea?nueea), A.Ia?/aiea (aoae?aaeueia), A.Ieoaeeeoeia
(ia?acioai?/a), A.Iaa? (ae?oea?nueea), I.Iaii/ea (nii?oeaia),
I.Iie?ianueei? (oa?i?iieia?y ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei), O.Ieoaeeaiei,
E.Io?aoei oa ss.ss?aiea (a?enueeiaa) oiui. Iaioa aea/aia oa?i?iieia?y
i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe, yea noaea ia’?eoii aiae?co o i?aoeyo I.Aiaeiaaii?
(aaieia?/ia), I.Ea?aaooe (ciieia?/ia), A.E?aeoi? (iaoaiaoe/ia),
A.Iaa?ii? (iaoai?ieia?/ia), A.Iaeiia/ii? (o?i?/ia), I.Ia/a?aiei
(i?ia?aeia?/ia), E.Neiiiaiei (a?ieia?/ia, i?eieia?/ia), ?.Nieiea
(i?i?oieia?/ia), I.*o/ee (aaia?ao?/ia).

Oa?i?iieia?y o?ceee, iaei??? c iaeooiaeaiaioaeuei?oeo i?e?iaeie/eo iaoe,
yea neeaaea? iniiao onueiai eiiieaeno i?e?iaeie/eo oa oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
aea/aia iaaeinoaoiuei. ?e i?enay/ai? eeoa aeine?aeaeaiiy ia neio?iiiiio
??ai? (aeena?oaoe?y A.I?eaoeueeiai). Iaeiae aeey aii?yaeeoaaiiy ?
ii?iae?caoe?? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iinenoaie, aeey c’ynoaaiiy i?ia?aeieo
oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? (OOO), e??i
nooae?e ?? no/aniiai noaio, iaiao?aeia iiaeeaeaia ae?ao?iiia aea/aiiy
oeueiai ieanoo eaeneee oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae. ?noi?e/ia
oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? ua ia aoei ia’?eoii
niaoe?aeueiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co, ui e coiiaeth? aeooaeuei?noue
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ae?ao?iiiee aiae?c i?ioeano oi?ioaaiiy oa?i?iinenoaie ia?aaeaa/a?
niinoa?aaeaiiy iaae ?? ca?iaeaeaiiyi, iniiaieie aoaiaie ?icaeoeo, ui
aea? iiaeeea?noue c’ynoaaoe oai?aoe/i? canaaee ae?iaeaiiy oa?i?iieia??,
i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaoaeiae oa?i?iinenoaie, aeyaeoe i?e/eie
iaiaeii??aeiino? oa?i?iioai?/eo i?ioean?a, aecia/eoe oeyoe iiiiaiaiiy
OOO ? i?iaeoeoeai? niiniae oa?i?iioai?aiiy ia ??cieo aoaiao noaiiaeaiiy
oa?i?iinenoaie.

Nai?i ei??iiyi oe?a?inueea o?ce/ia oa?i?iieaeneea nyaa? oeo /an?a, eiee
o?ce/i? ciaiiy ua oai?aoe/ii ia inienethaaeenue, a iaee eeoa
i?ciaaaeueiee oa?aeoa? ? i?aeoe/ii-iiaooiaa canoinoaaiiy. Iaeiae eeoa c
na?aaeeie O?O no., eiee iineeeany ?ioa?an aei i?e?iaeie/eo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? c’yaeeeny ia?o? iaoeia? i?aoe? c o?ceee oe?a?inueeith
iiaith, oe?a?inueea o?ce/ia oa?i?iieia?y ii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny ia iaoeia?e
iniia?.

Ia ?icaeoie OOO aieeaaee ianaiia?aae iicaiiai? /eiieee:
aacaea?aeaai?noue oe?a?inueei? iaoe??, ?? ?ic’?aeiai?noue aea?aeaaieie
ei?aeiiaie, /eneaii? caai?iie oe?a?inueeiai neiaa, iaiiaeeea?noue
?icaeoeo iaoee ??aeiith iiaith, iaaaeeea e?euee?noue iaoeiaeo i?aoeue ?c
o?ceee oe?a?inueeith iiaith, a oaeiae a?aenooi?noue i?ae?o/iee?a ?
neiaiee?a. Aecia/aiiy iniiaieo aoai?a oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii?
oa?i?iieia?? iaiiaeeeaa aac o?aooaaiiy aca?iica’yceo iiaieo ? iicaiiaieo
/eiiee?a.

Oe?a?inueea o?ce/ia oa?i?iieia?y ia? aaea iaeaea i?aoi?anoae?oith
?noi??th. C iaeyaeo ia i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? oa?i?iioai?aiiy iiaeia
aeae?eeoe /ioe?e ia??iaee ?icaeoeo OOO: 1) ca?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia??, ui oa?aeoa?ecoaaeiny iiyaith o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a ia
noi??ieao aeo?iaeo «Iniiaa», iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi oa?i?iiiai iaoa??aeo a
Aaee/ei?, cae?aiiyi ? noeo?eiei oai?aiiyi iaca niaoe?aeueieo o?ce/ieo
iiiyoue o iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e Oe?a?i? (ae?oaa iieiaeia O?O — 10-o? ??. OO
no.); 2) i?aai?ciaaia ? eii?aeeiiaaia ?iaioa iaae oai?aiiyi oa
ii?aoethaaiiyi OOO (20-30-o? ??. OO no.); 3) ?icaeoie OOO o ??/eu?
?aaeyinueeiai iiaiciaanoaa, c?in?euaiiy OOO, oi?o?eaoe?y ?? c
?in?enueeith oa?i?iieia??th (ae?oaa iieiaeia 30-eo — 80-o? ??. OO no.);
4) a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa aeoea?caoe?y oa?i?iioai?/eo i?ioean?a o iacaeaaei?e
Oe?a?i?, iiaeaeueoa oai?aiiy e onoaeaiiy o?ce/ii? oa?i?iinenoaie (90-o?
??. OO no.).

?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? a?aeaoaaany «oaeeaiiae?aii».
Iaoe?iiaeueia o?ce/ia oa?i?iinenoaia ii/eia? oi?ioaaoeny o 60-90-eo ??.
OIO no., iniaeeai aeoeaii iiiiaith?oueny o 20-30-eo ??. ? cia/ii
?icoe?th? na?e ianya o 90-eo ??. OO no. Aeoaea ie?aeii OOO ?icaeaa?oueny
o e?ioe? XIX — ia ii/aoeo OO no. ? a 20 — 30-o? oa 90-o? ??. OO a?eo.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iniiaio oaaao cina?aaeaeaii ia ia?oeo
aeaio aoaiao: a?ae ca?iaeaeaiiy OOO o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no. aei ni?ia
?? nenoaiaoecaoe?? a na?aaeei? 30-eo ??. OO no. O oeae /an oe?a?inueea
o?ce/ia oa?i?iieia?y ?icaeaaeany aaiethoe?eii, aac ianeeueieoeueeiai
c?in?euaiiy. Ia iniaeeao oaaao caneoaiaothoue 20-30-o? ??., /an
?ioaineaiiai caaaa/aiiy ? ii?iae?caoe?? OOO. A oe?a?inueeiio
?aaeyinueeiio iiaiciaanoa? oeae ia??iae iio?aeoiaaii oaiaeaioe?eii ? aei
nueiaiaei? eiai aeine?aeaeaii iaaeinoaoiuei iiaii. Oiio aea/aiiy ?noi???
noaiiaeaiiy o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? ia iaoe?iiaeuei?e iniia? ? aaaeeeaei
caaaeaiiyi oe?a?inueeiai oa?i?iiciaanoaa.

Ii/aoeia? aoaie oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? aea/aii
iaaeinoaoiuei. Ie?ai? aniaeoe ?? ?icaeoeo aiae?coaaee I.Aiaooeueea,
I.Ai?aa/, ?.Ei?iiaiei, E.Iaeaeaiei, A.I?eaoeueeee. O?aaiaioa?i? caaaeee
i?i o?ce/i? oa?i?ie i?noyoueny o noaooyo oe?a?inueeeo iiaiciaaoe?a,
i?enay/aieo ?noi??? oa?i?iieia?/ii? ni?aae a Oe?a?i?, ?noi???
oe?a?inueei? eaeneeia?ao?? oa ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae e
oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa. Iaai? ocaaaeueiaiiy iaaiaeeoue eieaeoeaia
iiiia?ao?y «Oe?a?inueea oa?i?iiciaanoai». Caiiaiaiith eaeoi a ?noi???
?icaeoeo o?ce/ii? oa?i?iinenoaie oa i?inoaaeaiith oyaeino?
oa?i?iioai?/iai i?ioeano a OOO i?enay/aia oea aeena?oaoe?eia
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oaio
aeena?oaoe?? iiaiaeaeaii c i?iaeaiaoeeith ? iaoeiaeie ieaiaie eaoaae?e
oe?a?inueei? iiae Euea?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
?.O?aiea.

Ia’?eoii aiae?co ? oe?a?inuee? o?ce/i? oa?i?ie ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O —
ia?oi? o?aoeie OO no., aeienai? c ia?ae?/aieo ieae/a aeaea?ae —
oa?i?iieo neiaiee?a oa i?aoeue ?c o?ceee oe?a?inueeith iiaith.

Aeaea?aeaie oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo ? neiaieee o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a
(«Iaoa?eyee aei o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieuei???» o 4-io /anoeiao A.Eaaeoeueeiai
(Euea?a, 1896-1902), «?in?enueei-oe?a?inueeee neiaiee oa?i?i?a o?ceee ?
oei??» I.A?eoea (Aaaey/, 1918), «O?ce/ia oa?i?iieia?y.
?in?enueei-oe?a?inueea. Oeiaeea iaaeaaia?/iee ao?oie neooa/?a
A?iieoeueeiai o/eoaeuenueeiai ?inoeoooo» (A?iieoey, 1918), «Neiaiee
oe?a?inueei? oece/ii? oa?i?iieueia?? (I?i?eo)» I.Eo?eei (E., 1918),
«Neiaiee o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? (I?iaeo)» A.Oaai?nueeiai (O., 1932)),
i?aoe? c o?ceee (noaoo? oa ?ica?aeee), iioae?eiaai? a ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiiyo, a oaeiae i?ae?o/ieee, iaienai? oe?a?inueeith iiaith, ui
aeeoee ae?oeii o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ia?o?e o?aoei? OO no. a Oe?a?i?
e ca ei?aeiiii. Aeei?enoaii oaeiae aeai? caaaeueiii?e?iaeie/eo oa
caaaeueiioaoi?/ieo ae?oeiaaieo aeaea?ae, ia?aaeon?i oa?i?iieo neiaiee?a,
i?ae?o/iee?a, a oaeiae noaoae c ia??iaeeee.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy — i?inoaaeeoe ?noi??th ?icaeoeo OOO c ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O aei na?aaeeie 30-eo ??. OO no., c’ynoaaoe iniiai? iai?yiee
?icaoaeiae OOO ia aoaiao ?? ca?iaeaeaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy, aeyaeoe
i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? a?aeai?o oeo /e ?ioeo oa?i?i?a oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy
o o?ce/i?e e?oa?aoo?? aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo.

Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? ?ica’ycaiiy
oaeeo caaaeaiue:

1) aeyaeoe iniiai? ia??iaee noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo OOO;

2) i?iaiae?coaaoe aeaea?aea o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia??, oaanoe a iaoeiaee
ia?a oa?i?iiee iaoa??ae c aeaea?ae, ye? aei oeueiai /ano ua ia aoee
ia’?eoii niaoe?aeueiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy;

3) c’ynoaaoe i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? oa?i?iioai?aiiy oa iniiai? iai?yiee
?iaioe iaae OOO ia eiaeiiio c aeine?aeaeoaaieo ?noi?e/ieo aoai?a;

4) anoaiiaeoe oeyoe iiiiaiaiiy ? ?icaeoeo eaene/iiai neeaaeo OOO;

5) ?icaeyiooe niiniae ? caniae oa?i?iii? aea?eaaoe??, neiaioa??i?
iiaeae? oa?i?i?a, aeyaeoe ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iae?aneaieo o ?iaio? caaaeaiue
aeei?enoaii iieniai-aiae?oe/iee iaoiae c aeiiii?aeiei canoinoaaiiyi
aeaieo noaoenoe/iiai, c?noaaiiai iaoiae?a oa iaoiaeo neio?iiieo c??c?a.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e oia?oa a oe?a?inueeiio
iiaiciaanoa? aeine?aeaeaii OOO o ae?ao?iiiiio aniaeo?. Oea aeicaiey?
aeaoaeuei?oa ?icaeyiooe ii/aoeia? ia??iaee ?? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo,
a oaeiae i?inoaaeeoe ooieoe?thaaiiy oe?a?inueeeo o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a,
noai?aieo o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ia?o?e o?aoei? OO no. O iaoeiaee ia?a
oaiaeeoueny oaeiae oa?i?iiee iaoa??ae ?c iaeiaeine?aeaeaieo aeaea?ae,
ye? ua ia aoee ia’?eoii niaoe?aeueiiai iiaiciaa/iai aiae?co.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eiie?aoeciaaia a oaeeo
iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. C ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O no., eiee aia?oa a oe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e iia?
iinoa? i?iaeaia oa?i?ia, ? aei ii/aoeo 20-eo ??. OO no. ?icaeoie OOO
a?aeaoaaany oeyoii iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy eaene/iiai iaoa??aeo c ia?iaeieo
aeaea?ae, oai?aiiy aeanieo oa?i?i?a c iaoe?iiaeueieo oa /oaeiiiaieo
?ano?n?a.

2. 20-30-o? ??. OO no., caaaeyee noai?aiith ? ae?yeueiino? ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? iiae, noaee iae?ioaineai?oei ia??iaeii oai?aiiy
oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia??. Oea aoa ia??iae oii?yaeeoaaiiy,
nenoaiaoecaoe??, ii?iae?caoe?? nenoaie OOO ia iaoeiaeo canaaeao.

3. Ae?oaa iieiaeia 20-eo — ii/aoie 30-eo ??. OO no. — oea iaeie?aei?oee
ia??iae ?icaeoeo OOO, eiee ia iniia? iaoe?iiaeueiiiiaieo ?ano?n?a ? c
aeei?enoaiiyi caeiaooe?a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo iia noai?aii o?ce/io
i?aenenoaio oe?a?inueei? oa?i?iinenoaie.

4. OOO aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo iiiiaithaaeany ??cieie oeyoaie,
iniiaieie c yeeo aoee: oa?i?i?caoe?y caaaeueiiaaeeaaii? eaeneee,
aea?eaaoe?y oa caiice/aiiy c a?aoeueei?, eaoeinueei?, i?iaoeueei?,
o?aioeocueei?, iieuenueei?, aiae?enueei? oa ?ioeo iia.

5. Aea?eaaoe?y cae?enithaaeany iaeaea on?ia a?aeiieie a oe?a?inuee?e
e?oa?aoo?i?e iia? niiniaaie (ie??i aa?aa?aoe??). Iaea?eueoo aeoeai?noue
a OOO ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ia?oi? o?aoeie OO no. aeyaeythoue
eaeneei-naiaioe/iee oa ii?oieia?/iee niiniae oa?i?iioai?aiiy, a oaeiae
aiae?oe/ia aea?eaaoe?y.

Aeena?oaoe?eia i?aoey ia? aaciina?aaei? oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeathoue a?aeiiino? i?i iniaeeaino?
oi?ioaaiiy, oeyoe iiiiaiaiiy OOO o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ia?o?e o?aoei?
OO no. ?o iiaeia aeei?enoaoe aeey nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa oi?o?eaoe??
oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieaeneee ia no/aniiio aoai?, aeey
ii?aoethaaiiy oai??? oe?a?inueei? oa?i?iieia?? ? oa?i?iia?ao??.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae c?a?aiee
iaoa??ae aoaeooue ei?enieie o oa?i?iia?ao?/i?e ?iaio? (aeey oeeaaeaiiy
aaeocaaeo neiaiee?a iiaiai iieie?iiy), o iaa/aeuei?e i?aeoeoe? aeueo
oe?e (aeey /eoaiiy eaeoe?eiiai eo?no ? i?iaaaeaiiy i?aeoe/ieo caiyoue c
?noi??? oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae, i?aeaioiaee ? i?iaaaeaiiy
niaoeeo?n?a oa niaoenai?ia??a c eaeneeieia?? oa eaeneeia?ao??,
oa?i?iiciaanoaa oa oa?i?iia?ao??, iaienaiiy iaa/aeueieo iin?aiee?a c
oe?a?inueei? oa?i?iieia?? aeey nooaeaio?a). Aeniiaee e ocaaaeueiaiiy oa
oaeoe/iee iaoa??ae aeena?oaoe?? noaiooue aacith aeey iiaeaeueoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy OOO, a oaeiae aiaeia?/iiai aea/aiiy ?ioeo aaeocaaeo
oa?i?iinenoai, aeey ocaaaeueithaaeueieo i?aoeue c ?noi??? oe?a?inueei?
iiae oa ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieia?/ieo nooae?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?th iaaiai?aii
ia can?aeaiiyo eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? iiae Euea?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?.O?aiea.

Ca iaoa??aeaie aeena?oaoe?? aeaieioaii aeiiia?ae? ia 4-?e I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie oe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
oa?i?iieia??» (Euea?a, 1996), 5-?e I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
«I?iaeaie oe?a?inueei? oa?i?iieia??» (Euea?a, 1998), I?aeia?iaei?e
iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie ooaa?aeaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy
aea?aeaaii? iiae a Oe?a?i?» (Ee?a, 1996), I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Neiai ? /an» (Iiie?, 1997), I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Oe?a?inueea o?eieia?y: oeiee, iinoao?, i?iaeaie»,
i?enay/ai?e 150-??//th canioaaiiy eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? neiaaniino?
Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Euea?a, 1998), I?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiaiio
eiia?an? «125 ?ie?a IOO» (Euea?a, 1998), ia 2-?e oa 3-?e Anaoe?a?inueeeo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo «Oe?a?inueea oa?i?iieia?y ? no/ani?noue» (Ee?a,
1997, 1998), eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie neia’yinueeiai oa?i?iiciaanoaa»,
i?enay/ai?e 150-??//th aeaeaoiiai oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaaoey,
i?e?iaeiciaaoey, eoeueoo?ii-ina?oiueiai ae?y/a ?.Aa?o?aonueeiai
(Oa?iii?eue, 1996), eiioa?aioe?? «Oe?a?inueea iiaa: c ieioeiai a
iaeaooi?», i?enay/ai?e 200-??//th aeoiaeo a na?o «Aia?aee»
?.Eioey?aanueeiai (Ee?a, 1998), ia ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiaeo /eoaiiyo
«Aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy oe?a?inueeiai iiaiciaanoaa» (Euea?a, 1997),
i?enay/aieo 90-??//th a?ae aeiy ia?iaeaeaiiy i?ioani?a ?.Eiaaeeea, ia
ui??/ieo ca?oieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo aeeeaaea/?a oa ani??aio?a
o?eieia?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Euea?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.
?.O?aiea (1998, 1999).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeia?aaeaii a 13 ioae?eaoe?yo, na?aae yeeo 6 noaoae
(caaaeueiei ianyaii 2,9 ae?oeiaaiiai a?eooa), 6 iaoa??ae?a iaoeiaeo
eiioa?aioe?e oa 1 oace.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue coiiaeth?
eiiiiceoe?eio iiaoaeiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, ui
neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, ia?ae?eo oiiaieo nei?i/aiue, aeaio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a (188 n.), nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (315 iaeiaioaaiue ia
22 noi??ieao) oa o?ueio aeiaeaoe?a (13 n.). Caaaeueiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? 223 noi??iee.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aea?? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeooaeuei?noue
i?iaeaie, i?iaiae?ciaaii noai ?? ii?aoethaaiiy ? aea/aiiy a iaoeia?e
e?oa?aoo??, cacia/aii ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaith i?iaeaiaoeeith
onoaiiae, a ye?e ?? aeeiiaii, c’yniaaii iaoo, iniiai? caaaeaiiy oa
aecia/aii iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaaii aeaea?aea oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo, ?ice?eoi iaoeiao iiaecio, oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy
?iaioe, noi?ioeueiaaii iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

Ia?oee ?icae?e «?noi??y oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia??»
i?enay/aiee aiae?cia? iaeaea i?aoi?anoae?oiueiai ?icaeoeo OOO o
ae?ao?ii??. C iaeyaeo ia i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? oa?i?iioai?aiiy, ia
o?iiieia?/iiio a?aeoeieo c ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — aei ia?oi? o?aoeie OO
no. ie?aneaii aeaa ia??iaee oi?ioaaiiy OOO: 1) ca?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei?
o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia??; 2) i?aai?ciaaia ? eii?aeeiiaaia ?iaioa iaae
oai?aiiyi, ii?aoethaaiiyi oa onoaeaiiyi OOO.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? «Ca?iaeaeaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii?
oa?i?iieia?? ia iaoeiaiio ??oio?» i?inoaaeaii aeeiai?eo oa?i?iioai?/i?
?iaioe o ??cieo ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie ia ia?oiio aoai? — aoai? ca?iaeaeaiiy
OOO ia iaoeia?e iniia?.

Oia?oa oa?i?iieia?/i? i?iaeaie a oe?a?inuee?e iia? aeieeee ia ii/aoeo
60-eo ??. O?O no. o ca’yceo c iiyaith iaoeiai-iiioey?ieo oai??a aeey
ina?oi?o iio?aa ia?iaeo. Ia noi??ieao iaoa?ao?cueeiai aeo?iaeo «Iniiaa»
I.Eaa/aiei, I.?oeiaiei, I.AEeoaoeueeee, I.Eoe?o, I.Einoiia?ia oa
?.Oa?eianueeee i?aeiyee oa?i?iieia?/ia ieoaiiy ? c?iaeee ni?iao
noaiaoe/ii ie?aneeoe oeyoe ? niiniae oai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
oa?i?iinenoai: 1) aeei?enoaiiy iioaioe?eii aioiaeo ?ano?n?a c oiiaeo
ia?iaeiiai iiaeaiiy; 2) caia?a/aiiy ?ioiiiaieo oa?i?i?a; 3)
oa?i?iioai?aiiy a aeon? ia?iaeii? iiae. Ia?o? oe?a?inuee? oa?i?iioai?oe?
i?aaioee ae?iaeoe iaeiaiao?aei?oo aeey ia?iaeii? ina?oe oa?i?iieia?th,
caii/aoeoaaaoe oei naiei ia?iaeieoeueeee i?aeo?ae o oai?aii?
oa?i?iieia??.

Ni?iae nenoaiaoe/ii? i?aoe? iaae ?ic?iaeaiiyi i?e?iaeie/eo (a na?aae ieo
? o?ce/ii?) oa?i?iieia?e a Oe?a?i? iiaeia a?aeianoe aei 70-90-eo ??. OO
no. Aiie iia’ycai? c ae?yeuei?noth iaoeiaeo ?inoeoooe?e (ianaiia?aae
Iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ?iai? Oaa/aiea) o Aaee/ei?, aea neeaeenue
ni?eyoeea? oiiae aeey iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Caaaeyee i?aoeyi aaeeoeueeeo
o/aieo (?.Ioethy, A.Eaaeoeueeiai, I.Iaiiianueeiai, A.Eo/a?a,
I.Naaeoeueeiai, I.Niaeoee, C.O?aieeaiai oa ?i.), ye? ioae?eoaaee
?ica?aeee, noaoo?, i?ae?o/ieee c o?ceee oe?a?inueeith iiaith oa oa?i?ii?
iaoa??aee aei ieo, a?aeaoaaeinue noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii?
oa?i?iieia?? ia ceai? a?e?a. O Eueaia? aeoiaeea ia?oee oe?a?inueeee
iaia??iaee/iee iaoeiaee /aniien c i?e?iaeiciaanoaa — «Ca??iee
iaoaiaoe/ii-i?e?iaeiienii-e?ea?nueei? naeoe?? IOO», ia noi??ieao yeiai
a?aeaoaaeanue ai?iaaoe?y iiainoai?aieo oa?i?i?a.

I?ioyaii 1896-1902 ??. iiaa/ea na?o ia?oee neiaiee oe?a?inueeeo o?ce/ieo
oa?i?i?a — «Iaoa?eyee aei o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieuei???» o /ioe?ueio /anoeiao
A.Eaaeoeueeiai. Oeae ia?aeeaaeiee (oe?a?inueei-i?iaoeueeee, o ia?o?e
/anoei? ua e o?aioeocueeee) neiaiee oeeaaeaii ca?aeii c i?ia?aeieie
oaiaeaioe?yie ?a?iiaenueeiai oa?i?iioai?aiiy — iii?ith ia aeania
oe?a?inueeo eaeneeo oa iaoe?iiaeuei? neiaioai?/? c?acee ? aeei?enoaiiy
iioe?aieo o i?aeia?iaei?e oa?i?iieia?? a?aoeueeeo ? eaoeinueeeo oa?i?i?a
oa oa?i?iiaeaiaio?a. Aaoi? ia?oiai oa?i?iiiai o?ce/iiai neiaieea oe?iei
aeei?enoiaoaaa caaaeueiiaaeeaai? neiaa o ?ie? oa?i?i?a (aei?iaa, aeeea,
ei?iienei, iiaa, neeiae, oyaa?, oeey, oeyo) oa oai?ea iia? eaenaie —
iacae niaoe?aeueieo o?ce/ieo iiiyoue (a?aeae?a/, ae??/ao?noue,
ae??aiii??, cae?a/, eieeaaiue, ??aiiaaaeiee, oeooi). O neiaieeo
A.Eaaeoeueeiai ii?yae c iiaioai?aie oa?i?iiiai oa?aeoa?o i?noeoueny
/eiaei caiice/aiue ?c cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo iia (aeoioeyoi?, aoii,
aeeooc?y, aeaeo?iia?iao,noaoeea, oaca, o?iiiiao?).

O oiae? aaaaoie?oi?o i?aeoe/ieo ooeaiue o Aaee/ei? ia ii/aoeo OO no.
ae?iaeaii oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? canaaee oa?i?iioai?aiiy, oiaoi
caeeaaeaii i?aeaaeeie ?icaeoeo, caaaa/aiiy ? aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
oe?a?inueeeo o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a.

Ia noiae? Oe?a?ie oa?i?iieia?/ia ?iaioa aeoea?coaaeanue o?eueee i?ney
1905?., eiee aiane?aeie iineaaeaiiy ?aaeoe?? ia?anoaee ae?yoe o?yaeia?
iaiaaeaiiy uiaei oe?a?inueei? iiae.

Iane?aeeii i?eeo/aiiy aei ni?aae oa?i?iioai?aiiy /eneaiieo ao?oe?a,
eii?n?e, oiaa?enoa oa ie?aieo aiooc?ano?a noaei aeaeaiiy i?ioyaii
1917-1919 ??. o?noueio neiaiee?a OOO («Ei?ioeee ?in?enueei-oe?a?inueeee
neiaiee oa?i?i?a i?e?iaeiciaanoaa oa aaia?ao??» ?
«?in?enueei-oe?a?inueeee neiaie/ie oa?i?i?a i?e?iaeiciaanoaa ?
aaia?ao??» E.Aeoaiyea; «O?ce/ia oa?i?iieia?y. ?in?enueei-oe?a?inueea.
Oeiaeea iaaeaaia?/iee ao?oie neooa/?a A?iieoeueeiai o/eoaeuenueeiai
?inoeoooo»; «?in?enueei-oe?a?inueeee neiaiee oa?i?i?a o?ceee ? oei??»
I.A?eoea; «Ei?ioeee ?in?enueei-oe?a?inueeee neiaiee. Aeione 1. O?ceea»
A.Eiia?iaa; «Neiaiee oe?a?inueei? oece/ii? oa?i?iieueia?? (I?i?eo)»
I.Eo?eei).

Iaeiii?oi?oith eaeneeia?ao?/iith i?aoeath ii/aoeo OO no., yea caeia?
aaaiia i?noea a ?noi??? ?icaeoeo OOO, aoa o?ce/iee neiaiee I. Eo?eei.
Aaoi? aeoeaiooaaea oaaao ia aeei?enoaii? ia?iaeii?iciiaii? iiae ye
aeaea?aea ?icaoaeiae o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia??, i?aaio/e i?ae?a?aoe
iaoe?iiaeuei? a?aeiia?aeieee aei a?eueoino? /oaeiiiaieo oa?i?i?a
(eeaiaiu — caoe/ea, oeeiaaea, oeeiie, oeeiaoeue; eeica — ni/ea; iioi? —
aeaeaa/, ?ooiee, aeaeaeiee, aeaeaaei, aeaeaoi; ?aciiainu — a?aeaii?i,
a?aeaiein, a?aeaoe, ni?acao/i?noue) ? iii??eiaaii aaiaey/e aei
eaeneeia?ao?/ii? i?aoe? oa?i?ie ?ioiiiaiiai iioiaeaeaiiy. Oi/ I.Eo?eei
ca?aoiaothoue aei aoiia?ao?/ii? oeiee a iiaiciaanoa? /e aei
i?aaenoaaiee?a «e?aeiueiai io?ecio», ?? «Neiaiee oe?a?inueei? oece/ii?
oa?i?iieueia??» ? ?acoeueoaoii neioaco iaoe?iiaeueieo oa caiice/aieo
oa?i?i?a c ia?aaaaeaiiyi ia?oeo iio?aeiee?a. Iaiaaath/enue ia eaiaoe
o?aaeeoe?e ? aeei?enoiaoaaoe iaoeia? eiioeaioe?? aaeeoeueeeo o/aieo,
I.Eo?eei i?eeo/eeanue ia eeoa aei i?aeoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy o?ce/ii?
eaeneee, a e aei oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy canaae oe?a?inueeiai
oa?i?iioai?aiiy.

Noaiiaeaiiy OOO a?aeaoaaeiny oaeiae caaaeyee iiaeaeaeieoeuee?e i?aoe?
oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo ca iaaeaie O?N?. Oa?i?iioai?/ith ae?yeuei?noth
caeiaeeny iaoeiaoe? oa nooaeaioe Oe?a?inueei? ainiiaea?nueei? aeaaeai??
c /aoineiaaoeueeiai i?noa Iiae?a?aaee, o/anieee oa?i?iieia?/iiai ao?oea
i?e Oaoi?/iiio oiaa?enoa? «Iniiaa» (I?aaa), i?aoe?aieee aa?oaanueeiai
aeo?iaeo «??aeia iiaa» ia /ie? c ?aaeaeoi?ii /aniieno ?.Ia??ieii, a
oaeiae /eaie oa?i?iieia?/ieo ao?oe?a oe?a?inueeiai nooaeaionoaa o Iinea?
oa Iaoa?ao?c?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? a
O?N? o 20-30-eo ??. OO no.» ioa?aeoa?eciaaii iaeie?aei?oee ia??iae
oi?ioaaiiy OOO — aoai i?aai?ciaaii? oa eii?aeeiiaaii? ?iaioe iaae
oai?aiiyi, ii?aoethaaiiyi oa onoaeaiiyi oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii?
oa?i?iieia??.

?ioaa?aoe?y oa?i?iieia?/ii? ?iaioe ie?aieo in?a, oiaa?enoa, ao?oe?a
a?aeaoeany o na?ii? 1918 ?. o oa?i?iieia?/i?e eii?n?? i?e?iaeie/i?
naeoe?? ee?anueeiai Iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa, a caiaeii, iai?ee?ioe? 1918 —
ia ii/aoeo 1919 ??., c? noai?aiiyi i?oia?ao?/ii-oa?i?iieia?/ii? eii?n??
i?e Oe?a?inuee?e aeaaeai?? iaoe, iinoaei ieoaiiy i?i iiaeaeueoa
cina?aaeaeaiiy oa?i?iieia?/ii? ni?aae a Oe?a?i? ? i?i noai?aiiy iaei???
?inoeoooe??, yea a ia iaoeiaeo canaaeao nenoaiaoe/ii ii?aoeueiaoaaea
??ciiaaeocaao oa?i?iieia?th, ni?yiiaoaaea i?ioean ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
iaoeiai? iiae. Oe?a?inueea o?ce/ia oa?i?iieia?y a oeae /an oi?ioaaeany
ia eeoa ia noi??ieao ia??iaeeee oa iaa/aeueieo aeaeaiue c o?ceee, iaae
?? ?ic?iaeaiiyi c /a?aiy 1921 ?. i?aoethaaea o?ce/ia naeoe?y
i?e?iaeie/iai a?aeae?eo a iiainoai?aiiio ?inoeooo? oe?a?inueei? iaoeiai?
iiae OAI. Aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi iaoeiaoe?a aoei aii?yaeeoaaiiy c?a?aiiai
oa?i?iiiai iaoa??aeo. Oeeaaea/? neiaiee?a ia /?eueia i?noea noaaeee
aeo/i? oe?a?inuee? oa?i?ie, iaaiaeeee caaaeueiiaaeeaai? i?aeia?iaei?
oa?i?ie oa iiaioai?e, iiaoaeiaai? ca caeiiaie oe?a?inueei? iiae, a
oaeiae iiaeaaaee ia?aeiiaiaeiaaiee oa?i?iiee iaoa??ae.

Oiane?aeie aaaaoie?oiuei? i?aoe? o?ce/ii? naeoe?? ?OII 1932 ?. iiaa/ea
na?o «Neiaiee o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? (I?i?eo)» ca ?aaeaeoe??th
A.Oaai?nueeiai. Oeae o?eiiaiee (?in?enueei-oe?a?inueei-o?aioeocueeee)
oa?i?iiee neiaiee ae??ciyany ianooaai?noth ii?aoeueiaaiiai iaoa??aeo oa
ia?aaaaeaiiyi aeania oe?a?inueeeo oa?i?i?a. Oa?i?iia?ao?/ia i?aoey
A.Oaai?nueeiai ? iaea?eueoei caeiaooeii oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii?
eaeneeia?ao?? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no., aaeaea o i?e caeeaaeaii iniiae
nenoaiaoecaoe??, onoiooi caeao aeoaeaoi?noue.

A?ooaeueia ao?o/aiiy ia?o?eieo i?aai?a o oa?i?iieia?/io ni?aao
(iaiaaeieoeuee? noaoo? A.Oaee?, I.Eaaaiiae/a, I.O?ieaey, ia?o?ei?
?aciethoe?? uiaei oa?i?iieia??, aeo?ae o na?o «O?ce/iiai
oa?i?iieia?/iiai atheaoaiy», o yeiio aei?aaeaii ? cai?iaii aeecueei
/ioe?ueio oeny/ o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a, ?ai?an?? oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a,
aeeo/aiiy c oaeeoeo neiaieeiaiai aei?iaeo ?OII) i?ecaaei aei i?eieiaiiy
aaiethoe?eiiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? ia e?eueea
aeanyoee?oue. O?ce/ia oa?i?iinenoaia caciaea aaaaoi??/iiai ?in?euaiiy,
ui coiiaeei aaaaeaiiy aaee/acii? e?eueeino? eaeueie c ?in?enueei? iiae ?
/oaeiiiaieo caiice/aiue /a?ac ?? iina?aaeieoeoai.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? «No?oeoo?ii-neiaioa??ia oa aaiaoe/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea
oe?a?inueeeo o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a» i?iaiae?ciaaii aoaeiao oa iioiaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeeo o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ia?oi? o?aoeie OO
no.

Ca no?oeoo?ith o?ce/i? oa?i?ie aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo iiae?eythoueny
ia o?e a?oie: i?ino?, neeaaei?, neeaaeai?. Ie?aiei ??ciiaeaeii
iaeiine?aieo niaoe?aeueieo iaca ? oa?i?ie-iai?aneiaiee. Iaeiine?ai?
oa?i?ie a OOO neeaaeathoue iiiaae i’yoaeanyo a?aenioe?a, ?aooo
noaiiaeyoue oa?i?iiniieoee. Na?aae iaeiine?aieo iaca niaoe?aeueieo
o?ce/ieo iiiyoue aaniethoii ia?aaaaeathoue iaeiaioaaiiy, ae?aaeai?
?iaiieeaie (69%), ?aooo neeaaeathoue ae??neiaa (15%), i?eeiaoieee
(14,5%), i?ene?aieee (1,5%).

Iniiaiei aeaea?aeii oi?ioaaiiy OOO ? iaoe?iiaeuei? iiai? ?ano?ne, iaaia
/anoea oa?i?iieaeneee ? caiice/aiith.

Na?aae ??cieo oeyo?a ? niinia?a iiiiaiaiiy oa?i?iieaeneee i?ia?aeia
?ieue iaeaaeeoue aea?eaaoe??. Oai?aiiy oa?i?iii? eaeneee cae?enith?oueny
oaeeie ae niiniaaie, ye ? ne?a e?oa?aoo?ii? iiae: eaeneei-naiaioe/iei,
ii?oieia?/iei, ii?oieiai-neioaene/iei, eaeneei-neioaene/iei,
aiae?oe/iei. Niiniaai oai?aiiy oa?i?i?a-iaeiineia?a, oa?i?iiniieoe
i?enay/aii ia?oee i?ae?icae?e, yeee ia? iacao «Oa?i?iia aea?eaaoe?y».

O ia??iae ca?iaeaeaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy OOO iaea?eueoo aeoeai?noue aeyaey?
eaeneei-naiaioe/iee niin?a, yeei oai?youeny caeaa?eueoiai ?iaiieee.
A?eueo?noue i?eeiaoiee?a, ae??ne?a oa i?ene?aiee?a, cao?eniaaieo a OOO,
oaeiae iinoaee aiane?aeie oa?i?i?caoe?? caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo ne?a. Eaeneea
oa?i?i?co?oueny aiane?aeie aoi?eiii? iii?iaoe?? caaaeyee niaoe?ae?caoe??
/e ci?i? naiaioeee oa??iiai neiaa. Aeei?enoaiiy eaeneei-naiaioe/iiai
niiniao ia?aaeaa/a? ??ci? niiniae iaeiaioaaiiy: 1)aeiaaioaaeaiiy
naiaioeee caaaeueiiaaeeaaiiai neiaa oa?i?iiei ci?noii; 2) ci?io
naiaioeee caaaeueiiaaeeaaiiai neiaa aiane?aeie ia?ainieneaiiy; 3)
iaaeaiiy oa?i?ii?e eaeneoe? ?ioeo aaeocae o?ce/iiai ci?noo.
Oa?i?i?caoe?y a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iniia? iaoaoi?e/ii? /e iaoii?iii?
iii?iaoe??.

Caaaeueiiaaeeaai? neiaa noaaaee iacaaie niaoe?aeueieo o?ce/ieo
iaeiaioaaiue oiane?aeie aeiiiaiaiiy ?oiuei? naiaioeee o?ce/iei ci?noii,
ui ni?eyei ?icoe?aiith nieneiaiai ianyao neiaa, oneeaaeiaiith,
niaoe?ae?caoe?? cia/aiiy, iai?eeeaae: i?ii?iue (caa. — na?oeiaa nioaa,
ui aeoiaeeoue ?c yeiai-iaaoaeue aeaea?aea na?oea /e i?aaeiaoa, yeee
na?oeoueny, cae?a? o oieon aai a?aeaeca?eaeth? na?oei [NOI, O.8, N.232];
oa?i. — iai?yi iioe?aiiy aia?a?? oaeeue (aeaeo?iiaai?oieo, na?oeiaeo ?
o.?i.) [NOI, O.8, N.233]), oa?oy (caa. — ?oo i?aaeiaoa ii iiaa?oi?
?ioiai i?aaeiaoa, yeee u?eueii aei iueiai i?eeyaa?; oa?i. — neea, ui
i?ioeae?? ?ooia? iaeiiai o?ea ii iiaa?oi? ?ioiai [NOI, O.10, N.100]),
/anoioa (caa. — aeanoea?noue ? noai ca cia/aiiyi /anoee; oa?i. — /enei
?oo?a, eieeaaiue, iiaoi?aiue ca iaeeieoeth /ano; aaee/eia, ui ae?aaea?
e?euee?noue eieeaaiue, iiaoi?aiue ca iaeeieoeth /ano [NOI, O.11, N.281])
.

Aaeeeee ianea oa?i?iii? o?ce/ii? eaeneee noaiiaeyoue caaaeueiiaaeeaai?
neiaa, ui caciaee iaoaoi?ecaoe??. A OOO aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo
ia?aianaiiy cia/aiue ia iniia? iiae?aiino? cae?enithaaeiny ca oaeeie
noaiaie: a) ca oi?iaeueiith aiaeia??th, iai?eeeaae: aieineia (caa. —
ieoeiiiae?aiee ?iaiaee ooa??, ui ?inoa ia oe??? ethaeeie ? oaa?eie;
oa?i. — oiiea ae?ioeiea, ui ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith yeiai-iaaoaeue
i?eeaaeo, ?ino?oiaioa ? o.?i. [NOI, O.1, N.731]), aeoaa (caa. — ie?oaea
e?eaa e?i?y; oa?i. — iaeei c aeae?a aeaeo?e/iiai ?ic?yaeo i?ae aeecueei
?ici?uaieie aeaeo?iaeaie [NOI, O.2, N.431]); a) ca ooieoe?iiaeueiith
noiae?noth, iai?eeeaae: aocie (caa. — i?noea, ca’ycai? e?ioe?
/iai-iaaoaeue; iaoey, caoeniooa ia iiooceia?, eeia? ? o.?i. [NOI, O.1,
N.783]; oa?i. — c’?aeiai? ?acii aeae?eueea aeaoaeae, ui aoiaeyoue aei
a?eueo neeaaeiiai iaoai?cio [NOI, O.1, N.784]), ye?? (caa. — i?eno??e
aeey oo?eiaiiy ia i?noe? noaeai, ieaao/eo iaye?a oiui o aeaeyae?
iaoaeaaiai noa?aeiy c eaiaie, ye? /?ieythoueny ca a?oio [NOI, O.11,
N.637]; oa?i. — iaa?oiaa /anoeia aeaeo?e/ii? iaoeie iino?eiiai no?oio;
?ioi? [NOI, O.11, N.638]); a) ca ciai?oi?ie oa ooieoe?iiaeueieie
iciaeaie, iai?eeeaae: aeeea (caa. — noaeeia, ii ye?e oa/a e?ia o o?e?
ethaeeie /e oaa?eie; oa?i. — ie?aiee i?ia?ae eaaaey [NOI, O.2, N.529]),
ei?iienei (caa. — aea?aa’yia aeaiooa iaeeoey c ca?oaeaie aai aa/eaie ia
e?ioeyo, yeith iinyoue ia iea/ao a?ae?a c aiaeith; oa?i. — ??ae aaaeaey
c oi/eith iia?oy iina?aaeei?, yeee canoiniaothoue o aaaao, ia?ia?e
iaoei? [NOI, O.4, N.297]). Oe?a?inueea o?ce/ia oa?i?iieaeneea e?ioey O?O
— ii/aoeo OO no., yea iinoaea aiane?aeie naiaioe/iiai niiniao oai?aiiy,
caa?aaea ?ene eiie?aoii-ia?aciiai ieneaiiy.

sseui iaoaoi?e/ia iaeiaioaaiiy a OOO a?aeaoaa?oueny ia iniia?
iaiio?aeieo caaaeueiiaaeeaaieo ne?a, oi aeey iaoii?iieo ia?aianaiue
aeei?enoiaothoueny noo?enaeuei? aea?eaaoe. Iaoii?iia iii?iaoe?y a OOO
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca oaeeie noaiaie: a) ae?y, i?ioean — aaee/eia,
e?euee?noue, ui oa?aeoa?eco? oeth ae?th, i?ioean, noai, aeanoea?noue,
iai?eeeaae: iai?oaeaiiy (ae?y ca cia/aiiyi iai?oaeeoe; aaee/eia oeneo
aai ?icoyaaiiy, ui aeieea? a oaa?aeiio o?e? aiane?aeie ciai?oi?o aieea?a
(neee, oaiia?aoo?e ? o.?i.) [NOI, O.5, N.163]), ii?? (ae?y ca cia/aiiyi
iie?aoeny; aeanoea?noue, caeaoi?noue /iai-iaaoaeue i?ioenoiyoe iaaiei
aieeaai, ci?iai, a oaeiae neea, nooi?iue oaeiai i?ioenoiyiiy [NOI, O.5,
N.713]); a) ae?y, i?ioean — i?aaeiao, i?noea ciaoiaeaeaiiy /iainue,
yaeua, iai?eeeaae: iaaaioaaeaiiy (ae?y ca cia/aiiyi iaaaioaaeeoe; oa,
/ei ooi-, ui-iaaoaeue iaaaioaaeo?oueny; noeoii?noue nee, ui ae?thoue ia
yea-iaaoaeue o?ei [NOI, O.5, N.25]), ieei (ae?y ca cia/aiiyi ieeiooe;
iana aiaee, iio?e, ui ?ooa?oueny a yeiio-iaaoaeue iai?yieo; ??aeeia
[NOI, O.6, N.582]); a) ae?y, i?ioean — iane?aeie, ?acoeueoao ae??, noai,
iai?eeeaae: cnoa (ii?ooaiiy neiao?e/iiai ?icoaooaaiiy noi?aeieo
aeaoaeae, aeioe/ieo iiaa?oiiue; aeaoi?iaoe?y i?oaeiiai o?ea [NOI, O.3,
N.723]), iaiioea (iie?eooy ia /iio-iaaoaeue, yea iaeeaaea?oueny
iaiiooaaiiyi; nenoaia i?ia?aeiee?a aeaeo?e/iiai no?oio, ?ici?uaieo ia
iaai?oieo aeaiaioao aeaeo?e/ii? iaoeie [NOI, O.5, N.543]).

Iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue iio?aeieo a oe?a?inuee?e o?ce/i?e oa?i?iieia??
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo noaiiaeyoue iaeiine?ai? oa?i?ie —
ii?oieia?/i? aea?eaaoe. Aeey oai?aiiy oe?a?inueeeo o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a ia
ia?oeo aeaio aoaiao ?icaeoeo OOO aeei?enoaii an? ??ciiaeaee
ii?oieia?/ii? aea?eaaoe??, e??i aa?aa?aoe??; ia?aaaaeathoue ?iaiieee,
ooai?ai? noo?enaeueiei niiniaii.

?iaiieeia? iio?aeieee caeaa?eueoiai oai?youeny c aeiiiiiaith
noo?enaoe?? a?ae ?iaiieeiaeo, ae??ne?aieo oa i?eeiaoieeiaeo iniia ca
oaeeie neiaioa??ieie iiaeaeyie: iniiaa i?eeiaoieea + noo?en -?noue
(aieineoaao?noue, ae?eo?e/i?noue, ii?oaao?noue, i?ia?aei?noue,
noeneea?noue, oaieii?ia?aei?noue); iniiaa ae??neiaa + noo?en -ii(y)
(caeiiaiiy, ia?iaoecoaaiiy, i?enei?aiiy, ??aiiaaaeaiiy, oyae?iiy);
iniiaa ae??neiaa + noo?en -e(a) (-ae(a)) (aeii?oea, iaiioea, ianaaeea,
iiae?eea, niieoea, oeeiaaea); iniiaa ae??neiaa + noo?en -oo(y)
(a?aeaeooy, ia??ooy, i?aeiyooy); iniiaa ae??neiaa + noo?en -iee
(-eueiee) (aai?aiee, caiia?aeiee, e?/eeueiee, iaeueiee, ?iciiae?eueiee);
iniiaa ae??neiaa + noo?en -a/ (aeieea/, aeaeaa/, caeiiethaa/, iaoyaa/,
ia?a?eaa/); iniiaa ae??neiaa + noo?en -ie (aaaeie, aiiie, i?aeaaaeie,
oyaeie, oeeiie); iniiaa ae??neiaa + noo?en -e(i) (-a(i)) (ai?ioeei,
a??ai, aeaaeei, oa/eai, oyaei); iniiaa ae??neiaa + noo?en -ae (ieaaae,
oeeiae); iniiaa ae??neiaa + noo?en -aiue (eieeaaiue, ?icoe?aiue); iniiaa
ae??neiaa + noo?en -aoeue (aeoai?aoeue, oeeiaoeue); iniiaa ae??neiaa +
noo?en -?eue (aaae?eue); iniiaa ae??neiaa + noo?en -oi (aeaeaoi, oeooi);
iniiaa i?eeiaoieea + noo?en -io(a) (eaaeioa, oaieioa, /anoioa); iniiaa
ae??neiaa (i?eeiaoieea, ?iaiieea) + noo?en -ei(a) (aaeeaeia, aeioeeeia,
aonoeia, ae?iaeia, i?oaeeia, ?a/iaeia); iniiaa i?eeiaoieea + noo?en
-eoe(y) (a?aeina?aaeieoey, e?eaeoey, ii??ieoey, ??aieoey); iniiaa
i?eeiaoieea + noo?en -ee (aieiniee, iaoiaee, iiia?a/iee, ??aiia?aeiee).

Oa?i?ie-i?eeiaoieee ooai?ai? a?ae ?iaiieeiaeo oa ae??ne?aieo iniia ca
oaeeie neiaioa??ieie iiaeaeyie: iniiaa ?iaiieea + noo?en -i(ee)
(?iaeoeoe?eiee, iaai?oiee, ??aiiaaaeiee, oa/eaiee, oieoniee); iniiaa
?iaiieea + noo?en -e/i(ee) (-?/i(ee)) (a?a?ineii?/iee, ia?aaie?/iee,
ia??iaee/iee); iniiaa ?iaiieea + noo?en -ia(ee) (-aa(ee))
(aca?iiae??aee, iai?yiiaee, i?aeieiiaee, niieiaee, ni?aina?aaeeiaee);
iniiaa ?iaiieea + noo?en -oaao(ee) (aieineoaaoee, ?aeiooaaoee,
i?oaeeioaaoee, ?o?eoaaoee, ni/eoaaoee); iniiaa ae??neiaa + noo?en -i(ee)
(aeaeaeiee, caaayiee, na?oiee), a ae??neiaa c aeania oa?i?iiei cia/aiiyi
ooai?ai? a?ae caiice/aieo noanoaioeaieo iniia aeiaeaaaiiyi
iaoe?iiaeueieo oa??ieo aeaiaio?a ca neiaioa??iith iiaeaeeth: iniiaa
?iaiieea + noo?en -oaa (aani?aoaaoe, aeanoeethaaoe, iaaianoaaoe,
iiiioaaoe).

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O — ia?o?e o?aoei? OO no. na?aae niinia?a oa?i?iii?
aea?eaaoe?? i?ia?aeia ?ieue iaeaaeeoue noo?enaoe??. Aei
iaei?iaeoeoeai?oeo iaeaaeaoue ?iaiieeia? neiaioa??i? iiaeae? c
noo?enaie -?noue, -ei(a), -eoe(y), -ii(y), -e(a), -a/, -iee, -ie, -e(i),
?io? iiaeae? iaio i?iaeoeoeai?. Caaaeii a OOO aeine?aeaeoaaiiai
ia??iaeo e?euee?noue neiaioai?/eo noo?en?a iaaaeeea: aeei?enoaii
iaei?iaeoeoeai?o? neiaioai?/? caniae. Cia/io aeoeai?noue o oai?aii?
o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a aeyaey? ioeueiaa noo?enaoe?y. Aea?eaaoe c ioeueiaei
noo?enii ? ?iaiieeaie /ieia?/iai oa ae?ii/iai ?iae?a, ui iaceaathoue
i?ioean ae??, iaeii?aciao ae?th, eiie?aoiee i?aaeiao ye iane?aeie ae??:
aei??, cae?i, ianeo, iioeo, i?yi, niie; aaioaaa, iai?oaa, i?aeieia,
oa/a.

I?ao?enaoe?y a OOO cia/ii iinooia?oueny i?iaeoeoeai?noth noo?enaeueiiio
niiniao oai?aiiy. I?ao?enaeuei? o?ce/i? oa?i?ie — oea ?iaiieee,
i?eeiaoieee oa ae??neiaa, ui oai?youeny ca e?eueeiia neiaioa??ieie
iiaeaeyie c aeei?enoaiiyi iaaaeeeiai a?naiaeo neiaioai?/eo cania?a,
na?aae yeeo iaea?eueoo aeoeai?noue aeyaey? oi?iaio i?ioe(a)- (i?ioeaaaa,
i?ioeaneea, i?ioeeaoiae, i?ioe/ei). ?aooa i?ao?en?a (aac-, ca-, iaae-,
ia-, ia?a-, i?ae-, ni?a-, no-) — iai?iaeoeoeai?, iai?eeeaae: aacaeaaea,
cacoa, iaaeno?oi, iai?ia?aeiee, ia?ae?enoae?caoe?y, i?aeaeaeo?ii,
ni?a/eiiee, no/anoea. I?ao?enaeueii-noo?enaeueiee niin?a o o?ce/iiio
oa?i?iioai?aii? aeyaey? iecueeo i?iaeoeoeai?noue.

*eiaeee a?aenioie oe?a?inueeeo o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a noaiiaeyoue
oa?i?ie-eiiiiceoe, ye? c’yaeeeny aiane?aeie iniiai- oa neiaineeaaeaiiy.
Oe? niiniae a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue i?e oai?aii? ?iaiiee?a ?
i?eeiaoiee?a. Oa?i?iiiio iniiaineeaaeaiith i?eoaiaiia ii?aeiaiiy aeaio
oe?a?inueeeo oa??ieo aeaiaio?a (a??iinoya, ae??aiiaeyae, eieuei?i?icn?a,
ia?ioai?aiiy, i?aeieeaaiiy, i?ii?iuecaeiiaiiy, na?oeii??yiiy,
oaieino?oi, oeneii??, oieici?i), aeaio ?ioiiiaieo oa?i?iiaeaiaio?a
(aieueoaiaoa?, ae?eo?ineii, ethi?i?noeaioe?y, ia?aiaaiaoeci, ?ainoao,
oa?iiae?iaio) /e eiia?iaoe?y /oaeiiiaiiai oa?i?iiaeaiaioa c
iaoe?iiaeueiei oa??iei aeaiaioii — a?a?eaeiee oa?i?i (aeaiiieue,
i?a?cieyoi?, naii?iaeoeoe?y, oaieieii, aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue, ia’?iii??,
oa?iino?oi).

Cao?eniaaii oaeiae /eiaei neeaaeieo oa?i?i?a-i?eeiaoiee?a, ooai?aieo
iniiaineeaaeaiiyi ? noo?enaoe??th iaeii/anii: aiaeii??iee,
aonoeiii??iee, aeiaaioaeeueiaee, ae??aiiaeyaeiee, iai?ai?iieeeeaee,
iaeiiinaaee, ??aeii?aiaiiee.

Iaaaeeea e?euee?noue oa?i?i?a aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo ooai?aia
niiniaii neiaineeaaeaiiy c aeaio /oaeiiiaieo ne?a (aieueo-eoeueii,
a?ai-iieaeoea, eaaae?aio-aeaeo?iiao?, iieue-eii, ?aae?thn-aaeoi?,
neion-?aeueaaiiiaoa?, oethen-iao?); c iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa
?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueiiai eiiiiiaio?a (a?ai-neea, eaiae-i?ii?iiy,
i?ii?i?-?aia, i?ii?iiy-aeueoa, oii-neeaaeiee); c aeaio iaoe?iiaeueieo
neeaaeiee?a (ae??o-aea?aeae, ae??o-ceo/iee, iao-iaeeieoey).

Aei aiae?ciaaiiai oeio aea?eaao?a aeecuee? oaeiae oa?i?ie-iai?aneiaiee,
o yeeo ia?oeie eiiiiiaioaie aenooiathoue a?aoeuee? e?oa?e aeoaa?oo,
iai?eeeaae: a-i?iiai?, b-i?ii?iiy, g-aiaiaoe?y. Oae? iacae ? aeoaeaoaie
niaoe?aeueieo iaeiaioaaiue, ooai?aieo c aeaio ne?a. Oeae niin?a
oa?i?iioai?aiiy a OOO aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo iai?iaeoeoeaiee.

Na?aae ?ioeo niinia?a neiaioai?aiiy a OOO iaaenieo aeoeai?noue
aeyaeythoue ii?oieiai-neioaene/iee (aene?aeia, e?eaa, iaaeiia,
??aiiaa?oia, ??aiiae?eia, neeaaeiaa) oa eaeneei-neioaene/iee
(aace?aeo?oaa, aeaiyeiaeaiooee, iaii?eueiioeeee, iaii?eueoaiooee).

Iaeiei ?c iaei?iaeoeoeai?oeo niinia?a, yeee iii?oii aeoea?coaaany
iai?ee?ioe? O?O no., ? aiae?oe/ia aea?eaaoe?y, oiaoi oai?aiiy neeaaeaieo
iii?iaoe?e — oa?i?iiniieoe. A OOO ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ia?oi? o?aoeie
OO no. ia?aaaaeathoue ?iceeaaei? oa?i?iiniieoee, o yeeo caa?aaeaia
naiino?ei?noue eiiiiiaio?a. Caeaaeii a?ae e?eueeino? eiiiiiaio?a iiaeia
aeae?eeoe o?e no?oeoo?i? oeie neiainiieoe: aeaieiiiiiaioi?,
o?eeiiiiiaioi? ? aaaaoieiiiiiaioi? oa?i?ie. Na?aae aeaieiiiiiaioieo
aaniethoio a?eueo?noue noaiiaeyoue oa?i?ie, ye? neeaaeathoueny c
i?eeiaoieea oa ?iaiieea aai aeaio ?iaiiee?a, iai?.: i?eeiaoiee + ?iaiiee
(a?aeiinia aieia?noue, aieineoaaoa o?oaea, aneniee niie, ?aeueaai?/ia
aaoa?ey, aeai?aiaiiee aaaeaeue, ia??aiii??ia iaa?oaiiy, ieineee oeooi,
iiaea?eia i?ii?iacaeiieaiiy, iica/a?aii? i?ii?i?, ??aiieiaiiee a?aoi,
noaea iioeaea, /anoeiaa caoaiiaiiy), ?iaiiee + ?iaiiee (aiie?ooaea
aieaeaiiy, aeaeaoi?noue niieo, aeieeia oaee?, eoo ne?o/aiy, iiiaio neee,
ii?? i?iaiaeo, i?aaeei naa?aeeeea, i?enei?aiiy ?ooo, ?aiy ia?iaoa,
ne?aieai? ?ac?a, ni?i eo/?a, ni?a/eiiee caeiieaiiy, oi/ea ?ine, oeyoeiea
e?i?iiy; canaaea A?o?iaaea, e?eueoea Iuethoiia, ii?iaeiy Oi?e/aeueiai
(Oi?e/ae?), i?eeaae Aiia?a, ?o?ea ?aio?aia). Iaeii?iaeoeoeaieie ? oae?
no?oeoo?i? oeie aeaine?aieo iaeiaioaaiue: ?iaiiee + ae??neiai
(ae??i?eeiaoiee) (eo/ aiaaeath/ee, ia?noaiue aaeueioth/ee, iiiia
?ic??aeaeoth/a, ni/ea cae?ath/a), i?ene?aiee + i?eeiaoiee (a?ae’?iii
ca?yaeaeaiee, ia?aoeaii iaae?eo?eciaaiee, ??aiii??ii caaayiee),
o?eeiiiiiaioi? (i?eeiaoiee + ?iaiiee + ?iaiiee (aaniethoia aenioa oiio,
ai??oiy aa?noaa aoiinoa?e, caaaeaia aeiaaeeia iayoieea, e?iaoe/ia oai?ey
?ac?a, iniiaia nenoaia i??, iiaa?oiaaa iaoyaiaiiy ieeio, ??aeeee noai
o?e, /eiia aenioa oeneo), ?iaiiee + ?iaiiee + ?iaiiee (aae?aiiy ?ac?a
ieeiaie, aeiaa?noue /ano iaaeaiiy, caeii iino?eiinoe neeaaeo, canaaea
caoiaaiy aia?a??, iaoiaea oiieaiy eaaeo, iiiaio ia?e nee, neea aeaeaaiy
ia?iaoa, oi/ea ?icoaaaiiy eaaeo, oeaioa? aieaeaiiy iayoieea, /enei
ia?aoiaeo eii?a), ?iaiiee + i?eeiaoiee + ?iaiiee (aenioa aeeiai?/iiai
oeneo, aeiaa?noue o?ce/iiai oeooia, iaooaa ia?iaoiiai iiey, i?aaeei
e?ai? ?oee, i?eni?oaiiy a?eueiiai iaaeaiiy, ??aaiue ai??oiueiai ieana,
neea anana?oiueiai oyaio?iiy), i?eeiaoiee + i?eeiaoiee + ?iaiiee
(aeai/eiiee iaai?oiee niie, iaa?iooee ?ooiiee aeueie, iaeii??aeia
ia?iaoia iiea, iicaia ia?iaoia neeaaeiaa, i?inoie?i?eiee iinooiiee ?oo,
?o/ia iiaeaaeia neeaaea), i?ene?aiee + i?eeiaoiee + ?iaiiee (aaciaaeii
iae? /anoeiee, ?aeaaeueii i?oaeia o?ei, iioe/ii ??aeoa na?aaeiaeua),
i?ene?aiee + ae??neiai (ae??i?eeiaoiee) + ?iaiiee (??aiia?aeii ceo/aia
aaoa?ay, ??aiii??ii caaayiee ?oo, ??aeiieiaiii niieo/aia aaoa?ay)) oa
aaaaoieiiiiiaioi? (i?eeiaoiee + ?iaiiee + i?eeiaoiee + ?iaiiee (caaaeaia
aeiaaeeia oece/iiai iayoieea, oe?eeiaeoa neea caiiiai ia?iaoecio),
?iaiiee + ?iaiiee + ?iaiiee + ?iaiiee (e?euee?noue ?ace?a ia??c? o?oae,
eoo ne?o/aiy ieiu? iiey?ecaoe??), ?iaiiee + ?iaiiee + i?eeiaoiee +
?iaiiee (ina?aaeie aaaio?iiy aeoeniooiai oa/eaa) oiui. A OOO e?ioey O?O
— ii/aoeo OO no. iaea?eueoa aeaieiiiiiaioieo oa?i?iiniieoe, ye? ii?yae c
oa?i?iaie-?iaiieeaie noaiiaeyoue iniiao o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia??, iaioa
o?eeiiiiiaioieo, a e?euee?noue aaaaoieiiiiiaioieo oa?i?iiniieoe ?
iacia/iith.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? «*oaeiiiai? caiice/aiiy oa inai?iiy ?ioiiiaii?
eaeneee» c’yniaaii oeyoe oa niiniae iiiiaiaiiy OOO ?ioiiiaieie
?ano?naie. *oaeiiiai? caiice/aiiy a OOO c’yaeythoueny i?ioyaii onueiai
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo: aeayeee /an c a?eueoith ?ioaineai?noth, a
?ioee — c iaioith.

Iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. oe?a?inueea iaoeiaa iiaa iiiiaithaaeany cia/iith
e?euee?noth a?aoeueeeo (aiiaea, aoii, ?ac, aeaeo?eea, aia???y, aoa?,
eao?ii, ia?iao, iana, iaoiaea, nenoai, oaca) oa eaoeinueeeo (aiie?ooaea,
a?aaeon, ae?iaio, ?iioeuen, eiioaeo, iiiaio, i?ioean, niaeo?,
noanoaioe?y, oieon) ne?a. Aaaaoi c ieo «aeeaoeai» ia?aiinyoueny o
o?ce/io oa?i?iinenoaio, ?io? oe?a?inueea iiaa caiice/o? c iacia/ieie
ci?iaie ?oiuei? ii?oieia?/ii? oi?ie. Aaeaiooth/enue aei oe?a?inueei?
iiae, oae? oa?i?ie ci?ieee a?aiaoe/i? cia/aiiy ?iaeo ? ao?aoeee
cae?i/aiiy (a?aoeecie – -oV, -iV, -on, -hV; eaoei?cie -us, -is, -um).

*eiaeee a?aenioie a OOO aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo noaiiaeyoue neeaaei?
oa?i?ie, ooai?ai? c a?aoeueeeo oa eaoeinueeeo ei?ai?a. Oe? niaoe?aeuei?
iacae, ye? aeoeaii iiiiaithaaee oe?a?inueeo o?ce/io oa?i?iieia?th
iai?ee?ioe? O?O ? ia ii/aoeo OO no., ooieoe?ththoue o i?e ? aei
nueiaiaei?.

A oe?a?inuee?e o?ce/i?e oa?i?iieia?? e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO no.
cao?eniaaii niaoe?aeuei? iacae, caiice/ai? c iiaeo ?a?iiaenueeeo iia, ui
iia’ycaii c iioe?aiiyi iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e ?c Cao?aeii? ?a?iie.
Iaea?eueoa iaca niaoe?aeueieo o?ce/ieo iiiyoue canai?ii c o?aioeocueei?
(aaoa?ey, eaeuei?ey, eoia, ethiaoa, ?aea), i?iaoeueei? (?aeio,
?ii?caoe?y, ?o?a, oeaeue, oieiaeaeue, o?oaa), aiae?enueei? (aeueie,
ae?ae?eo?ee, ei?a?a?, e?aa?, ne?oaaa?), iieuenueei? (aaccaeyaeiee,
a?aoi, aaaaaeei, aaeaoeue, ae?eai?, ae?iaeia, ii?ii?noue,??aiiaaaeiee,
ni/ea, ni?ei?noue) iia, cia/ii iaioa — c aieeaiaenueei?, a?aanueei? oa
?oae?enueei?.

Caiice/aiiy a neeaae? OOO ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ia?oi? o?aoeie OO no.
a?aeia?aaeathoue i?aaiaiiy a?o/eciyieo o/aieo aei ?ioaa?aoe??
oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? iaoee a ?a?iiaenueeo. Niaoe?aeuei? o?ce/i? iacae,
na?aae yeeo ia?aaaaeathoue caiice/aiiy c eeane/ieo iia aai ooai?ai? ia
?o iniia? iio?aeieee, a oaeiae oa?i?ie c iiaeo ?a?iiaenueeeo iia,
a?ae?a?aee aaaeeeao ?ieue o iiiiaiaii? OOO iiaeie ?ano?naie.

Iniiao oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ia?oi?
o?aoeie OO no. noaiiaeyoue aeania oe?a?inuee? oa?i?ie oa oa?i?ii?
neiainiieoee. I?ia?aeiith oaiaeaioe??th ? oai?aiiy iaca niaoe?aeueieo
iiiyoue ia iaoe?iiaeuei?e iiai?e iniia?. O iaoeiaee ia?a oaaaeaii oaeiae
/eiaei caiice/aiue, na?aae yeeo ia?aaaaeathoue a?aoeecie oa eaoei?cie,
ooai?ai? ia ?o iniia? eiiiiceoe, a oaeiae o?ce/i? oa?i?ie, caiice/ai? c
o?aioeocueei?, i?iaoeueei?, aiae?enueei?, iieuenueei? oa ?ioeo iia.

Aeniiaee i?noyoue ocaaaeueiaiee aeeeaae ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy
aaiace oa no?oeoo?e OOO ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ia?oi? o?aoeie OO no.

1. O ia??iae ca?iaeaeaiiy ? noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii?
oa?i?iieia?? (ae?oaa iieiaeia O?O — ii/aoie OO no.) caeeaaeaii
i?ae??oioy, ia yeiio ?icaeaaeany, caaaa/oaaeany ? aaeineiiaethaaeany
nenoaia OOO. Ia ii/aoeo 60-eo ??. O?O no. a Oe?a?i? caii/aoeiaaii
ia?iaeieoeueeee i?aeo?ae aei oa?i?iioai?aiiy, yeee iieyaaa o: a)
a?aeai?? e aeei?enoaii? iioaioe?eieo oa?i?iieo ?ano?n?a c aeeaiai
ia?iaeiiai iiaeaiiy; a) oa?i?iioai?aii? a aeon? ia?iaeii? iiae, ia ??
iniia? e ca ?? caeiiaie; a)i?aeai?? iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiia?aeiee?a aei
?ioiiiaieo oa?i?i?a.

2. Ia ceai? O?O-OO no. OOO ?icaeaaeanue ia?aaaaeii a Aaee/ei?, aea aiia
ai?iaiaoaaeanue caaaeyee ioae?eaoe?yi iaoeiaeo ?ica?aeie oe?a?inueeeo
o/aieo — /eai?a Iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ?i. Oaa/aiea o «Ca??ieeo
iaoaiaoe/ii-i?e?iaeiienii-e?ea?nueei? naeoe?? IOO» — ia?oiio
oe?a?inueeiio iaoeiaiio aeo?iae? c i?e?iaeiciaanoaa, a oaeiae ia
noi??ieao ia?oeo oe?a?inueeeo i?ea?iaeueieo i?ae?o/iee?a c o?ceee.
I?ioyaii 1896 — 1902 ??. o Eueaia? c’yaeany ia?oee oe?a?inueeee o?ce/iee
oa?i?iiee neiaiee — «Iaoa?eyee aei o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieuei???»
A.Eaaeoeueeiai, a yeiio aaoi? iaiaaaany nenoaiaoecoaaoe oa?i?iieia?th,
iaiao?aeio aeey aeeeaaeaiiy o?ceee oa iaoeiaeo nooae?e.

3. O iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e Oe?a?i? aiooc?anoe aeoeaiooaaee oaaao ia
cae?aii? ia?iaeiiai oa?i?iiiai iaoa??aeo, oeeaaeaii? ? ioae?eaoe??
iaaaeeeeo neiaiee?a o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a. Cia/aiiy ia?oiai aeanyoe??//y OO
no. aeey ?icaeoeo OOO iieyaa? ia no?eueee a eiie?aoiiio
eaeneeia?ao?/iiio ao?eaii? i?iaaaeaii? ?iaioe, ye o aaee/aci?e
i?aeaioia/?e i?aoe?, yeo i?iaaee ao?oee, eii?n??, oiaa?enoaa oa ie?ai?
aiooc?anoe c? cae?aiiy oa?i?iiiai iaoa??aeo. Oe?eaaeie aoee
oa?i?iieia?/i? iiooee oe?a?inueeeo o/aieo ia /oaeei? (o ?in??, *ao??,
Iieueu?). Caaaeyee ?o i?aoe? noaa iiaeeeaei aeione oa?i?iieo neiaiee?a o
ianooii? aeanyoe??//y.

4. Iaeaeuiai ?icaeoeo OOO aeinyaea o 20-eo — ia?o?e iieiaei? 30-eo ??.,
eiee iaae ?ic?iaeaiiyi oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? i?aoethaaea
niaoe?aeueia o?ce/ia i?aeeii?n?y i?e?iaeie/iai a?aeae?eo ?inoeoooo
oe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? iiae. Ae?yeuei?noue ?OII ni?eyea onoaeaiith
iiaeyae?a ia oeyoe ? iaoiaee oai?aiiy oa?i?iinenoai, ae?iaeaiith aeiia
aei oa?i?ia. I?ia?aeiith oaiaeaioe??th a oa?i?iioai?aii? 20-eo ??. noaei
noai?aiiy naiiaooiuei? oe?a?inueei? oa?i?iieia??.

5. I?ioyaii 1921 — 1932 ??. nenoaia oe?a?inueeeo o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a
ieaiii??ii aaiethoe?iioaaea, aeoi?ioaaaoenue ia ii/aoeo 30-eo ??. o
aeineiiaeo nenoaio, yea iiaiith i??ith caaacia/oaaea iio?aae iaoeiaoe?a
? oao?aoe?a. Oeae aoai ?icaeoeo OOO iciaiaioaaany aeoiaeii o na?o
«Neiaieea o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia??» A.Oaai?nueeiai (1932). Oa?i?iia?ao?/ia
i?aoey oeueiai a/aiiai ? iaea?eueoei caeiaooeii oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii?
eaeneeia?ao?? ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no. I?ioyaii e?eueeio aeanyoee?oue OOO
iinooiiai aeinyaaea noaa?eueiino?, oi?o?eiaaiino?, iaeiae aieea
iicaiiaieo oaeoi??a (?ai?aai?caoe?y ?OII, iaiaaeieoeuee? noaoo? A.Oaee?,
I.Eaaaiiae/a oa I.O?ieaey, aeo?ae o na?o «O?ce/iiai oa?i?iieia?/iiai
atheaoaiy», aeeo/aiiy c oaeeoeo neiaieeiaiai aei?iaeo ?OII) ia?ae?aneea
i?aoeth oe?eiai iieie?iiy oe?a?inueeeo iaoeiaoe?a. Oe?eani?yiiaaia
ieuaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia??, iino?eia ao?o/aiiy ia?o?eieo
i?aai?a o oa?i?iioai?/o ae?yeuei?noue iaoeiaoe?a i?ecaaei aei oiai, ui
aaiethoe?eiee ?icaeoie OOO i?eieieany ia aaaaoi ?ie?a.

6. Aiae?c ?icaeoeo OOO ia ae?ao?iiiiio c??c? na?ae/eoue i?i
aaciina?aaeith caeaaei?noue oa?i?iioai?/eo i?ioean?a ? ?o ?ioaineaiino?
a?ae aieeao iicaiiaieo /eiiee?a. I?ioyaii ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo OOO ia
iaoeia?e iniia? neeaeiny aeaa i?aeoiaee aei ?? noaiiaeaiiy: 1) oai?aiiy
oa?i?iieia?? ia ia?iaei?e iniia?; 2)aeei?enoaiiy caeiaooe?a ?ioeo iia,
caeo/aiiy caiice/aiue. O eiaeai c ia??iae?a oai?aiiy OOO, caeaaeii a?ae
iiaieo ? iicaiiaieo oaeoi??a, a?ae/ooieie aoee i?iyae oi iaeieo
(iaoe?iiaeueieo), oi ?ioeo (?ioa?iaoe?iiaeueieo) eiioeaioe?e.

7. Oe?a?inueea o?ce/ia oa?i?iieaeneea ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ia?oi?
o?aoeie OO no. iiiiaithaaeany oeie ae oeyoaie, ui e caaaeueiie?oa?aoo?ia
oe?a?inueea iiaa: oa?i?i?caoe??th caaaeueiiaaeeaaii? eaeneee,
caiice/aiiyi ?ioiiiaieo ne?a, neioaoe/iith oa aiae?oe/iith
aea?eaaoe??th.

8. Iniiao OOO aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo noaiiaeyoue aeania oe?a?inuee?
oa?i?ie oa oa?i?ii? neiainiieoee. O iaoeiaee ia?a oaeiae oaaaeaii /eiaei
caiice/aieo oa?i?i?a, na?aae yeeo ia?aaaaeathoue a?aoeuee? oa eaoeinuee?
neiaa, a oaeiae niaoe?aeuei? iacae c iiaeo ?a?iiaenueeeo iia.

9. Caaaeueiiaaeeaaia eaeneea oa?i?i?coaaeany aiane?aeie aoi?eiii?
iii?iaoe??, oiaoi naiaioe/iei niiniaii, ui ia?aaeaa/aei aeiiiaiaiiy
naiaioeee caaaeueiiaaeeaaiiai neiaa oa?i?iiei ci?noii, ci?io naiaioeee
caaaeueiiaaeeaaiiai neiaa aiane?aeie ia?ainieneaiiy oa iaaeaiiy
oa?i?ii?e eaeneoe? ?ioeo aaeocae o?ce/iiai ci?noo. Oa?i?i?caoe?y
a?aeaoaaeany ia iniia? iaoaoi?e/iiai /e iaoii?iiiai iaeiaioaaiiy. A OOO
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo iaea?eueoa oa?i?i?a, ye? iinoaee aiane?aeie
iaoaoi?e/iiai ia?aianaiiy cia/aiue oa aeiaaioaaeaiiy ne?a
caaaeueiie?oa?aoo?ii? iiae o?ce/iei ci?noii.

10. Oai?aiiy oa?i?iii? eaeneee cae?enithaaeiny oeie ae niiniaaie, ui e
aea?eaaoe?y ne?a caaaeueiiaaeeaaii? iiae: ii?oieia?/iei,
ii?oieiai-neioaene/iei, naiaioe/iei, eaeneei-neioaene/iei. Iaea?eueoo
e?euee?noue noaiiaeyoue iaeiine?ai? oa?i?ie-?iaiieee, ooai?ai?
eaeneei-naiaioe/iei oa ii?oieia?/iei niiniaaie, a oaeiae aiae?oe/i?
aea?eaaoe.

11. ?iaiieee a OOO aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo ooai?aii noo?enaeueiei,
i?ao?enaeueiei, i?ao?enaeueii-noo?enaeueiei niiniaaie, a oaeiae iniiai-
oa neiaineeaaeaiiyi. Iaea?eueo i?iaeoeoeaieie o oai?aii?
oa?i?i?a-?iaiiee?a ? noo?enaeueiee niin?a oa iniiaineeaaeaiiy,
iaeii?iaeoeoeai? — i?ao?enaeueiee ? i?ao?enaeueii-noo?enaeueiee niiniae.

12. Iaeiei ?c iaei?iaeoeoeai?oeo oeyo?a iiiiaiaiiy oa?i?iieaeneee ?
aiae?oe/ia aea?eaaoe?y. A OOO ia?aaaaeathoue ?iceeaaei? oa?i?iiniieoee
o?ueio no?oeoo?ieo oei?a: aeaieiiiiiaioi?, o?eeiiiiiaioi? oa
aaaaoieiiiiiaioi?. Na?aae neeaaeaieo iaca niaoe?aeueieo o?ce/ieo iiiyoue
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo aeii?iothoue aeaieiiiiiaioi?, ooai?ai? ca
aeaiia iaei?iaeoeoeai?oeie iiaeaeyie: i?eeiaoiee + ?iaiiee, ?iaiiee +
?iaiiee.

13. Onaa?/ia aea/aiiy oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? ae?oai?
iieiaeie O?O — ia?oi? o?aoeie OO no. iaiao?aeia aeey aeeaieiai ?icoi?iiy
i?ioean?a oai?aiiy OOO i?ioyaii aeine?aeaeoaaiiai ia??iaeo, a oaeiae
aeey ae?iaeaiiy e?eoa???a nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa ii?ioaaiiy OOO ia no/aniiio
aoai?.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?? AEEEAAeAII A IOAE?EAOe?ssO:

1. A?aoeuee? oa eaoeinuee? oa?i?ie oa oa?i?iiaeaiaioe a oe?a?inuee?e
o?ce/i?e oa?i?iieaeneoe? e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy // I?iaeaie
oe?a?inueei? oa?i?iieia??: Iaoa??aee 5-i? I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? / A?niee Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo «Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea». — Euea?a, 1998. — ? 336. — N. 188-192.

2. Ae?yeuei?noue /eai?a Iaoeiaiai oiaa?enoaa ?iai? Oaa/aiea o ae?iaeaii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? oa?i?iieia?? (ia iaoa??ae? oe?a?inueeeo o?ce/ieo
oa?i?i?a) // I?iaeaie ooaa?aeaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy aea?aeaaii? iiae a
Oe?a?i?: Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — E., 1998. — N.
217-218.

3. Iiaa oe?a?inueeeo i?ae?o/iee?a c o?ceee e?ioey O?O — ia?oi? o?aoeie
OO noie?ooy // Oe?a?inueea iiaa: c ieioeiai a iaeaooi?: Iaoa??aee
iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? ia a?aecia/aiiy 200-??//y aeoiaeo a na?o «Aia?aee»
?.Eioey?aanueeiai. — E., 1998. — N. 107-109.

4. Iniiai? aoaie oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? //
Oe?a?inueea oa?i?iieia?y ? no/ani?noue: Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue / IAI
Oe?a?ie, ?inoeooo oe?a?inueei? iiae, Eii?oao iaoeiai? oa?i?iieia??;
A?aei. ?aae. E.Neiiiaiei. — E., 1998. — N. 100-103. (0,2 a?e.)

5. ?icaoaeiaa oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? o e?ioe? O?O — ia
ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy // Oa?i?iiciaanoai ye iaeia c i?iaeai neia’yinueei?
o?eieia??: Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie
neia’yinueeiai oa?i?iiciaanoaa». — Oa?iii?eue, 1996. — N.19-20.

6. Neiaioa??ia aoaeiaa oe?a?inueeeo o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a-?iaiiee?a (ia
iaoa??ae? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? e?ioey O?O — ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy) //
I?iaeaie oe?a?inueei? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? oa?i?iieia??: Oace aeiiia?aeae
4-i? I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — Euea?a, 1996. — N.34.

7. Noaiiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? iai?ee?ioe? O?O —
ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy // Iiaa ? nioe?aeuei? i?ioeane: A?niee Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?.O?aiea. Na??y o?eieia?/ia. — Euea?a,
1997. — Aei. 26. — N.35-39. (0,2 a?e.)

8. Oa?i?iieia?/ia eiioeaioe?y I.Eo?eei oa ?? ao?eaiiy o «Neiaieeo
oe?a?inueei? oece/ii? oa?ieiieueia??» // Oe?a?inueea oa?i?iieia?y ?
no/ani?noue: Iaoa??aee ?? Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — E.,
1997. — N. 185-187.

9. Oe?a?inueea o?ce/ia oa?i?iieia?y: ?noi?e/iee iaeyae ? noai
eaeneeia?ao?/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy // Oe?a?inueea oa?i?iieia?y ?
no/ani?noue: Iaoa??aee ?? Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??. — E.,
1997. — N.89-91.

10. Oe?a?inueea o?ce/ia oa?i?iieia?y oa oa?i?iia?ao?y // Slowo i czas /
Red. S.Gajda i A.Pietryga. — Opole, 1998. — N. 227-237. (0,8 a?e.)

11. Oe?a?inuee? neiaieee ? neiaieeia? iaoa??aee c o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia??
ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ia?oi? o?aoeie OO noie?ooy // Oe?a?inueeee
i?aaiien ? iaoeiaa oa?i?iieia?y: i?iaeaie ii?ie oa no/ani?noue. —
Euea?a, 1997. — N. 163-175. (0,5 a?e.)

12. Oeyoe iiiiaiaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O — ia?o?e o?aoei? OO noie?ooy // Iaoea ? no/ani?noue:
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa. — E., 1999. — *. ?V. — N. 186-199. (0,6 a?e.)

13. Aaiaoe/ia ? no?oeoo?ii-neiaioa??ia oa?aeoa?enoeea oe?a?inueei?
o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O — ia?oi? o?aoeie OO noie?ooy
// Nenoaia ? no?oeoo?a no?aeiineia’yinueeeo iia: I?aeeaoaae?aeueiee
ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue / Iaoe?iiaeueiee iaaeaaia?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa; A?aei. ?aae. I.A.A?oeeooea. — E., 1999. — N.155-163.
(0,55 a?e.)

AIIOAOe?ss

I?ioeee ?.?. Oe?a?inueea o?ce/ia oa?i?iieia?y ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O —
ia?oi? o?aoeie OO noie?ooy. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 10.02.01 — oe?a?inueea iiaa. — Euea?anueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aea/aiith ?noi??? noaiiaeaiiy oa iniaeeainoae
?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? o?ce/ii? oa?i?iieia?? ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O —
ia?oi? o?aoeie OO noie?ooy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?i?iieaeneee i?iaaaeaii ia
iniia? niaoe?aeueiiai e?iaa?noe/iiai aiae?co i?aoeue c o?ceee oa
oa?i?iieo o?ce/ieo neiaiee?a. C’yniaaii i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe??
oa?i?iioai?aiiy, cae?eniaii aaiaoe/io oa no?oeoo?ii-neiaioa??io
oa?aeoa?enoeeo oe?a?inueeeo o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a, iienaii niiniae ? caniae
oa?i?iii? aea?eaaoe??, aecia/aii neiaioa??i? iiaeae? o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a,
anoaiiaeaii ?o i?iaeoeoeai?noue.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: oe?a?inueea o?ce/ia oa?i?iieia?y, oa?i?i,
oa?i?iioai?aiiy, oa?i?iieaeneea, neiaiee o?ce/ieo oa?i?i?a, neiaioa??ia
iiaeaeue, neiaioai?/ee can?a, oa?i?iiniieoea.

SUMMARY

Protsyk I.R. Ukrainian Physical Terminology of late fifties of XIX
century — late thirties of XX century. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for Candidate’s degree in linguistics. Specialization
10.02.01 — Ukrainian language. — Ivan Franko Lviv National University,
Lviv, 1999.

Dissertation is dedicated to the history of establishment and
development of terminology in physics — one of the fundamental natural
sciences — in the period of late fifties of XIX century — late thirties
of XX century.

Investigation into Ukrainian physical terminology in diachronic aspect
was based on special linguistic source analysis — physical
terminological dictionaries, where Ukrainian terminological vocabulary
of the period investigated was fully introduced, as well as other
researches in physics, such as articles, explorations, textbooks
published both in Ukraine and abroad.

Physical terminology has long (of about one hundred and a half years)
history in Ukrainian language, though its development was rather «wavy».
Formation of national physical terminology on scientific basis was
developed in 60-90-ies of XIX century. At the end of XIX century —
beginning of XX century it was actively completed, because this was the
period of its stable evolution development marked with no russification.

The main stages of Ukrainian physical term system development are
stated, leading tendencies and factors which determined the process of
UPT formation are clarified, reasons for unhomogeneousness of term
building processes are defined in the dissertation essay.

Leading tendencies of term building were identified in the essay.
According to them UPT were developed by means of accumulating lexical
material from folk sources, creating proper terms on the basis of
national and foreign resources, using best achievements of other
languages and countries. Owing to the establishment and development of
the Institute of Ukrainian scientific language as well as the efforts of
Ukrainian scientists the period of 20-30-ies of XX century became the
most intensive one in creating Ukrainian physical terminology. This was
the period of ordering, systematization and normalization of UPT system
on scientific basis. Various kinds of influence of national and
international term building concepts were very obvious in different
periods of UPT creation, depending both on lingual and extra-lingual
factors. The leading tendency of UPT formation at the end of the 20-ies
— beginning of the 30-ies of XX century was creation of original
national system of physical terms, where proper Ukrainian special names
were harmonically combined with foreign ones. Ukrainian national
physical term system was constantly and smoothly developing, and in
early 30-ies it turned to a perfect system, which fully satisfied needs
of scientists and professionals. But the influence of extra-lingual
factors dwingled the work of several generations of Ukrainian scientists
into nothing. Purposeful destruction of UPT and constant state
interference into term building activity led to objection of previous
achievements of Ukrainian scientists and long-term halt in physical
terminology development. That’s why the leading tendency of the present
stage of UPT formation is reproduction, renovation and active functional
usage of Ukrainian physical terms of late fifties of XIX century — late
thirties of XX century.

This essay contains genetic and structural word building characteristic
of Ukrainian physical terms. UPT of the investigated period were
enriched through many different ways, mainly through usage the proper
Ukrainian general vocabulary as terms, through new terms creation by
means of derivation and foreign borrowings from Greek, Latin, German,
French, Polish, and English.

The dissertation contains description of ways and means of term
derivation, physical term word building models and their productiveness.
Research has proved that derivation in UPT is achieved almost through
all known in Ukrainian language ways of word building. The most active
ways for UPT in late fifties of XIX century — late thirties of XX
century were lexical-semantic, analytic (term combinations), and
morphological derivation. Lexical-semantic way of word building was the
leading one for physical terms — common words and terms of other
branches, which turned into terms as a result of their semantic
completion by physical content and their meaning reinterpretation as a
result of metaphoric and metonymic nomination. Nouns form the bulk of
physical term system (69%), they were formed by means of such methods of
word building as suffix, prefix, suffix-prefix, stem and word
composition. UPT contains extensible term combinations of three
structural types: two-component, three-component and multi-component.
Among physical term combinations of the investigated period dominate
two-component combinations built according to two most productive
models: adjective + noun, noun + noun.

Conclusions, generalization and reference material of the dissertation
can serve as a basis for further UPT investigation, systematization and
unification of Ukrainian physical terminology at present stage, for
Ukrainian terminology and terminography development, for researches on
the history of Ukrainian literary language and historical cultural
studies.

Key words: Ukrainian physical terminology, term, term building, term
vocabulary, dictionary of physical terms, word building model, word
building means, term combination.

AIIIOAOeEss

I?ioeee E.?. Oe?aeineay oece/aneay oa?ieiieiaey aoi?ie iieiaeiu O?O —
ia?aie o?aoe OO aaea. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.02.01 — oe?aeineee ycue. — Eueaianeee
iaoeeiiaeueiue oieaa?neoao ei. E.O?aiei, Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enoi?ee noaiiaeaiey e iniaaiiinoyi ?acaeoey
oe?aeineie oece/aneie oa?ieiieiaee aoi?ie iieiaeiu O?O — ia?aie o?aoe OO
aaea. Enneaaeiaaiea oa?ieiieaeneee i?iaaaeaii ia iniiaa niaoeeaeueiiai
eeiaaenoe/aneiai aiaeeca ?aaio ii oeceea e oa?ieiieiae/aneeo oece/aneeo
neiaa?ae. Auaeaeaiu aaaeouea oaiaeaioeee oa?ieiiia?aciaaiey,
inouanoaeaia aaiaoe/aneay e no?oeoo?ii-neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiay
oa?aeoa?enoeea oe?aeineeo oece/aneeo oa?ieiia, iienaiu niiniau e
n?aaenoaa oa?ieiieiae/aneie aea?eaaoeee, ii?aaeaeaiu
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiua iiaeaee oece/aneeo oa?ieiia, onoaiiaeaia eo
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: oe?aeineay oece/aneay oa?ieiieiaey, oa?iei,
oa?ieiiia?aciaaiea, oa?ieiieaeneea, neiaa?ue oece/aneeo oa?ieiia,
neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiay iiaeaeue, neiaiia?aciaaoaeueiia n?aaenoai,
oa?ieiieiae/aneia neiaini/aoaiea.

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