I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? ?AAIA O?AIEA

NAIIOTHE I?ANO ETHAIIE?IAE*

OAeE 327:9 (477)

OE?A?IA A IIE?OE*IIIO I?IOeAN? ?A?IIE 1914–1921 ??.

(CA IAOA??AEAIE I?IAOeUeEIIIAII? E?OA?AOO?E)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 23.00.02 – Iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe ? i?ioeane

Aaoi?aoa?ao ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe

EUeA?A 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iie?oieia?? o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Na?oa Aaiia
Ieoaee?aia, eaoaae?a iie?oieia?? o?einionueeiai oaeoeueoaoo
Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? A?ei?a Ieaa
?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ naeoi?a oai?aoe/ii? aoiieia?? ?inoeoooo
ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Euea?a)

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio Iaaea?aeue Oaae?? Ieoaeeiae/,
ia/aeueiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ? ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/iai a?aeae?eo
Euea?anueeiai ?inoeoooo aioo??oi?o ni?aa i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e Aeaaeai??
aioo??oi?o ni?aa i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e Aeaaeai?? aioo??oi?o ni?aa Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y – ?inoeooo iie?oe/ieo ? aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue IAI Oe?a?ie (i.Ee?a)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 9 aa?aniy i 15.30 ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?
a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.051.02

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.?aaia O?aiea ca aae?anith: 290602, Euea?a,
aoe.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 26 eeiiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 35.051.02

aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe Aeaienaiei A.I.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. C ?iciaaeii N?N? oa ooai?aiiyi ia
eiai oa?eoi??? iiaeo iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa aino?i iinoaei ieoaiiy i?i
aaiiie?oe/i? i???ioe?e oeeo iiaeo aea?aeaaieo ooai?aiue, a oiio /ene? e
Oe?a?ie. Caia aaiiie?oe/i? i???ioe?e o??? /e ?ioi? aea?aeaae ni?eythoue
oi?ioaaiith ?? aioo??oiuei? oa ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee, aecia/athoue
noinoiee aea?aeaae c ?ioeie noa’?eoaie iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a.
Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee
yeiai iaiaaeothoueny ia??iaeii 1914 – 1921 ??. (yeee ie oiiaii
iiae?ey?ii ia aeaa i?aeia??iaee 1914-1917 oa 1918-1921), coiiaeaia
iie?oe/ii-?noi?e/ieie iniaeeainoyie aeacaiiai ia??iaeo: ii/aoeii Ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie, iiaeaaaeaiiyi noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ?oo?a o e?a?iao
Aaanao?cueei? iiia?o??, ?iciaaeii Aano?i-Oai?ueie oa oea?nueei? ?in??,
iineeaiiyi i?aaiaiue ia?iae?a oeeo ?iia??e aei iacaeaaeiino?, ci?iith
aaiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a ?a?ii? aiane?aeie ooai?aiiy iiaeo iacaeaaeieo
aea?aeaa. I?iaieioaiiy iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae a n?/i? 1918 oa a na?ii?
1991?ieo aeeeeeaei aeaaaee ?ioa?an ye na?aae iie?oee?a, oae ? cania?a
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? aei iieiaei? aea?aeaae, nooo?ai ni?e/eieeiny aei
ci?i a ?a?iiaenuee?e iie?oeoe? oa nenoai? aaciaee ia eiioeiaio?. C
iaeyaeo ia oe? oaeoi?e oaia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aeooaeueiith, ine?eueee ? i?aenoaae aiai?eoe i?i iie?oe/ii-?noi?e/i?
ia?aeae? i?ae neooaoe??th a Oe?a?i? a ia?o? aeanyoe??//y ? iai?ee?ioe?
aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy, a oaeiae i?i aeina?ae ? o?iee ieioeiai aeey
?icoi?iiy aeooaeueiino? aaiiie?oe/iiai noaiiaeua a ?a?ii?. No/ani?
iie?oe/i? i?ioeane a ?a?ii?, ??aii ae ye ? ?icaeoie iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano
a Oe?a?i? oa aeina?ae ?? aaiiie?oe/ieo i???ioaoe?e a ieioeiio na?ae/aoue
i?i oa, ui ia?aa?a oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano oa ia?niaeoeae
?icaeoeo iaoi? aea?aeaae coiiaeai? iniaeeainoyie ?? ?icoaooaaiiy.
aeieeaathoue ?c iniaeeainoae oa?eoi???, ia ye?e aeeaa oe?a?inueeee
ia?iae.

Ocaaaeueithth/e ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae oe?a?inueeeo iacaeaaeieoeueeeo
ciaaaiue oa iiooeo iie?oe/ieo nithciee?a o ieioeiio, a?aoiaoth/e
iniaeeaino? no/anieo iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a, ie noaa?aeaeo?ii, ui
aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia naia oeeie
aeaiia /eiieeaie — ?noi?e/iei aeina?aeii aaiiie?oe/ieo i???ioe??a
Oe?a?ie oa no/anieie iie?oe/ieie i?ioeanaie a ?a?ii?.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny
iio?aaith o aea/aii? iie?oieia?/ieo i?iaeai, ye? o ?aaeyinueeee ia??iae
aai oe?eeiaeoi caiia/oaaeeny aai o?aeooaaeeny a?aeiia?aeii aei oiae?oieo
?aeaieia?/ieo ianoaiia ae?ae oaiaeaioe?eii. Aiae?ciaaiee o ?iaio?
ia??iae 1914-1921 ?ie?a aoa nai???aeiei i?aea?oioyi aeey a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae a na?ii? 1991 ?ieo. Oeae ia??iae a?aecia/aany
caiaeeith ai?ioueaith aeaio iai?yie?a oe?a?inueei? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee,
yea oiae? ?iaeea eeoa ia?o? naiino?ei? e?iee. Oea ?a?iiaenueeee
(i?icao?aeiee) oa ?a?ac?enueeee (i?i?in?enueeee) aaeoi?e, i?ae yeeie o
??ci? ia??iaee oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? aaeany ai?ioueaa. Oea nooo?ai
aieeaaei ia iie?oe/iee i?ioean a aea?aeaa? cie?aia oa ia ?a?iiaenueeiio
eiioeiaio? caaaeii. ?icaeyae oa oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy
iie?oe/ii-?noi?e/ieo i?iaeai aiae?ciaaii? o ?iaio? aiioe aea?
iiaeeea?noue aeeaoa ona?aeiiethaaoe iniaeeaino? oa oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
no/aniiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano a Oe?a?i?. Oea oaeiae na?ae/eoue i?i
aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie. Oiio iniiaiee aeoeaio
i?aoe? noaaeoueny aeania ia c’ynoaaii? aaiiie?oe/iiai cia/aiiy Oe?a?ie
aeey ?a?iie a ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? i?iaoeueeiiiaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? ia??iaeeee.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iia’ycaia c iaoeiaeie i?iaeaiaie,
iaae yeeie i?aoeth? eaoaae?a iie?oieia?? Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, cie?aia, ?c eiiieaeniith oaiith “No/ani? aoiiiie?oe/i?
i?ioeane a Oe?a?i? oa ?o ?ic?iaea a iniiaieo iiiyooyo oa eaoaai??yo”.
Oea oaeiae ?iaeoue oaio ?iaioe aeooaeueiith.

Noai aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. Aea/aiiy oa aiae?c e?oa?aoo?e ii oai?
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aea? i?aenoaao c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oa,
ui oey oaia, iii?e naith aeooaeuei?noue, ia nueiaiaei? i?aeoe/ii ia
aeine?aeaeaia ? ie ua ia ia?ii aeiaeii? ?iaioe, aaciina?aaeiuei ?e
i?enay/aii?. C iaeiiai aieo, iaoeiaoe? a?aee aei oaaae eeoa nooi
?noi?e/i? aniaeoe i?iaeaie. C ?ioiai, aeiaeaoeiaeie aeaea?aeaie o oeeo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo aenooiaee o?eueee oe?a?inuee? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy.
Aiaeii/an caoaaaeeii, ui i?iaeaia aaiiie?oe/ieo i???ioe??a Oe?a?ie oa ??
i?noey a ?a?iiaenueeiio iie?oe/iiio i?ioean? ciaoiaeeea nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a i?aoeyo oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo ae?y/?a ??cieo aiio —
Ieeeia I?eeea (“Aea?ae i?aa Oe?a?ie” i?noeoue i??eoaaiiiy i?i
aaiiie?oe/io ?ieue iacaeaaeii? Oe?a?ie ye nai???aeiiai caai?iea i?ioe
aa?an?? ?in?enueeiai ?iia??ae?cio a ?a?ii?), Ieoaeea Ae?aaiiaiiaa
(“Eenoe ia Iaaeaei?i?yinueeo Oe?a?io”), Ieoaeea A?ooaanueeiai (“Ooi oae?
oe?a?ioe? ? /iai aiie oi/ooue?”), TH??y Eeie (“?iciiae?e ?in??”),
Noaiaia ?oaeieoeueeiai (“Oe?a?inueea ni?aaa c? noaiiaeua iie?oe/ii?
aaia?ao??”), A’y/aneaaa Eeieinueeiai (“Eenoe aei a?ao?a-oe?ai?ia?a. I?i
?aeath oa i?aai?caoe?th oe?a?inueeiai iiia?o?cio”). O oeeo i?aoeyo
iaa?oioiaaii iio?aao cao?aeii? i???ioaoe?? Oe?a?ie oa ?? cia/aiiy aeey
?a?iie. Na?aae no/anieo ocaaaeueithth/eo i?aoeue ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a
aa?oi iacaaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy I.Iaai/? “A?aeaiue ye aeaea?aei
oe?a?inueeeo nooae?e” oa noaooth ?. E?ei’yeaae/a “Oe?a?inueea ia??iaeeea
o A?aei? ia?oi? /aa?o? 20 noie?ooy”. Iaea?eueo iii?oiee aieea ia
aecia/aiiy i?aeoiae?a aei i?iaeaie ooaa?aeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
aea?aeaaiino? oa i?noey Oe?a?ie a no/ani?e aaiiie?oe/i?e eiinoaeyoe??
iaee i?aoe? iie?oieia?a I.A?ei?aa, O.Iaaea?aey, A.Inaae/oea,
A.Iiooeueieoeueeiai, O.?oaee/a, I.Oiiaiea. Iecea oe?eaaeo aniaeo?a, ui
oi?eathoueny aiae?ciaaiiai o aeena?oaoe?? ia??iaeo, cie?aia eiai
?noi?e/ii-iie?oe/ieo iniaeeainoae, aena?oeaia o ?iaioao ?noi?ee?a
N.Aaeay, I.Aaoueiai/oea, O.Aoi/aea, N.Iaea?/oea, A.Ieenthea,
I.Oaaaoeyea. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c a?aeia?aaeaiiyi
iie?oe/ieo i?ioeana? o CI?, cie?aia o ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo oa
aca?iiae?? iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo? oa CI? iaaecae/aeii ei?eniei aoei
iciaeiieaiy aaoi?a ?c iaoeiaei aei?iaeii oao?aoe?a-aeo?iae?no?a
a.AEeaioea, A.Caei?iaaae, A.Eecai/oea, E.Einy, A.Iineaeaea. Cia/io
?iaioo a oe?e aaeoc? cae?enith? ? Iaoeiai-Aeine?aeiee Oeaio? ia??iaeeee
i?e Euea?nuee?e Iaoeia?e A?ae?ioaoe? ?iai? A.Noaoaieea IAI Oe?a?ie.
I?ioa ae?yeuei?noue Oeaio?o ioiieth? ia?aaeon?i noa?e ?noi??? oa
a?ae?ia?ao?? oe?a?inueei? i?ane.

Aeaea?aeueia aaca aeena?oaoe?? aeeth/a? e?eueea oei?a aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae. Ii-ia?oa, oea e?oa?aoo?a caaaeueiiai aeia?aeeiaiai oa?aeoa?o –
aioeeeeiiaae?? oa iin?aieee, ye? oiiaeeeaeee oi?ioethaaiiy anooiieo
oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue. Ii-ae?oaa, oea iiiia?ao?? ie?aieo oe?a?inueeeo
oa ?a?iiaenueeeo iie?oieia?a, eio?? i?aai?/ii aeiiiaiththoue
oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae, c?a?aiee ia iniia? aiae?co o?aoueiai ?
iaeiniiai?oiai oeio aeaea?ae, a naia i?iaoeueeiiiaii? ia??iaeeee ii/aoeo
aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy. A a?o?aao oa a?ae?ioaeao Eueaiaa, A?aeiy,
Aa?e?ia, Ithioaia, Eyeioe?aa caa??aa?oueny cia/ia e?euee?noue oaeoe/iiai
iaoa??aeo, cie?aia i?iaoeueeiiiaieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue ii/aoeo
aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy, ye? ? aaaaothuei aeaea?aeii aeey iiae?aieo
aeine?aeaeaiue. Aiaeii/an ne?ae iaaieinoe ia oiio, ui ai?iaeiaae
aiae?ciaaiiai ia??iaeo iie?oe/i? i?ioeane, eio?? a?aeaoaaeeny a ?a?ii?,
io?eioaaee nai? aena?oeaiiy ia eeoa ia noi??ieao ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue,
aea ? a iaoeiai-iiiia?ao?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? iie?oieia?/iiai ci?noo.
Aeei?enoiaoth/e o iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? oa?i?ie “e?oa?aoo?a” ? “i?ana”,
ie nie?aoeiaiiny ia ?o o?aeooaaiiy o aeia?aeeia?e e?oa?aoo??. “Caeii
Oe?a?ie i?i ae?oeiaai? CI?” aecia/a? i?ano ye “ia??iaee/i?, ? oae?, ui
i?iaeiaaeothoueny, aeaeaiiy, ye? aeoiaeyoue i?ae iino?eiith iacaith, c
ia??iaee/i?noth iaeei ? a?eueoa iiia??a(aeione?a) i?ioyaii ?ieo”.
Aeia?aeiee “Fischer Lexikon – Publizistik und Massenkommunikation”
cacia/a?, ui ?ai?oa iiiyooy “i?ana” canoiniaoaaeiny aeey iicia/aiiy on?o
ae?oeiaaieo aeaeaiue, ? eeoa caiaeii, o 19 noie?oo?, eiai ci?no caoceany
aei iiiyooy “ia??iaeeea”. E?oa?aoo?a ae a oe?ieiio cia/aii?
aecia/a?oueny ye oai?e ienaiiino? acaaae?, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ci?noo
?ic??ciythoue e?oa?aoo?o ooaeiaeith, iaoeiao, iie?oe/io. ? e?oa?aoo?a, ?
i?ana ? caniaaie iioe?aiiy ?ioi?iaoe??, oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee
oa a?aeoai?aiiy ae?eniino?. Aeoeaio ia ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy o iaoiio
aeine?aeaeaii? coiiaeaiee iniiaiith eiai iaoith i?inoaaeaiiy aaiethoe??
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy, eiai i?noey a iie?oe/iiio i?ioean? ?a?iie
ai?iaeiaae aiae?ciaaiiai ia??iaeo. Ine?eueee ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy
caaaeyee ?aaoey?iino? nai?? iiyae ? iaee?auei caniaii aeey aea/aiiy
iaaiiai yaeua o eiai ?icaeoeo, a oiio /ene? ? yaeu iie?oe/iiai aeeooy,
oi na?aae aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae niinoa??aa?oueny e?euee?nia ia?aaaaa
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue. Ia??iaeeea iaea?eueo iiaii oa aoaeoeaii
a?aeia?aaeaea aeeiai?ci iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a oiai /ano. Ia ii/aoeo
OOno. iaeiei ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo ? iaeiia?aoeai?oeo aeaea?ae ?ioi?iaoe?? ?
iaeaieeaia?oei caniaii oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee aoee naia
ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy. Aaeaeaaoia a?aeia?aaeaiiy ?noi?e/ieo iiae?e oa
aaiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a ?a?ii? oa Oe?a?i? o oiai/anieo aacaoao ?
/aniienao iaei ae??oaeueia cia/aiiy aeey ?ioi?ioaaiiy ?a?iiaenueei?
a?iiaaenueeino? oa ooaa?aeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?. Ui ae
noino?oueny iaoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi aaoi?ii aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii iaeia
?c iaeiaio aea/aieo ? aeoaea ?ioi?iaoeaeo aeaea?aee – i?iaoeueeiiiaio
ia??iaeeeo, yea ai?iaeiaae aiae?ciaaiiai o ?iaio? ia??iaeo nooo?ai
ni?e/eieeany aei oi?ioaaiiy iie?oeee I?ia//eie oa Aano?i-Oai?ueie uiaei
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. A iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii? ie ei?enooaaoeiaiiny
iaaeae? iaeaeaiia oa?i?iaie (e?oa?aoo?a ? ia??iaeeea), oaeeaath/e ?o
aeey aiae?co ye ia??iaee/ieo, oae ? iaia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue ia?oi?
/aa?o? OOno.

Iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?iaiae?coaaoe i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy a eiai oe?e?niino? ye neeaaeiai? iie?oe/iiai
i?ioeano ?a?iie o ia??iae 1914-1921??. o aena?oeaii? i?iaoeueeiiiaii?
e?oa?aoo?e ? ia??iaeeee. Aeoiaey/e ?c oeueiai, o aeena?oaoe?eiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? iinoaaeaii oae? caaaeaiiy :

aecia/eoe ia?aaeoiiae ? aeyaeoe caeiiii??iino? c?inoaiiy aeooaeueiino?
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy;

aeie?aieoe eiai neeaaeia?, iieacaoe ?o aca?iica’ycie;

i?iaiae?coaaoe iiceoe?th i?iaoeueeiiiaieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue oa
?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa uiaei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy.

Oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? o?aeoo?oueny
eiiieaenii. A oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? — oea ii/aoee oe?a?inueei? iie?oe/ii?
aaia?ao??, i?aaenoaaeai? ?iaioaie aaea caaaeaieo A’y/aneaaa
Eeieinueeiai, Ieoaeea Ae?aaiiaiiaa, Ieoaeea A?ooaanueeiai, Noaiaia
?oaeieoeueeiai, TH??y Eeie. Oea oaeiae ? aaiiie?oe/i? i???ioe?e
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Oea, ia?aoo?, ? iiceoe?? iie?oe/ieo nithciee?a
Oe?a?ie uiaei caeiaoooy ? caa?aaeaiiy iath iie?oe/ii? iacaeaaeiino?. O
aoae/iio ?icoi?ii? oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy ne?ae ?icoi?oe ye i?iaeaio
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ye naiino?eiiai
/eiieea ?a?iiaenueei? iie?oeee ia ii/aoeo OOno.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiiy ? iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? oa
aniaeoe iie?oe/ii? aaiethoe?? Oe?a?ie a?ae ia’?eoa aei noa’?eoa
iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano ?a?iie ia?oi? /aa?o? OOno. I?aaeiaoii
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y i?iaoeueeiiiaiith e?oa?aoo?ith oa
ia??iaeeeith iac??aaiiy, ?icai?oaiiy ? ao?aoe aeooaeueiino?
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy, eiai ?ie? oa i?noey a iie?oe/iiio i?ioean? ?a?iie
1914-1921??.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieyaa? o ianooiiiio:

aia?oa o a?o/eciyi?e i?aeoeoe? aaoi?ii a iaoeiaee ia?a ai?iaaaeaeaii ?
i?iaiae?ciaaii ia’?iiee oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae- i?iaoeueeiiiaio
e?oa?aoo?o ? ia??iaeeeo;

oaeoieia?/iee iaoa??ae aia?oa ?icaeyiooi ye aeaea?aei iie?oieia?/ieo, a
ia eeoa ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue;

aaoi?ii iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ca?aooaaiiy oaeiae ? ia??iaee/ieo
aeaeaiue oe?a?inueeeo iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?e, cie?aia i?aaio Caaaeueii?
Oe?a?inueei? Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee “Ukrainisches Korrespondenzblatt” oa
/aniieno “Ukrainische Nachrichten” (i?aai Nithco aecaieaiiy Oe?a?ie) aei
i?iaoeueeiiiaii? i?ane, ui nooo?ai ?icoe?eei niaeo? aiae?ciaaii?
ia??iaeeee ye aeaea?aeueii? aace aeine?aeaeaiiy;

a aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? nenoaiiiai aiae?co i?inoaaeaii oa aeie?aieaii
o? iie?oe/i? /eiieee, ye? coiiaeee a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy ia ii/aoeo OOno. (ii/aoie Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie,
aaiiie?oe/ia i?ioenoiyiiy ?in?enueei? oa Aano?i-Oai?nueei? ?iia??e,
iiaeaaaeaiiy noni?eueieo ?oo?a a Aano?i-Oai?uei? oa ?in?? oa iineeaiiy
a?aeoeaio?iaeo oaiaeaioe?e na?aae ia?iae?a iaeaeaio aea?aeaa);

c iaoith aoaeoeai?oiai aena?oeaiiy aaiiie?oe/ii? neooaoe?? a Oe?a?i? oa
?a?ii? i?iiiio?oueny ianooiia ia??iaeecaoe?y iiae?e iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? :
aiae?ciaaiee naie??/iee ia??iae (1914-1921??) oiiaii iiae?ey?oueny ia
aeaa i?aeia??iaee (1914-1917) ? (1918-1921), ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny a
ie?aieo ?icae?eao ?iaioe;

ia iniia? aiae?co ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aaoi?ii nooo?ai ooi/iaia aeao?i?oe?y
aaiiie?oeee;

— cai?iiiiiaaii eiioeaioe?th aaiethoe?eiiai i?aeoiaeo aei
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy ia iniia? ioe?iie i?iaoeueeiiiaii? e?oa?aoo?e ?
ia??iaeeee ia?oi? /aa?o? OOno. O aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? aiae?co
i?iaoeueeiiiaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? ia??iaeeee i?inoaaeaii iaiaaaiiy Oe?a?ie
ye ia’?eoa iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a ?a?iie, ui ia a?ae?a?a? naiino?eii?
?ie?, a ?icaeyaea?oueny ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie ye ?ino?oiaio aeey
aeinyaiaiiy aeanieo aaiiie?oe/ieo oe?eae, iaaooe noaoono iiaiioe?iiiai
noa’?eoa ?a?iiaenueeiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano ia?oi? /aa??o OOno. E??i
oiai, aeena?oaio i?inoaaeea ?icaeoie oa iniiai? aoaie oe?a?inueeiai
iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano 1918-1921??. o aena?oeaii? i?iaoeueeiiiaii?
e?oa?aoo?e ? ia??iaeeee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy eiie?aoeco?oueny a
iniiaieo iieiaeaiiyo, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno :

aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue a?ae?iaeaeaiiy oa ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy
caaaeueiith iie?oe/iith neooaoe??th a ?a?ii? ia?oi? /aa?o? OOno.;

aiioeaiaai?noue iie?oe/ii? iiceoe?? i?iaoeueeiiiaii? ia??iaeeee oa
oe?a?inueei? iie?oeee I?ia//eie oa Aano?i-Oai?ueie aaino?aoaa?/ieie
i??eoaaiiyie oeeo aea?aeaa;

aca?iicoiiaeai?noue ? aca?iicaeaaei?noue iniiaieo aoai?a oe?a?inueeiai
iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano 1917-1921 ?ie?a;

ao?aoa Oe?a?iith aea?aeaaii? iacaeaaeiino? (1918-1921) ye iane?aeie
aioo??oieo oa ciai?oieo, ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo i?e/ei;

Iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy aaco?oueny ia
iie?oieia?/ieo iaoiaeao, ye? iaeaaeaoue aei o?ueio a?oi –
caaaeueiieia?/i?, ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/i? oa nenoaii?. ?c ia?oi? a?oie ie
aeei?enoaee iaoiae aiae?co i?iaoeueeiiiaieo ia??iaee/ieo ?
iaia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue ia?oi? /aa?o? OOno. oa neioaco ?o iie?oe/ii?
iiceoe?? noiniaii oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy. ?c ae?oai? a?oie ie ia?aee
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee iaoiae, yeee ia?aaeaa/a? iiae?e oe?iei? oaie –
?ie? ? i?noey Oe?a?ie a iie?oe/iiio i?ioean? ?a?iie ia?oi? /aa?o? OOno.
– ia ?yae aoae/eo i?iaeai (aoaie oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano, ?o
?ioa?i?aoaoe?y i?iaoeueeiiiaiith e?oa?aoo?ith ? ia??iaeeeith), ye?
?icaeyaeathoueny a o?iiieia?/iiio ii?yaeeo. O?ao?i iaoiaeii iaoiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee, yeee aeine?aeaeo? /eiieee,
ui ae?thoue ia eeoa ana?aaeei? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, aea ? iica ??
iaaeaie. O aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? oeeie /eiieeaie aenooiathoue
aaiiie?oe/ia ?icoaooaaiy Oe?a?ie, eiie?aoii-?noi?e/i? oiiae ?? ?icaeoeo,
iie?oe/ia iiceoe?y ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue I?ia//eie oa Aano?i-Oai?ueie
uiaei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy. Oe? iaoiaee o ii?aeiaii? ?c
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iei i?aeoiaeii (?noi?e/i? oaeoe aeei?enoaii ye
aeaea?aei iie?oieia?/ieo ocaaaeueiaiue), yeee oiiaeeeaeth? anaa?/ia
aena?oeaiiy iinoaaeaii? o aeena?oaoe?? i?iaeaie ia iaae? iie?oieia??,
iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? oa ioae?oeenoeee aeicaieeee ia eeoa c’ynoaaoe
iie?oe/ii-?noi?e/i? iniaeeaino? ia??iaeo 1914-1921??. ? niaoeeo?eo
a?aeia?aaeaiiy oeeo iiae?e o i?iaoeueeiiiai?e e?oa?aoo?? oa ia??iaeeoe?,
aea ? iieacaoe ?o aeaoa?i?iiaai?noue iie?oe/iith neooaoe??th.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a
oiio, ui aiii ni?eyoeia iiaei aeine?aeaeaiiyi o noa?? aaiiie?oe/ieo
?ioa?an?a Oe?a?ie, ?? ?ie? oa i?noey o no/aniiio i?aeia?iaeiiio
iie?oe/iiio i?ioean?.. Aeina?ae, iaaooee iaoith aea?aeaaith o ai?iouea?
ca ooaa?aeaeaiiy aeanii? aea?aeaaiino? oa aca?iia?aeiineiao ?c
non?aeieie aea?aeaaaie ia ii/aoeo aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy, ia? nooo?aa
cia/aiiy ? a no/anio ii?o, eiee Oe?a?ia ia eeoa ?icaoaeiao? iniiae nai??
aea?aeaaiino?, aea ? iaiaaa?oueny aecia/eoe naith iiceoe?th a noa??
i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, a?aeooeaoe aaeaeaaoio ciai?oiueiiie?oe/io
i???ioaoe?th. A?aooaaiiy ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo oa iiieeie o iie?oe/iiio
?icaeoeia? iiia?aaei?o aiio oa ?aae?e no/aniiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano
aeiiiiiaea oieeaoe iiae?aieo iiieeie o iaeaooiueiio oa inoaoi/ii
aecia/eoe aioo??oiuei- ? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i? i??i?eoaoe oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae, caeiyoe a?aeia i?noea o na?oiaiio ni?aoiaa?enoa?.

Caneoaiao? ia oaaao ? i?aeoe/ia canoinoaaiiy io?eiaieo o ?iaio?
?acoeueoao?a. Aca?iiiia’ycai?noue ? aca?iicaeaaei?noue iie?oeee oa
cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? ?aae?yie no/aniiai na?oo. Aeieeaaeia
aea/aiiy iaeaeaio oaiiiai?a, ?o aca?iiae?? oiiaeeeaeoue aaeaeaaoia
aena?oeaiiy iie?oe/ieo iiae?e o i?an? oa aeiiiiiaea i?e oi?ioaaii?
aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee o noa?? ian-iaae?a. Aeei?enoaiee o aeena?oaoe??
iaoa??ae noaia iniiaith aeey ?ic?iaee niaoeeo?no aeey nooaeaio?a
aeo?iae?noeee, iie?oieia?? oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, a oaeiae ieiaea
aooe aeeth/aiee aei o?anoiiao??, aei yei? oa?eoee a ioae?eaoe??
i?iaoeueeiiiaii? i?ane, ye? ? oe?iiei ?noi?e/iei aeieoiaioii
aiae?ciaaiiai o aeena?oaoe?? ia??iaeo 1914-1921??.

E??i oiai, c?a?aiee aaoi?ii iaoa??ae, a oaeiae ioae?eaoe?? no/anii?
i?iaoeueeiiiaii? ia??iaeeee ? aacith aeey ie?aii? iiiia?ao??, yea a
i?noeea ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iie?oe/ii-?noi?e/ieo iniaeeainoae ?icaeoeo
Oe?a?ie ia ii/aoeo ? iai?ee?ioe? aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy ia iniia?
ioae?eaoe?e i?iaoeueeiiiaii? ia??iaeeee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy, a oaeiae ie?ai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aoee
ii?eethaeiai? ia anaoe?a?inuee?e eiioa?aioe?? “I.A?ooaanueeeee ?
Cao?aeia Oe?a?ia” (Euea?a,1994), aeainoi?iiiueiio iie?oieia?/iiio
neiiic?oi? “ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo? Aano??? oa Oe?a?ie”
(Ee?a-A?aeaiue, 1995), i?aeia?iaeiiio iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? “I?iaoeuee?
eieii?? a Aaee/ei? — ?noi??y, a?o?oaeoo?a, eoeueoo?a”(Euea?a,1996) oa
i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aaee/eia o ia??iae Aano?i-Oai?nueei?
iiia?o?? 1772-1918”(Euea?a, 1997). E??i oiai, aeaye? o?aaiaioe
aeena?oaoe?? aoee iioae?eiaai? o “Nooae?yo iie?oieia?/iiai oeaio?o
“Aaiaca” (//.3, 6/1995) oa aeo?iae? “Oe?a?inuee? aa??aioe” (/.1/1997,
/.2(4)/1998).

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae, a?ae?ia?ao?/iiai iieno ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? ?
ia?ae?eo oiiaieo iicia/aiue.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O Anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, noi?ioeueiaaii ia’?eo ?
i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, cacia/aii eiai i?iaeaiaoeeo, iaoeiao iaoo oa
caaaeaiiy. Iniaeeao oaaao i?ecay/aii oa?aeoa?enoeoe? aeaea?aeueii? aace
oa c’ynoaaiith noaio aeine?aeaeoaaii? i?iaeaie. E??i oiai, iaa?oioiaaii
iaoeiao iiaecio ?iaioe, aeacaii ia iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe??,
?? oai?aoe/iiai oa i?aeoe/iiai cia/aiiy, a oaeiae iiia?aaeith
ai?iaaoe?th oa no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Caaaeueiee
ianya aeena?oaoe?? 163 noi??iee. Nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae i?noeoue
240 iiceoe?e ia 15 noi??ieao. A?a?eia?ao?/iee iien ii oai? aeena?oaoe??
neeaaea?oueny ?c 90 iaeiaioaaiue ia 6 noi??ieao.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oe?a?ia a ?a?iiaenueeiio aaiiie?oe/iiio i?inoi??
1914-1917 ?ie?a” aeena?oaio ia iniia? ii?aoethaaieo aeaea?ae aiae?co?
caaaeueiiiie?oe/io neooaoe?th a ?a?ii? iaia?aaeiaei? ? i?ney ii/aoeo
Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie, a?aecia/a? iineeaiiy a?aeoeaio?iaeo oaiaeaioe?e a
Aano?i-Oai?nuee?e oa ?in?enuee?e iiia?o?yo, c’yniao? ciai?oi? oa
aioo??oi? ianoaaeie, ye? coiiaeee a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aeooaeueiino? ?
iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy. Cie?aia o ia?oiio ia?aa?ao?
“Aaiiie?oeea ye iaoeiaee iai?yi iie?oieia??” iiaeaii ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei
?icoi?iiy aaiiie?oeee, iieacaii ?? ca’ycie c ?ioei noni?eueieie iaoeaie.
Iii?e ??ciiiai?oi?noue o?aeooaaiue aaiiie?oeee ni?eueiith ?o ?enith ?
oa, ui an? aiie aeacothoue ia aca?iiiia’ycai?noue i?e?iaeieo
(aaia?ao?/ieo) ? iie?oe/ieo oiia ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ?nioaaiiy aea?aeaae. Ia
iniia? aiae?co ??cieo i?aeoiae?a aei oaiiiaia aaiiie?oeee ie i?iiiio?ii
aeaiyea ?? aecia/aiiy. sse iaoea aaiiie?oeea aeine?aeaeo? i?inoi?iao
eia?eo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei oa aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee a eiioaeno?
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee. Aiaeii/an aaiiie?oeeo ie
?icaeyaea?ii ye aeania iie?oeeo (i?aeoe/io ae?yeuei?noue), yea a?aoiao?
aieea aaia?ao?/ieo oaeoi??a.

I?ney ?icaaeo eiioi?noe/ii? nenoaie ia noiae? ?a?iiaenueeiai eiioeiaioo
noi?ioaaeany iiaa aaiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y, coiiaeaia aeieeiaiiyi iiaeo
iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa, na?aae ieo ? Oe?a?ie. Aaia?ao?/ia ?icoaooaaiiy
Oe?a?ie, ?iaeth/? a?oioe oa aea?aei? oeyoe niieo/aiiy, c iaeiiai aieo oa
a?ae iaae?eieo i?e?iaeieo ei?aeii?a, c ?ioiai, caaoa ?iaeee ??
oa?eoi??th ia’?eoii /eneaiieo aeniain?e c aieo aeeae/eo oa aeaeueoeo
non?ae?a. Oea i?aeoaa?aeeea ? Ia?oa na?oiaa a?eia, o ye?e aeaa
ai?iaoth/eo aeiee — Aioaioa oa Oeaio?aeuei? aea?aeaae (Ii/a??iee Nithc)
iaiaaaeeny eiaeai ii-nai?io ?ic?a?aoe “oe?a?inueeo ea?oo”. C ii/aoeii
Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie, iaeiei ?c iioea?a yei?, ia aeoieo aaaaoueio
oiai/anieo iie?oee?a, aoei oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy, ia ia?oee ieai aeeoea
i?iaeaia aaiiie?oe/iiai i?ioenoiyiiy i?ae Aioaioith oa Ii/a??iei
Nithcii. Oea i?ioenoiyiiy iaeae?aci?oa i?iyaeeiny a aano?i-?in?enueeiio
eiioe?eo?. Eiioe?eo iaeaeaio ?iia??e aeieeaaeii aena?oeaii o
aaiiie?oe/ieo eiioeaioe?yo, ye? aaoi? aiae?co? o ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao?
“Oe?a?ia o aaiiie?oe/ieo eiioeaioe?yo ia?oi? /aa?o? OOno.”. I?aaio/e
oaacia/eoe ?a?iio a?ae aaiie?oe/ieo iinyaaiue ?in??, aano?i-oai?nuee? oa
i?iaoeuee? iie?oeee ooeaee a inia? ia?in?enueeeo ia?iae?a oea?nueei?
?iia??? nai?o nithciee?a. Iaeaaaeeea?oei ?c oeeo iioaioe?eieo nithciee?a
iiaeiia aoea noaoe Oe?a?ia, aea?aeaaia iacaeaaei?noue yei? nooo?ai
iineaaeea a aaiiie?oe/iee aieea ?in??. Oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i aea?aeaaio
naiino?ei?noue Oe?a?ie ye aa?aio ?a?iiaenueei? aaciaee oa caoeno a?ae
?in?enueei? aeniain?? ciaoiaeeii a eiioeaioe?yo A.?aaee?oa ? E.Iiooeaey,
eio?? aaaaeaee, ui iaeiei ?c caaaeaiue a?eie ? iicaaaeaiiy ?in??
iiaeeeainoae aanoe aeniain?eio iie?oeeo, a iaee?auei caniaii aeey
oeueiai ? a?aeiiaeaiiy iacaeaaeii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

?io? aaoi?e, cie?aia ?.*aeeai ? O.Iaoiaii a?aecia/aee, ui oe?a?inueea
ieoaiiy aoei iaeiei ?c iioea?a a?eie ? aaaaeaee iaiao?aeiei ia’?aeiaiiy
ia?in?enueeeo ia?iae?a ?in?enueei? ?iia???, na?aae ieo ? Oe?a?ie, aeey
iiaeaeueoi? ni?eueii? ai?ioueae ca iacaeaaei?noue.

I?iaoeueeee iie?oieia I.Aaaa? aenooiaa ca noai?aiiy nithco iacaeaaeieo
aea?aeaa ia?in?enueeeo ia?iae?a ?a?iiaenueei? /anoeie ?in?enueei?
?iia??? oa aoa i?eoeeueieeii i?iaoeueei-neia’yinueei?
no?aeii?a?iiaenueei? oaaea?aoe??, o ye?e /?eueia i?noea iiaeiia aoea
caeiyoe ? Oe?a?ia.

C ?icaeoeii a?enueeiaiai eiioe?eoo i?ae Aioaioith oa Ii/a??iei Nithcii
oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy iaaoaaei ui?ac a?eueoi? aino?ioe, a a?ae eiai
ae??oaiiy cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaei aaiiie?oe/ia a?aaoethaaiiy ia
eiioeiaio?. Iino?eii c?inoath/ee ?ioa?an aei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy c
aieo I?ia//eie oa Aano?i-Oai?ueie ciaeoia nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy ia
noi??ieao i?iaoeueeiiiaii? e?oa?aoo?e. Oe? i?ioeane aena?oeaii o
o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? “Oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy iaia?aaeiaei? Ethoiaai?
?aaiethoe?? a ?in?? oa eiai iie?oe/ia ioe?iea Oeaio?aeueieie
aea?aeaaaie”. Oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy, yea a?ae?iaeeeiny ? ?icaeioeiny c
oiaeii Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie, iaei e?eueea aniaeo?a :

caa?ica aeey ?a?iie c aieo ?in?? iieyaa? o iino?eiiio i?aaiaii? ?iia???
aei iiaeo caaithaaiue, a iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie iiaea a noaoe aa?aioii
aaciaee ia eiioeiaio?;

ine?eueee an? cao?aei? oa?eoi??? ?in?? (a o./. ? Oe?a?ia) ia ?
?in?enueeeie ? o?aaeeoe?eii oyae?thoue aei ?a?iie, oi a?aeie?aieaiiy
oeeo oa?eoi??e ? ooai?aiiy ia ieo naiino?eieo aea?aeaa caaacia/aoue
noaa?euei?noue ia ?a?iiaenueeiio eiioeiaio?;

iiaooi?noue ?in?? caaacia/o?oueny aeiiii?/iith ? iie?oe/iith
aenieoaoaoe??th Oe?a?ie. C ?? iacaeaaei?noth ?in?y ao?aoeoue nai?
iiceoe?? a ?a?ii?;

aieea iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai ?in?? ia oe?a?inueei-?in?enuee? noinoiee;

iiceoe?y Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa uiaei oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy

aaoiiii?y Aaee/eie ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia iaoe?iiaeueieo ciaaaiue
oe?a?ioe?a o Ia?o?e na?oia?e a?ei?

Oe? aniaeoe aeieeaaeii aena?oethaaeeny oiai/aniith i?iaoeueeiiiaiith
ia??iaeeeith, a iiceoe?y Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa uiaei oe?a?inueei?
iacaeaaeiino? aoea caaaeii ?aeeiith. A aaiiie?oe/iiio aniaeo? Oe?a?ia
aoea aeey ?in?? ieaoeaea?iii ?? aeniain?ii?noe/ieo i?aaiaiue, ? yeui
Oe?a?ia noaia naiino?eiith aea?aeaaith iica iaaeaie ?in?? ? i?ioeaaaith
?e, oiae? ianoaia e?iaoeue ?in?enueeei i?aoaic?yi.

Neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iie?oe/ieo ciaaaiue oe?a?ioe?a ca aeanio
aea?aeaai?noue iaia?aaeiaei? ?in?enueeeo ?aaiethoe?e aoea i?iaeaia
aaoiiii?? Aaee/eie (iaeiiai ?c ei?iiieo e?a?a Aano?i-Oai?ueie),
i?iaieioaia oe?na?nueeei iai?oanoii 4 eenoiiaaea 1916 ?ieo.
I?iaoeueeiiiaia, iniaeeai aano??enueea (cie?aia aacaoe “Reichspost” ?
“Neues Wiener Tagblatt”) i?enay/oaaea cia/io e?euee?noue iaoa??ae?a oe?e
i?iaeai?. sse i?aee?anethaaeiny o oiai/anieo aeaeaiiyo,. oe?na?nueeee
iai?oano ni?e/eieany aei eiioe?eo?a i?ae aeaiia iae/enaeuei?oeie
aoi?/ieie a?oiaie e?ath — oe?a?ioeyie oa iieyeaie. Ia aeoieo
i?iaoeueeiiiaieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, o Aaee/ei? yae?i ia eeoa
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy, aea ? no?aeii?a?iiaenueei? i?iaeaie caaaeii.

Oaeei /eiii, o ?a?iiaenueeiio iie?oe/iiio i?inoi?? 1914-1917??.
a?aeaoeeny nooo?a?, ci?ie, iia’ycai? ?c ?iciaaeii o?aaeeoe?eii? nenoaie
aaciaee, yea aacoaaeany ia i?eioeei? “??aiiaaae nee”. Iiaa iie?oe/ia
?aaeuei?noue iio?aaoaaea naiai oai?aoe/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy. Oiio a ia?o?e
/aa?o? OO noie?ooy niinoa??aaany ?ioaineaiee iiooe o??? iioeiaeueii?
oi?ioee, yea a a iiaeo i?aeia?iaeieo oiiaao ciiaea a noaoe i???ioe?ii
aeey ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa. Naia o oeae ia??iae aeoeaii ?icaeaaeany
aaiiie?oeea, yea caiaeii aeie?aieeany o naiino?eiee iai?yiie iie?oe/ii?
iaoee.

Ii?o/ ?c caaaeueiiiie?oe/ieie i?iaeaiaie, ye? noaee i?e/eiith Ia?oi?
na?oiai? a?eie, o ia??iae 1914-1917 ?ie?a iaaoei aeooaeueiino?
oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy yeiai o oiai/ani?e i?iaoeueeiiiai?e
e?oa?aoo?? oa ia??iaeeoe? iia’ycoaaee naia ?c ii/aoeii Ia?oi? na?oiai?
a?eie. Ai?iaeiaae 1914-1917??. oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy iinooiiai
aee?enoae?coaaeiny o aaiiie?oe/io i?iaeaio, yea /eieea na?eiciee aieea
ia caaaeueio neooaoe?th a ?a?ii?. Ioae?eaoe?? oiai/anii? i?ane i?i
Oe?a?io nooo?ai ni?e/eieeeny aei iinooiiaiai ona?aeiieaiiy
?a?iiaenueeeie iie?oeeaie iaoe?iiaeueii? ie?ai?oiino? Oe?a?ie oa ??
aaino?aoaa?/iiai cia/aiiy aeey aaciaee eiioeiaioo. Na?aae
a?iiaaenueeino? oa iie?oe/ii? ae?oe Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa Oe?a?ia
ia?anoaea ioioiaeithaaoeny ?c ?in??th. I?ioa iaeiinoaeia i?aeo?eiea
oe?a?inueei? iacaeaaeiino? iioeaoaaeany aaiiie?oe/ieie ?ioa?anaie
I?ia//eie oa Aano?i-Oai?ueie, cie?aia ?o i?aaiaiiyie iineaaeoe
aeiiii?/io oa iie?oe/io iiaooi?noue ?in?enueei? ?iia???, a Oe?a?ia o
a?c?? Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa aoea iaee?auei caniaii aeey aeinyaiaiiy
oe??? iaoe. O 1914-1917??. oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy ia a?ae?a?aaaei aeiaeii?
naiino?eii? ?ie?, a ?icaeyaeaeiny ?ioeie aea?aeaaaie ye can?a aeey
caaeiaieaiiy aeanieo iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a. Iaeaieiai?oei ?c oeeo
?ioa?an?a aoei noai?aiiy aooa?a i?ioe ?in?enueeiai aeniain?ii?cio.
Aooa?i?noue ? iciaeith iie?oe/ii? oa aeiiii?/ii? neaaeino? aea?aeaae,
yeo ia iiaeia aaaaeaoe iiaiioe?iiei noa’?eoii i?aeia?iaeii? iie?oeee.
Oiio ie noaa?aeaeo?ii, ui o a?c?? Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa ?
i?iaoeueeiiiaii? e?oa?aoo?e Oe?a?ia aenooiaea ye ia’?eo, a ia noa’?eo
?a?iiaenueeiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano ia?oi? /aa?o? OOno., noath/e /anoi
caeeaaeieeii aaino?aoaa?/ieo ?ioa?ana? ?ioeo aea?aeaa.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano, eiai
iniiai? aoaie ? ?o a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?iaoeueeiiiai?e e?oa?aoo??
(1918-1921??.)” iniiaio oaaao i?eae?eaii iiaeaeueo?e ai?iouea? ca
oe?a?inueeo aea?aeaai?noue a eiioaeno? ?in?enueeeo ?aaiethoe?e 1917 ?ieo
oa ci?i o ?a?iiaenuee?e iie?oe/i?e neooaoe??. A Oe?a?i?, yea noaea
i?aaeiaoii caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeiai ?ioa?ano c ii/aoeii Ia?oi? na?oiai?
a?eie, ii/aa oi?ioaaoeny iie?oe/iee i?ioean. Oeae i?ioean i?ae aieeaii
ciai?oieo ? aioo??oieo /eiiee?a coiiaea a?aeoeaio?ia? oaiaeaioe?? oa
ca?iaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? ?aaiethoe?? ye ae?aco iaoe?iiaeueieo ciaaaiue
ca iacaeaaei?noue. O?aeooth/e oe?a?inueeee iie?oe/iee i?ioean
1918-1921??. ye iaoe?iiaeueio ?aaiethoe?th, ie noaa?aeaeo?ii, ui oeae
i?ioean a?aecia/aany noia?a/eeaei oa?aeoa?ii ? ai?ioueaith ??ciiiai?oieo
iie?oe/ii-?aeaieia?/ieo oa/?e. O nai?io ?icaeoeia? oeae i?ioean i?ieoia
e?eueea aoai?a, ??cieo ca iie?oe/iith ni?yiiaai?noth ? oa?aeoa?ii.
Aeina?ae aena?oeaiiy oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano a
i?iaoeueeiiiaieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo ia?oi? /aa?o? OO no.cana?ae/ea,
ui nooo?aee aieea ia eiai ia?aa?a iaee iiae?? ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai?,
cie?aia ?aaiethoe?? a ?in?? oa iineeaiiy a?aeoeaio?iaeo oaiaeaioe?e a
?iia???, a oaeiae i?aaiaiiy Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa iaeo?ae?coaaoe
aaiiie?oe/io aeniain?th ?in??. Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii o ?icaeoeia?
oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano ia?oi? /aa?o? OO noie?ooy aoei
aena?oeaiiy o ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiiyo oe?a?inueei? iie?oeee Oeao?aeueieo
aea?aeaa. Noaaeaiiy I?ia//eie oa Aano?i-Oai?ueie aei oe?a?inueeeo
iacaeaaeieoeueeeo i?aaiaiue aena?oeaii o ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? “Oe?a?inueea
iie?oeea Aano?i-Oai?ueie oa I?ia//eie i?ney 1917?”. Oey iie?oeea iaea a
iniiaiiio noiae? ?ene, iaeiae o noaaeaii? iaeaeaio aea?aeaa aei
oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy niinoa??aaeeny ? iaai? a?aei?iiino?. ?iciaae
oea?nueei? ?in?? i?enei?ea e?enoae?caoe?th i?iaoeueei? iie?oeee uiaei
Oe?a?ie. Aa?e?i noeeyany aei i?eioeeio iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy,
iinooiiai cieeaa aeaiaio aeaicia/iino? a oe?a?inuee?e iie?oeoe?
I?ia//eie. Oe? oaiaeaioe?? ciaeoee aaeaeaaoia a?aeia?aaeaiiy o /eneaiieo
ioae?eaoe?yo oiai/anii? i?ane. Aacaoe “Vossische Zeitung”, “Tag”,
“Koelnische Zeitung’’ ae?oeoaaee noaoo? i?iaoeueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oee?a, iaaieiooth/e ia iaiao?aeiino? i?aeo?eiee oe?a?inueeeo
iacaeaaeieoeueeeo i?aaiaiue.

Ui ae noino?oueny oe?a?inueei? iie?oeee A?aeiy a ia??iae ?in?enueeeo
?aaiethoe?e, oi Aano?i-Oai?ueia ?c naiiai ii/aoeo ?ic?aoiaoaaea ia
a?aeie?aieaiiy Oe?a?ie a?ae ?in??. Nai???aeiei ao?eaooii aano??enueei?
iie?oeee noiniaii Oe?a?ie aoea ?? i?eoiaai?noue — iiia?o?y ia aeyaeyea
a?aeaa?oi naiai i?eoeeueiiai /e iaaaeiaieaiiai noaaeaiiy aei
oe?a?inueeeo ?ioa?an?a, iacaaaeath/e ia /eneaii? eiyeuei? cayae
Oe?a?inueei? Ia?eaiaioa?ii? ?ai?acaioaoe?? oa Cao?aeiioe?a?inueei?
Iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aaee.

Aiae?coth/e iaoa??aee i?iaoeueeiiiaii? ia??iaeeee, o yeeo aena?oeaia
iie?oe/ia iiceoe?y I?ia//eie oa Aano?i-Oai?ueie uiaei oe?a?inueeiai
ieoaiiy, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui iine?aeiai?noue o i?aeo?eioe?
oe?a?inueei? iacaeaaeiino? aoea coiiaeaia ia?aaeon?i iie?oe/ieie
?ioa?anaie I?ia//eie, ye? iieyaaee o oa?eoi??aeueiiio ?ic/eaioaaii?
?in??. O iie?oeoe? Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa oa o aena?oeaii?
i?iaoeueeiiiaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? ia??iaeeee Oe?a?ia i?iaeiaaeoaaea
caeeoaoeny ia’?eoii. E??i oiai, o ia?aaaaei?e e?eueeino? ioae?eaoe?e ia
eeoa aeneiaethaaeany iie?oe/ia i?aeo?eiea oe?a?inueeeo aecaieueieo
ciaaaiue, aea ? iaaieiooaaeany iio?aaa oeeaaeaiiy ie?iiai aeiaiai?o c
Oe?a?iith ye can?a ae??oaiiy oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy. I?ney ?ioaineaieo
ia?aaiai??a c aeaeaaaoe??th OI? 9 ethoiai 1918 ?ieo aoei i?aeienaii
ie?iee aeiaia?? i?ae Oe?a?iith oa aea?aeaaaie Ii/a??iiai nithco, eio?ee
cae??iea ?nioaaiiy OI? ye noaa?aiii? aea?aeaae. Cia/aiiy ? ?ieue
A?anonueeiai ie?iiai aeiaiai?o aeey Oe?a?ie oa ?a?iie ?icaeyaea?oueny o
ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? “I?iaoeueeiiiaia e?oa?aoo?a i?i A?anonueeee ie?iee
aeiaia?? ye ?ino?oiaio no?aeii? iie?oeee Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa”. A
ioe?ieao A?anonueeiai ie?o iiaeia aeae?eeoe /ioe?e iniiai? iiiaioe :
ii?aeuei? aniaeoe, a?enueeiai-iie?oe/i? aniaeoe, aeiiii?/ia cia/aiiy
aeiaiai?o aeey Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa oa aioo??oiueiiie?oe/i? o?oaeiiu?
a Oe?a?i?. sse iaaieiooaaea i?iaoeueeiiiaia ia??iaeeea (aacaoe
‘Vossische Zeitung”, “Neue Freie Presse”) o A?anonueeiio ie?iiio
aeiaiai?? aeii?ioaaee ia eeoa aeiiii?/i? /e ii?aeuei? aniaeoe, aea
ia?aaeon?i a?enueeiai-no?aoaa?/i? i??eoaaiiy, iia’ycai? ?c ?iciiae?eii
noa? aieeao. Aeiaia?? o A?ano? noaa ae?acii iniiaieo iinooeao?a iie?oeee
Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa uiaei Oe?a?ie oa ?in??, iniiaiei c yeeo aoei
i?ioenoiyiiy iaeaeaio aea?aeaa ye can?a i?aeo?eiee
iie?oe/ii-aeiiii?/ii? neaaeino? ?in?? oa ?? oa?eoi??aeueii?
aeac?ioaa?aoe??. Aiaeii/an I?ia//eia oa Aano?i-Oai?ueia ia aaaaeaee ca
iio??aia /eieoe ni?ioea i?ci?o?e iiaeeea?e oaaea?ae?caoe?? oa?eoi??e,
ye? a?ae?eoee a?ae ?in?? oa noaee iacaeaaeieie aea?aeaaaie. A?anonueeee
aeiaia?? ?icaeyaeaany iie?oeeaie Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa ye i?ia?ci??oi
(oei/aniaa yaeua)

Oe?a?ia, oeeaaoe ie? ye naiino?eia aea?aeaaa, ni?iaoaaea noaoe noa’?eoii
iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano. Oi?iaeueia aeciaiiy ?? noa’?eoiino?
Oeaio?aeueieie aea?aeaaaie ia caaaaeeei ?i nooo?ai iaiaaeeoe noaa?ai?oao
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae, oaeoe/ii caeeoeaoe ?? a noaoon? ia’?eoa. Ioaea,
ni?aaaei?i noa’?eoii i?aeia?iaeii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ia oae ? ia noaea, oi/a
o aioo??oiueiio aei??? noa’?eoii oaee aoea.

Ia?aa?ao o?ao?e “Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaa I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai oa ?? noinoiee
?c I?ia//eiith oa Aano?i-Oai?ueiith ” i?enay/aiee aiae?cia? ia?aaeoiia
i?iaieioaiiy Aaoueiaiaoo ? iiceoe?e Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa uiaei iiaiai
ea??aieoeoaa Oe?a?inueei? Aea?aeaae ia iniia? ioe?iie oiai/anii?
i?iaoeueeiiiaii? ia??iaeeee ? e?oa?aoo?e. Aaoueiainueeee ia?aai?io a
Oe?a?i? 28 ea?oiy 1918 ?ieo aoa cono??iooee a I?ia//ei? oa
Aano?i-Oai?uei? ?c ci?oaieie ii/oooyie. C iaeiiai aieo, aeneiaethaaeiny
iaa?aaeia noaaeaiiy oiai, ui Oeaio?aeueia ?aaea, yea ia aeoieo oeeo
aea?aeaa iaea aaaaoi ni?eueiiai c a?eueoiaeeaie ? ?aii /e i?cii iiaea
ae?eoe c ieie caiaee, onooieea i?noea iiaiio o?yaeia?, yeee noaa ia
iiceoe?? i?eaaoii? aeaniino?. C ?ioiai aieo, ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?
a?aeiinoaa Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa aoee iao?ai? iiaaae?ieith a?enueeiaeo
a Oe?a?i? ? aenooiaee ca iineaaeaiiy ?o aieeao ia oi?ioaaiiy iie?oeee
noiniaii Oe?a?ie. O ia??iae Aaoueiaiaoo iie?oe/i? iiae?? a Oe?a?i?
io?eioaaee aeinoaoiuei iiaia aena?oeaiiy ia noi??ieao i?iaoeueeiiiaii?
ia??iaeeee ? e?oa?aoo?e. I?ioa o i?iaoeuee?e ? aano??enuee?e i?an?
niinoa??aaeeny ??ci? i?aeoiaee aei ?aaeeio I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai. sseui
i?ana I?ia//eie (“Berliner Zeitung, “Vossosche Zeitung”, Koelnische
Zeitung”) aaccanoa?aaeii aenooiaea ca aei?noea aeio?eiaiiy oiia
A?anonueeiai aeiaiai?o (ye? oaeoe/ii icia/aee aeiiii?/io aenieoaoaoe?th
Oe?a?ie), oi aano??enueea ia??iaeeea (“Wiener Allgemeine Zeitung”,
“Neues Wiener Tagblatt”, “Reichspost”) aoea iaio eaoaai?e/iith a nai?o
ioe?ieao ? aenooiaea ca aecia/ai?noue o noinoieao c Oe?a?iith Oe?
?ica?aeiino? ie iiynith?ii oei, ui aeii?ioth/ith a nithc? Oeaio?aeueieo
aea?aeaa aoea I?ia//eia. A?aeiia?aeii oii ioae?eaoe?e aoa a?eueo
eaoaai?e/iei. Aano??enuee? ae aeaeaiiy /anoi ciooai? aoee aeneiaethaaoe
iiae?ai? i??eoaaiiy /e ioe?iee c i?eaiaeo oeo /e ?ioeo iiae?e a Oe?a?i?.
Aiaeii/an ni?aaaaeeeaiaoaea caoaaaeeoe, ui ?yae nooo?aeo aeinyaiaiue
o?yaeo I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai (cie?aia a aaeoc? ina?oe ? eoeueoo?e)
caeeoeeeny iica oaaaith i?iaoeueeiiiaii? ia??iaeeee, yea, ea?oth/enue
“nioe?aeueiei caiiaeaiiyi” o?yae?a nai?o aea?aeaa, ia??aeei iaeiia?/ii
aena?oethaaea neooaoe?th a Oe?a?i?. Naia o ia??iae i?aae?iiy
I.Nei?iiaaenueeiai /e ia iaea?eueo ae?acii i?iyaeeanynoia?a/eea?noue
noaoono Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Iii?e io?oe?eii caaeaeea?iaaio
noa’?eoi?noue oa ia?oia?nuee? noinoiee ?c Oeaio?aeueieie aea?aeaaaie
Oe?a?ia ia?aaoaaea oaeoe/ii a noai? ieoiaoe?? nithcieie a?enueeaie, oae
? ia noaaoe iiaiioe?iiei noa’?eoii i?aeia?iaeiiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano
ia?oi? /aa?o? OOno. Aiaeii/an Aaoueiaiao noaa iaeiei ?c aoai?a
oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano oa i?iaeiaaeaiiyi iaoe?iiaeueii?
?aaiethoe?? 1917-1921??.

Ia??iae oe?a?inueei? oa ?in?enueeeo ?aaiethoe?e, yeee noi?iaiaeaeoaaany
aeoea?caoe??th noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo ?oo?a ia oa?eoi??? ?in?enueei?
?iia???, a?aecia/aany ia cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo caieyo, ye? aoiaeeee aei
neeaaeo Aano?i-Oai?ueie, aeoeaieie aeeneon?yie o ia?eaiaio? e?a?ie
noiniaii iie?oe/ii-aaei?i?no?aoeaii? ia?aaoaeiae ?iia???. O oeeo
ia?eaiaionueeeo aeaaaoao a?aee o/anoue ? i?aaenoaaieee Aaee/eie oa
Aoeiaeie. Aiae?cia? iie?oe/ieo iiae?e a aano??enuee?e Oe?a?i? i?enay/aii
/aoaa?oee ia?aa?ao “Iie?oe/i? ciaaaiiy aaee/ai – iaa?ae’?iia neeaaeiaa
oe?a?inueeiai aea?aeaaioiai?/iai i?ioeano”. I?iaieioaiiy oe?na?nueeiai
iai?oanoo o aeiaoi? 1918 ?ieo, yeee ia?aaeaa/aa noai?aiiy oaaea?aoeaii?
aea?aeaae ia oa?eoi??? eieeoiuei? iiia?o?? oa iaaeaaaa ia?iaeai, ui ??
ianaeyee, (a o./. oe?a?ioeyi) i?aai iaoe?iiaeueiiai naiiaecia/aiiy,
?icai??any iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeee eiioe?eo. Oeae eiioe?eo aeiee /a?ac
i?aoaic?? iaeaeaio ia?iae?a ia iaeiiin?aia aieiae?iiy No?aeiith
Aaee/eiith. Naia oea i?ioenoiyiy noaei iniiaiith oaiith ioae?eaoe?e
i?iaoeueeiiiaii? ia??iaeeee. Aena?oethth/e aecaieuei? ciaaaiiy cao?aeieo
oe?a?ioe?a, i?ana Aano?i-Oai?ueie oa I?ia//eie, iinooiiai ci?ithaaea
oi?io iiaea/? iaoa??ae?a. Ciaiooaaeany e?euee?noue aiae?oe/ieo
eiiaioa??a, iaoii?noue ia?aaaaeaee ei?ioe? ?ioi?iaoe?ei? iia?aeiieaiiy,
ye? ia aeaaaee iiaeeeaino? /?oei i?inoaaeeoe iie?oe/io iiceoe?th oiai /e
?ioiai ia??iaee/iiai aeaeaiiy noiniaii aena?oethaaii? i?iaeaie. Oey
ci?ia iiynith?oueny oei, ui ainaie ? aceieo 1918-1919??. iie?oe/i?
iiceoe?? Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa nooo?ai ineaaee ? aiie ii??aiyii c
Aioaioith, ??aii ae ye ? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy Aano??? oa I?ia//eie aaea
ia aieeaaee nooo?ai ia ?a?iiaenueeo iie?oeeo. Oe?a?inueea ae ieoaiiy
aea?aeaaaie Aioaioe ia o?aeooaaeiny na?eicii.

O i’yoiio ia?aa?ao? “Ci?ia iie?oe/ieo i???ioe??a Oe?a?ie a /ane
Aee?aeoi??? oa iiceoe?y aea?aeaa Aioaioe” iniiaio oaaao i?eae?eaii
ioe?ieai i?iaoeueeiiiaii? ia??iaeeee aioo??oiueiiie?oe/i?e neooaoe?? a
Oe?a?i?, ci?i i?aeia?iaeii? ianoaiiaee oa iiooeia? Oe?a?iith iie?oe/ieo
nithciee?a aeey ai?ioueae i?ioe a?eueoiaee?a. Ia aeoieo oiai/anieo
i?iaoeueeiiiaieo aacao ? /aniien?a, aioo??oiueiiie?oe/ia neooaoe?y a
Oe?a?i? i?ney c?a/aiiy Aaoueiaia Nei?iiaaenueeiai oa i?eoiaeii aei
aeaaee Aee?aeoi??? a?aecia/aeany iaocaiaeaeai?noth iiceoe?e oe?a?inueeeo
iie?oe/ieo i?ia?aeiee?a. *anoeia o?yaeo aaaaeaea, ui Aee?aeoi??y iiaeiia
i?iaeiaaeoaaoe ia?aaiai?e c i?aaenoaaieeai Aioaioe, a ?ioa ianoithaaea
aeoieo, ui ne?ae ooeaoe ii?icoi?iiy c a?eueoiaeeaie. I?ney ii?acee
Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa, ye? i?aeo?eioaaee iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?ie ye
can?a iaeo?ae?caoe?? ?in?enueeeo aaiiie?oe/ieo aieea?a, iie?oe/i?
i???ioe?e Oe?a?ie ii/aee ci?uoaaoeny a a?e Iieueu?, c yeith oe?a?inuee?
iie?oeee ieaioaaee ooai?eoe ?aeeiee aioea?eueoiaeoeueeee o?iio. I?ioa
?aeay iieuenueei-oe?a?inueeiai nithco ye can?a ai?ioueae i?ioe
a?eueoiaee?a ia ciaeoea naiai iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo oa i?aeo?eiee o
?a?ii?. Na?aae e?aea??a ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa ?nioaaa eiinainon uiaei
iacaeaaeiino? Iieueu? oa ?? ?ie? a iiai?iiiio a?aaoethaaii? ia
eiioeiaio?, i?ioa noiniaii Oe?a?ie oaeiai eiinainono ia ?nioaaei. Ia
niinoa??aaeiny oaei? ?aeiino? ? na?aae i?iaoeueeiiiaii? ia??iaeeee, yea
i?ney ii?acee Oeaio?aeueieo aea?aeaa aaea a oae iaeiicia/ii aenooiaea ca
iacaeaaei?noue Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae. Cia/ia e?euee?noue iaoa??ae?a
1919-1920??.aena?oethaaea aoo??oiueiiie?oe/ia aeeooy I?ia//eie oa
Aano???. Ui ae noino?ouen yi?aeia?iaeii? iie?oeee, oi ia??iaee/i?
aeaeaiiy oeeo aea?aeaa ia?aae?oeiaoaaee noaoo? c ?ioeo aacao (cie?aia
a?eoainueeeo ? o?aioeocueeeo), ye? a neeo iie?oe/ieo i?e/ei a i?eae?eyee
aeinoaoiuei oaaae oe?a?inuee?e i?iaeai?. O? ae ia/eneaii? iaoa??aee a
i?iaoeueeiiiai?e ia??iaeeoe?, ye? aoee i?enay/ai? Oe?a?i?, aaea ia iiaee
nooo?ai aieeaaoe ia iie?oe/i? ??oaiiy oa a?iiaaenueeo aeoieo a
?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaaao.

I?aeo?eioth/e Iieueuo ? i?e?oa?ii, ? iie?oe/ii, Cao?ae ni?eya oaeiae ?
oeeaaeaiith ie?iiai aeiaiai?o i?ae ?aaeyinueeith ?in??th oa Iieueuath,
yeee aoa oeeaaeaiee o aa?aci? 1921 ?ieo ? yeee ?icaeyaea?oueny a
inoaiiueiio, oinoiio ia?aa?ao? “?ecueeee ie?iee aeiaia?? ye ?acoeueoao
ao?eaiiy aaino?aoaa?/ieo ?ioa?an?a Aioaioe oa inoaoi/ia ao?aoa Oe?a?iith
iie?oe/ii? iacaeaaeiino?”. Ia iniia? ioe?iie ie?iiai aeiaiai?o,
aeneiaeaieo o i?iaoeueeiiiai?e ia??iaeeoe?, ie noaa?aeaeo?ii, ui Cao?ae
oa Aioaioa i?aeo?eioaaee Iieueuo, ine?eueee aaa/aee a i?e a?eueo
ae??caeaoiiai oa neeuei?oiai nithcieea o ai?iouea? c a?eueoiaeeaie oa
iino?eii iaaieiooaaee caneoae Iieueu? o ni?aa? oeeaaeaiiy ie?o.
Aioaioa, yea i?ney ia?aiiae iaae Oeaio?aeueieie aea?aeaaaie aieeaaea ia
oi?ioaaiiy ?a?iiaenueei? iie?oeee, ia ?icaeyaeaea Oe?a?io ye iacaeaaeio
aeaiie?aoe/io aea?aeaao (aac a?eueoiaeoeueeiai ?aaeeio) oa ia aaaaeaea
?? na?eiciei oaeoi?ii o iiai?ii?e eiioeiaioaeuei?e nenoai? aaciaee. Oey
iiaa iie?oe/ia eiinoaeyoe?y nooo?aei /eiii aieeioea ia aena?oeaiiy
oe?a?inueei? i?iaeaiaoeee a i?iaoeueeiiiai?e ia??iaeeoe?. Oaiith iiia?
iaeei noaea i?iaeaia noai?aiiy neeueii? iieuenueei? aea?aeaae oa ??
ie?i? ia?aaiai?e c ?aaeyinueeith ?in??th ye can?a i?ioe iioe?aiiy
a?eueoiaecio a ?a?ii?. O inoaiiueiio ia?aa?ao? ia iniia? aiae?co
iie?oieia?/ii? oa ?noi?e/ii? e?oa?aoo?e aeie?aieaii oaeiae i?e/eie, ye?
i?eaaee aei ao?aoe Oe?a?iith nai?? iacaeaaeiino?. E??i ciai?oieo ?
aioo??oieo, aeeiai?/ieo ? noaoe/ieo, ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo, ye?
aeieeaaeii aena?oeai? a i?aoeyo oe?a?nueeeo ? ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a, ie
aaaaea?ii, ui ia oeyoo ooaa?aeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? o ia?o?e
/aa?o? OOno. noaei ? oa, ui ?a?iiaenuee? aea?aeaae caaaeii ? e?a?ie
Aioaioe cie?aia ia io?eioaaee a aeinoaoi?e i??? iia?aoeaii? ?ioi?iaoe??
i?i iie?oe/io neooaoe?th a Oe?a?i? ai? a?ae ?? iie?oe/ieo e?aea??a, ai?
a?ae aeanieo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue. Aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey ooaa?aeaeaiiy
aea?aeaae ia i?aeia?iaei?e a?ai? ia? ?? i?enooi?noue a noi??ieao
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue. I?enooi?noue Oe?a?ie o ?a?iiaenuee?e, cie?aia
i?iaoeueeiiiai?e ia??iaeeoe? o 1920-1921??. aoea iacia/iith Oea ia
ni?eyei oni?oiiio ?ica’ycaiith oe?a?inueeiai ieoaiiy. Ii-ia?oa,
oe?a?ioe? iinoaee ia?aae caaaeaiiyi noai?eoe iaoe?iiaeueio aea?aeaao, ia
caaa?oeaoe ua naiai oi?ioaaiiy ye iie?oe/ia iaoe?y. Ii-ae?oaa,
oe?a?inuee? iie?oe/i? i?ia?aeieee ia iiaee inoaoi/ii aecia/eoe
i??i?eoaoe nai?? ae?yeueiino? — nioe?aeuei? ci?ie /e iaoe?iiaeueia
aecaieaiiy? Ii-o?ao?, neaae?noue nioe?aeueii? aace oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo. Aei ciai?oi?o i?e/ei ne?ae a?aeianoe oa, ui
oe?a?ioe? ia ni?iiiaeeny aeiaeoeny aeciaiiy ia?aiiaeii? Aioaioe, yea
noeeueia aoea i?aeo?eioaaoe Iieueuo oa ?? ciaaaiiy ca iacaeaaei?noue,
ine?eueee Aioaioa ia iaea ?aaeueiiai ciaiiy i?i ni?aaaeith neooaoe?th a
Oe?a?i?, a aoaeoeaia aioeoe?a?inueea i?iiaaaiaea a?eueoiaee?a oa
a?eiaaa?ae?eoe?a, noinoiee OI? ?c Oeaio?aeueieie aea?aeaaaie —
i?ioeaieeaie Aioaioe o a?ei?, oa e?a? oaiaeaioe?? a Aee?aeoi??? ia
ni?eyee iiceoeaiiio noaaeaiith Aioaioe aei oe?a?inueei? iacaeaaeiino?.

O Aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ocaaaeueiaii iniiai?
iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe oa iiaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe??. I?iaiae?coaaaoe ciai?oi? oa
aioo??oi? /eiieee, ye? coiiaeee oi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai iie?oe/iiai
i?ioeano, iieacaaoe aca?iiiia’ycai?noue eiai iniiaieo aoai?a oa
niaoeeo?eo ?o aena?oeaiiy o i?iaoeueeiiiai?e e?oa?aoo?? oa ia??iaeeoe?
ia?oi? /aa?o? OOno., aeena?oaio aaaaea? :

Oe?a?inueeee iie?oe/iee i?ioean ye neeaaeiaa i?ioeano
caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeiai i?ieoia o nai?io ?icaeoeia? ianooii? noaae?? :
oi?ioaaiiy, ?icai?oaiiy ? caiaiaaeo, eiee iie?oe/ia nenoaia aeyaeeany
iacaeaoiith ?aaaoaaoe ia iia? iie?oe/i? oiiae. Ae?acii ?iciaaeo
oe?e?niino? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie noaea ao?aoa Oe?a?iith iie?oe/ii?
iacaeaaeiino?.

A ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? i?iaoeueeiiiaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? ia??iaeeee Oe?a?ia
i?ieoea neeaaeio iie?oe/io aaiethoe?th, i?aaio/e ?c ia’?eoa
aaiiie?oe/ieo ieai?a ?ioeo aea?aeaa ia?aoai?eoeny o naiino?eiee noa’?eo
i?aeia?iaeii? iie?oeee. I?ioa na?eici? aioo??oiueiiie?oe/i? o?oaeiiu? oa
iani?eyoeea? ciai?oi? /eiieee noaee ia?aoeiaeith aeey ?aae?caoe?? oeeo
i?aaiaiue.

Ia nueiaiaei?oi?e aeaiue ua ia ciaeaeaii iaoiaeieia?/iiai i?aea?oioy,
aae aeina?ae oe?a?inueeeo aea?aeaaieoeueeeo ciaaaiue oa ?o
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ia??iaeeoe? ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy iiaeia aoei a
aeei?enoaoe aeey aecia/aiiy no/anieo aaiiie?oe/ieo i???ioe??a Oe?a?ie.
Ie aaaaea?ii, ui oaeei i?aea?oioyi iiaee a noaoe aeaa i?eioeeie. Ia?oee
– aeciaiiy aaiiie?oe/ii? niaoeeo?ee ?icaeoeo Oe?a?ie, yea ia?aaoaa? o
noa?? aieeao aeaio oeea?e?caoe?eieo /eiiee?a – Caoiaeo ? Noiaeo. Ae?oaee
i?eioeei ia?aaeaa/a? a?eueo aeoeaio ae?yeuei?noue aea?aeaae oa ??
a?aeiia?aeieo no?oeoo? o ni?aa? iia?aoeaiiai, aoaeoeaiiai ? iaeneiaeueii
ia’?eoeaiiai ?ioi?ioaaiiy iie?oee?a ? a?iiaaenueeino? ?a?iiaenueeeo
aea?aeaa i?i iniaeeaino? aioo??oiuei? ? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, ??
aaino?aoaa?/i? ?ioa?ane oa i??i?eoaoe.

Oe?a?i?, yea ciaoiaeeoueny a neeiaiio iie? ?ioa?an?a ?ioeo aea?aeaa,
aeioe?euei?oa ia aecia/aoe ia?aaaae iaeiiai aieeao iaae ?ioei, a ooeaoe
i?eioeei?a ?o ii?aeiaiiy. Oeei iaoa aea?aeaaa ni?eyoeia noai?aiith
iiaiai iaoai?cio eieaeoeaii? aaciaee ia ?a?iiaenueeiio eiioeiaio?. O
oai?aoe/iiio ieai? oea coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie a
aaeoc? iie?oieia??, iie?oe/ii? ?noi??? oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei. O
i?aeoe/iiio – noai?aiiy iaoai?cio ?aae?caoe?? iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a
ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio oa aeiaaeueiiio ??aiyo.

Oaeei /eiii, aeena?oaioii ia iniia? iaoe?ii? aeaea?aeueii? aace aoei
aeine?aeaeaii aena?oeaiiy o i?iaoeueeiiiai?e e?oa?aoo?? ? ia??iaeeoe?
ia?oi? /aa?o? OOno. i?noey ? ?ie? Oe?a?ie a ?a?iiaenueeiio iie?oe/iiio
i?ioean? 1914-1921??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeaii o oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo :

Oe?a?ia a aeca?eae? i?iaoeueei? i?ane ii/aoeo 20 noie?ooy// Nooae??
iie?oieia?/iiai oeaio?o “Aaiaca”.- 1995.-N 3, N.180-184

Iie?oe/i? i?aoe? I.A?ooaanueeiai 1917-1918 ?ie?a// Aeiiia?ae? ?
iia?aeiieaiiy iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? “I.A?ooaanueeee oa Cao?aeia
Oe?a?ia”. (Euea?a, 26-28 aeiaoiy 1994?.). Euea?a : Na?o, 1995, N.291-294

Oe?a?ia a aeca?eae? i?iaoeueeiiiaii? i?ane ii/aoeo OOno.// Iaoa??aee
i?aeia?iaeiiai iaoeiaiai nai?ia?o “I?iaoeuee? eieii?? a Aaee/ei?”.
Aii?yaeeoaaiiy oa caaaeueia ?aaeaeoe?y Aaeeie Iao?eoei. Euea?a :
Iaione?eio, 1996, N.170-174

Aca?iiae?y cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ye iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo? o
ia?ao?aeiiio noni?euenoa? ye iniiaa aeey iaeaooiuei? aeaiie?ao??//
Aeiiia?ae? ? ?aoa?aoe aeainoi?iiiueiai iie?oieia?/iiai neiiic?oio
“Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c iie?oe/ieo no?oeoo? Aano??? oa Oe?a?ie” (Ee?a,
16-18 eenoiiaaea 1995?.) Ioae?eaoe?y O?e?? Aano??enueeiai ?inoeoooo
No?aeii? ? I?aaeaiii-No?aeii? ?a?iie o Eueaia? oa ?inoeoooo
iaoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiinei ? iie?oieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie. Aeaeaii Ae?caaao
Aioa? ? Oae?enii ?oaee/ai. Euea?a, 1996, N.305-308

Oe?a?inueea ieoaiiy a ?iee Ia?oi? na?oiai? a?eie — aeieeiaiiy ? ?icaeoie
(ca ioae?eaoe?yie i?iaoeueeiiiaii? i?ane 1914-1917 ??.) // Oe?a?inuee?
aa??aioe.-1997.-N 1, N. 35-39

Na?aaeiy ?a?iia – ooii?y /e ?aaeuei?noue?// Oe?a?inuee?
aa??aioe.-1998.-N2(4), N.57-61

Aiioaoe?y

Naiiothe I.E. Oe?a?ia a iie?oe/iiio i?ioean? ?a?iie 1914-1921 ??. (Ca
iaoa??aeaie i?iaoeueeiiiaii? e?oa?aoo?e). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.02. — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe ? i?ioeane. —
Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea, Euea?a, 1998

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aiae?cia? ?ie? ? i?noey Oe?a?ie o iie?oe/iiio
i?ioean? ?a?iie o ia?o? aeanyoe??//y aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy
(1914-1921??.). Ia iniia? ii?aoeueiaaieo aeaea?ae i?inoaaeaii
ia?aaeoiiae oa caeiiii??iino? a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aeooaeueiino? oe?a?inueeiai
ieoaiiy, iieacaii aca?iica’ycie eiai neeaaeiaeo, aaiethoe?th Oe?a?ie
a?ae ia’?eoa iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a ?a?iie aei naiino?eiiai noa’?eoa
i?aeia?iaeiiai iie?oe/iiai i?ioeano. O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeo?oueny
i?ioean a?aeia?aaeaiiy Oe?a?ie oa ?? ai?ioueae ca aeanio aea?aeaai?noue
ia noi??ieao i?iaoeueeiiiaii? e?oa?aoo?e ia?oi? /aa?o? OOno. Aeei?enoaii
i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iee iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy, yeee o ii?aeiaii? c
aiae?oe/ii-nenoaiiei oa o?iiieia?/iei iaoiaeaie aeicaiey? iaea?eueo
ia’?eoeaii oa aaeaeaaoii ?ice?eoe aeine?aeaeoaaio i?iaeaio oa iieacaoe
?? ?icaeoie ai?iaeiaae aiae?ciaaiiai ia??iaeo, a oaeiae coiiaeai?noue
oe??? i?iaeaie ciai?oi?ie oa aioo??oi?ie /eiieeaie. Aeacaii ia
oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Eeth/ia? neiaa : aaiiie?oeea, iie?oe/iee i?ioean, ia??iaeeea, aea?aeaaa,
iaoe?y, i?ana, e?oa?aoo?a, noa’?eo, ia’?eo, aaiethoe?y.

Aiiioaoeey

Naiiothe I.E. Oe?aeia a iieeoe/aneii i?ioeanna Aa?iiu 1914-1921 aa. (ii
iaoa?eaeai iaiaoeeiycu/iie eeoa?aoo?u). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iieeoe/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.02.- iieeoe/aneea einoeooou e i?ioeannu. —
Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao eiaie Eaaia O?aiei, Eueaia, 1998

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco e ?iee Oe?aeiu a iieeoe/aneii i?ioeanna
Aa?iiu a ia?aua aeanyoeeaoey aeaaaeoeaoiai aaea (1914-1921aa.). Ia
iniiaa ia?aaioaiiuo enoi/ieeia i?ineaaeaii i?aaeiinueee e caeiiiia?iinoe
aic?iaeaeaiey aeooaeueiinoe oe?aeineiai aii?ina, iieacaii acaeiinaycue
aai ninoaaiuo, yaiethoeeth Oe?aeiu io iauaeoa iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannia
Aa?iiu e naiinoiyoaeueiiio noauaeoo iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iieeoe/aneiai
i?ioeanna.A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeoaony i?ioeann io?aaeaiey Oe?aeiu e aa
ai?ueau ca nianoaaiioth ainoaea?noaaiiinoue ia no?aieoeao
iaiaoeeiycu/iie eeoa?aoo?u ia?aie /aoaa?oe OOa. Iiae/a?eiooi, /oi n
i?iaicaeaoaieai iacaaeneiiai oe?aeineiai ainoaea?noaa a yiaa?a 1918
aiaea a no?aia ia/ae oi?ie?iaaoueny iieeoe/aneee i?ioeann, eioi?ue a
naiai ?acaeoee i?ioae neaaeothuea yoaiu — ia?eiae Oeaio?aeueiie ?aaeu,
Aaoueiaiao I.Nei?iiaaeneiai, i?aaeaiea Aee?aeoi?ee, iieeoe/aneay ai?ueaa
caiaaeiuo oe?aeioeaa, aieueoaaecaoeey Oe?aeiu aneaaenoaea eciaiaiey
aaiiieeoe/aneie neooaoeee a Aa?iia a eiioea Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu.
Oe?aeineee aii?in, eioi?ue aic?iaeeeny n ia/aeii Ia?aie ie?iaie aieiu,
i?ioae a naiai ?acaeoee neiaeiue e i?ioeai?a/eaue iooue. Iooue yoio
eaaeae io iieiie iaecaanoiinoe /a?ac iinoaiaiiia iiieiaiea e ana aieaa
oe?ieoth iiaeaea?aeeo iieeoe/aneeo e?oaia e ia?eiaee/aneeo ecaeaiee
Aa?iaiee e Aano?ee (eioi?ua ?oeiaiaenoiaiaaeenue nianoaaiiuie
aaiiieeoe/aneeie eioa?anaie) e ii/oe iieiiio eaii?e?iaaieth ni noi?iiu
Aioaiou, eioi?ay ia n/eoaea Oe?aeio naiei nithcieeii a ai?ueaa n ?onneei
aieueoaaeciii. Eciaiaiea iieeoe/aneie eiinoaeeyoeee aeeyei e ia
io?aaeaiea oe?aeineie i?iaeaiaoeee a iaiaoeeiycu/iuo ia?eiaee/aneeo
ecaeaieyo. Iinea iiaaaeu Aioaiou eioa?an yoeo ecaeaiee a Oe?aeia e aa
?iee a iieeoe/aneie i?ioeanna Aa?iiu ineaa, aiaeeoe/aneea noaouee e
eiiiaioa?ee onooieee ianoi e?aoeei eioi?iaoeeiiiui niiauaieyi, eioi?ua
ia aeaaaee oaea aiciiaeiinoe i?ineaaeeoue iieeoe/aneoth iiceoeeth oiai
eee eiiai ecaeaiey e ia eiaee nouanoaaiiiai aeeyiey ia oi?ie?iaaiea
iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey e i?eiyoey iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee. Oe?aeineee
iieeoe/aneee i?ioeann eae ninoaaiay iauaaa?iiaeneiai i?ioeanna i?ioae a
naiai ?acaeoee noaaeee oi?ie?iaaiey, ?acai?a/eaaiey e oiaaeea, eiaaea
iieeoe/aneay nenoaia ieacaeanue ianiiniaiie ?aaae?iaaoue ia iiaua
iieeoe/aneea oneiaey. Neaaenoaeai ?aniaaea oeaeinoiinoe iieeoe/aneie e
i?a?uaaiey oe?aeineiai iieeoe/aneiai i?ioeanna ia?aie /aoaa?oe OO aaea
noaea iioa?y Oe?aeiie iieeoe/aneie iacaaeneiinoe. Eniieueciaaiu
neaaeothuea iaoiaeu enneaaeiaaiey — aiaeeca, neioaca,
i?iaeaiii-o?iiieiae/aneee, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoeeiiaeueiue, eioi?ue a
ni/aoaiee n iaaeaeenoeeieeia?iui iiaeoiaeii iicaieytho iaeaieaa
iauaeoeaii e aaeaeaaoii ?ane?uoue enneaaeoaioth i?iaeaio, iieacaoue aa a
?acaeoee ia i?ioyaeaiee aiaeece?oaiiai ia?eiaea e aeaoa?ieie?iaaiinoue
yoie i?iaeaiu aiaoieie e aioo?aiieie oaeoi?aie.

Oeacaii ia oai?aoe/aneia e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea ?acoeueoaoia
enneaaeiaaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa : aaiiieeoeea, iieeoe/aneee i?ioeann, ia?eiaeeea,
ainoaea?noai, iaoeey, i?anna, eeoa?aoo?a, noauaeo, iauaeo, yaiethoeey.

Annotation

Semotyuk O.L. Ukraine in European political process 1914-1921 (on
materials of German-language literature).- Manuscript.

Thesis for a candidate’s degree by specialty 23.00.02.- political
institutions and processes. — State Ivan Franko University, Lviv, 1998.

The dissertation is devoted to the analysis of Ukraine’s significance
for the European political process in first decades of 20th century
(1914-1921). On the base of used sources the preconditions and
appropriateness of arising of Ukrainian question are retraced, the
interdependence of its components and Ukraine’s evolution from the
object of political processes in Europe to the independent subject of
international political process are shown. In the dissertation it is
investigated the process of Ukraine and its struggle for the own
statehood reflection in the German-language literature. The used
interdisciplinary method combined with analytic-systematical and
historical approaches provides the opportunity to expose the considering
problem most objectively and adequately, to show its development during
the analyzed period and also its determination by internal and external
factors. The theoretical and practical importance of the dissertation’s
results is indicated.

Key words : geopolitics, political process, periodicals, state, nation,
press, literature, subject, object, evolution.

Iiaeaii aei neeaaeaiiy 13.07.99 ?. I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 14.07.1999 ?.

Oi?iao 60o90/16. Iai?? ionaoiee ? 2. Aa?i?oo?a «Oaein»

Oi.ae?oe.a?e. 1,4. Iae.-aeae.a?e. 1,5. Iaeeaae 120 i?ei.

?aaeaeoe?y aacaoe «N?»

Ae?oea?iy OIAN i.Eueaiaa

Magochi P.- Vienna as a source for Ukrainian Studies// Harvard
Ukrainian Studies, 1979-1980.-V.3/4

E?ei’yeaae/ ?. Oe?a?inueea ia??iaeeea o A?aei? ia?oi? /aa?o? OOno.//
Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeiiai neiiic?oio.-Ee?a, 1994

Oe?a?ia :?ioi?iaoe?y ? naiaiaea neiaa. Ca??iee caeiiiaeaa/eo
aeo?a.-E.:Iieiaeue,1997, N..92

Fischer Lexikon: Publizistik und Massenkommunikation.-Frankfurt/M.,
1996, S.417

Aeea. Noaoaeueiee I. Oe?a?ia.?noi??y.-E.:Iaoeiaa aeoiea, 1991.-N.329

Eeieinueeee A. Eenoe aei a?ao?a-oe?ai?ia?a…-Iueth-Ei?e, 1954.-N.437

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