OE?A?INUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE II?NUeEEE OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

?iai? aaei??aea N.I.Iaea?iaa

Oth??i Aieiaeeie? ?aaiiae/

OAeE 621.181.27

Oaeineiiaethaaiiy ?iai/eo i?ioean?a ? oa?aeoa?enoee
noaeiiaeo

aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo ii??nithaaeueieo aia?ao?a ?c e?eaie?i?eieie

eaiaeaie

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.04.15 — Noaeiia? aia?aaoe/i? onoaiiaee

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Ieeiea?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio aea?aeaaiiio ii?nueeiio oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?iai? aaei??aea N.I.Iaea?iaa, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee : eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Oaiiaaeia Na?a?e Aieiaeeie?iae/,

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee
ii?nueeee

oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
aaei??aea N.I.Iaea?iaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ne?eiiee Aaea??e Ieeieaeiae/,

Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia ii?nueea
aeaaeai?y,

caa. eaoaae?ith noaeiiai?
oaieiaia?aaoeee

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aeeii Ai?en Aaneeueiae/,

Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee ii?nueeee

oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?
aaei??aea N.I.Iaea?iaa,

caa. eaoaae?ith oaoi?/ii?
oaieio?ceee ?

noaeiiaeo ia?iae?iaieo onoaiiaie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa : Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee ii?nueeee oi?aa?neoao,

i. Iaeana

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 22 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?ieo i 13 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 38.060.01 a Oe?a?inueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio

oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. aaei. N.I. Iaea?iaa, ca aae?anith:
327025,

Ieeiea?a, i?iniaeo Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaeo, 9, OAeIOO (aieiaiee ei?ion).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? OAeIOO,

Ieeiea?a, i?iniaeo Aa?i?a Noae?ia?aaeo, 9 (aieiaiee ei?ion)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii 20 aeiaoiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 38.060.021

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?
Eaanieoeueeee A.O.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue. Aaaeeeaei aeaiaioii noaeiiaeo aia?aaoe/ieo
onoaiiaie no/anieo noaeai ? ii??nithaa/? aiaee. Ia oeio?
canoiniaothoueny ii??nithaaeuei? onoaiiaee , caniiaai? ia i?eioeei?
aeenoeeyoe?? c aeei?enoaiiyi oaiea , iaea?aeoaaiiai i?e ioieiaeaeaii?
aieiaiiai aeaeaoia. Oae? onoaiiaee aeiiii?/ii aea?aei? , iaeiae ia
?yae? noaeai, iai?eeeaae, ?eaiia?iaieo oa ?ioeo , aea aaeeea iio?aaa a
i??ni?e aiae?, i?iaeaia caaacia/aiiy i??niith aiaeith ia iiaea aooe
ae??oaia aeei?enoaiiyi o?eueee ooee?caoe?eieo ii?inithaa/?a. Aeey
oaeeo noaeai iiaeeeai aoaeoeaia canoinoaaiiy aeey ii??niaiiy ii?nueei?
aiaee ii??nithaa/?a ?ioeo oei?a. Oae, aeaeo?iiaia?aii? aia?aoe (AIA)
, i?e iaaieo oiiaao, iiaeooue eiieo?oaaoe c aeenoeeyoe?eieie. Aiie
a?ae??ciythoueny oi?ioeie ianiaaaa?eoieie iieacieeaie , aeiaaathoue
iaaaeeeeo aeo?ao aia?a?? , c?o/i? a aenieoaoaoe??. Aoaeoeai?noue
?iaioe oaeeo aia?ao?a o cia/i?e i??? caeaaeeoue a?ae ?oiuei?
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? aeineiiaeino?.

Aeey ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ianiia?aiina a i?ioi/io /anoeio AIA
?icoaoiaothoue ??ci? i?inoi?ia? anoaaee , ui i?eaiaeeoue aei
ia?ai?ooaaiiy iioieo iiaeeco iaia?ai ? ?oeiaoe?? aeieeath/eo i?e
aeaeo?iiaia?aiiiio ii??niaii? aeeooc?eieo oa??a. ?nio? e ?ioee oeyo
aieeao ia ianiia?aiin — oea aeei?enoaiiy iae?iaeo?aaeo oa/?e, ui
aeieeathoue i?e ?on? ia?iaethaaii? ??aeeie a iiai?ioao eaiae?a. O
aeai?e ?iaio? ?icaeyaeaeeny AIA c i?ioi/iith /anoeiith ?icaeoi? ia
eaiaee c /a?aaeoaaiiyi i?yiie?i?eieie ? e?eaie?i?eieie ae?eyieaie (iae.
1). I?e oa/?? ??aeeie ii e?eaie?i?ei?e ae?eyioe? aaia?othoueny ia?i?
iae?iaeo?? , o i?yiie?i?ei?e ae?eyioe? aiie caooaathoue, a a ianooii?e
e?eaie?i?ei?e ae?eyioe? aiie aaia?othoueny iaiiai. Oaeei /eiii, ia an?e
i?ioyaeiino? aia?aoo aoaea i?aeo?eioaaoeny aeayea ?ioaineai?noue
iae?iaeo?aaeo oa/?e. Aeey aea/aiiy aeieeiaiiy ? aieeao ia i?ioean
ii??niaiiy a aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?aoao ?c e?eaie?i?eieie eaiaeaie
iae?iaeo??a , iaiao?aeii noai?aiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, ui aaeaeaaoii
iienothoue a?ae?iaeeiaieeo ? ianiia?aiin ?ii?a.

AIA canoiniaothoueny a ??cieo nenoaiao i/euaiiy aiaee. I?e
iaiao?aeiino? iaea?aeaiiy aiaee c aenieei nooiaiai i/euaiiy , cae/aeii
canoiniaothoue oee?eoeyoe?ei? noaie aieeaiiy aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?ao?a.
Caaacia/aiiy no?eei? ?iaioe oaeeo noai iaiiaeeeai aac i?aaeeueiiai
aeai?o ?? aeaiaio?a, ui aeiaaa? noai?aiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, ye?
iienothoue ?oith ?iaioo.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? oaeineiiaethaaiiy ?iai/eo i?ioean?a
? oa?aeoa?enoee noaeiiaeo aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo ii??nithaaeueieo aia?ao?a ?c
e?eaie?i?eieie eaiaeaie oeyoii aea/aiiy o?ce/ii? i?e?iaee e
iniaeeainoae iae?iaeo?ueiai? ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ianiia?aiina e
iaea?aeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ? ia?aiao??a ii??niaiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeaii? iaoe iaiao?aeii aoei ae??oeoe ianooii? caaea/?:

1. ?ic?iaeoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ? iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oa/?? a eaiaeao aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?ao?a ?c /a?aoaaiiyi
i?yiie?i?eieo ? e?eaie?i?eieo ae?eyiie;

2. I?iaanoe ?ic?aooiee oa?aeoa?enoee oa/?? ? aeine?aeeoe ci?io
oa?aeoa?o oa/?e i?e ??cieo ?aaeeiao ? ia?aiao?ao eii??ee aeey
?ici???a a?aeiia?aeieo aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?ao?a;

3. ?ic?iaeoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ? iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo
ianiia?aiino ?ii?a i?e aeaeo?iiaia?aiiiio ii??niaii? aiaee a aia?aoao
?c ?icaeyiooeie eaiaeaie;

4. Iieacaoe aaeaeaaoi?noue iiaeaeae ?aaeueiei ia’?eoai;

5. I?iaanoe ?ic?aooiee ? iieacaoe iiceoeaiee aieea ia ianiia?aiin
iae?iaeo?aaeo oa/?e, i?iaanoe ii??aiyiiy c ?ioeie iaoiaeaie
?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?ioeano aeaeo?iiaia?aiiiai ii??niaiiy , ae?iaeoe
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeai?? ?aaeei?a ?iaioe;

6. Aeine?aeaeoaaoe iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo
aia?ao?a ?c e?eaie?i?eieie eaiaeaie a oee?eoeyoe?ei?e noai? ii??niaiiy;

7. Ae?iaeoe i?aeo?ae ii iaea?aeaiith e?eoa???a aeai?o ia?aiao??a
aeaiaio?a noaie , ui caaacia/othoue no?eeee ?aaeei ?? ?iaioe i?e
caaeaieo aeiiaao ia ye?noue iaea?aeoaaii? aiaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

Oai?aoe/ii, oeyoii /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy,
aeine?aeaeai? o?ce/i? caeiiii??iino? iae?ia?o?ueiaeo oa/?e oa
ianiia?aiino a noaeiiaeo aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo ii?enithaa/?a c eaiaeaie
i?yiie?i?eieo oa e?eaie?i?eieo ae?eyiie, ye? ia??iaee/ii
/a?aothoueny, aea/aii ?icaeoie oa caoooaiiy aoi?eiieo a?o?ueiaeo oa/?e
a e?eaie?i?eieo oa i?yiie?i?eieo ae?eyieao i?e ??cieo
na?aaeiueiaeo?a/aeueieo oaeaeeinoyo, iiceoeaiee aieea iae?ia?o?ueiaeo
oa/?e ia ianiia?ai?n, aeyaeaii caeaaeiino? ?ioaineaiino? aoi?eiieo oa/?e
a?ae aeo?ao ? ?aaeeie aeieeiaiiy cii cai?ioieo no?oi?a a?ey oaiooeo oa
iioeeeo aieiaeo no?iie e?eaie?i?eieo o/anoe?a;

Naiio?eia iaoeiaa cia/aiiy iathoue ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee
?ica’yceo e?a?aeo caaea/ ?ic?aooieo oa/?e ? ianiia?aiino a
aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo noaeiiaeo ii?enithaa/ao, iinoaaeaieo aeey nenoaie
o?ueioi??ieo aeeoa?aioe?aeueieo ??aiyiue Iia’? – Noiena, ia?ic?eaiino?
oa eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc??.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ia?aaoaa? a oiio, ui
noai?ai? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo aeicaieythoue iie?ioeoe oa?aeoa?enoeee
?aaioe ? ianiaaaa?eoi? iieacieee aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?ao?a.
?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a iiaeia aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?e i?iaeooaaii? oaeeo
aia?ao?a aeey aeai?o iioeiaeueieo ia?aiao??a ? ?iai/eo ?aaeei?a aeey
noai?aiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae nenoai ii?aoethaaiiy aiaee, ui
aeei?enoiaothoue aeaeo?iiaia?aii? oaoiieia??. Noai?aia iiaeaeue ?iaioe
oee?eoeyoe?eii? noaie cianieaiiy aiaee aeicaiey? i?ae?a?aoe iaea?eueo
aeaoaaee aia?ao ? aeaiaioe nenoaie ii?aoethaaiiy aiaee , ui
caaacia/aoue ?? iaae?eia ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeei?enoai? : — i?e ?ic?iaoe? ii??nithaaeueieo
onoaiiaie ia *i?iiii?nueeiio noaeiiaoae?aiiio caaiae?; — i?e
i?iaeooaaii? aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo nenoai i?eaioiaeaiey aiaee aeey noaioe?e
ia?aeeaaiiy e?ia? e aiaeia?/ieo nenoai i/enoee aiaee «aieiaeo» o?eueo??a
ni?oo?niaethaaeueiiai caaiaeo a Iaoe?iiaeueiiio aeieia?/iiio oeaio??
Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia ?yae? eiioa?aioe?e ? nai?ia??a :

1. I?aeia?iaeiee nai?ia? c aeaeo?io?i?? ?ii?o?a. Aeaeoaaa, 1992.

2. International conference on membrane electrochemistry. 20-th
spring meeting: ion-exchange membranes from synthesis to applications.
Anapa, 1994.

3. 1-y I?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y. I?iaeaie
aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy e aeieia?? a noaeiiaoaeoaaii?. —
Ieeiea?a:OAeIOO,1996.

4. Eiioa?aioe?y i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo OAeIOO, 1994,
1996.

5. Nai?ia? c aeaeo?io?i?? ?ii?o?a. — Ee?a: EEO ? OA, 1998.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iioae?eiaai? a 4 ?iaioao.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, i’yoe
aeaa, aeniiae?a, ia?ae?eo oeeoiaaii? e?oa?aoo?e ? aeiaeaoea. Ia’?i
?iaioe neeaaea? 139 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 14 iaethie?a, 3
oaaeeoe?. Aeiaeaoie i?noeoue 208 iaethie?a. Nienie oeeoiaaii?
eeoa?aoo?e aeeth/a? 58 iaeiaioaaiue.

NOENEEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ?icaeyiooa aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe ? noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ?
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?noeoue iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e ? iinoaiiaeo caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ioieo? 1.1 c?iaeaiee ei?ioeee iaeyae aaeocae
canoinoaaiiy aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo iaoiae?a ia noaeao ? o i?iieneiaino?. O
1.2 aeneiaeai? ?nioth/? oyaeaiiy i?i yaeua eiioeaio?aoe?eii?
iiey?ecaoe?? iaia?ai , ye i?i iniiaiee /eiiee e?i?ooth/ee ianiia?aiin o
aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?aoao ? ?icaeyioo? niiniae i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe oaeeo aia?ao?a. Iaeiei

?c ieo ? noai?aiiy iae?iaeo?aaeo oa/?e o eaia?ao AIA. O ioieo?
i?eaiaeeoueny ei?ioeee iaeyae ?ia?o ?c aeine?aeaeaiue oaeiai
?iaeo oa/?e. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aiae?co e?oa?aoo?e , o ioieo?
1.3 noi?ioeueiaai? iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iienaiee cai?iiiiiaaiee i?eno??e i?ioi/ii? /ano?
aia?ao?a aeey noai?aiiy iae?iaeo?aaeo oa/?e , c?iaeaia iinoaiiaea
caaaeaiiy ?ic?aooieo oaeeo oa/?e ? iieno?oueny iaoiaeeea ?? ae??oaiiy.
Aeey noai?aiiy iae?iaeo?aaeo oa/?e i?iiiio?oueny i?ioi/io /anoeio
?iciiae?eyoe aa?oeeaeueieie ia?aai?iaeeaie , ui neeaaeathoueny ?c
iiai?io?a ? i?yiie?i?eieo ae?eyiie, ui /a?aothoueny iaeei c iaeiei
(iai?yiee non?aei?o iiai?io?a i?ioeeaaei?). I?ae ia?aai?iaeeaie
ooai?youeny eaiaee c i?yiie?i?eieie ? e?eaie?i?eieie ae?eyieaie (iae.
1). Aeey ?ic?aooie?a ca iaeeie/io eii??eo aoea acyoa /anoeia eaiaeo ,
ui neeaaea?oueny c iiai?ioa ? i?yiie?i?eii? /anoeie. An? ?io? ae?eyiee
eaiaeo iiae?ai? oe??? eii??ee c oi/i?noth aei iai?yieo iiai?ioo. Ie
?icaeyaeaee eii??ee aeiaaeeiith 10-30ii, iiaia i?ioyaei?noue aia?aoa,
cae/aeii ia aaaaoi a?eueoa oeueiai ?ici??o, oae o ?aaeueiiio aia?ao?
oeio “aeaea?aei-3i” ia aeiaaeei? 0.4 i oi?ua?oueny a?ey 15-40 eii??ie,
ioaea, iiaeia aaaaeaoe, ui a?eueo?noue eii??ie a?aeaeaeai? a?ae
ao?aeiiai ? aeo?aeiiai ia?a??c?a ? ciaoiaeyoueny i?eaeecii a iaeiaeiaeo
a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo oiiaao. Oaeaeeino? a aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?aoao
noaiiaeyoue 10-20ni/n, oiio oa/?y ? noaoe?iia?iith ? eai?ia?iith. I?e
oaeeo oa/?yo, aeei?enoiaoth/e cai?iiiiiaaio aeua i?iiiceoe?th, aeey
eii??ee iiaeia iinoaaeoe ia??iaee/i? a?aie/i? oiiae. Oiio ui iaoith
caaea/ath aoei aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?iaeo?aaeo oa/?e, ui iinyoue
o?eaei??iee oa?aeoa? , oiio aeey ?ic?aooie?a iaie ae??ooaaeanue nenoaia
??aiyiue Iaauea-Noiena ? ia?ic?eaiino? aeey noaoe?iia?ii? eai?ia?ii?
oa/?? ianoeneeai? ??aeeie a o?eaei??i?e iinoaiiaoe?. Aeey ?ic?aooie?a
aoei aaaaeaii ocaaaeueiaio nenoaio eii?aeeiao, iica’ycaio c aieiaeie
no?ieaie. Aeei?enoiaoth/e ia?aoai?aiiy eii?aeeiao, nenoaia ??aiyiue
a?ae?iaeeiai?ee aoea caienaia o aaaaeai?e nenoai? eii?aeeiao, ie?aii
aeey e?eaie?i?eii? ? i?yiie?i?eii? ae?eyiie. O yeino? a?aie/ieo oiia
aeei?enoiaoaaeinue oiiaa «i?eeeiaiiy» ia oaa?aeeo no?ieao , a aeey
ao?aeiiai ? aeo?aeiiai ia?a??c?a oiiaa ?aeaioe/iino? oa?aeoa?enoee
oa/?? a non?aei?o eii??eao :

U(=0, , z) = U(=L, a-, z);

V(=0, , z ) = -V(=L, a-, z);

W(=0, , z) = W(=L, a-, z);

P(=0, , z) = P(=L, a-, z) — P;

aea ,,z– e?eaie?i?eia nenoaia eii?aeeiao; a- a?aenoaiue i?ae aieiaeie
no?ieaie ii eii?aeeiao? 0; L — aeiaaeeia eii??ee ocaeiaae iiaeiaaeiuei?
in?; P -iaae?iiy oeneo ia eii??oe?.

O ioieo? 2.2 iieno?oueny iaoiae ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaiiai
caaaeaiiy. Ae??oaiiy caaaeaiiy cae?enithaaeiny iaoiaeii ?oa?aoe?e.
Caaeaaaany ii/aoeiaee ?iciiae?e eiiiiiaio oaeaeeino? ? oeneo aeae? aiie
ia?a?aoiaoaaeeny ia ianooii? e?iee ca /anii , a?aenoath/? ia iae?
?ioa?aaee dt. sseui noaoe?iia?ia ??oaiiy aeey ia?aieo ia?aiao??a ?nio?
, oi /a?ac aeayea /enei e?ie?a ?iciiae?ee eiiiiiaio oaeaeeino? ? oeneo
iiaeii? onoaiiaeoeny, oiaoi ?oiy ci?ia a?ae e?ieo aei e?ieo aoaea
i?aaiooe aei ioey. Aeey iaea?aeaiiy ??oaiiy aeeoa?aioe?aeuei? ??aiyiiy
?ooo ? ia?ic?eaiino? ia?aoai?thaaeeny a ??cieoeaa? ??aiyiiy,
aeei?enoiaoth/e ?icianaio n?oeo. E?ie ia?aaoaaa ?c ianooiieo aoai?a:
1) Ia/enethaaeeny eiiiiiaioe oaeaeeino? ia ianooiiee e?ie ca /anii ca
yaiith noaiith; 2) oaiaeeeany iiipaaea aei oeneo P oae, uia
eiiiiiaioe oaeaeeino? i?ney ?? iae?eo caaeiaieueiyee p?aiyiiy
iapicpeaiino?. I?e oeueiio ae??ooaaeiny ??aiyiiy Ioanniia, yea a
??cieoeaa?e oi?i? yaey? niaith nenoaio e?i?eieo aeaaa?a?/ieo p?aiyiue;
3) Ei?aeoo?oueny eiiiiiaioe oaeaeeino? ? oeneo c iae?eii P. Iniiaia
ia/enethaaeueia neeaaei?noue o aeai?e i?ioeaaeo?? iica’ycaia c
ae??oaiiyi nenoaie ??aiyiue ia ae?oaiio aoai?, oiio ui ?? ?ici?pi?noue
aei??aith? (INK) ia (MNK), aea M, N ? K /enei oi/ie n?oee ca
eii?aeeiaoaie. Iaa?oue aeey ??aeeeo n?oie aiia cia/ia, oiio aoa
?ic?iaeaiee aeai?eoi , ui iaeneiaeueii a?aoiao? aeanoeaino? iao?eoe?
oe??? nenoaie. Aeai?eoi ??oaiiy nenoaie iienaiee o ioieoao 2. 3-2. 4.
I?ioeaaeo?a iieyaa? a oyaeaii? iii?aaee aei oeneo ii aa?oeeaeuei?e
eii?aeeiao? o aeae? ?iceeaaeaiiy Oo?’?:

K-1

Pkji = Usji ·cos(·s·(k+0.5)/K);

s=0

I?ney ia?aoai?aiue , ?c aeei?enoaiiyi aeanoeainoae i?oiaiiaeueiino?
o?eaiiiiao?e/ieo ooieoe?e nenoaia ?iciaaea?oueny ia K ie?aieo nenoai
?ici??i?noth (MN) ia (MN) uiaei Usji. Iaeiae io?eiai? nenoaie iathoue
ona ae aeineoue aaeeeo ?ici??i?noue , oiio i?e ae??oaii?
aeei?enoiaoaaeany ?ic??aeaeai?noue ?oi?o iao?eoeue. I?ney iaea?aeaiiy
p?oaiiy cai?ioiei iapaoaipaiiyi Oop’? iiiiaeththoueny Pkji .

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aea?oueny iien iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae?
ianiiaiaiino ?ii?a a?ia?iiai aeaeo?ie?oo a eaia?ao cianieaiiy
aeaeo?iiaia?aiiiai aia?aoa c e?eaie?i?eiith nenoaiith eaiae?a. Ioieo
3.1 i?enay/aiee iinoaiiaoe? oeueiai caaaeaiiy. Aeey ?ic?aooieo
?iciiae?eo eiioeaio?aoe?? ?ii?a nie? , iaiao?aeii ae??oeoe ??aiyiiy
eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc?? :

U ·gradC = D· C ;

aea N — piciiae?e eiioeaiopaoe?e; U – piciiae?e aaeoipa oaeaeeino?
iioieo; D — eiao?oe??io aeeooc??. Ioieo 3.2 i?enay/aiee iinoaiiaoe?
a?aie/ieo oiia. Aaaaeaeiny, ui o ao?aeiiio ia?a??c? eiioeaio?aoe?y
?ii?a nie? ?iciiae?eaia ??aiii??ii, a?/i? no?iee eii??ee aeeiiai? c
?ia?oiiai iaoa??aeo iai?iieeiiai aeey ?ic/eio. C /iai aeieeaa?, ui
iio?e eiioeaio?aoe?? ii ii?iae? aei ieo ioeueiaee. Aeey ?iciiae?eo
eiioeaio?aoe?e a?aie/i? oiiae ia iaia?aiao iiaeia iinoaaeoe, ciath/e
?iciiae?e u?eueiino? no?oio :

C
C

= Ta ·I;
= — Te ·I;

z
z

z = -b/2
z = b/2

aea Ta, Oe — ??cieoey /enae ia?aiino ai?ii?a ? eaoeii?a o iaia?ai? ?
?ic/ei?, a?aeiia?aeii; I — u?euei?noue no?oio. I iiaeia aecia/eoe ii
iaae?iith iai?oae ia eii??oe? ? ?iciiae?eo eiioeaio?aoe?e:

F D1+D2
D1-D2 C(b/2)

· · +
· Ln

R ·T D
D C(-b/2)

I = —
;

b/2

dz

C

-b/2

Ooo F — /enei Oa?aaeay; R — oi?aa?naeueia aaciaa iino?eia; T —
aaniethoia oaiia?aoo?a ??aeeie; D1, D2, D — eiao?oe??ioe aeeooc??
eao?ii?a, ai?ii?a oa na?aaei?e; — iaae?iiy iaipoae aeaeope/iiai iiey
ia eii??oe?. Iieno aeaipeoia ?ic?aooieo eiioeaio?aoe?e i?enay/aiee
ioieo 3.3. Aeey aep?oaiiy aeei?enoiaoaaany ia?oiaee i?io?ae ii
iiaeiaaei?e eii?aeeiao? c iayaiith noaiith ii eiipaeeiao? 0. Oaeei
/eiii , ciath/e piciiae?e eiioeaiopaoe?? a ia?a??c?, ie ciaoiaeeii
eiioeaiopaoe?? aeey ianooiiiai ia?a??co, e??i oi/ie ia iaia?aiao. Aeey
oeeo oi/ie cia/aiiy N ae?aoiaoaaeenue ?c apaie/ieo oiia ia iaia?aiao ,
i?e oeueiio ooai?thaaeeny aeaa iae?i?eieo p?aiyiiy uiaei iaa?aeiieo
eiioeaiopaoe?e ia iaiapaiao. Aiie ae??ooaaeeny iaoiaeii iine?aeiaieo
iaaeeaeaiue, ?c aeniiiaioe?eiei caeaaeaeoaaiiyi ?oa?aoe?e. I?ney
ia/eneaiiy ?iciiae?eo eiioeaio?aoe?e ?ii?a nie? o eii??oe? iiaeia
ia/eneeoe ieoiiee ceii nie? c eii??ee e ?io? ?ici??e, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?ioaineai?noue ianiia?aiino.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee iieno e aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a
?ic?aooie?a. O 4.1 aeiaiaeeoueny ia?ae?e aa??aio?a aaiiao?e/ieo
ia?aiao??a eii??ie ? ?aaeei?a, aeey yeeo aoee i?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee.
Ia?aiao?e iiaeae? aea?aeeny aeecueeeie aei ia?aiao??a ?aaeueieo
aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo ii??nithaaeueieo aia?ao?a. ?icaeyaeaeanue eii??ea ?c
aenioith 1ii; aeiaaeeiith i?yiie?i?eii? ae?eyiee L=28.26ii; ?aae?onii ?
eooii iiai?ioo e?eaie?i?eii? /anoeie r = 6ii ? = 60 ; cnoaii a?/ieo
no?iie ae?oa a?ae ae?oaa ia a = 3ii. Aoee i?iaaaeai? ?ic?aooiee aeey
ia?aiao??a, ui eaaeaoue iaaeaeaei a?ae oeueiai aa??aioo. Aeoiaey/e c
aenia??iaioaeueieo aeaieo , iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie , ui aieeaathoue ia
ci?io oa?aeoa?enoee oa/?? ? ianiia?aiino ? aeiaaeeia eii??ee ? oe?eia
eaiaeo, oiio ?icaeyaeaeeny ??ci? cia/aiiy naia oeeo ia?aiao??a. O
ioieo? 4.2 i?iaiaeeoueny ii??aiyiiy ?ic?aooie?a ?c ?acoeueoaoaie
io?eiaieie ?ioeie aeine?aeieeaie. O e?oa?aoo?? aeine?aeaeaiue
a?ae?iaeeiai?ee oa/?e o eaiaeao aiaeia?/ieo, ?icaeyiooeo iaie, ciaeoe ia
aaeaeiny , oiio aeei?enoiaoaaeenue ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? aeey aeecueeeo
ca oi?iith eaiae?a. Ii??aiyiiy iieacaee aa?iee ye?niee ca?a
a?aeiia?aeieo caeaaeiinoae ? ?ici???a. Oea na?ae/eoue i?i
aaeaeaaoi?noue iiaoaeiaaieo iiaeaeae ? i?eaeaoiino? ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee
?ic?aooieo aeey aiae?co ?iaioe aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo ii??nithaaeueieo
aia?ao?a ?c e?eaie?i?eieie eii??eaie. Ioieo 4.3 i?enay/aiee iieno
io?eiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee oa/?e. Oiio ui iaethie?a, ui ?ethno?othoue
?ic?aooiee, aaaaoi, aiie aeianai? a ie?aiee aeiaeaoie A. *a?ac
iaiaaeai?noue ia’?io aaoi?aoa?aoo ie i?eaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe o?eueee
aeey aeayeeo, oa?aeoa?ieo aa??aio?a. Nii/aoeo picaeyiaii pacoeueoaoe ,
aeey eii??ee c a/b = 4 ? L/b = 28.26 i?e iaae?ii? oeneo ia
eii??oe?, yeee aei??aith? 40 H/i? (Re=126). O ii/aoeiaiio ia?a??c?
niinoa??aa?oueny iayai?noue iiiapa/ii? oa/?? aei iioeei? a?/ii?
no?iee ocaeiaae in? 0. Oea ca’ycaii c oei, ui yeui picaeyiooe eaiae
iapaae oeei ia?a??cii , oi aeey iioieo a?aeaoaa?oueny picoepaiiiy
eaiaeo a iaipyi? aei iioeei? a?/ii? no?iee iae.1. Oaeiae aeaeii, ui
piciiae?e ipiaeieueii? eiiiiiaioe ia ? neiaope/iei, oea iica’ycaii c
aieeaii iiiapaaeiuei? eii??ee. Ia iae. 2 iaaaaeai? pacoeueoaoe aeey
ia?a??co, picoaoiaaiiai iapaco ca epeaie?i?eiith ae?eyieith. Aeaeii ,
ui a iiia?a/iiio ia?a??c? ?icaeeeny aeaa aeoi?e. Iaeneiaeueiee ?ici??
iiiapa/ii? eiiiiiaioe oaeaeeino? a aeaiiio ia?a??c?
aei??aith? 3.4 ni/n, ui neeaaea? 42.5% a?ae napaaeiueiaeo?a/aeueii?.
A?aeaoany cnoa iaeneioio ipiaeieueii? eiiiiiaioe oaeaeeino? aei oeaiopo
eaiaeo. Aeae? a ipyiie?i?ei?e /anoei? eii??ee ?ioaineai?noue
aoipeiieo oa/?e ii/eia? iaaeaoe , aea iaeneioi ipiaeieueii? oaeaeeino?
ua ia aeaye?e a?aenoai? a?ae iiaipioo ipiaeiaaeo? ci?uaoeny a noipiio
no?iee, ui ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi oaiooi?. Ipeaeecii ia a?aenoai? l/b = 3.30
iaeneioi piciiae?eo ipiaeieueii? eiiiiiaioe oaeaeeino? caeia?
iaeaeeae/a iieiaeaiiy aei a?/ii? no?iee ? ipe iiaeaeueoiio ?on? ??aeeie
ii/eia? ci?uoaaoeny a noipiio oeaiopo eaiaeo. Ha a?aenoai? l/b =
10.83 a?ae iiaipioo aoipeii? oa/?? ipaeoe/ii a?aenooi?, a iaeneioi
ipiaeieueii? eiiiiiaioe oaeaeeino? ci?noeany aei oeaiopo eaiaeo. Ipe
i?aeoiae? iioieo aei aeo?aeiiai ia?a??co eii??ee , ii/eia? c’yaeyoeny
?oo ??aeeie aei aeioeei? no?iee epeaie?i?eii? ae?eyiee ianooiii?
eii??ee.

Iapaeaeaii oaiap aei picaeyaeo pacoeueoao?a, io?eiaieo aeey
aeiaaeeo iaae?iiy oeneo ia eii??oe? 140 H/i? (Re = 386). O
ii/aoeiaiio ia?a??c? niinoa??aa?oueny a?aeoeeaiiy iaeneioio ipiaeieueii?
eiiiiiaioe oaeaeeino? aei aeioeei? a?/ii? no?iee ? ?oo ??aeeie a oiio
ae iaipyieo , iaoiiaeai? aieeaii iiiapaaei?o eii??ie. Iaeneiaeueia
oaeaee?noue a?/iiai ?ooo aeip?aith? 3.93 ni/n ? neeaaea? 16.3% a?ae
napaaeiueiaeo?a/aeueii? oaeaeeino?. Ui ipaeoe/ii oi/ii ca?aa?oueny c
?ioeie paaeeiaie oa/??. Ipe iiaeaeueoiio ?on? ??aeeie ocaeiaae eii??ee
aieiaa oa/?y o oeaiopaeuei?e cii? ii aenio? neaaoa?, a a eooao
oa?aiooi? a?/ii? no?iee c’yaeythoueny ciie cai?ioi?o oa/?e. Oea
?ethno?othoue pacoeueoaoe, io?eiai? aeey ia?a??co c eooii iiaipioo 7.5.
Oaeaee?noue cai?ioi?o oa/?e paaia -0.31ni/n. O ianooiieo ia?a??cao
c’yaey?oueny aoipeiia oa/?y o aeae? iapieo aeop?a, a cai?ioi? oa/??
caaanathoue ipe eoo? 25.5. Ipeiapii a?ae 28.5 aei 40.5 o aeioee?e
no?ioe?, o oeaiop? eii??ee ii aenio?, c’yaey?oueny ciia cai?ioiuei?
oa/??, iaeneiaeueia oaeaee?noue yeiai -2.5 ni/n aeinyaa?oueny ipeaeecii
ipe 31.5. O ianooiieo ia?a??cao caipioi?o oa/?e iaia?, aea
a?aeaoaa?oueny iiaeaeueoee picaeoie iapieo aeop?a. Aei e?ioey
epeaie?i?eii? ae?eyiee eii??ee iaeneiaeueia iiia?a/ia oaeaee?noue
aei??aith? 18.8ni/n. Iip?aiyii c iaioeie iiaeiaaei?ie oaeaeeinoyie
oa/?e, a?aeiioaiiy ?ioaineaiino? aoi?eiieo oa/?e aei iiaeiaaeiuei?
oaeaeeino? i?aeaeueeiny. Ipe iiaeaeueoiio ?on? ??aeeie ii ipyiie?i?ei?e
ae?eyioe? aoipeii? oa/?? caaanathoue , iaeneioi ipiaeieueii?
oaeaeeino? ipiaeiaaeo? ci?uaoeny a noipiio oa?aiooi? aieiai? no?iee,
ipe oeueiio c’yaey?oueny aeaoaipa?noue piciiae?eo i?iaeieueii?
oaeaeeino?. I?ney ia?a??co, picoaoiaaiiai ia a?aenoai? l/b=8.01
iaeneioie ia?ai?uathoueny a oeaiop eaiaeo ? ceeaathoueny ?acii i?e
l/b=24.96.

O 4.4 iienai? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy ianiia?aiina a AIA c
iae?iaeo?aaith oa/??th ia?iaethaaii? ??aeeie. O yeino? ia?iaethaaii?
??aeeie ?icaeyaeaany aeaeo?ie?o nie? NaCl. Aaaaeaeiny, ui iaia?aie
?aeaaeueii na-eaeoeai? , a ?oi?e ii?/iee ii?? aeecueei ioey.
?ic?aooiee aoee i?iaaaeai? aeey eii??ee c a=3ii ? aeiaaeeiith
i?yiie?i?eii? ae?eyiee L=28.26ii . ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a aeey
e?eaie?i?eieo eii??ie iieacaee , ui i?e ?icaeyiooeo ?aaeeiao oa/??, ?c
?inoii oaeaeeino? i?iea/ee ao?aoe eiioeaio?aoe?? ia aeiaaeei? eii??ee
ca?eueoothoueny, ioaea, iiaeiai iiinoa??aaoeny ??no ieoiiiai ci?iaiiy
nie?. Aeey oiai, uia ioe?ieoe aieea aoi?eiieo oa/?e ia ianiia?aiin ,
aoea ae??oaia caaea/a eiiaaeoeaii? aeeooc?? aeey aocueei? u?eeie
aiaeia?/ieo ?ici???a. Iio?e ona?aaeei? u?eeie aaaaeaany eai?ia?iei
?c oaeaee?noth , ui a?aeiia?aea? oiio ae iaae?iith oeneo. ?ioaa?aeuei?
?acoeueoaoe ianiia?aiino, io?eiai? aeey eii??ie ? u?eeie i?eaaaeai? a
oaaeeoe? 1. Aeaeii , ui i?e iaeeo ?ici??ao aeo?ao, aeey eii??ee ?
u?eeie ?acoeueoaoe aeoaea aeecuee?. I?e ca?eueoaii? oaeaeeino? , aeey
u?eeie ianiia?aiin c?inoa? aeoaea iia?eueii, a aeey e?eaie?i?eii?
eii??ee niinoa??aa?oueny iaeaea e?iaeiee ??no ieoiiiai ci?iaiiy nie?.
Ii??aiy?ii iao? ?acoeueoaoe, ?c iieacieeaie io?eiaieie aeey ?ioeo
niinia?a ?ioaineo?eaoe?? ianiia?aiino. Ia iae. 3 i?eaaaeai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? caeaaeiino? ieoiiiai ci?iaiiy nie? c iaeeieoe? ieiu?
iaia?aie a?ae ieoiieo noia?ieo aeo?ao aia?a?? aeey ??cieo oei?a
naia?aoi??a-oo?aoe?caoi??a. ?icaeyaeaeeny aeaa aeiaaeee c ao?aeiith
eiioeaio?aoe??th N=0.01N ? N=0.001N. Ia oie aea a?ao?e iaianai?
?acoeueoaoe aeey eii??ie ?c iae?iaeo?aaeie oa/?yie. Aeaeii , ui aeey
aia?ao?a ?c e?eaie?i?eiith nenoaiith eaiae?a niinoa??aa?oueny a?eueo
e?ooa caeaaei?noue ieoiiiai ci?iaiiy nie? a?ae aeo?ao aia?a??.
I?e/iio, yeui i?e iaeeo aeo?aoao ieoiia ci?iaiiy nie? ieae/a, i?ae aeey
naia?aoi??a-oo?aoe?caoi??a, oi ii/eiath/e c aeayeiai cia/aiiy ( ?c 80
Ao/i? aeey N = 0.003N ? 500 Ao/i? aeey N= 0.03N )
ia?aaeuo? ?o. Iaaooue, oeyoii iioei?caoe?? ia?aiao??a eii??ie , iiaeia
aeiiiaoeny ua a?eueo aoaeoeaii? ?iaioe aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?ao?a
i?e iaioeo oaeaeeinoyo iioieo ? aeo?aoao aia?a??. Aea iinoaiiaea ?
ae??oaiiy iioei?caoe?iiiai caaaeaiiy aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? aeaii? ?iaioe
? aeiaaa? ie?aiiai aea/aiiy.

sse canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee ?ic?aooieo
aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?ao?a ?c e?eaie?i?eieie eaiaeaie a ?icae?e? 5
?icaeyaea?oueny iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ?iaioe oee?eoeyoe?eii? nenoaie
i/euaiiy aiaee c oaeeie aia?aoaie. O ioieo? 5.1 aeaiaeyoueny
caeaaeiino? ci?ie oa?aeoa?enoee aiaee a aeaiaioao noaie a?ae /ano.
?icaeyiooa noaia i/euaiiy aiaee iieacaia ia iae. 4. Aiia neeaaea?oueny
c aeaio /anoei — ina?oethaaeueii? ? ii??nithaaeueii?. Ina?oethaaeueia
/anoeia neoaeeoue aeey aeaeaeaiiy caaaeaieo caa?thaeithaa/?a, a a
ii??nithaaeuei?e a?aeaoaa?oueny i/euaiiy aiaee a?ae nieae.
Ii??nithaaeueia /anoeia iiaoaeiaaia c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaeo?iiaia?aiiiai
aia?aoo , aeeth/aiiai ii oee?eoeyoe?ei?e noai?. Ine?eueee ?iaioa
ae?oai? /anoeie noaie ia??iaee/ia, o nenoai? ia?aaeaa/ai?e
?ii?noue-iaa?iiaaeaeoaa/ 1, o ye?e cae?a?oueny i?iyniaia a ia?o?e
/anoei? noaie aiaea. I?ney oiai, ye ?ii?noue caiiaieoueny ,
ia?aeeth/a?oueny eeaiai ? aiaea c aeiiiiiaith oee?eoeyoe?eiiai ianino
/a?ac aeaeo?iiaia?aiiee aia?ao ia?aea/o?oueny a ?ii?noue 2
oee?eoeyoe?eii? /anoeie noaie. Aoee caienai? caeaaeiino? ci?ie
iapaiaop?a aiaee a?ae /ano aeey paciniaenoeo aeaiaio?a noaie, ui
aeieeathoue i?e oeueiio cae/aei? aeeoa?aioe?ei? ??aiyiiy iathoue i?ino?
ae??oaiiy. Ca io?eiaieie oipioeaie aoea noai?aia iaoaia-oe/ia iiaeaeue
paaioe noaie o /an?. Aeey ipeeeaaeo aoee ipiaaaeai? pic?aooiee ipe
ianooiieo iapaiaopao: Qao= 0.0818e/n, q1=0.3e/n, qne = 0.15e/n, C10=10
ia/e, Ci= 2ia/e, = 0.9, V1 = 5e, V2 = 15e, N= 1200, K=14. Io?eiai?
i?e oeueiio, caeaaeiino? ia’?i?a ??aeeie a ?iiinoyo 1, 2 ?
eiioeaiopaoe?? nieae o ?iiino? 2 a?ae /ano iieacai? ia iae. 5. Aeaeii,
ui i?ney aeayeiai /ano ?iaioe anoaiiaeth?oueny no?eeee iap?iaee/iee
paaeei ci?ie oapaeoapenoee. Ia’?i ceeoi? aiaee cpinoa? ?c eiaeiei
iap?iaeii, a eiioeaiopaoe?y nieae i?ney aeayeiai /ano piaioe noa?
aeecueeith aei 1.77 ia/e , ui ieae/a caaeaiiai a?aie/iiai cia/aiiy.
Oea icia/a? , ui i?e i?iaeooaaii? iiaeia caaeaoe a?aie/ia cia/aiiy
eiioeaio?aoe?? aeae?eueea aeua, i?ae caaeaii o aeiic? ia ye?noue
i/euaii? aiaee, ? ioaea, iiaeia i?ae?a?aoe iaioa i?iaeoeoeaiee AIA, ?c
aeio?eiaiiyi iaiao?aeieo aeiia ii yeino? ceeoi? aiaee. Aa?o?noue aea
onoaiiaee i?e oeueiio iiieceoueny. Aeei?enoiaoth/e iiaeaeue ?iaioe
noaie, iiaeia aecia/eoe i?e yeeo ia?aiao?ao aeaiaio?a ? ?aaeeiao
caaacia/o?oueny no?eeee ?aaeei ?iaioe. Oeueiio ieoaiith i?enay/aiee
i?ae?ic?e 5.2. O oeeo ?aaeeiao iiaeeeai aeae?eueea aa??aio?a ci?ie
ia’?io ??aeeie a ?iiino? 2 iae. 6. Ii??aiyaoe ??ci? aa??aioe i?ae
niaith, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie , ui i?e aa??aio? 5 ?AeA a?eueoee /an,
i?ae i?e ?ioeo aa??aioao ia?iaey? ??aeeia c eiioeaio?aoe??th aeua
a?aie/iiai cia/aiiy. Ioaea, a oeueiio aeiaaeeo iiaeia aea?aoe ?AeA c
iaioith i?iaeoeoeai?noth. Aecia/a?ii i?e yeeo ii/aoeiaeo cia/aiiyo
ia’?io ??aeeie v0 ? eiioeaio?aoe?? nieae N0 o ?iiino? 2 a?i iiaeeeaee.
Aeei?enoiaoth/e caeaaeiino? ci?ie ia’?io ? eiioeaio?aoe?? iaea?aeeii,
ui i?e aa??aio? 5, v0 ? C0 iiaei? caaeiaieueiyoe nenoai? aeaio
iae?i?eieo ??aiyiue, aeiioneath/eo o?eueee /enaeueia ae??oaiiy:

q1·(q1· ( -1)-qne) ·(q1· -qne)· (( -1) ·T + t1)

V0 =
;

qne· ((q1· ( -1)-qne)· A-(q1· -qne) ·B+q1)

a2

/ qne q1· (
-1) ·(T-t1-V0/(q1 ·( -1)-qne))

(Ci · ¦- —
¦ — C)

(q1 ·( -1)-qne)
B· V0 /

C0=C+

*

A ·V0

* (-qne ·A· V0/(q1· -qne)+q1··t1+q1··V0/(q1· -qne));

aea:

C =N10 ·z;

C10 — eiioeaio?aoe?y nieae o aiae?, ui iaaeoiaeeoue;

z — eiao?oe??io cianieaiiy ??aeeie ca iaeei i?io?ae /a?ac
AIA;

1 z
– 1 z — 1

a1 = ; a2 =
; a3 = ;

1- qne/(· q1) 1 — 1/
1-1/ -qne/( ·q1)

1/a1
1/a3

/ C0-C
/ Ci

A = ¦ ¦ ; B =
¦ ¦ ;

Ci-C /
C0 /

Aeey i?eeeaaeo aoee i?iaaaeai? /enaeuei? ?ic?aooiee c aeo?aeieie
ia?aiao?aie noaie, aeei?enoaieie ipe ipiaaaeaii? ipiaiiai pic?aooieo.
O ?acoeueoao?

aoei io?eiaii, ui aeey caaacia/aiiy no?eei? ?iaioe noaie i?e i?eaaaeaieo
ia?aiao?ao, eiao?oe??io cianieaiiy AIA ca iaeei i?io?ae iiaeiee eaaeaoe
a ae?aiacii? 0.46< z < 0.537. I?e iiaeaethaaii? oa/?e aeey ?icaeyiooi? eii??e? i?e oaeaeeinoyo oa/?e aeua 22.53 ni/n aeieeathoue cai?ioi? oa/??. Uia oieeiooe oae? ?aaeeie, iaiao?aeii aeae?aoe /enei ia?aeaeueieo eii??ie oae, uia Vn?? < Vi (Vi = 22.5ni/n). C iaeyaeo ia aeai? oiiae, iiaoaeo?ii ia ieiuei? N, K iaeanoue ?oiuei? ci?ie, o ye?e caaacia/o?oueny aeeiiaiiy oeeo oiia iae. 7 . Oi/ee aioop? caoopeoiaaii? iaeano?, a?aeiia?aeathoue cia/aiiyi N ? K , ipe yeeo noaia ipaoeth? no?eei. Aeey oi/ie, ui eaaeaoue ieae/a ia? AIA ia aoaea anoeaaoe iaacniethaaoe aiaeo, ui iaaeoiaeeoue , ? a?aeaoaeaoueny iapaiiaiaiiy ?iiino? 2. sseui ae aeapaoe E, N aeua iaeano?, oi ae?iaieoeoai AIA aoaea a?eueoa iaiao?aeii? , ui iiaea ipeaanoe aei inooaiiy AIA. Aeey caoenoo a?ae oeueiai iaiao?aeii noaaeoe i?eno??e, yeee a?aeeeth/a? ceea ipe aeinyaiaii? ia'?iii ??aeeie aeayeiai iipiaiaiai cia/aiiy. O oeueiio aeiaaeeo noaia aoaea ipaoethaaoe ii iaeiiio c ?ioeo aap?aio?a iaaaaeaieo ia iae. 6. AENIIAEE 1. Aia?oa oai?aoe/ii aeine?aeaeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?eaei??ii? oa/?? a eaiae? c /a?aoaaiiyi i?yiie?i?eieo ? e?eaie?i?eieo ae?eyiie, ooai?aieo ?aaii?aae?onieie iiai?ioaie a?/ieo no?iie. Aeey eii??ie ?c iaea?eueoa oa?aeoa?ieie aeey aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo ii??nithaaeueieo aia?ao?a ?ici??aie ? ?aaeeiaie oa/?? (i?e Re a?ae 20 aei 400) io?eiai? ?iciiae?ee eiiiiiaio oaeaeeino?, ui aeicaieythoue aeaoaeueii aea/eoe ?icaeoie ia?ieo aeoi??a o e?eaie?i?ei?e ae?eyioe? ? ?oiy ?oeiaoe?y ? caanaiiy a i?yiie?i?ei?e ae?eyioe? eii??ee. I?iaeaiiino?iaaii aca?iiee aieea non?aei?o eii??ie ia ?icaeoie oa?aeoa?enoee oa/?e , ui aeyaey?oueny i?e ?ino? oaeaeeino? i?iea/oaaiiy. Aeine?aeaeoaaii ?aaeeie, i?e yeeo a eii??eao c'yaeythoueny ciie cai?ioieo oa/?e a?ey oaiooi? aieiai? no?iee nii/aoeo iiai?ioo o aa?oiueiio ? ieaeiueiio eooao ? aeae? o aeioee?e no?ioe? a na?aaeei? eaiaeo ii aenio?, ca na?aaeeiith iiai?ioo. Iieacaii , ui cai?ioi? oa/?? a?ey oaiooi? a?/ii? no?iee c'yaeythoueny i?e iaioeo oaeaeeinoyo, i?ae a?ey iioeei? e iaoiiaeai? aeieeiaiiyi iiceoeaiiai a?aae?aioo oeneo ii iioioe? /a?ac ia??aiii??i?noue ?iciiae?eo a?aeoeaio?iaeo nee, aeeeeeaiiai ia?ai?uaiiyi iaeneioio iiaeiaaeiuei? oaeaeeino? aei oa?aiooi? no?iee. Aeyaeaii, ui cai?ioi? oa/?? aeieeathoue i?e oaeaeeinoyo a?eueoeo ca 0.2 i/n (Re >
340).

2. Aeeiiai? oai?aoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee ianiia?aiino,
iieacaee, ui iae?iaeo?aa? oa/?? i?eaiaeyoue aei ?inoo ieoiiiai ci?iaiiy
nie? c iaeeieoe? ieiu? iaia?aie. I?e oaeaeeinoyo iioieo a?ey 0.2 i/c (
Re a?ey 300 ) ieoiia ci?iaiiy nie? c iaeeieoe? ieiu? iaia?aie
i?aeaeuo?oueny i?eaeecii ia 200% o ii??aiyii? c eii??eith o aeaeyae?
ieinei? u?eeie. Ii??aiyiiy io?eiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee ianiia?aiino c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie ?acoeueoaoaie aeey aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?ao?a ?c
??cieie aeaeaie naia?aoi??a-oo?aoe?caoi??a iieacaei aoaeoeai?noue
canoinoaaiiy e?eaie?i?eieo eii??ie. Io?eiaii oaaee/io caeaaei?noue
ieoiiiai ci?iaiiy nie? c eii??ee a?ae ?aaeeio oa/??. Iieacaii, ui
canoinoaaiiy iae?iaeo?iaeo oa/?e i?e oaeaeeinoyo iioieo a?eueo 0.1 i/n
ca?eueoo? ieoiiee ceii nie? c iaeeieoe? ieiu? iaia?aie neeuei?oa, i?ae
aeei?enoaiiy noaiaea?oieo n?oie naia?aoi??a-oo?aoe?caoi??a (aei 100%).
O oie aea /an iieacaia oa, ui aeei?enoaiiy e?eaie?i?eieo eaiae?a i?e
oaeaeeinoyo oa/?? ieae/a 0.06-0.07 i/n, iacaaaeath/e ia ??no aeo?ao ia
i?iea/oaaiiy, ia aea? iii?oiiai i?aeaeuaiiy ci?iaiiy nie?. C iaeyaeo
ia oa, ui i?e oaeaeeinoyo i?iea/oaaiiy a?eueo 0.2 i/n
c’yaeythoueny ciie cai?ioi?o oa/?e, ui i?aeaeuothoue aeo?aoe ia
i?iea/oaaiiy e iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia ianiia?aiin ?ii?a aei iaia?ai ,
iiaeia caeeth/eoe, ui e?eaie?i?ei? eaiaee i?e aeaeo?iiaia?aiiiio
ii??nithaaii? ne?ae aeei?enoi-aoaaoe a ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae
ia?iaethaaii? ??aeeie a?ae 0.08 i/n aei 0.2 i/n.

3. Coai?aia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue , ui aeicaiey? c?iaeoe ?ic?aooiie ia

IAAI oa?aeoa?enoeee oa/?? a e?eaie?i?ei?e nenoai? eaiae?a, ?c
aeei?enoaiiyi oaeaeeiai ia?aoai?aiiy Oo?’? ( OIO ) aeey ??oaiiy
aeene?aoiiai ??aiyiiy Ioanniia i?e aecia/aii? ?iciiae?eo oeneo.
Caaaeyee canoinoaaiith OIO aaeaeiny iaea?aeaoe ??oaiiy nenoaie
??aiyiue Iaauea-Noiena ? ia?ic?eaiino? aeey o?eaei??ii? caaea/?
a?ae?iaeeiai?ee ia IAAI. Iieacaii aaeaeaaoi?noue iiaeae?.

4. Noai?aii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ia?aiino ?ii?a a?ia?iiai
aeaeo?ie?oo i?e i?iaaaeaii? ii??niaiiy aiaee a e?eaie?i?ei?e
aeaeo?iiaia?aii?e eii??oe?. Ii??aiyiiyi io?eiaieo aeaieo ?c
aenia?eiaioaeueieie ?acoeueoaoaie, iieacaia aaeaeaaoi?noue noai?aii?
iiaeae?.

5. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ia IAAI oa?aeoa?enoee ?iaioe
aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?ao?a ?c e?eaie?i?eieie eii??eaie, aeicaiey?
i?iaiaeeoe oaeineiiaethaaiiy ?iai/eo i?ioean?a ? oa?aeoa?enoee oaeeo
aia?ao?a. Cie?aia iieacaii, ui aeei?enoaiiy e?eaie?i?eieo eii??ie
i?eaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy ieoiiiai ci?iaiiy nie? c iaeeieoe? ieiu?
iaia?aie aei 100% o ii??aiyii? c? noaiaea?oieie
naia?aoi?aie-oo?aoe?caoi?aie , ioaea, iiaeeeai i?iaeooaaiiy i?eaeecii
aaea?/? eiiiaeoiiai noaeiiaiai aeaeo?iiaia?aiiiai ii??nithaa/a c
e?eaie?i?eieie eaiaeaie.

6. O yeino? aeiaeaoeo ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee ? io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a
?ic?aooie?a, i?iaaaeaia iiaeaethaaiiy ?iaioe noaeiiai? nenoaie i/euaiiy
aiaee c aeei?enoaiiyi aeaeo?iiaia?aiiiai aia?aoo c e?eaie?i?eieie
eii??eaie. Ia iniia? aeaiiai aia?aoa, ?c canoinoaaiiyi oee?eoeyoe?eii?
noaie aieeaiiy , iiaoaeiaaia ii??nithaaeueia /anoeia nenoaie.
I?iaiae?ciaai? ?? no?ee? ?aaeeie ?aaioe ? ae?iaeaiee e?eoa??e aeai?o
ia?aiao??a aeaiaio?a nenoaie aeey caaacia/aiiy iaea?eueoa
?aoe?iiaeueiiai ?aaeeio ?iaioe. Aeei?enoiaoth/e aeaiee i?aeo?ae
iiaeia aea?aoe iaea?eueo aeaoaaee aeaeo?iiaia?aiiee aia?ao , ui
caaacia/eoue iaea?aeaiiy aiaee caaeaii? yeino? ? ii?iaeueia
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oee?eoeyoe?eii? nenoaie ii??niaiiy.

Iae. 1 Aaiiao?e/ia eiio?ao?aoe?y i?ioi/ii? /anoeie aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo
aia?ao?a, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny

Iae. 2 Oa?aeoa?enoeee oa/?? i?e P = 40 I/i?. a) aoi?eii? oa/??,
Vmax = 3.36 ni/n ; a) i?iaeieueia oaeaee?noue, Umax = 15.32 ni/n.

Iae. 3 Caeaaei?noue ceiio nie? c iaeeieoe? iieiu? iaia?aie a?ae
noia?ieo aeo?ao aia?a?? ia iaeeieoeth ieiu?. Nooe?euei? e?i?? –
aeaii? aeey ??cieo naia?aoi??a-ooaie?caoi??a: 1 — n?oea-ieaoaiea INO
17-46-71, a?o. 64E ; 2 — oaea ae, a?o. 25E ; 3 – oaea ae, a?o. 13E ; 4
— oaea ae, a?o. 8E; 5 — oaea ae, a?o. 7E; 6 – n?oea, aeaioiaeaia
iaoiaeii aaca?aeoiaeiie i?in?/ee-aeoyaeee,

O 6-05-3.71, iiia?ae iioieo ; 7 – oaea ae, acaeiaae iioieo; 8 –
aio?e?iaaiee a?i?ieano, OO IOI 2023-49, aio?e iiia?ae iioieo; 9 –
oaea ae, aio?e acaeiaae iioieo; — ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy aeey
e?eaie?i?eieo eii??ie

Iae. 4 Nenoaia i/enoee aiaee

Iae. 5 Caeaaei?noue ia?aiao??a aiaee a aeaiaioao ii??nithaaeueii?
/anoeie noaie a?ae /ano. a) – ia’?i aiaee a ?ieino? 1; a) – ia’?i aiaee
a ?ieino? 2; a) – eiioeaio?aoe?y nie? o aiae? ?ieino? 2

Iae. 6 Ci?ia ia’?io ??aeeie a ?ieino? 2 i?e ??cieo ?aaeeiao ?iaioe.

Oeeo?a – iiia? ?aaeeia ?iaioe, aoeae – iiiaioe ia?aeeth/aiue eeaiai?a
noaie : a – e?iaoeue ceeao ?ieino? 2, aa?eaio 5; b — ii/aoie ceeao
?ieino? 2, aa?eaio 3; c — ii/aoie ceeao ?ieino? 2, aa?eaio 2 ; d –
e?iaoeue ceeao ?ieino? 2, aa?eaio 3 ; e — e?iaoeue ceeao ?ieino? 2,
aa?eaio 2; f — ii/aoie ceeao ?ieino? 2, aa?eaio 3; g — ii/aoie ceeao
?ieino? 2, aa?eaio 4; h — e?iaoeue ceeao ?ieino? 2, aa?eaio 3; i —
e?iaoeue ceeao ?ieino? 2, aa?eaio 4; j — ii/aoie ceeao ?ieino? 2,
aa?eaio 5; t1 – e?iaoeue ceeao ?ieino? 1

Iae. 7 Iaeanoue no?eei? ?iaioe noaie i?e iaeiaie ae?iaie/iio AIA

Oaaeeoey 1

Ii??aiyiiy ?ioaa?aeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ieeio ? ianiia?aiino aeey eii??e?
c

e?eaie?i?eiith ae?eyieith ? aeey eii??e? o oipia aocueei?,
i?yiie?i?eii?

u?eeie, ui ia? aiaeia?/i? aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e ( aeai? a aeoaeeao )

Iaae?iiy oeneo ia ina?aaeeo

P (H/i?)

10

20

40

80

100

120

140Oaeaeeinoue iioieo (ni/n)3.802

(5. 8)7.481

(10.0)14.08

(19.3)17.068

(24.2)19.82

(29.0)25.527

(33.8)Ca?eueoaiiy eiao?oe??ioo iiipo

7.1%

8.9%

15.8%

19.2%

23.2%

25.6%Ceii nie? a iaeeieoeth /ano c eii??e? (C*ci?/n)

0.003

0.0045

0.009

0.0209

0.029

0.038

0.0417Nooi?iue iaac-niethaaiiy ia aeiaaeei? eii??e?

5.2%

(5.1%)

4.0%

(3.3%)

4.0%

(2.6%)

5.01%

(1.8%)

5.6%

(1.6%)

6.52%

(1.4%)

6.25%

(1.3%)Ceii nie? a iaeeieoeth /ano c iaeeieoe? ieiu? iaia?aie (N*ni /n)

0.0033

(0.004)

0.0049

(0.007)

0.0099

(0.009)

0.0231

(0.012)

0.0322

(0.013)

0.0425

(0.014)

0.0469

(0.015)A?aenioie ca?eueoaiiy ci?iaiiy nie?

-17%

-29%

10.4%

92.5%

148%

204%

213%Iiooaei?noue ipiea/ee /a?ac eii??eo

–7

( 10 Ao )

5.792

(7.25)

22.809

(34.8)

89.777

(120.)

337.93

(464.)

512.04

(725.)

713.6

(1044)

946.15

(1421)N-cia/aiiy na?aaeiuei? eiioeaio?aoe?? o ao?aeiiio ia?aoei? eii??ea
(i?eue/ni? ).

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaai? a ?iaioao:

1. Oaiiaaeia N.A., Oth??i A.?. Iiaeaeue ianiia?aiina a eaiaeao
noaeiiaeo aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo ii??nithaa/?a ?c iae?iaeo?aauie iioieaie
??aeeie: Na.iaoe.i?. — Ieeiea?a: IE?, 1992, n. 32-37.

2. Oaiiaaeia N.A., Oth??i A.?. Iiaeaethaaiia iae?iaeo?aaiai ieeio
??aeeie a aeaiaioao noaeiiaeo aia?aaoe/ieo onoaiiaie: Na.iaoe.i?. —
Ieeiea?a: IE?, 1992, n. 37-42.

3. Oaiiaaeia N.A., Oth??i A.?. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue ieeio ?
ianiia?aiina a aeaeo?iiaia?aiiiio ina?aaeeo c iae?iaeo?aaei ieeiii
??aeeie. Aeaeo?io?i?y, oii 32, N 2, I. 1996, n. 235-241.

4. Oaiiaaeia N.A., Oth??i A.?. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue oee?eoeyoe?eii?
nenoaie aeaeo?iiaia?aiiiai ii??niaiiy aiaee. O?i?y ?
oaoiieia?y aiaee, oii 18,

N 5,Ee?a, 1996, n. 451-460.

5. Shapovalov S. V. ,Tjurin V. I. Matematical model for flow and
masstransfer in electromembrane cell. Abstracts international conference
on membrane electrochemistry. 20-th spring meeting:ion-exchange
membranes from synthesis to applications, Anapa, 1994,??.96-99

6. Oaiiaaeia N.A.,Oth??i A.?. Iae?iaeo?aaa oaeineiiaethaaiiy
aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?ao?a // I?aoe? 1-i? i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/aii? eiioa?aioe?? «I?iaeaie aia?aicaa?aaeaiiy e aeieia??
a noaeiaoaeoaaii?»,- Ieeiea?a: OAeIOO, 1996

Oth??i A.?. Oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean?a ? oa?aeoa?enoee noaeiiaeo
aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo ii??nithaaeueieo aia?ao?a ?c e?eaie?i?eieie eaiaeaie.
— ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia eiieo?n o/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca oaoii 05.04.15 — Noaeiia? aia?aaoe/i? onoaiiaee. —
Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee ii?nueeee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Ieeiea?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia oaeineiiaethaaiith ?iai/eo i?ioean?a ?
oa?aeoa?enoee noaeiiaeo aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo ii??nithaa/?a aiaee c
e?eaie?i?eieie eaiaeaie. O ?iaio? i?iaiaeeoueny iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a, ui i?io?eathoue a eii??eao c /a?aaoaaiiyi
e?eaie?i?eieo ? i?yiie?i?eieo ae?eyiie. C aeei?enoaiiyi /eneaieo
iaoiae?a , ?ic?iaeaiee aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo o?eaei??iiai noaoe?iia?iiai
ieeio ianoeneeai? ??aeeie a oaeeo eii??eao. Oeyoii ?ic?aooie?a
iieacaii, ui a e?eaie?i?eieo ae?eyieao a?aeaoaa?oueny aaia?aoe?y
aoi?eiieo ieei?a o aeae? ia?ieo aeoi??a. O ae?aiacii? oaeaeeinoae
iioieo, ui aeei?enoiaoaaoueny a aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo ii??nithaa/ao,
aeine?aeaeaiie ci?ie oa?aeoa?o ieeio a?ae aeo?ao. Iiaoaeiaaii aeai?eoi
ae??oaiiy ??aiyiiy eiiaaeoeaiie aeeooc?? aeey aia?ao?a ?c oaeeie
eaiaeaie. Iieacaii , ui iae?iaeo?e ca?eueoothoue ianiia?aiin.
?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy aia?ao?a aeaiiai oeio a
nenoai? i/euaiiy aiaee, ?c oieeaiiyi ?o ii oee?eoeyoe?ei?e noai?.
I?iaaaeaii aiae?c ?aaeei?a ?iaioe ? ae?iaeaiee e?eoa??e aeai?o
ia?aiao??a aeey caaacia/aiiy no?eei? ?iaioe nenoai?. ?ic?iaeai?
iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooie?a aeicaieythoue i?iaanoe aeaoaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy
i?ioeano ii??niaiiy a ina?aaeeao aeaeo?iiaia?aiieo aia?ao?a ?c
iae?iaeo?iaeie ieeiaie ? aea?aoe iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeuei? ia?aiao?e
ina?aaeeo ? ?iai/? ?aaeeie i?e i?iaeooaaii? nenoai ii??niaiiy aiaee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy, /enaeuei? iaoiaee,
aeaeo?iiaia?aiiee aia?ao, ianiia?aiin.

Ojurin V.I. Perfection of processes and characteristics ship
electromembrane desalination devices with curve channels. — The
manuscript. The dissertation on competition of a scientific degree
candidate of engineering science on a speciality 05.04.15 — ship
energy installation. — Ukrainian State Maritime Thechnical
University, Mykolaiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to perfection of working processes
and nharacteristics ship electromembrane water desalination
devices with curve channels. In work will be carried out
mathematical simulation of processes proceeding in electromembrane
cells with alternating curve and rectilinear sites. With use
numerical of methods, the algorithm of account three-dimensional
stational incompressible liquid in such cells. By a way accounts is
shown, that in curve sites occurs indusing of secondary flow as pair
vortice. In a range velocitys of a flow appropriate used in
electromembrane devices, investigated change of character of flow
from the charge. The algorithm is constructed the solutions of the
equation convective diffusion for devices with such channels. Is
shown, that mass transfer is increasing due to vortex. The
problem of an opportunity

of use of devices given such as in system of clearing of water,
with inclusion them on circulating scheme is considered. The analysis
of modes of operations is carried out and is produced criterion
of a choice of parameters for maintenance of steady work of
desalination plant. The developed techniques of calculation allow to
carry out detailed research of desalination process in
cells of electromembrane devices with vortex flows and
to choose the most

rational parameters of a cell and working regime at designing
systems of desalinating water.

Key words: mathematical simulatinging, numerical methods,
electromembrane device, mass transfer.

Oth?ei A.E. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?ioeannia e oa?aeoa?enoee noaeiauo
yeaeo?iiaia?aiiuo ii?anieoaeueiuo aiia?aoia n e?eaieeiaeiuie
eaiaeaie. — ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia cieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie
eai-aeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.04.15 — Noaeiaua
yia?aaoe-/aneea onoaiiaee. — Oe?aeineee ainoaea?noaaiiue ii?neie
oaoie/an-eee oieaa?neoao, Ieeieaaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia niaa?oainoaiaaieth ?aai/eo i?ioeannia e
oa?aeoa?enoee noaeiauo yeaeo?iiaia?aiiuo ii?anieoaeae aiaeu n
e?eaieeiaeiuie eaiaeaie. A ?aaioa i?iaiaeeony iaoaiaoe/aneia
iiaeaee?iaaiea i?ioeannia, i?ioaeathueo a y/aeeao oaeeo aiia?aoia.
N eniieueciaaieai /eneaiiuo iaoiaeia, ?ac?aaioai aeai?eoi ?an/aoa
o?aoia?iiai noaoeeiia?iiai oa/aiey ianaeeiaaiie aeeaeeinoe a y/aeeao.

Ia?aue ?acaeae niaea?aeeo iaci? eeoa?aoo?u e iinoaiiaeo caaea/e
enneaaeiaaiey.

Ai aoi?ii ?acaeaea iienaii i?aaeeaaaaiia ono?ienoai i?ioi/iie
/anoe aiia?aoia aeey nicaeaiey iae?iaeo?aauo oa/aiee, naeaeaia
iinoaiiaea caaea/e ?an/aoa oaeeo oa/aiee e iienuaaaony iaoiaeeea aa
?aoaiey. Aeey nicaeaiey iae?iaeo?aauo oa/aiee i?aeaaaaony
i?ioi/ioth /anoue ?acaeaeeoue aa?oeeaeueiuie ia?aai?iaeeaie,
ninoiyueie ec iiai?ioia e i?yiieeiaeiuo o/anoeia, /a?aaeothueony
ae?oa n ae?oaii ( iai?aaeaiey ninaaeieo iiai?ioia i?ioeaiiieiaeiu).
Iaaeaeo ia?aai?iaeeaie ia?acothony eaiaeu n i?yiieeiaeiuie e
e?eaieeiaeiuie o/anoeaie. ?an/ao oa/aiey inouanoaeyeny iooai
?aoaiey o?aoia?iie nenoaiu o?aaiaiee Iaauea-Noiena iaoiaeii
eooa?aoeee, n eniieueciaaieai auno?iai i?aia?aciaaiey Oo?uea i?e
ii?aaeaeaiee iii?aaee aeaaeaiey ia eaaeaeii oaaa.

A o?aoueai ?acaeaea aeaaony iienaiea iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee
ianniia?aiina eiiia aeia?iiai yeaeo?ieeoa a eaia?ao iaannieeaaiey
yeaeo?iiaia?aiiiai aiia?aoa n e?eaieeiaeiie nenoaiie eaiaeia. Aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey panipaaeaeaiey eiioeaio?aoeee a y/aeea ?aoaeinue o?aaiaiea
eiiaaeoeaiie aeeooocee n a?aie/iuie oneiaeyie, niioaaonoaothueie
yeaeo?iiaia?aiiiio ii?aniaieth aiaeu.

*aoaa?oue ?acaeae iinayuai iienaieth e aiaeeco ?acoeueoaoia
?an/aoia. Aeey y/aae, n ia?aiao?aie niioaaonoaothueie
eniieuecoaiui a yeaeo?iiaia?aiiuo aiia?aoao, iieo/aiu
?ani?aaeaeaiey eiiiiiaio nei?inoe. ?an/aou iieacaee, /oi a
e?eaieeiaeiuo o/anoeao y/aae aaia?e?othony ia?iua aeo?e, caoai a
i?yiieeiaeiuo o/anoeao iie ?ac?ooathony e ca-

oooatho. Enneaaeiaaia caaeneiinoue eioaineaiinoe aeo?aauo oa/aiee
io n?aaeia?anoiaeiie nei?inoe. Auyaeaiu ?aaeeiu, i?e eioi?uo a
y/aeeao iiyaeythony ciiu ia?aoiuo oa/aiee. Iieacaii, /oi
ia?aoiua oa/aiey aicieeatho i?e nei?inoyo aieueoeo 0.2 i/n ( Re >
340 ). Auiieiaiiua oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey oa?aeoa?enoee
ianniia?aiina, iieacaee, /oi iae?iaeo?aaua oa/aiey i?eaiaeyo e
?inoo oaeaeueiiai nuaia niee n aaeeieoeu ieiuaaee iaia?aiu. I?e
nei?inoyo iioiea ieiei 0.2i/c ( Re = 300) oaeaeueiue nuai niee n
aaeeieoeu ieiuaaee iaia?aiu iiauoaaony i?e-ia?ii ia 200% ii
n?aaiaieth n y/aeeie a aeaea ieineie uaee. N?aaiaiea iieo/aiiuo
oa?aeoa?enoee ianniia?aiina n yenia?eiaioaeueiuie ?acoeueoaoaie,
iieo/aiiuie aeey yeaeo?iiaia?aiiuo aiia?aoia n ?acee/iuie
aeaeaie naia?aoi?ia-oo?aoeecaoi?ia, iieacaei yooaeoeaiinoue i?eiaiaiey
e?eaieeiaeiuo y/aae. Iieo/aia oaaee/iay caaeneiinoue oaeaeueiiai
nuaia niee n y/aeee io ?aaeeia oa/aiey, ec eioi?ie neaaeoao, /oi
i?eiaiaiea iae?iaeo?aauo oa/aiee i?e nei?inoyo aieaa 0.1i/n
oaaee/eaaao oaeaeueiue nuai niee n aaeeieoeu ieiuaaee iaia?aiu a
aieueoae noaiaie, /ai eniieueciaaiea noaiaea?oiuo naoie
naia?aoi?ia–oo?aoeecaoi?ia (aei 100%). A oiaea a?aiy iieacaii, /oi
eniieueciaaiea e?eaieeiaeiuo eaiaeia i?e nei?inoyo oa/aiey ieaea
0.06-0.07i/n ia aeaao caiaoiiai iiauoaiey nuaia niee. O/eouaay aeaiiue
?acoeueoao e oi, /oi i?e nei?inoyo i?iea/ee aieaa 0.2 i/n
iiyaeythony ciiu ia?aoiuo oa/aiee, eioi?ua iiauoatho cao?aou ia
i?iea/eo aeeaeeinoe, iiaeii caeeth/eoue, /oi e?eaieeiaeiua eaiaeu
i?e yeaeo?iiaia?aiiii ii?aniaiee neaaeoao eniieueciaaoue a
aeeaiaciia n?aaeia?anoiaeiuo nei?inoae io 0.08i/n aei 0.2i/n.

Eae i?eiaiaiea ?ac?aaioaiiuo iaoiaeee e ?acoeueoaoia
?an/aoa, a ?acaeaea 5 i?iaaaeaii iiaeaee?iaaiea ?aaiou noaeiaie
nenoaiu i/enoee aiaeu n eniieueciaaieai yeaeo?iiaia?aiiiai aiia?aoa n
e?eaieeiaeiuie y/aeeaie. Ia aai iniiaa, n i?eiaiaieai
oee?eoeyoeeiiiie noaiu aeeth/aiey, iino?iaia ii?anieoaeueiay /anoue
nenoaiu. I?iaaaeai aiaeec aiciiaeiuo ?aaeeiia ?aaiou nenoaiu e
au?aaioai e?eoa?ee auai?a ia?aiao?ia yeaiaioia nenoaiu iaania/eaathueo
aa onoie/eaoth ?aaioo. Eniieuecoy aeaiiue iiaeoiae, iiaeii aua?aoue
iaeaieaa aeaoaaue yeaeo?iiaia?aiiue aiia?ao, eioi?ue iaania/eo
iieo/aiea aiaeu o?aaoaiiai ea/anoaa e ii?iaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
nenoaiu ii?aniaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea, yeaeo?iiaia?aiiue
aiia?ao, ianniia?aiin.

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