AeIIAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Noaieaae/ A?eoi??y Eaii?ae?aia

OAeE – 941/949

OE?A?IA ? AIEAA?NUeEA

IAOe?IIAEUeIA A?Ae?IAeAEAIIss

07.00.02 – Anana?oiy ?noi??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? eaoaae?e iiai? oa
iia?oiuei? ?noi??? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo E?ai?a?i
Ieaenaiae? Aaneeueiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aeia?ia Iao?i Aaneeueiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

— eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aeieaoaiei Aaeeia Iao??aia, aeioeaio eaoaae?e a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii?
?noi??? Ai?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?iicaiieo
iia.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao

?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, eaoaae?a ?noi??? aoiai?oa?ieo oaeoeueoao?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “12” ethoiai 1999 ?. i 13 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 11.051.02 ii i?enoaeaeaiith iaoeiaiai
nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe a Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 340055, i.Aeiiaoeuee, 55,
aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24, ?? ei?i., aoae.38.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (340055, i.Aeiiaoeuee, 55,
aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 24).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii » 11″ n?/iy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee I.?.Caaei?i?ianueeee

19

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?eueo?noue ia?iae?a, aea?aeaa,
?nioth/eo a no/aniiio na?o?, io?eiaee naith iaoe?iiaeueio iacaeaaei?noue
a OO noie?oo?. Oiio, i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy,
iaoe?iiaeueii? iacaeaaeiino?, iaoe?iiaeueii? naiiaooiino? aeooaeuei? a
nueiaiaeaii?.

Oe?a?inueeee ia?iae noaa iacaeaaeiei ia ii/aoeo inoaiiueiai aeanyoee?ooy
OO noi??//y. Ia?aae iaoei ia?iaeii iinoaei caaaeaiiy: caaa?oeoe
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy nai?? aea?aeaaiino? ? ?aoi?ioaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei
oa aa?eoe a OO? noie?ooy ??aiii?aaiei /eaiii na?oiai? ni?aae?oaeiino?
aeaiie?aoe/ieo aea?aeaa.

O?eueee n?i ?ie?a Oe?a?ia ? iacaeaaeiith aea?aeaaith. Aiia i?ieoea
aeiaaee, neeaaeiee, caeaenoee oa aaaeeee oeyo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. O ca’yceo c oeei iaaecae/aeii aaaeeeaei, oe?eaaei oa
iia/aeueiei oyaey?oueny ia’?eoeaiee iaoeiaee aiae?c i?ioiaeaeaiiy
Oe?a?iith noaae?e oa aoai?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, aeyaeaiiy
aioo??oi?o oaiaeaioe?e oa ciai?oi?o aca?iiae?e i?ioean?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai
?icaeoeo, ii??aiyiiy ?o c iiae?aieie. Aaeaea aeoiee ? ei??iiy aaaaoueio
no/anieo i?iaeai, ui oae aaaeei ? aiey/a ae??oothoueny, iieyaathoue a
ieioeiio. Iaciaiiy ieioeiai iaieio/a aaaea aei iaii?icoi?iiy no/aniino?.
A?eueoa oiai, iaciaiiy ieioeiai ia o?eueee oeiaeeoue i?ciaiith
ae?eniino?, a e noaaeoue i?ae caa?ico anyeo ni?iao aoaeoeaii ae?yoe a
nueiaiaeaii?.

Naia ca?ac, ca aeoieith aaoi?a, aeey oe?a?inueeeo ?noi?ee?a iniaeeai
aino?i iinoathoue ieoaiiy i?i ?noi?e/ia i?ciaiiy, i?i iiaeeeaino?
?noi?e/ii? iaoee aaeaeaaoii iienoaaoe ?noi?e/i? i?ioeane ? aiae?coaaoe
?icaeoie nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino?, aeiiiiaaaoe nioe?ieiaai, iie?oieiaai,
iie?oeeai, noni?euenoao acaaae? i?iaiicoaaoe ia?niaeoeae oa ei?aaoaaoe
iai?yiie ? oaiie oeueiai ?icaeoeo. A?aenooi?noue aeeaieiai oa
ia’?eoeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy a?o/eciyiiai oa na?oiaiai aeina?aeo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo oiaiiaeeeaeth? aoaeoeaia aianaiiy a ei?aeoea o
oaiaia??oi?noue.

Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui inyaiaiiy nooi?no?, caeiiii??iinoae, caaaeueieo
?en oa iniaeeainoae i?ioean?a iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue ?
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a acaaae? ia’?eoeaii aeooae?co? naia ?icaeoie
ii??aiyeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Oei a?eueoa, ui a iaaeao
?aaeyinueei-ia?enenonueei? noni?euenoaiciaa/i? ia?aaeeaie ii??aiyeueiee
aiae?c i?ioean?a iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue aoa iaeiei ?c
iaeneaae?oeo i?noeue.

Aeineoue i/aaeaeiith ? ia’?eoeaia iaiao?aei?noue i?iaaaeaiiy
ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co naia oe?a?inueeiai ? aieaa?nueeiai iaoe?iiaeueieo
a?ae?iaeaeaiue. Aaeaea i?ae ia?iaeaie Oe?a?ie ? Aieaa??? ?nioaaee oa
?niothoue ??ciiiai?oi? oa ??ciiieaiia? aca?iica’ycee. A ?noi?e/ieo
aeieyo iaoeo ia?iae?a aaaaoi ni?eueiiai. O? aaee/aci? noni?euei?
c?ooaiiy, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i?, Aieaa???, ?a?ii? ? na?o? o
iinoeiioi?noe/i? /ane iio?aaothoue inieneaiiy oa ia?ainieneaiiy
?noi?e/ieo iiae?e ? oaeiae aeooae?cothoue oaio aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oiio aaoi? aaaaea?, ui ni?iaa ii-iiaiio, c iiaeo iiceoe?e iiaeyiooe ia
aeeaeii? iniiae iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai, a?aeeeioaoe iiia?aaei?
?aeaieia?/i? iaiaaeaiiy, aeiaie oa caaiaiie aeineoue aeooaeueia ?
nai?/ania.

Oaia aeena?oaoe?? noaiiaeoue /anoeio aea?aeaai? athaeaeaoii? oaie
“?noi??y nioe?aeueieo ? iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ?oo?a e?a?i ?a?iie ?
Aia?eee XVII-XX noie?oue”, iiia? aea?ae?aa?no?aoe?? 01.86.0099079,
eaoaae?e iiai? ? iia?oiuei? ?noi??? ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo
Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo.

I?aaeiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy noaiiaeyoue
oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nuee? ca’ycee, aca?iia?aeiineie, ye? neeaeeny a
i?ioean? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aeaio nii??aeiaieo neia’yinueeeo
ia?iae?a, ?o aeoiee, oa?aeoa?, aca?iiaieea.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ?noi?e/iee i?ioean ?icaeoeo e?a?i ? ia?iae?a
No?aeii? ?a?iie oa Aaeeaineueiai i?ainoi?iaa.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? cacia/aii? ?iaioe (e?iaoeue XVIII – ii/aoie OO no.)
iaaeathoue iiaeeeaino? aeine?aeeoe iaea?eueo aaaeeea? oa ae??oaeuei?
i?iaeaie aca?iiae??, aca?iiaeeao oe?a?inueeiai oa aieaa?nueeiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

Iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a eiiieaenii-?noi?e/iiio aiae?c?
aca?iica’yce?a Oe?a?ie oa aieaa?nueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.
A?aeiia?aeii aei oe??? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?? noaaeyoueny oae?
aeine?aeieoeuee? caaaeaiiy:

 aecia/eoe ia?aaeoiiae oe?a?ii-aieaa?nueeeo ca’yce?a ia iniia?
aca?iineiiao?? ? aeia?ice/eeaino?;

 aeyaeoe ?ieue i?aaineaaii? oea?eae o ci?oeiaii? oa ?icaeoeo aeooiaieo
ca’yce?a oe?a?inueeiai ? aieaa?nueeiai ia?iae?a;

 aecia/eoe ?ieue oa o/anoue Oe?a?ie a aieaa?nueeiio I?ina?oieoeoa?;

 c?iaeoe ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c aieaa?nueeiai oa oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, aeyaeoe ?o aieiai? iniaeeaino?;

 aecia/eoe o/anoue oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo a iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueiiio
?on? Aieaa??? a ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?O no.;

 i?iaiae?coaaoe o?ae oe?a?inueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, aeyaeoe oaiaeaioe??
cai?ioiueiai aieeao ai?ioueae ca aecaieaiiy Aieaa??? ia iineeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo;

 ?icaeyiooe ?aaeueiee aieea ??cieo /eiiee?a ia o?ae
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueii? ai?ioueae neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaiiaeyoue iaoiaee oa i?eioeeie iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy, c yeeo ianaiia?aae
o?aaa aeae?eeoe i?eioeeie ?noi?ecio, ia’?eoeaiino?, eiiieaeniiai oa
nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo a i?ciaii? yaeu nioe?aeueii? ae?eniino?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. ?iaioa iinoa? iaeiei c ia?oeo aeena?oaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiue, a yeiio ii?yae c ?icaeyaeii aieaa?nueei? i?iaeaiaoeee ye
oe?e?niiai nenoaiiiai yaeua, a?aeeeaea?oueny iaeiiaa?ai?noue o
ni?eeiyoo? ? aena?oeaii? ??ciiiai?oieo i?iya?a ia?iaeiiai aeeooy.

O aeena?oaoe?? iaa?oioiaai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? ??ciyoueny iaoeiaith
iiaeciith:

 oe?a?ii-aieaa?nuee? aeooiai? ca’ycee, ye? iae?/othoue a?eueoa
oeny/ie?ooy, ? eiie?aoiith ?aaeuei?noth, ioaea aiie nooue naiino?eiee
ia’?eo ?noi?e/iiai aeine?aeaeaiiy;

 oe?a?ii-aieaa?nuee? aeooiai? ca’ycee caaaeaee aoee aca?iieie, oi/a a
iaai? ?noi?e/i? aiioe, a oeo /e ?ioeo ?noi?e/ieo oiiaao iaeia ?c noi??i
iaaoaaea i??i?eoao;

 aia?oa cae?eniaiee ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c oiaeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aieaa?nueeiai oa oe?a?inueeiai ia?iae?a c aeei?enoaiiyi
iiioey?ii? eiioeaioe?? o?ueio noaae?e iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiiue, c
ae/eaioaaiiyi ?o caaaeueieo oa iaeeie/ieo iniaeeainoae;

E??i oiai o iaoeiaee ia?a aaaaeai? iia? oaeoe, ye? aeyaeai? a a?o?aieo
aeieoiaioao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny oei, ui oaeoe/iee
iaoa??ae, oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy oa aeniiaee

y ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny o oi?i? /eoaiiy eaeoe?e, aenooi?a c
aeiiia?aeyie ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo, o iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo
aeena?oaioa. Caaaeueia eiioeaioe?y aeine?aeaeaiiy oa ie?ai? eiai aniaeoe
ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a a?ioo?? “Oe?a?ia oa aieaa?nueea iaoe?iiaeueia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy” (aeaeaia a 1998 ?.) oa aeayeeo ?ioeo noaooyo.

NO?OEOO?A ? CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c a anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, ye? aeeth/athoue
n?i i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiaeo, nieneo aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e (14 noi?.,
280 iaeiaioaaiue). Iiaiee ianya aeine?aeaeaiiy neeaaea? 180 noi??iie.

O Anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/ai? eiai
i?aaeiao, o?iiieia?/i? iaae?, iniaeeaino?, iaoa oa caaaeaiiy ?iaioe,
ie?aneai? iaoeiaa iiaecia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe??.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nuee? ca’ycee ye ia?aaeoiiaa
iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue” i?noeoue /ioe?e i?ae?icae?ee. A ia?oiio
aena?oeai? ?noi??ia?ao?y, aeaea?aea oa iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

sseui ieoaiiy i?i aca?iiae?th, aca?iica’ycee ? aca?iia?aeiineie Oe?a?ie
c aieaa?nueeei iaoe?iiaeueiei a?ae?iaeaeaiiyi o iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ia
noaaeeiny ye naiino?eiee ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, oi aea/aiiy ie?aieo
aniaeo?a oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeeo a?aeiinei ia? aeaai? oa no?eea
ei??iiy.

Iniiae aea/aiiy neia’yinueeeo iia oa ?noi??? a Oe?a?i? aoee caeeaaeai?
ua a na?aaeei? XVII-XVIII no. Oeoia O. Noa?a aeua ina?oa a Ee?anuee?e
Oe?a?i? XVI-XVII no. – E., 1924; Oeaeiye C.?. Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea
aeaaeai?y. – E., 1981; Oaa/aiei O.I. ?ieue Ee?aa o i?aeneia’yinueeeo
ca’yceao. – E., 1963. – oa ?i. C ii/aoeo O?O noie?ooy iineeth?oueny
?ioa?an aei aeaii? i?iaeaiaoeee. Ua a o? /ane iaeei ?c caniiaiee?a
Oa?e?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa aaoi? eiai ia?oiai onoaao, a?aeiiee
a?iiaaenueeee ae?y/ ? a/aiee A.I.Ea?ac?i Enoi?ey Oe?aeineie NN?. A 10 o.
O. 4. – E., 1983. – 210; E?ei’yeaae/ ?.I. ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – Euea?a,
1990. – N.255, 362., o?iaeaeaiaoeue Neiaiaeaiueie, aieaa?ei ca
iioiaeaeaiiyi, i??ya c?iaeoe oi?aa?neoao iaoeiaei oeaio?ii
neia’yiiciaanoaa, ui ni?eya ae a?ae?iaeaeaiith Aieaa???, caeo/eoe aei
iaa/aiiy a iueiio aieaa?nueeo iieiaeue, yea a aiooaaea naaa aei
ai?ioueae ca aecaieaiiy neia’yi a?ae oo?aoeueeiai y?ia Oaeaineee I.A.
Enoi?eei-oeeieiae/aneee oaeoeueoao Oa?ueeianeiai oieaa?neoaoa ca 100 eao
aai nouanoaiaaiey. – Oa?ueeia, 1908. – N.12; Ooiaaea I.N.
Oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nuee? oieueeei?enoe/i? ca’ycee (ia??iae aieaa?nueeiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy). – E., 1963. – N.118..

Neia’yiio?euenoai oa aaeeainueea iie?oeea ?in?enueeiai oea?ecio,
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?aeae iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?iiaioecio oa ?icaeoie
aoiai?oa?iiai iaoeiaiai ciaiiy o Cao?aei?e oa Oeaio?aeuei?e ?a?ii? aoee
na?aae /eiiee?a, ui aeaee iiooiao aei noaiiaeaiiy o O?O noie?oo? a
?in?enuee?e ?iia??? oa a Oe?a?i? neia’yiiciaanoaa, a a eiai eii? –
aieaa?enoeee. Inoaiiy noaiiaeoue niaith noeoii?noue aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe,
ui aea/athoue i?iaeaie Aieaa???, a oiio /ene? ? aca?iia?aeiineie c
ioi/oth/eie ?? e?a?iaie oa ia?iaeaie Ni.: Aei?ii/aieia A.E. Aieaa?enoeea
a nenoaia aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe // Aieaa?neee aaeaaiaeiee. O.1. – Oa?ueeia,
1994. – N.5-13..

Aaea ia e?iaoeue O?O no. caaaeyee i?aoeyi I.Aiaeyinueeiai,
A.A?eai?iae/a, I.Niaieaanueeiai, A.Nianiae/a, ?.N?aciaanueeiai oa ?ioeo
neia’yiiciaaoe?a aoee aena?oeai? aeaye? aniaeoe ii??aiyeueiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy no?aeiineia’yinueei-aieaa?nueeeo ca’yce?a, aieiaiei
/eiii, o aaeocyo iiae, eoeueoo?e, ia?iaeii? oai?/ino?. Ee?anueeee
?noi?ee O.Oeoia ia ii/aoeo OO no. aeoeaii ?ic?iaeya i?iaeaie ?noi???
?onueei? i?aaineaaii? oea?eae a Oe?a?i? XVII-XVIII no., o oiio /ene? ??
i?aeia?iaei?, aaeeainuee?, aieaa?nuee? ca’ycee Oeoia O.E. E aii?ino i
cia/aiee Eeaaneie aeaaeaiee aeey i?aaineaaey e ?onneie ia?iaeiinoe a
XVII-XVIII aa. – E., 1904; Oeoia O.E. ?onneay i?aaineaaiay oea?eiaue a
Iieuenei-Eeoianeii ainoaea?noaa XVII-XVIII aa. *.1. Iauea naaaeaiey i
caa?aie/iuo iiianou?yo Eeaaneie aia?oee a XVII-XVIII aa. – E., 1916..
Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui ? nueiaiaei? aieaa?nuee? a/ai? aeacothoue ia
i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy o??? ianoaaeie, ui ii?yae c Iineaith oa Iaoa?ao?aii
iaeaaaeeea?oeie oeaio?aie neia’yiiciaanoaa oa aieaa?enoeee noathoue c
O?O no. Ee?a, Iaeana oa Oa?e?a Eiiaa E. Oe?aeia a i?aaenoaaeoa e
iiciaieyoa ia aueaa?eoa i?ac auc?aaeaeaiaoi // ,Aieaa?neee aaeaaiaeiee.
O.1. – Oa?ueeia, 1994. – N.66..

Ne?ae caa?iooe oaaao ? ia oa, ui aiane?aeie ia?aaaaeaiiy a ?noi?e/i?e
iaooe? O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. eiina?aaoeaii-ioi?iiieo oaiaeaioe?e,
noeeuei?noue aei iaaeiioe?iee oe?a?inueei? ?noi??? ? eoeueoo?e, aei ?o
“iiieiaeaeoaaiiy” caeeoaeanue iaioth/ith e ia?aei/oaaea a ?noi??ia?ao?th
?aaeyinueeo. A inoaii?e eeoa c??aeea eoiaee i?ioanoe i?ioe oaeeo
i?aeoiae?a. Iai?eeeaae, I.N.Nioaiue aeacoaaa, ui “oe?a?ii-aieaa?nuee?
ca’ycee iathoue naith aeanio ?noi??th, iaoiiaeaio eiie?aoieie
ia’?eoeaieie oaeoi?aie (ni?euei?noue ?noi?e/ii? aeie?, nii??aeiai?noue
iiae, eoeueoo?e, iiaooo, aeecuee?noue ei?aeii?a ? c?o/i?noue
o?ainii?oieo ca’yce?a, noiae?noue i?e?iaeieo oiia oa ?i.)”, uii?aaaea,
i?aee?anethth/e, ui ?noi?e/iee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie caaaeaee aoa iia’ycaiee
?c ?in??th ? ?noi?e/i? ca’ycee oe?a?inueeiai oa aieaa?nueeiai ia?iae?a
iiaeii? ?icaeyaeaoeny nueiaiaei? ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia
caaaeueii?in?enueeeo ca’yce?a c Aieaa???th Nioaiue I.N. I/a?ee enoi?ee
oe?aeinei-aieaa?neeo naycae. – E., 1976. – N.5.

Iaioaaiiy eiina?aaoeaii-ioi?iiieo oaiaeaioe?e o aei?aaiethoe?ei?e
?in?enuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? oa ia?enenonueei? aeiaiaoeee a ?aaeyinuee?e
?noi?e/i?e iaooe? aaee aei iaoooaaiiy i?iaeaiaoeeith oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

?ioa neooaoe?y neeaeany a ?noi??ia?ao?? aieaa?nuee?e. Aaea ia ii/aoeo OO
no. aieaa?nueeeie aaoi?aie aoee noai?ai? ia?o? na?eici? iaoeia? i?aoe?,
aea aeine?aeaeoaaeeny nooi?noue, ia?aaeoiiae, oaeoi?e, o?ae,
ia??iaeecaoe?y i?ioean?a iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Aieaa??? Ae?eiia
I. Ioaoe Iaenee iaaiaaoi a?aia, iaaiaaoa enoi?ey e o/eieoeeoa io //
Nu/eiaiey ia I.N.Ae?eiia. O.1. – Nioey, 1909; Oeoiaiia E. Iaenee e
iaaiaaoa aiioa. Ienee au?oo aaiacena ia iiaiaieaa?nei auc?aaeaeaia //
Nienaiea ia Aueaa?. Aeaaeaiey ia iaoeeoa. Ei. VIII. – Nioey, 1914 oa
?i.. A 20-o-40-o ??. aeoeaii i?aoeththoue oa ioae?eothoueny I.I?eaa,
Ae.I?oaa, I.A?iaoaeia, O?.Aaiaeaa, AEae Iaoai Ieeaa I. Oaeoi?eoa ia
aueaa?neioi auc?aaeaeaia // Na. a /anoue ia i?io. E.Ae.Oeoiaiia. –
Nioey, 1920; Ieoaa Ae. Ia/aeioi ia aueaa?nea oa i?iaoaea // Oea?eiaai
a?oea. Ei.I-III. – Nioey, 1925; A?iaoaeia I. Aeoo e iiniee ia
aueaa?neioi auc?aaeaeaia // I?ac aaeiaaoa. – Nioey, 1938; Aaiaeaa O?.
Oaeoi?e ia aueaa?neioi auc?aaeaeaia. – Nioey, 1943; Iaoai AE. Aieaa?neia
aic?iaeaeaiea. – I., 1949 oa ?i.. Cae/aeii, aa/aiiy oa aena?oeaiiy
i?ioeana aieaa?nueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy o ??cieo aaoi??a
aoei iaiaeiicia/iei, aea an? aiie ?icaeyaeaee iaoe?iiaeueia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Aieaa??? ye ?noi?e/io aeai?noue, ye aaaeeeao ?aae?th
a?o/eciyii? ?noi??? e?ioey XVIII – ii/aoeo OO no. Oiio oaaaeia
ciaeiinoai c aieaa?nueeith iaoeiaith e?oa?aoo?ith iaaoaa? aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeao aaaii?noue.

Oaeei /eiii, ie?ai? aeaiaioe aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaoiaeyoue nai?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?e XIX – ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no.
Iaeiae, a?eueo-iaio na?eicieo ?ic?iaie ?noi??? oe?a?ii-aieaa?nueeeo
ca’yce?a aei na?aaeeie OO no. ua ia aoei cae?eniaii.

Eeoa o 40-o ??. oe?ea iecea i?iaeai aca?iia?aeiinei no?aeiineia’yineueeo
ia?iae?a oa Aieaa??? iio?aiey? aei oaaae ?aaeyinueeeo ?noi?ee?a, na?aae
yeeo ia?o ca ana o?aaa iacaaoe I.N.Aea?aeaa?ia Aea?aeaaei I.N. Nai?iee
noaoae e enneaaeiaaiee a iaeanoe neaayineie oeeieiaee. – I.-E., 1941;
Aea?aeaaei I.N. Ieaiaiiua e eoeueoo?iua nayce aieaa?neiai e ?onneiai
ia?iaeia. – I.-E., 1944; Aea?aeaaei I.N. Enoi?ey Aieaa?ee. A 4 o. O.1. –
I.-E., 1945; O.2. – I.-E., 1946; O.3. – I.-E., 1947; O.4. – I.-E., 1948;
Aea?aeaaei I.N. Neaayia a ae?aaiinoe. Eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneee i/a?e. –
I., 1946., I.I.Oeoiie?iaa Oeoiie?ia I.I. Enoi?e/aneea nayce ?onneiai
ia?iaea n thaeiuie neaayiaie n ae?aaiaeoeo a?aiai aei iieiaeiu XVII a.
// Neaayineee nai?iee. – I., 1947; Oeoiie?ia I.I. Enoi?e/aneea nayce
?innee ni neaayineeie no?aiaie e Aecaioeae. – I.: iaoea, 1969.,
N.A.I?e?o?ia Ieeeoei N.A.Aeeieiiaoe/aneea ioiioaiey ?innee n thaeiuie
neaayiaie a 60-o aiaeao OIX a. // Neaayineee nai?iee. – I., 1947.. Iiyaa
i?aoeue oeeo aaoi??a aea? ciiao ae?eoe aei aeniiaeo, ui a ?noi??ia?ao??
i?iaeaie ii/eia?oueny iiaee aoai: ?noi?e/i?, eoeueoo?i? ca’ycee ?
noinoiee aieaa?nueeiai ? no?aeiineaeia’yineueeo ia?iae?a noathoue
i?aaeiaoii niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue, a ia o?eueee ii?ooothoueny
iina?aaeiuei, iia?aeii, ye oi aoei ?ai?oa.

?in?enueei-aieaa?nuee? iie?oe/i?, ai?ii?, aeeieiiaoe/i? oa eoeueoo?i?
ca’ycee O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. ?ice?eaathoueny a i?aoeyo A.Ae.Eiiia??aa,
A.E.Ia?oeiaiea, Ae.A.I?uaiiai Eiiiaaaa A. ?onnei-aieaa?neia aiaaia
nio?oaeie/anoai a ?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieia 1877-1878 aa. – I., 1953;
Ia?ouiaiei A.E. Iiceoeey ?innee a nayce n i?iaicaeaoaieai iacaaeneiinoe
Aieaa?ee a 1908 a. // Ec enoi?ee ?onnei-aieaa?neeo ioiioaiee / Na. no.
iiae ?aae E.A.Aaeaaa e ae?. – I., 1958; Ian/aiue Ae.A. ?onnei-aieaa?neea
eoeueoo?iua nayce a 30-40 aa. XIX a. // Ec enoi?ee ?onnei-aieaa?neeo
ioiioaiee. Na. no. – I., 1958; Eiiiaaaa A.Ae. I ieaia aii?oaeaiiie
ai?ueau A.N.?aeianeiai a Aieaa?ee a ia?eiae E?uineie aieiu // Neaayineee
a?oea. Na. no. e iaoa?eaeia. – I., 1959.. A 1960-1990 ??. e?euee?noue
iiae?aieo ioae?eaoe?e cia/ii c?inoa?. Aiaeii/an, a 1950-1960 ??.
c’yaeythoueny ia?o? a?o/eciyi? ioae?eaoe??, a yeeo ?icaeyaeathoueny o?
/e ?io? aeaiaioe oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeeo a?aeiinei A?eaoeueeee I.?.
Oaa/aiei ? neia’yinoai // ?aaeyinueea e?oa?aoo?iciaanoai. – 1952. – ?16;
Aoaiania I. Eaai O?aiei e Aieaa?ey // Neaayia. – 1956. – ?7; Aoaiania I.
Ieoaeei Ae?aaiiaiia ? Nio?enueeee oi?aa?neoao // Anana?o. – 1962. – ?12;
Aa/eineee A.Ae., Aeuoai I.Ae. Iiiiuue o/aiuo Iiai?inneeneiai
oieaa?neoaoa inaiaiaeeoaeueiiio aeaeaeaieth ia Aaeeaiao // Neaayineee
a?oea. – I., 1962; AEaaie?eoeueeee A.A. Eenooaaiiy I.N.Ae?eiiaa c
I.I.Aiaeyinueeei // Ieoaiiy ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e neia’yi. *.1. – E.,
1963; Oaa/aiei O.I. Na?ae ? aieaa?e a oe?a?ineueiio eicaoeueeiio
a?enueeo XVII-XVIII no. // Ieoaiiy ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e neia’yi. – E.,
1963.. I?i aeo?ae a?o/eciyii? ?noi??ia?ao?? oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeeo
ca’yce?a O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. ia iiaee ??aaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
ocaaaeueiaiiy ia e?ioe? 1950 – ii/aoeo 1960 ??. na?ae/eoue iiyaa
iiiia?ao?e A.O.Aeieo?oea, I.A.Oieeueiai?, I.Ae.Ae/aa?iaa,
A.N.Ai?nueeiai, I.N.Ooiaaee Aeieo?oe A. Noi??iee a?eiai? ae?oaeae: C
?noi??? oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeeo ca’yce?a a O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. –
Euea?a, 1958; Oieeueiaa I. O.A.Oaa/aiei ? aieaa?nueea e?oa?aoo?a. – E.,
1963; Ooiaaea I.N. Oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nuee? oieueeei?enoe/i? ca’ycee
(ia??iae aieaa?nueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy). – E., 1963; Ae/aa?ia I.Ae.,
Ai?nueeee A.N. Oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nuee? o?einionuee? ca’ycee: ae?oaa
iieiaeia O?O no. – E., 1966..

C?inoa? ?ioa?an aei aeine?aeaeaiiy ??ciiieaiiaeo
oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeeo ca’yce?a ? a Aieaa???. A?ae ia?oeo ei?ioeeo
ioae?eaoe?e ia?aaaaeii iinoaiiaiiai aai oaeoieia?/iiai oa?aeoa?o e?ioey
40-o – ii/aoeo 60-o ?ie?a Aeueaaneee I. ?ueueneee iiianou?ue e ?inney a
XVI-XVII aa. – Nioey, 1946; Niaaa?ia E. Aeooiaii-eoeueoo?ie a?ucee
iaaeaeo Aueaa?ey e ?oney i?ac n?aaeieoa aaeiaa (X-XV aa.). – Nioey,
1950; Oaaeaeeieeieia A. Ainniaaeeiaiea Oe?aeiu n ?inneae e aieaa?neee
ia?iae // Neaayia. – 1954. – ?10., aieaa?nuee? a/ai? ia?aoiaeyoue aei
a?eueo a?oioiaii? iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee cacia/aii? i?iaeaie Niaaa?ia E.
Oo?neioi aeaaee/anoai i?a/ea ca eoeoo?iioi ?acaeoea ia aueaa?nee ia?iae
e ae?oaea aaeeainee ia?iaee. – Nioey, 1958; Aeueaaneee I. Oe?aeineia
?oeiieniia Aaaiaaeea 1568 a. ec Aaee/a a iocaa aic?iaeaeaiey a. Naeooiaa
a Aieaa?ee // Neaayinea oeeieiaey. O.3. – Nioey, 1963; ?onaeeaa N.
O.Oaa/aiei e aieaa?neay eeoa?aoo?a. – E., 1968; Aoaiania I. Oe?aeineea
noa?iia/aoiua ee?eeee/aneea eieae XVI-XVII aa. a Aieaa?ee // Niaaoneia
neaayiiaaaeaiea. – 1972; Aai/aa I. Aueaa?nei auc?aaeaeaia. – Nioey,
1981; Aiaaeia A. Noa?iaueaa?nei eieaeeiai ianeaaenoai. – Nioey, 1983;
Eiiaa E. Aueaa?neioi auc?aaeaeaia e i?inaauaieaoi. – Nioey, 1983; O?enoa
O?. Eoeoo?ie e iieeoe/anee a?unee iaaeaeo iaianoe?eoa io
Aaeeeiou?iianeee e?ae e ?oney i?ac XVI-XIX aa. // ?onei-aueaa?nee a?ucee
i?ac aaeiaaoa. – Nioey, 1986. oa ?i.. I?ioa eeoa a inoaii? ?iee aiie
/?oei aeciathoue aeeaieee oa ??ciiiai?oiee ca nai?ie nooi?noth ?
iane?aeeaie aieea Oe?a?ie ia aeooiaio aoiinoa?o Aieaa?nueeiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, ae?oeothoue ia?o? iaoeia? ?ica?aeee o oeueiio iai?yieo
Eiiaa E. Oe?aeia a i?aaenoaaeoa e iiciaieyoa ia aueaa?eoa i?ac
auc?aaeaeaiaoi // Aieaa?neee aaeaaiaeiee. O.1. – Oa?ueeia, 1994. – N.58,
57-68..

Aiaeii/an, ia iiaeia ia a?aecia/eoe ye aacnoii?aiee caeiaooie
aieaa?nueei? ?noi??ia?ao?? oie oaeo, ui ia??iae iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiee iath aeineoue aeeaiei oa ie?aeii.

Oi/a o a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? 1970-1980 ??. ? c’yaeythoueny iia?
ioae?eaoe??, na?aae yeeo ia?oi?yaeia cia/aiiy ia? ooiaeaiaioaeueia
i?aoey I.N.Nioaiy, i?enay/aia ?noi??? oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeeo ca’yce?a,
aea nooo?aa oaaaa i?eae?eaia ia??iaeo XVIII-OO no. Nioaiue I.N. I/a?ee
enoi?ee oe?aeinei-aieaa?neeo naycae. – E., 1976. – N.38-185., i?ioa
ye?nieo c?ooaiue o aeine?aeaeaii? oaie ?iaioe ia a?aeaoaa?oueny. Ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe ye iaai? caeiaooee (iinoaiiaea i?iaeaie
oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeeo ca’yce?a, aaaaeaiiy a iaoeiaee ia?a iiaeo
oaeoe/ieo a?aeiiinoae; iinooiiaa iioe?aiiy iiey aeine?aeaeaiiy), oae ?
iaaeie?ee (eiioeaiooaeueii-iaoiaeieia?/ia iaeiii??i?noue; aea??eiaee
i?aeo?ae aei oaeoe/iiai iaoa??aeo, iaiaaaiiy i?ae?aiaoe eiai i?ae
caaeaio noaio; iie?oeei-?aeaieia?/ia oia?aaeaeai?noue;
ia?enenonueei-eiioi?noe/ia aiieiaao?ea) aeacaii? aeua e?oa?aoo?e.

Aeanii eaaeo/e, a nioe?ae?noe/i? /ane c iiey ci?o aeine?aeiee?a aeiaee
oe?e? oa?e nioe?aeueiiai aoooy. Iia?, a?eueo oaaaei? oa aeeaie?
i?aeoiaee aei aeine?aeaeaiiy ?noi??? iaoe?iiaeueieo ?oo?a,
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ui aecia/eeeny o i?aoeyo aeayeeo
no?aeii-?a?iiaenueeeo a/aieo Ieaea?oaoca? Y. Oeiu enoi?eei-eoeueoo?iiai
?acaeoey neaayineeo ia?iaeia // Neaayineea eoeueoo?u a yiioo
oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey neaayineeo iaoeee XVIII-XIX aa. Iaoa?eaeu
iaaeaeoia?. eiioa?. THIANEI. – I., 1978; Oiiaoaanee E. Iieeoe/aneaoa
o?aaeeoeey e aea?aeaaieoa i?aa?aoe a Aueaa?ey // Aueaa?neaoa aeu?aeaaa
i?ac aaeiaaoa. Aeieeaaee. O.1. – Nioey, 1982; Eiiaa E. Aueaa?neioi
auc?aaeaeaia e i?inaauaieaoi. – Nioey, 1983 oa ?i., oae ? ia c?oeioaaee
caeinoai?e? noaie, ianoaiiae, oaaeiie, ui iaioaaee a ?aaeyinuee?e
?noi??ia?ao??.

Eeoa o 90-o ?ieao neeaaeathoueny nioe?aeuei? oa ?ioaeaeooaeuei?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey ia?aoiaeo ?noi?e/ii? aeoiee ia ye?nii iiaee ??aaiue.
Ia’?eoeaia, iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia ?noi??y aca?iia?aeiinei, aca?iica’yce?a
Oe?a?ie ? Aieaa??? o aeiao ?o iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue ua ia
iaienaia. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai aaoi? iaiaaa?oueny ia o?eueee ocaaaeueieoe
oa aeiiiaieoe c?iaeaia iiia?aaeieeaie, a e ia?ainieneeoe oe? i?iaeaie
aaeaeaaoii-no/aniiio ??aith ?noi?e/ii? iaoee, o na?oe? iiaeo ?noi?e/ieo
?aae?e, iiaiai aoaio ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeeo ca’yce?a.

Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?? caaaeaiue aeei?enoiaaii
aeineoue oe?iea eiei aeaea?ae: oea?eiai? oa aea?aeaai? aeoe, aeieoiaioe
ae?y/?a oe?a?inueeiai ? aieaa?nueeiai iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue,
aieaa?nueeeo oa oe?a?inueeeo a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e, ia??iaee/ia
i?ana Oe?a?ie O?O – ii/aoeo OO no. Oe?ea iecea ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
aeieoiaioaeueieo ioae?eaoe?e, ye? i?noyoue iaoa??aee, ui oi?eathoueny
aeine?aeaeoaaieo aaoi?ii i?iaeai, aeaeaia ?aaeyinueeeie iaoeiaoeyie
Oe?a?ia ia?aae aecaieueiith a?eiith 1648-1654 ??. Ca. aeie. – E., 1946;
Ainniaaeeiaiea Oe?aeiu n ?inneae. Aeieoiaiou e iaoa?eaeu. A 3 o. O.1:
1620-1647. – I., 1953; O.3: 1650-1654. – I., 1953; Inaiaiaeaeaiea
Aieaa?ee io oo?aoeeiai eaa. A 3 o. O.1: Inaiaiaeeoaeueiay ai?ueaa
thaeiuo neaayi e ?innee. 1875-1877. – I., 1961; Iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneia
aeaeaeaiea ia Oe?aeia. Na. aeie. A 2 o. O.1 (1856-1862 aa.). – E., 1963;
O.2 (1862-1864 aa.). – E., 1964; Inaiaiaeaeaiea Aieaa?ee io oo?aoeeiai
eaa: Aeieoiaiou a 3 o. O.2. Ai?ueaa ca inaiaiaeaeaiea Aieaa?ee a ia?eiae
?onnei-oo?aoeeie aieiu 1877-1887 aa. – I., 1964; O.3: Ai?ueaa ?innee e
aieaa?neiai ia?iaea ca nicaeaiea aieaa?neiai ainoaea?noaa. 1878-1879 aa.
– I., 1967 oa ?i.. Aacnoii?aiee ?ioa?an noaiiaeyoue aeieoiaioaeuei?
ioae?eaoe?? aieaa?nueeeo a/aieo Einoaaeeiiaa E, Oei?iaa A., Aeeieo?iaa
A. Aueaa?i-?onee iao/ie a?ucee. XIX-XX aa. Ienaiea e aeieoiaioe. –
Nioey, 1968; Aeieoiaioe e iaoa?eaee ca enoi?eyoa ia aueaa?neey ia?iae. –
Nioey, 1969 oa ?i.. ?acii c oei, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iac??ea
iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaioiaee oa ioae?eaoe?? a iao?e e?a?i? ca??ee
aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a, aea aoee a a?aeia?aaeai?
oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nuee? ca’ycee ia i?ioyc? ?o aaaaoia?eiai? ?noi???.
Oaea ca??ea ia o?eueee a iaaeaea nooo?ao aeiiiiiao ia/eneaiiei
oao?aoeyi, ui aaaeooue ??ciiai ?iaeo aeine?aeaeaiiy, a e aoea a aei
iaaiaee ? nooaeaionoao, iniaeeai aoiai?oa?iiio, ? /eneaiiei a?iiaiyaeai
Oe?a?ie, ui iathoue o nai?io ?iaeia?ae? aieaa?nuee? ei??iiy (ca aeaieie
ia?aieno 1989 ?. a iaaeao eieeoiueiai N?N? i?iaeeaaei 373 oen. /ie.
aieaa?nueei? iaoe?iiaeueiino?, c ieo 234 oen. /ie. – a Oe?a?i?), ?
oe?a?inuee?e oa aieaa?nuee?e a?iiaaeneino? acaaae?.

Aaaeeeaei eiiiiiaioii aeaea?aeueii? aace aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee
aeieoiaioe, ui i?noyoueny a Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio
a?o?a? Oe?a?ie (OeAe?A) a i.Ee?a?, i?eaeecii 200 ni?aa c 29 oiiae?a
(O.59, 127, 128, 130, 131, 132, 169, 262, 268, 281, 317, 318, 348, 356,
385, 386, 419, 442, 707, 711, 733, 1153, 1252, 1475, 2017, 2045, 2046,
2052, 2056). Oea ia?aaaaeii aeieoiaioe ?ai?aneaii-ea?aeueieo i?aai?a
oea?nueei? ?in?? oa ?o iinaaeiaeo in?a, aeieoiaioe ina?oi?o oa
aeooiaii-?ae?a?eieo onoaiia oa caeeaae?a, ia?niiae??, aea a?aeaeeiny
/eiaei oaeoe/ieo a?aeiiinoae, ui oi?eathoueny oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeeo
ca’yce?a aeiae iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue. ?yae oe?eaaeo
aeieoiaioaeueieo a?aeiiinoae, ui na?ae/aoue i?i ni?a/oooy aieaa?nueei?
a?iiaaenueeino? ia?iaeaeoaaiiio oe?a?inueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?ooo
(iai?eeeaae, i?i a?aoo o ethoiio 1886 ?. a Iaean? nooaeaioa Ni??i
Aoeaa/aaa, yeee i?eaoa o ?in?th c aaeeeei aaioaaeai iaeaaaeueii?
oe?a?inueei? e?oa?aoo?e) OeAe?A Oe?a?ie. – O.419, ii.1, ni?.1323,
a?e.1-6, 43, 43 ca., 47, aaiaeyoueny aaoi?ii o iaoeiaee ia?a aia?oa a
iao?e e?a?i?.

O oeueiio ae i?ae?icae?e? aaoi? oi?ea?oueny i?iaeai iaoiaeieia?/iiai
oa?aeoa?o, ieoaiue oai??? ?noi?e/iiai i?ciaiiy, o?einio??, ai?noaiieia??
?noi???. C /eneaieo ? aaaaoi a /iio noia?a/eeaeo oac, ui
a?aenoiththoueny a no/anieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo aeeneon?yo, aaoi? iae?a? oa
ianoith? o?, ui oyaeythoueny eiio iaea?eueo iaa?oioiaaieie. Aaoi? ia
o?eueee aecia/a? iaeaaaeeea?o? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?eioeeie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oae? ye: iaoeiaa ia’?eoeai?noue, ?noi?eci, anacaaaeueiee ca’ycie ?
?icaeoie, oi?aa?nae?ci, ?aoe?iiae?ci, iaoiaeieia?/iee ieth?ae?ci, a e
aeiaiaeeoue, ui no/ani? iaoiaeieia?/i? i?aeoiaee aeiiiiaaathoue e?aua
c’ynoaaoe ae?aeaeoeeo i?ioean?a iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue Oe?a?ie ?
Aieaa???. sseui eeane/ia iaoea ?icaeyaeaea o? /e ?io? yaeua ye aaoiiiii?
aei ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua, aacoaaeany ia iinooeao? i?i i?eiao
“aioo??oi?o caeiiii??iinoae”, oi c oi/ee ci?o no/anii? iaoee ciai?oi?
aieeae oaeaeei anei?eththoueny, ia?aie?oathoueny c aioo??oi?i ci?noii,
iaaeath/e ia’?eoo aaoa?iaaiio i?e?iaeo. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeicaiey?
aeine?aeaeoaaoe i?iaeaie aca?iiae?? i?ioean?a oe?a?inueeiai ?
aieaa?nueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiue aeeaoa, iiai?oa, a?oioiai?oa.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e ia?oiai ?icae?eo “Aeoiee ? oa?aeoa?
oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeeo ca’yce?a” ? iaeiaioei ca ianyaii, aea
oyaey?oueny aeineoue iaiao?aeiei. O oeueiio i?ae?icae?e? ?ice?eaathoueny
?noi?e/i? ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy ? caa?aaeaiiy ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio
a?e?a oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeeo aca?iieo neiiao?e. Aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue aei
aeniiaeo, ui aca?ii? neiiao?? ? aeia?ice/eea?noue oe?a?inueeiai ?
aieaa?nueeiai ia?iae?a iathoue nooo?a? ia?aaeoiiae, ye? iieyaathoue o
ni?eueiino? aoi?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy, noiaeino? iniiaieo iiiaio?a
aoiiaaiaco, o aaia?ao?/iiio iieiaeaii? aeaio e?a?i, iiae?aiino? eoeueoo?
aeaai?o aieaa? ? ?on?a, aieaa? ? oe?a?ioe?a. Iaea?eueo yne?aai
eoeueoo?ia nii??aeiai?noue iaoeo ia?iae?a aeyaeeany a iia?, ia?iaei?e
oai?/ino?, noni?euei?e ineoieia??, iiaoo?, ?ae?a?eiiio aeeoo?.
Aaaeeeaith ia?aaeoiiaith oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeiai aca?iiiai oyae?iiy
aenooia? oaeiae o?aa?/ia ni?euei?noue ?o ?noi?e/ii? aeie?.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? “?ieue i?aaineaaii? oea?eae a oe??ieaii? ?
?icaeoeo ca’yce?a oe?a?inueeiai ? aieaa?nueeiai ia?iae?a” aaoi?
coieiy?oueny ia aiae?c? iaei??? c aaaeo/eo oi?i noni?eueii? na?aeiiino?,
aeooiaii? iniiae oeea?e?caoe?? – ?ae?a?eiiio aeeoo?. Iaaaaeai? o
i?ae?icae?e? iaoa??aee na?ae/aoue, ui /e ia iaeaaaeeea?oith
ia?aaeoiiaith neiiao?e oe?a?inueeiai ? aieaa?nueeiai ia?iae?a ? ?o
eiioan?eia ?aei?noue, iaeaaei?noue aei i?aaineaa’y. Caaaeuei? aeooiai?
iniiae, neia’yinueea ieniaii?noue, ni?euei?noue ?ae?a?eiiai,
e?oa?aoo?iiai, eoeueoo?iiai aeeooy ni?eyee caa?aaeaiith a aeeaeiao
ia?iaeii? na?aeiiino? ii/oooy neia’yinueei? ?aeiino?, yea a oiiaao
?iicaiiiai iaioaaiiy noaei ieoiiith neeith aecaieueieo ciaaaiue ?
a?aoiuei? aca?iiaeiiiiiae.

*aoaa?oee i?ae?icae?e ia?oiai ?icae?eo “Oe?a?ia ? aieaa?nueea
i?ina?oieoeoai” i?enay/aiee oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeei ca’yceai o
eoeueoo?ii-iie?oe/i?e noa??. Iaoa??aee, ui iaaiaeyoueny o i?ae?icae?e?
ia?aeiieeai na?ae/aoue, ui oe? ca’ycee aoee iaii?eueieie,
aca?iiei?enieie, o i?ioean? ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy caaaeaee i?inoaaeo?oueny
cai?ioiee ca’ycie.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Aca?iica’ycie oe?a?inueeiai ? aieaa?nueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue” (aeeth/a? o?e i?ae?icae?ee) i?enay/aiee
aiae?co o/ano? Oe?a?ie o ca?eueiaii? Aieaa??? a?ae oo?aoeueeiai
aiiaeaiiy, i?aeo?eiee aoae?aieoeoaa aieaa?nueei? aea?aeaaiino?, a oaeiae
cai?ioiueiai aieeao ai?ioueae ca naiaiaeo aieaa? ia ?icaeoie ?aeae
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?.

Ia?oee i?ae?icae?e – “Ii??aiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea aieaa?nueeiai ?
oe?a?inueeiai iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue” oa?aeoa?eco?oueny
iine?aeiaiei aaeeaaiiyi oai??? o?ueio noaae?e iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy “iaaea?aeaaieo” iaoe?e. Aaoi? iieaco?, ui ca
ia?aaeoiiaaie, oaiiaie, nioe?aeueieie neeaie ? e?ioeaaith iaoith
ai?ioueae i?ae Oe?a?iith ? Aieaa???th ?nioaaee nooo?a? a?aei?iiino?.

O yeino? iaeiiai ?c iaeaaaeeea?oeo oaiiiai?a aieaa?nueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aaoi? aeae?ey? no??ieee a?a
nioe?aeueiiai, ?noi?e/iiai /ano. Aaeaea a?ae ia?oeo ?iioeuen?a
naiina?aeiiino? o aeae?eueeio aeanyoe?a ethaeae o an?e Aieaa??? aei
ia?aiiae iaae Oo?aoeueeith ?iia???th ? noai?aiiy nai?? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aea?aeaaiino? ieioei a?ey noa ?ie?a. Oaea oaeaee?noue ia?aa?ao i?ioeano
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a ?noi??? cono??/a?oueny ia/anoi.
Aieaa?nueea a?ae?iaeaeaiiy i?io?eaei i?e aeooiai?e i?aeo?eioe?
i?ia?aneaieo nee on??? ?a?iie, anueiai o?enoeyinueeiai na?oo, i?e
i?oei?e aea?aeaai?e i?aeo?eioe? ?in?enueei? ?iia???, yea aeio?eioaaeany
nai?o aeanieo aaiiie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a, ? a oie aea /an nie?aeany ia
i?aeoe/ii aacoiiaio i?aeo?eieo nai?o i?aeaeaieo.

Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c i?ioean?a iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue a Oe?a?i? ?
Aieaa??? iieacaa, ui aiie ?icai?oaeenue a iaeio ? oo ae ?noi?e/io aeiao,
iaee noiaeo aioo??oith no?oeoo?o, ?icaeaaeenue “cieco”, iaaeeoath/enue
iaoe?iiaeueiith ?ioae?aaioe?th, ui ca?iaeaeoaaeanue. ?acii c oei, ?
?oo?ei? neee, ? iai?yiie (caaaea?ii, ui ?aeay iaoe?iiaeueii?
iacaeaaeiino?, aeanii? aea?aeaaiino? a Oe?a?i? c’yaey?oueny eeoa a
e?ioe? O?O no.), ? oaiie, ? aieea ciai?oi?o oaeoi??a a?ae??ciyeenue
aeineoue cia/iith nai???aei?noth o Aieaa???, a cao?aeiioe?a?inueeeo
caieyo o neeaae? Aano??enueei? ?iia??? ? a oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?yo
?iia??? ?in?enueei?. I?ioa oe? i?ioeane aoee o?nii aca?iiiia’ycai? iaeei
c iaeiei, aca?iiaieeaaee, i?aeo?eioaaee iaeei iaeiiai.

Caeeaeo? i?ioeane iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue Oe?a?ie ? Aieaa???
oaeiae oie oaeo, ui ?noi?e/ia iai’youe oeeo ia?iae?a aa?aaea caaaeee i?i
?nioaaiiy i?ioyaii noie?oue nai?o i?oeieo iaoe?iiaeueieo aea?aeaa
(Ee?anueea ?onue, Ia?oa ? Ae?oaa aieaa?nueea oea?noai), nai?? aeaaiuei?
naiino?eii? eoeueoo?e, oiaoi o iaio ia?iae?a aoei ui a?ae?iaeaeoaaoe.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ae?oaiai ?icae?eo “Oe?a?ia ?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueia ai?ioueaa aieaa?nueeiai ia?iaeo o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?O noie?ooy” iiaa eaea i?i aaciina?aaeith i?aeo?eieo ia?iaeii
Oe?a?ie aecaieueii? ai?ioueae aieaa?nueeiai ia?iaeo.

I?ia?aeiith neeith iaoe?iiaeueieo a?ae?iaeaeaiue ?
iaoe?iiaeueii-aecaieueieo ?oo?a o Aieaa???, Oe?a?i?, ?ioeo e?a?iao
Oeaio?aeueii? ? No?aeii? ?a?iie O?O no. aenooiaea iaoe?iiaeueia
?ioae?aaioe?y. Naia a Oe?a?i?, a Ee?a?, Iaean?, Oa?eia?, Ieeiea?a?
aaaaoi aieaa? io?eiaei ii/aoeiao, a?iiace/io, oi?aa?neoaonueeo aai
?ae?a?eio ina?oo. O?eueee ie?ai? e?a?ie (?in?y, ?oioi?y, /anoeiai
Aano??y) iiaeooue o oeueiio a?aeiioaii? ii??aiyoeny c Oe?a?iith. Aei
oiai ae, ia?iaeaeoaaia aieaa?nueea ?ioae?aaioe?y, naia ooo, a
oe?a?inueeeo caieyo cono??/aea o?aaeeoe?eia ni?a/oooy ? i?aeo?eieo, ui
aei?aieeeny o ia?iaei?e na?aeiiino?. Ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/ia aoiinoa?a a
Oe?a?i? XVIII-XIX noie?oue ni?eyea ci?oeiaiith oe?a?ii-aieaa?nueeeo
ca’yce?a.

Iaei??th ?c oi?i aeiiiiiae Aieaa??? aoei noai?aiiy ??cieo aeaaiae?eieo
oiaa?enoa ? i?aai?caoe?e. A ia?oo /a?ao aiie aoee noai?ai? a Iaean?,
Ee?a?, Oa?eia?. Iniiai? ae?? c i?aeo?eiee aecaieueiiai ?ooo aieaa? aoee
cae?eniai? a?iiaaenuee?noth Oe?a?ie i?ney ii/aoeo iianoaiiy o Aieaa??? ?
iaieioaiiy ?in??th a?eie Oo?a//ei? 12 ea?oiy 1877 ?. O neeaae?
Aeoiaenueei? a?i??, yea iae?/oaaea 184,4 oen. /ieia?e, a?eueo?noue
aiye?a aoee i?eeeeeai? ?c oe?a?inueeeo aoaa?i?e. Ua I.I.Ae?aaiiaiia
a?aecia/aa, ui “…o iia?e?ciaai?e iaeaooi?e Aeoiaenuee?e a?i??, noai?ai?e
ia aac? o?ueio ie?oa?a Ee?anueeiai, Iaeanueeiai ? Oa?e?anueeiai, iaeaea
an? nieaeaoe – oe?a?ioe?”.

Oe?a?ia ia?aoai?eeanue ia aieiaio aaco nii?yaeaeaiiy aithth/i? a?i??, ??
eiioi?eaoe?? aoee ?aeeieie, ui aaee aei Aieaa???, aiia noaea aaeeeei
oeeiaei oieoaeai ?in?enueei? a?i??, ?? ianaeaiiy iaaeaaaei a?i??
iaoa??aeueio aeiiiiiao (oeyoii cai?o a?ioiaeo, ?a/iaeo ? i?iaeiaieue/eo
iiaea?oaoaaiue), aeanyoee oeny/ oe?a?ioe?a caaeioee ca naiaiaeo
Aieaa???.

Aeinyaiaiiy iacaeaaeiino? Aieaa??? io?eiaei nai? ao?eaiiy o noai?aii?
aeanii? aea?aeaae, i?e ye?e ii-?ioiio ae??oothoueny iaoe?iiaeuei?,
aeiiii?/i?, nioe?aeuei?, ina?oieoeuee? ? eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeuee?
caaaeaiiy.

O?ao?e i?ae?icae?e ae?oaiai ?icae?eo “Oe?a?inueea iaoe?iiaeueia
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? Aieaa??y” i?enay/aiee ?ic?iaoe? iaeiaeine?aeaeaiiai
aniaeoo oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nueeeo a?aeiinei – aieeao aieaa?nueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia Oe?a?io.

I?ney ca?eueiaiiy Aieaa???, noni?eueii-ineoieia?/ia eiiie?iaioa?i?noue
aieaa?nueeiai ? no?aeiineia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a, ui ?nioaaea a?eaie,
ia?a?inea o ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ia ??ai? noni?eueii? ?aeaieia??.
?ioaineo?eoaaany iai?i iie?oe/ieie, i?aaiaeie, ii?aeueieie, anoaoe/ieie,
o?einionueeeie ?aeayie, ci?oeieeenue ca’ycee a aaeoc? ienoaoeoaa,
?ae?a??, iaoee i?ae Aieaa???th ? Oe?a?iith. Oea aeicaiey?
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aieaa?nueeee ?iioeuen a?ae?a?aaaa nooo?ao ?ieue o
i?iaoaeaeaii? a oe?a?inueeiio ia?iae? i?aaiaiiy aei iacaeaaeiino?.
Iaeiae aieaa?nueeee aeina?ae ia caaaeaee i?a aeiiiiiaoe oe?a?ioeyi,
aaeaea aieaa?e o nai?io iaoe?iiaeueiiio oai?aii? nie?aeenue a?eueoa ia
aii??e/i?, i?ae oai?aoe/i? canaaee. I?aeiyeenue aiie ia ai?ioueao ia c
iaoith cae?eniaiiy yeeo-iaaoaeue oai?aoe/ieo i?ecia/aiue, a aeey
caiia?aaiiy nia?oaeueii? caa?ice naiiio ?nioaaiith aieaa?nueei? iaoe?? c
aieo Oo?aoeueei? ?iia???, ui y?i iie?aeany nai?io ?iciaaeo. Aieaa?nueeee
ia?iae i?aeiyany oaeiae o a?aeiia?aeue ia ii/aoie aecaieueii? a?eie
i?ioe Oo?a//eie c aieo ?in??.

sseui aieaa?nueea noni?eueii-iie?oe/ia aeoiea ia aeiioneaea ? o?i?
noii?ao noiniaii ieoaiiy i?i iaiao?aei?noue aeinyaiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
iacaeaaeiino? a yeino? e?ioeaai? iaoe ai?ioueae, oi aeey ooaa?aeaeaiiy
?aea? iaoe?iiaeueii? iacaeaaeiino? oe?a?ioeyi o aano??enueeeo
aieiae?iiyo iio??aii aoei a?eueoa i?anoie?ooy, ?in?enueeei oe?a?ioeyi –
a?eueoa noa ?ie?a. sseui ia Caoiae? Oe?a?ie ?aeay iaoe?iiaeueii?
iacaeaaeiino? ooaa?aeeeany aei 1895 ?., oi a Iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e Oe?a?i?
aiia ooaa?aeeeany o?eueee a ?iee ?aaiethoe?? ? a?iiaaeyinueei? a?eie
1917-1920 ??.

Ni?eueia ai?ioueaa cao?aeieo ? iaaeaei?i?yinueeeo oe?a?ioe?a ca
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ni?eyea caeeaeaiith aeaio a?eie oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo.

Nooo?ao ?ieue o aeoea?caoe?? iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i? a?ae?a?aea
Aieaa??y.

Aeinyaiaiiy aieaa?nueeei ia?iaeii iaoe?iiaeueii? iacaeaaeiino? i?eaaei
aei ?ioaineo?eaoe?? nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo eiioaeo?a i?ae Aieaa???th ?
Oe?a?iith.

sseui a ia?o? ?iee iacaeaaeiiai aeeooy Aieaa??y iio?aaoaaea aeiiiiiae ?
c aaey/i?noth ?? i?eeiaea (a iaeano? aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa,
eoeueoo?e, ina?oe), oi noaaoe ia iiae, aiia ii/aea iaaeaaaoe cai?ioi?e
aeaai/eiiee aieea ia ia?iaee, ye? ?? ca?eueiyee. Ae?y/? oe?a?inueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ooo, ?aaiethoe?iia?e, ye? aeio?eioaaeeny ??ciiiai?oieo
iie?oe/ieo ia?aeiiaiue, ciaoiaeeee i?eooeie o Aieaa???. Ooo aiie iiaee
aeaeaaaoe naith e?oa?aoo?o, a?eueii cae?aoeny aeey iai??eoaaiiy nai?o
i?iaeai. Oiaoi, iinooiiai a?aeaoaaany ia?ao?ae aei iai?io ia o?eueee
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieie, aea e /enoi iie?oe/ieie ?aeayie. Iniiaia
na?aae oeeo ?aeae – ?aeay iaoe?iiaeueii? iacaeaaeiino?, cae/aeii ae,
aoea i?aeaioiaeaia an?i oiaeii ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueeiai
ia?iaeo, aea iaooiaiiee i?eeeaae ia?iaeo aieaa?nueeiai, yeee ii/aa aeeoe
iacaeaaeiei aeeooyi, oaeiae a?ae?a?aa naith iiceoeaio ?ieue.

O Aeniiaeao ae?iaeaii ocaaaeueiaiiy ? i?aeaaaeai? i?aenoiee ?iaioe,
?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ui noaee ?acoeueoaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia
iniia? aiae?co oiaeo iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? ?
Aieaa???, ?o aca?iica’yce?a aaoi?ii i?iiiiothoueny ianooii?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? c iiaeaeueoi? ei?aeoe?iaee i?ioeano iaoe?iiaeueiiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ? aea?aeaaiiai aoae?aieoeoaa a Oe?a?i?.

 O oiae? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iaiao?aeii nie?aoeny ia oae?
ianei?iieio/? oaeoi?e, ye ni?euei?noue aoiiaaiaco, iiae, eoeueoo?e,
noni?eueii? ineoieia?? ? noni?eueii? ?aeaieia?? neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a;

 Aa?aaeii a?aeiineoeny aei eoeueoo?ieo aeinyaiaiue ??cieo a?eie
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, ui ae?iaeai? a ?acoeueoao? nai???aeiino?
?noi?e/ieo oiia;

 Iiaaaeaoe eiioan?eio i?eiaeaaei?noue ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, noai?thaaoe
??ai? oiiae aeey ooieoe?iioaaiiy an?o ?ae?a?eieo eiioan?e;

 Iniiaith aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy ia?iaeo aaaaeaoe ina?oo, eoeueoo?o,
iaoeo, i?iaiaeeoe aea?aeaaio iie?oeeo ?o i?aeo?eiee;

 O?yaeo Oe?a?ie ii?yae c ai?ioueaith ca aeio?eiaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a aanoe oe?eani?yiiaaio iie?oeeo iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ae?oaeae
? aca?iiaeiiiiiae na?aae a?aonueeeo neia’yinueeeo ia?iae?a.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E AAOI?A

1. Oe?a?ia oa aieaa?nueea iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy // Ee?a: ?inoeooo
oe?a?inueei? a?oaia?ao?? oa aeaea?aeiciaanoaa ?iai? I.N.A?ooaanueeiai
IAI Oe?a?ie, 1998. – 24 n. (1,5 ae?oe. a?e.).

2. Iniaaiiinoe aieaa?neiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey // A?niee
Aeiiaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y “A” aoiai?oa?i? iaoee. ?2. –
Aeiiaoeuee, 1998. – N.99-103 (0,5 ae?oe. a?e.).

3. E aii?ino i aeeyiee aieaa?neiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey ia
iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneoth aeeciue Oe?aeiu iineaaeiae o?aoe XIX aaea //
A?niee Aeiiaoeueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??e “A”, aoiai?oa?i? iaoee, ?2. –
Aeiiaoeuee, 1998. – N.126-130 (ni?aaaoi? I.A.E?ai?a?i) (0,5 ae?oe.
a?e.).

4. Aeoaeiiua enoiee iaueo i?aanoaaiiuo ia/ae aieaa?neiai e
ainoi/ii-neaayineeo ia?iaeia // Aeieeaaeu ?aaeiiaeueii-i?aeoe/aneie
eiioa?aioeee “I?iaeaiu oi?ie?iaaiey i?aanoaaiiie eoeueoo?u”. – Aeiiaoee,
1995. – N.25 (0,1 ae?oe. a?e.).

5. ?ieue i?aaineaaiie oea?eae a aicieeiiaaiee e oe?aieaiee aeooiaiuo
naycae oe?aeineiai e aieaa?neiai ia?iaeia // Aeieeaaeu aocianeie iao/iie
eiioa?aioeee i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ninoaaa ii eoiaai
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie e iao/iie ?aaiou. Enoi?e/aneea iaoee. –
Aeiiaoee: AeiiAO, 1995. – N.25 (0,3 ae?oe. a?e.).

6. N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea aieaa?neiai e oe?aeineiai aic?iaeaeaiey
// Iaoa?eaeu iao/iie eiioa?aioeee “Aiaaeai Oiaeueieoeeee: aeeciue,
aeayoaeueiinoue, enoi?ey e nia?aiaiiinoue”. – Aeiiaoee, 1995. – N.39-41
(ni?aaaoi? I.A.E?ai?a?i) (0,3 ae?oe. a?e).

7. Oe?aeia e aieaa?neia i?inaauaiea // Iaoa?eaeu aocianeie iao/iie
eiioa?aioeee i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ninoaaa ii ?acoeueoaoai
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou: enoi?e/aneea iaoee: iieeoieiaey. –
Eieaa 2. – Aeiiaoee, 1997. – N.251-253 (0,4 ae?oe. a?e.).

8. Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee aieaa?neiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey //
Iaoa?eaeu aocianeie iao/iie eiioa?aioeee
i?ioanni?nei-i?aiiaeaaaoaeueneiai ninoaaa ii ?acoeueoaoai
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie ?aaiou: oeeinioey, iaaeaaiaeea, ineoieiaey,
oece/aneia ainieoaiea. – Aeiiaoee, 1997. – N.26-28 (0,4 ae?oe. a?e.).

AIIOAOe??

Noaieaae/ A.E. Oe?a?ia oa aieaa?nueea iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.02 – Anana?oiy ?noi??y. – Aeiiaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Aeiiaoeuee, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y ? eiiieaenii-?noi?e/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi aca?iica’ceo
Oe?a?ie oa aieaa?nueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy o ia??iae c
e?ioey XVIII aei ii/aoeo OO noie?ooy. O ?iaio? aia?oa i?iaaaeaiee
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ?icaeoeo i?ioean?a oe?a?inueeiai oa aieaa?nueeiai
a?ae?iaeaeaiue. Iieacaii, ui oe?a?inueei-aieaa?nuee? ca’ycee iathoue
aeanio ?noi??th, yeo ia??aeei ?ic/eiyee ?ai?oa o
aieaa?nueei-no?aeiineia’yinueeeo ? aieaa?nueei-?in?enueeeo ca’yceao.
Aiae?c aca?iiaieeao oa aca?iiae?? i?ioean?a oe?a?inueeiai oa
aieaa?nueeiai a?ae?iaeaeaiue i?iaaaeaii a?aeiia?aeii c no/aniei ??aiai
iaoiaeieia?? aoiai?oa?ieo iaoe.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoe?iiaeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy, iaoe?y, iaoe?iiaeueia
?aeay, ni?euei?noue aoi?/iiai iioiaeaeaiiy, ni?euei?noue iiae ?
eoeueoo?e, ?ae?a??, noaae?? iaoe?iiaeueiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy.

Noaieaae/ A.E. Oe?aeia e aieaa?neia iaoeeiiaeueiia aic?iaeaeaiea. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.02 – Anaiauay enoi?ey – Aeiiaoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao, Aeiiaoee, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey yaeyaony eiiieaenii-enoi?e/aneei enneaaeiaaieai
acaeiinayce Oe?aeiu e aieaa?neiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey a
ia?eiae n eiioea XVIII aei ia/aea XX aaea. A ?aaioa aia?aua i?iaaaeai
n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec ?acaeoey i?ioeannia aieaa?neiai e oe?aeineiai
iaoeeiiaeueiuo aic?iaeaeaiee. Iieacaii, /oi oe?aeinei-aieaa?neea nayce
eiatho nianoaaiioth enoi?eth, eioi?oth ?aiaa ?anoai?yee a
aieaa?i-ainoi/iineaayineeo e aieaa?i-?inneeneeo naycyo. Aiaeec
acaeiiaeeyiey e acaeiiaeaenoaey i?ioeannia oe?aeineiai e aieaa?neiai
iaoeeiiaeueiuo aic?iaeaeaiee i?iecaaaeai a niioaaonoaee n nia?aiaiiui
o?iaiai iaoiaeieiaee aoiaieoa?iuo iaoe.

?aaioa yaeyaony iaeiei ec ia?auo aeenna?oaoeeiiiuo enneaaeiaaiee, a
eioi?ii ia?yaeo n ?anniio?aieai aieaa?neie i?iaeaiaoeee a ea/anoaa
oeaeinoiiai nenoaiiiai yaeaiey, ?aoeoaeueii ioa?anuaaaony “iaeiioeaaoea”
a aini?eyoee e inaauaiee iiiaiia?aciuo i?iyaeaiee ia?iaeiie aeecie,
i?enouaa ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?e/aneie iaoea iaaeaaiaai i?ioeiai.
Iooaeeeaaynue io iiieiaiey Aieaa?ee e acaeiinaycaiiuo n iae ainoaea?noa
e ia?iaeia eae oeaeinoiie nenoaiu, oeaeiai, o.a. niaieoiiinoe
acaeiicaaeneiuo yeaiaioia, ia?acothueo aaeeiia nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iia
ia?aciaaiea, iu auaeaeyai eioa?anothuea ian yeaiaiou: Oe?aeia, Aieaa?ey,
a oaeaea no?oeoo?o eo acaeiinaycae eae iauaeo iao/iiai enneaaeiaaiey,
/oi i?aaenoaaeyao ii?aaeaeaiioth iao/ioth iiaecio, oae eae
oe?aeinei-aieaa?neea nayce ?anoai?yeenue ?aiaa a
aieaa?i-ainoi/iineaayineeo, aieaa?i-?onneeo naycyo.

A aeenna?oaoeee iainiiaai ?yae iieiaeaiee, eioi?ua ioee/athony iao/iie
iiaeciie: oe?aeinei-aieaa?neea aeooiaiua nayce, ian/eouaathuea aieaa
ouny/e eao, yaeythony eiie?aoiie ?aaeueiinoueth, iiyoiio iie nooue
naiinoiyoaeueiue iauaeo enoi?e/aneiai enneaaeiaaiey;
oe?aeinei-aieaa?neea aeooiaiua nayce anaaaea auee acaeiiuie, ii a
ii?aaeaeaiiua enoi?e/aneea yiioe e a ii?aaeaeaiiuo enoi?e/aneeo
ianoiyoaeuenoaao iaeia ec noi?ii eiaea i?ei?eoao: Aieaa?ey eiaea
i?ei?eoao a IX-XI aaeao iaeaioia o?enoeaiecaoeee Eeaaneie ?one e a
ia?aue ia?eiae iinea i?eiyoey ?onueth o?enoeainoaa, a ia?eiae
nouanoaiaaiey Aoi?iai Aieaa?neiai oea?noaa (XIV – ia/aei XV aa.), iinea
caaiaaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie iacaaeneiinoe (1878 a.), eiaaea aieaa?neea
i?aaenoaaeaiey i eiinoeoooeee nua?aee nouanoaaiioth ?ieue a ?acaeoee
aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia. A naith i/a?aaeue Oe?aeia
o/anoaiaaea a aeooiaiie iiaeaea?aeea aieaa?neiai ia?iaea a naiua
oyaeaeua a?aiaia iniaineiai aeaaeu/anoaa (XVI-XVIII aaea), i?ei?eoaoiui
auei aeeyiea Oe?aeiu ia aeooiaiinoue Aieaa?ee a ia?eiae ia/aea aa
eoeueoo?iiai aic?iaeaeaiey. Yoi e iiiiuue a iiaeaioiaea eaae?ia
i?inaauaiey aeey Aieaa?ee, e iiiiuue a ia?eiae iiaeaioiaee e
inouanoaeaiey aieiu ca inaiaiaeaeaiea Aieaa?ee. A ?aaioa aia?aua
i?iecaaaeai n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec oiaea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey
aieaa?neiai e oe?aeineiai ia?iaeia n eniieueciaaieai iiioey?iie
eiioeaioeee o?ao noaaeee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey, n auaeaeaieai
iaueo e aaeeie/iuo iniaaiiinoae. A iao/iue iai?io aaaaeai ?yae iiauo
oaeoia, iaia?oaeaiiuo a a?oeaiuo aeieoiaioao, naeaeaoaeuenoaothueo i
iiaeaea?aeea oe?aeioeaie ai?ueau aieaa?neiai ia?iaea, oa?aeoa?ecothueo
neiiaoee oe?aeineie iauanoaaiiinoe inaiaiaeeaoaiony ia?iaeo. Eaeay
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey Oe?aeiu eniuoaea aeeyiea iiiaeanoaa
eiioeuenia, a oii /enea e aieaa?neiai, ii aieaa?neia aicaeaenoaea auei a
/enea neeueiaeoeo. Iaeiiaa?iua o?oaeiinoe, ai?ueaa n a?iciui e neeueiui
i?ioeaieeii, i?iyaeaiiia i?e yoii oii?noai, noieeinoue iaia?oaeeaatho
iaiaei aiaeiaee n ai?ueaie caiaaeiioe?aeineie aaoae oe?aeineiai ia?iaea
ca oe?aeineoth iacaaeneiinoue.

A ea/anoaa aaaeiaeoeo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?eioeeiia iao/iiai
enneaaeiaaiey ii?aaeaeythony: i?eioeeiu iao/iie iauaeoeaiinoe,
enoi?ecia, anaiauae nayce e ?acaeoey (aeeaeaeoeee), oieaa?naeecia,
?aoeeiiaeecia, iaoiaeieiae/aneiai ieth?aeecia. Ie/ooue ia i?aoiaiueoay
cia/aiea nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeo oaeoi?ia iaoeeiiaeueiuo
aic?iaeaeaiee, ianiiiaiiiai aicaeaenoaey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie
aeaoa?ieiaoeee ia oiae e oaiiu yoeo i?ioeannia, a aeenna?oaoeeiiiii
enneaaeiaaiee eniieuecothony i?eioeeiu oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai,
eoeueoo?ieiae/aneiai iiaeoiaeia e iauanoaaiiui oaiiiaiai.
Eoeueoo?ieiae/aneee iiaeoiae a ecaanoiie noaiaie iaoneiaee o/ao a
enneaaeiaaiee acaeiii?iieeiiaaiey ?acee/iuo io?aneae aeooiaiie
eoeueoo?u. Yoi i?eaaei e ni/aoaieth a aeenna?oaoeee nianoaaiii
enoi?e/aneiai, ?aeeaeaaaae/aneiai, oeeinioneiai e eeoa?aoo?iaaae/aneiai
ciaiey.

I?e ?aoaiee caaea/, anoaaoeo a oiaea enneaaeiaaiey, i?eiaiai nia?aiaiiue
iieeoieiae/aneee iiaeoiae, ?anniao?eaathuee iieeoeeo ia oieueei /anoue
eae iaaeno?ieee, a e eae aeae /aeiaa/aneie i?aeoeee, iin?aaenoaii
eioi?ie ethaee aicaeaenoaotho ia nioeeaeueioth n?aaeo, /oi iicaieeei
aeaoue naia aeaeaiea ?aaeee e ieoieiaee iaaeneaayineeo acaeiiioiioaiee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoeeiiaeueiia aic?iaeaeaiea, iaoeey, iaoeeiiaeueiay
eaeay, iauiinoue yoie/aneiai i?ienoiaeaeaiey, iauiinoue ycuea e
eoeueoo?u, iauiinoue ?aeeaee, noaaeee iaoeeiiaeueiiai aic?iaeaeaiey.

Stankevich V.L. Ukraine and Bulgarian National Renaissance. –
Ianuscript.

Thesis competing the degree of the Candidate of Sciences (History)
(speciality 07.00.02 “Universal History”) – Donetsk State University,
Donetsk, 1998.

Thesis is the complex historical investigation of Ukraine and Bulgarian
Renaissance’s interdependence during the period from the end of the 18th
century up to the beginning of the 20th century. The comparative
analysis of the development of the processes of Bulgarian and Ukrainian
Renaissances. The analysis of the processes of Ukrainian and Bulgarian
National Renaissances’ interaction is carried out due to the modern
level of the humanities’ methodology. The fact that Ukrainian-Bulgarian
relations have their own history that was earlier dissolved in
Bulgarian-Eastern Slavic and Bulgarian-Russian relationships, have been
put into scintific circulation.

Key-words: National Renaissance, nation, national idea, community of
Ethnic origin, community of language and culture. Community of relation,
stages of the National Renaissance.

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