IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?AAeA II AEA*AIITH I?IAeOEOEAIEO NEE OE?A?IE

OEEss?NUeEEE TH??E IEAENAIAe?IAE*

OAeE [361.072+338.075+331.024.23](477.73)

OAeINEIIAEAIIss OI?AAE?IIss NIOe?AEUeIEI CAOENOII IANAEAIIss A ?AA?II?

(ia iaoa??aeao Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.09.01 — Aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea i?aoe?, nioe?aeueia
aeiiii?ea ? iie?oeea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a -1999 ??e

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?aae? ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie
Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — Aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, ae?eniee /eai
(aeaaeai?e) OAAI, Caneoaeaiee ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie,
AI?UAANUeEEE Iao?i I?ieiiiae/ — ?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, canooiiee aieiae ?aaee

Ioioeei? iiiiaioe:

Aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee E?AAIIAA Aeea
Ia?eai?aia — ?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie,
caa?aeoaa/ea a?aeae?eii aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai aeaiia?ao??, ethaenueeiai
?icaeoeo oa ?icnaeaiiy

Eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

ssOeAIEI Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/ — Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao, aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, a?aeae?e
nioe?aeueii? noa?e, aeioiae?a ? ??aiy aeeooy, i.Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “22” aa?aciy 1999 ?. i 1430 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.160.01 ?aaee ii aea/aiith
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252032, I.Ee?a,
aoeueaa? O.Oaa/aiea, 60.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?aaee ii aea/aiith
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252032, i.Ee?a,
aoeueaa? O.Oaa/aiea, 60.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “17 ” ethoiai 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? aaia?ao?/ieo iaoe I.N.Eiaaeaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Iineeaiiy nioe?aeueii? i???ioaoe?? ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue aecia/aiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoeiaeo
canaae noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii
ianaeaiiy ye ia iaoe?iiaeueiiio, oae ? ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? c
o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?/ieo ??aiaaeo iniaeeainoae oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii
aa?aioiaaiiai caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii. O no/ani?e
aeiiii?/i?e iaooe? oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy
caeeoa?oueny iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiei ? ocaaaeueiaiei, ui no?eio?
ae??oaiiy i?aeoe/ieo ieoaiue oaeineiiaeaiiy ? noai?aiiy aoaeoeaii?
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy ia an?o ??aiyo eiai
caaacia/aiiy.

Ioe?ithth/e oaio aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, iaiao?aeii a?aecia/eoe iniaeeao
?? aeooaeuei?noue, iaoeiao ? i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue. Aiia ni?yiiaaia ia
ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue uiaei iie?ioaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy,
ia?aaeaa/aieo a Iniiaieo iai?yiao nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee ia 1998-2000
?iee, ye? caoaa?aeaeai? Oeacii I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie 18 aeiaoiy 1998 ?ieo.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aecia/a?oueny oaeiae oei, ui
aiia a?aeiia?aea? aecia/aiei iniiaiei iai?yiai iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue o
aea?aeaaieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo i?ia?aiao, a oaeiae o ieaiao
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o, ui cae?eniththoueny a iaaeao I?i?noa?noaa
i?aoe? ? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, ?aaeith ii aea/aiith
i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, ?inoeoooii aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie,
niaoe?ae?ciaaieie eaoaae?aie aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueieie i?ioeanaie ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai? yaey?oueny neeaaeiaith
/anoeiith eiiieaenieo aea?aeaaieo oa ?aa?iiaeueieo i?ia?ai ? ieai?a
?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e Oe?a?ie oa ?? ?aa?ii?a.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaeai? i?iiiceoe??, ui iaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy a “Iniiaieo iai?yieao nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee ia 1997-2000
??.” ? noai?aia ?aa?iiaeueia iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii
ianaeaiiy a Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano?, aea i?iaiaeeoueny aenia?eiaio ii
a?aei?aoethaaiith iaoai?cio ?aa?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei
caoenoii ianaeaiiy ca o/anoth I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee Oe?a?ie.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeiia?aeiino? c oaiaoeeith iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue
?aaee ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
yaey?oueny ?ic?iaea eiioeaioe?? oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii
ianaeaiiy a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, aea/aiiy iaoai?ci?a
?aae?caoe?? eiie?aoieo nioe?aeueieo i?ia?ai ? oi?aae?iiy ieie, ?ic?iaea
nioe?aeueieo oaoiieia?e c

iaoith iioei?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiith noa?ith a ?aa?ii? ?
caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy aoaeoeaiino? nioe?aeueieo i?iaeo?a.

Cae?eniaiiy cacia/aii? iaoe aeiaaaea iaiao?aei?noue ae??oaiiy
ne?aeoth/eo aieiaieo caaaeaiue: aecia/aiiy i?noey oa ?ie? nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ianaeaiiy a aeiiii?/i?e nenoai? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo oa
iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei ?icaeoeii ianaeaiiy ia
??ai? ?aa?iio; ?ic?iaee iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae oi?ioaaiiy e?eoa???a
ioe?iee ??aiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy oa nenoaiaoecaoe??
?nioth/eo iieaciee?a; ?ic?iaee i?eioeeiiai? noaie ?aa?iiaeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy, iniiai? i?eioeeie yei?
iiaeia ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a on?o ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie;
aecia/aiiy noaie aca?iiae?? aea?aeaae oa ?aa?iio a iie? nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee; iaa?oiooaaiiy
eiie?aoieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii aaeineiiaeaiith i?aai?caoe?? ? oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy ia ??ai? ?aa?iio i?e ia?aoiae? aei iiai?
no?oeoo?e.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. O ?iaio?
noi?ioeueiaaii oa iaa?oioiaaii noeoii?noue iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a,
aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iiaeciith ? ae??oothoue
eiie?aoia iaoeiaa caaaeaiiy — oi?ioaaiiy aoaeoeaii? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy a ?aa?ii?, ui ia? nooo?aa cia/aiiy aeey
nioe?aeueii? aeiiii?ee ? iie?oeee ye aaeoc? aeiiii?/ii? iaoee.

Iaea?eueo nooo?aeie iaoeiaeie ?acoeueoaoaie ? ianooii?:

1) ?ice?eoi nooi?noue, ci?no ? ooieoe?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy
a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, cacia/aii i?eioeeie ? oiiae eiai
ooieoe?iioaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi aeiia caeii?a ?eieo, cie?aia, iiieoo oa
i?iiiceoe?? ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno ianaeaiiy;

2) oaaaeaii ? ?ice?eoi nooue ? ci?no oaeeo iiaeo iiiyoue nioe?aeueii?
aeiiii?ee oa iie?oeee, ye “iiea nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo”, “nioe?aeueiee
i?iaeoeo”, “iiieo ia nioe?aeuei? i?iaeoeoe”, “i?iiiceoe?y nioe?aeueieo
i?iaeoeo?a” oiui;

3) aeyaeaii oa ocaaaeueiaii caeiiii??iino? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy a ?aa?ii? ia no/aniiio aoai?, ?ice?eoi ?o a?aei?iiino?
ii??aiyii ?c caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieie oaiaeaioe?yie oa caeiiii??iinoyie
? c?iaeaia ioe?iea aieeao aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ia ieo;

4) cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy,
o oiio /ene? o n?euenuee?e i?noeaaino?, o ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae, yea
ia?aaeaa/a? caaeiaieaiiy iio?aa ethaeae iioeeiai a?eo oa
iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy a nioe?aeueiiio caoeno?;

5) cai?iiiiiaaia iioeiaeueia iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii
ianaeaiiy a ?aa?ii?, yea iiaoaeiaaia ia i?eioeeiao aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??
eiai oi?aae?iiy, aae?aniino? nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy oa i?aeaioiaee
i?ioan?eieo eaae??a;

6) ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy
ae?yeueiino? i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy a
n?euenueeeo ?aa?iiao a ca’yceo c noai?aiiyi n?euenueeeo oeaio??a
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy o iaaeao oa?eoi??e n?euenueeeo ?
naeeuieo ?aae;

Iiaecia noi?ioeueiaaieo o aeena?oaoe?? iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a, aeniiae?a
? i?iiiceoe?e aecia/a?oueny oei, ui aiie cai?iiiiiaai? aaoi?ii oia?oa ?
na?ae/aoue i?i eiai iniaenoee aianie o ?icaeoie nioe?aeueii? aeiiii?ee
oa iie?oeee ye aaeoc? aeiiii?/ii? iaoee.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy iniiaieo iieiaeaiue, aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie caaaa/othoue
nioe?aeueio aeiiii?eo ? iie?oeeo ye aaeocue aeiiii?/ii? iaoee iiaeie
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieie i?aeoiaeaie uiaei ?ice?eooy noo? oa ci?noo
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy oa i?aai?caoe?? oi?aae?iiy iei o
?eieiaeo oiiaao, ?icoe?ththoue ? iiaeeaeththoue ?o eaoaai??eiee aia?ao,
a oaeiae ?ice?eaathoue nooue ? ci?no cai?iiiiiaaieo iiaeo iiiyoue
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy ye ocaaaeueithth/i? aeiiii?/ii?
eaoaai???.

O aeena?oaoe?? aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaia ?aa?iiaeueia iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy, yea aaco?oueny ia i?eioeeiao:

aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? oa aae?aniino? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo; noai?aii? oa
ooieoe?iioaaii? i?eioeeiiai iiai? oi?aae?inueei? no?oeoo?e — ?aeiiiiai
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy; ?ic?iaoe? ? aeei?enoaii?
?aa?iiaeueii? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace, a oaeiae i?aeaioiaee eaae??a.
Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue ia?aaeaa/a? noai?aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia
oa?eoi??? n?euenueeeo ?aae oeaio??a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy c
/?oei aecia/aieie ooieoe?yie.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a: iaa?oiooaaii?
i?eioeei?a ? iaoiae?a ?aa?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii
ianaeaiiy; ?ic?iaoe? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii aaeineiiaeaiith
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace ?aa?iiaeueiiai oi?aae?iiy uiaei aei??o
e?eoa???a ioe?iee ??aiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy; aecia/aii?
iniiaieo canaae i?aeaioiaee nioe?aeueieo i?aoe?aiee?a, ye? aoaeooue o
ciic? ni?eyoe noai?aiith a Oe?a?i? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy, ui a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai ia o?eueee ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo, aea
e ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee — ye nenoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy; iiaeeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy a i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaii? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy, yea ia?aaeaa/a? aeae?eueea aoai?a ??
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a caeaaeiino? a?ae aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a aea?aeaa?;
?ic?iaeai?e ? cai?iiiiiaai?e iaoiaeeoe? oi?ioaaiiy e?eoa??th
iaeicaaacia/aiino? oa ?ioeo iieaciee?a ??aiy nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
ianaeaiiy, yea iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a?aeiia?aeieie noaoenoe/ieie
i?aaiaie aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy ae?th/i? nenoaie nioe?aeueii? noaoenoeee.

Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy ciaeoee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o i?aeoeoe?
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy a ?aa?iiao Oe?a?ie, aiie aoee
aeei?enoai? i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iinoaiiae eieaa?? I?i?noa?noaa
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a?ae 22 /a?aiy 1994 ?ieo “I?i
aeina?ae ?iaioe Ieeiea?anueeiai iaeaniiai oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe i?noeaaeo i?aai?a
aeaaee ii nioe?aeueiiio ianeoaiaoaaiith iain?iia??a oa ?iaae?ae?a”;
?icii?yaeaeaiiy I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie a?ae 12 a?oaeiy 1994 ?ieo ?187
“Ieoaiiy aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy o noa?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy”; iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 22 ethoiai 1996
?ieo ?136 “I?i aaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy o noa?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy”; ?icii?yaeaeaiiy Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie a?ae 2 /a?aiy
1997 ?ieo ?291-? “I?i i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo uiaei ae?iaeaiiy
iioeiaeueii? nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo n?euenueeiai ianaeaiiy”;
Iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe n?euenueeeo
oeaio??a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, noaaeaieo 28 n?/iy 1998 ?ieo
I?i?noa?noaii i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie oa ia?aaeaieo aeey
aeei?enoaiiy a i?aeoe/i?e ?iaio? I?i?noa?noao i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei, oi?aae?iiyi nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy iaeanieo. Ee?anueei? oa Naaanoiiieuenueei? i?nueeeo
aea?aeaaieo aaei?i?no?aoe?e.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeai? ?aea? oa
?ic?iaee, ui iaeaaeaoue iniaenoi ?? aaoi?o. Iioae?eiaai? iaoeia? i?aoe?
i?noyoue iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee ? i?iiiceoe??, ye? noi?ioeueiaai? iniaenoi
caeiaoaa/ai iaoeiaiai nooiaiy. Aiie iaienai? iaeiiin?aia ?o aaoi?ii ?
a?aeia?aaeathoue eiai eiie?aoiee iniaenoee aianie o ?icaeoie
nioe?aeueii? aeiiii?ee ? iie?oeee ye i?aeaaeoc? aeiiii?/ii? iaoee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy ai?iaiaai? ?aaeith ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee Oe?a?ie
IAI Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaii i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, ia
i?aeia?iaeieo, aea?aeaaieo ? ?aa?iiaeueieo iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo
eiioa?aioe?yo ? nai?ia?ao.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeiiia?aeaeenue oa iaaiai?thaaeenue ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Ia?o?
i?aenoiee iaa/aiiy nioe?aeuei?e ?iaio? a Oe?a?i?” (i.Ee?a, 1998 ??e), ia
nai?ia?ao “Oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo Oe?a?ie” (i.Ee?a,
1997 ??e), “Ieoaiiy oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie i?aeaioiaee oa
ia?ai?aeaioiaee eaae??a c nioe?aeueii? ?iaioe” (i.Ee?a, 1998 ??e),
“I?aeaioiaea eaae??a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo” (Oaaoe?y, 1998 ??e),
can?aeaiiyo eieaa?? I?i?noa?noaa nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
(i.Ee?a, 1994, 1997 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a 5 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo caaaeueiei ianyaii 3,8 ae.a., iaienai? aaoi?ii iaeiiin?aia.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a. ?iaioa
aeeeaaeaia ia 192 noi??ieao, c yeeo 155 noi??iie iniiaiiai oaenoo; 34
oaaeeoe? ? 7 ?ethno?aoe?e ia 25 noi??ieao; 122 iaeiaioaaiiy e?oa?aoo?e
ia 9 noi??ieao ? aeiaeaoee ia 3 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O Anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy, aecia/aia iaoa
? iniiai? caaaeaiiy, ioa?aeoa?eciaai? iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a oa iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy a
aeiiii?/i?e no?oeoo?? noni?euenoaa” anoaiiaeaii, ui i?iaeaie
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy yaeythoueny aeooaeueieie aeey an?o e?a?i
na?oo, aea a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee oa nenoaiii? e?ece, ui
oa?aeoa?ii aeey Oe?a?ie, aiie noathoue ua a?eueo cia/eieie. A ca’yceo c
oeei aeieea? iio?aaa ?ic?iaee oaeiai iaoai?cio oi?aae?iiy oeeie
i?ioeanaie, yeee aeaa ae ciiao i?iaiaeeoe aoaeoeaio nioe?aeueio iie?oeeo
ye ia ??ai? aea?aeaae, oae ? ia ??ai? ie?aieo ?? ?aa?ii?a.

Aaoi? ?icaeyaea? nioe?aeueiee caoeno ye aeaiaio ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Ia
iie? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy ae?thoue caeiie iiieoo oa
i?iiiceoe??, a oaeiae ?io? caeiie ?eieiai? nenoaie, a nioe?aeuei?
i?iaeoeoe i?aeeyaathoue ae?? oeeo caeii?a. Canoinoaaaoe iaoiaeieia?th
aea/aiiy iie?oe/iiai ?eieo aei ?eieo nioe?aeueieo i?iaeoeo?a, aaoi?
i?eoiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui ia iie? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy
?oo?eio ?ieue a?a? i?iiiceoe?y, a ia iiieo, ye ia ?eieo cae/aeieo
i?iaeoeo?a.

A no?oeoo?? iiey nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy aaoi? aeae?ey?
ne?aeoth/? iniiai? aeaiaioe: iain?eia no?aooaaiiy, no?aooaaiiy o ca’yceo
c oai?iaith, no?aooaaiiy o ca’yceo c o?aaiith ia ?iaio?, no?aooaaiiy o
ca’yceo c i?ioan?eieie caoai?thaaiiyie, no?aooaaiiy o ca’yceo c ao?aoith
aiaeoaaeueieea, no?aooaaiiy aac?ia?ooy, caoeno iaoa?einoaa, aa?aio?y
i?i?iaeueiiai aeioiaeo, nioe?aeueia aeiiiiiaa. Cae/aeii, an? oe?
aeaiaioe ioiieai? nioe?aeueiith iie?oeeith aea?aeaae oa aea?aeaaiei
o?iainoaaiiyi a ??ci?e i???. A ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny aoaeoaaoe
nioe?aeueio iie?oeeo aea?aeaae ia o?ueio ??aiyo c o?aooaaiiyi
aeiiii?/iiai noaio e?a?ie, aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy oa iiaeeeaino?
?aa?ii?a.

Ia?oee ??aaiue (nooi?iue) — nioe?aeueia aeiiiiiaa, — ui aa?aioo?
a?iiaaeyiai i?iaeeoeiaee i?i?ioi oa iiaeeea?noue ineoio?ce/iiai
aeaeeaaiiy. Ae?oaee ??aaiue — nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy, — yeee aa?aioo?
ii?iaeueiee ??aaiue ?nioaaiiy ethaeeie (a?aeoeiaeoaaiiy ao?aoe
?aaoey?iiai i?eaooeo, eiiiainaoe?y aeiaeaoeiaeo aeo?ao a ca’yceo c
?ioeyoe??th, oia?aaeaeaiiy i?e/ei, ui i?ecaiaeyoue aei ao?aoe
?aaoey?iiai i?eaooeo, oiui). O?ao?e ??aaiue — nioe?aeuei? iineoae, — ui
caaacia/o? o?oaeiao aeoeai?noue, o/aoue o a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo?
(i?ia?aie i?ioan?eii? ia?aeaae?o?eaoe??, noai?aiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo ?iai/eo
i?noeue, oiui).

Oaeee i?aeo?ae, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ia?aaeaa/a? ci?io nioe?aeueieo
ooieoe?e aea?aeaae. C iaeiiai aieo, aiia iiaeiia noai?thaaoe oiiae aeey
oiai, uia ianaeaiiy aoei ni?iiiaeia aeanieie neeaie ae??ooaaoe
a?eueo?noue nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, c ae?oaiai — iaaeaaaoe iaaio aeiiiiiao
a?iiaaeyiai oa ?o ?iaeeiai, yeui aiie ia iiaeooue aeanieie neeaie c
??cieo i?e/ei i?aeo?eioaaoe iaiao?aeiee i?i?iaeueiee aeeoo?aee ??aaiue.

Oea aeiaaa? iiaeo i?aeoiae?a aei nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy ?
aeeeeea? iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy oai?aoe/ieo iniia aeiiii?ee
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy. Ne?ae iaoe ia oaac?, ui aeiiii?ea
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ua iaaeinoaoiuei aoaeoeaia iaa?oue o
aeniei?icaeiooeo e?a?iao. Ui noino?oueny Oe?a?ie, oi a i?e aeiiii?ea
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy ciaoiaeeoueny ia ii/aoeia?e noaae??
?icaeoeo. Oi/a ca?ac aeiiii?/iith iaoeith aeineoue aeeaiei ?ic?iaeai?
noi?aei? c nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy oai??? (oai??y ?ioeyoe??,
oai??y iie?oe/iiai ?eieo), aeiiii?ea nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy
iio?aao? anaa?/iiai aea/aiiy oa aiae?co. Aeey oeueiai, ia aeoieo aaoi?a,
iiaeeeai canoinoaaoe iaoiaeieia?th oa ?ino?oiaioa??e cacia/aieo oai??e.
I?e oeueiio ia ne?ae caaoaaoe, ui ia iie? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aeoaea
aaeeeo ?ieue a?ae?a?a? ?aeaieia?y ? iniaeno?noue. E??i oiai, nioe?aeuei?
i?iaeoeoe aeiaaathoue iaaii? naiaiaee ae??. Oe? iniaeeaino? a?aoiaai?
aaoi?ii i?e aea/aii? oa ocaaaeueiaii? i?iaeai ?icaeoeo iiey
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo c iiceoe?e ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee.

A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? noo? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy oa eiai i?noey a aeiiii?/i?e no?oeoo?? noni?euenoaa aaoi?
i?eeoia aei aeniiae?a, ui ia ?eieo nioe?aeueieo i?iaeoeo?a anoaiiaeaiiy
??aiiaaae aeinyaa?oueny aeaiia oeyoaie: a) ca ?aooiie anoaiiaeaiiy
o?eniaaieo oe?i c aieo aea?aeaae; a) ca ?aooiie ??ciiai ?iaeo noaaaioe?e
(aeioaoe?e) ye c aieo aea?aeaae, oae ? c ?ioeo aeaea?ae. A ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? i?ia?aie nioe?aeueii? i?aeo?eiee iiaeii? aooe iaiaaeaieie,
aae?anieie oa aoaeoeaieie ? aeeiioaaoe ooieoe?? iaeiie/aiiy,
ia?a?iciiae?eo oa no?aooaaiiy.

Aeey aaeineiiaeaiiy (iiaoaeiae) nenoaie oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii
ianaeaiiy ne?ae cai?iaaaeeoe iii?oi?eia nioe?aeueieo ?iaeeeaoi??a, ye?
aieeaathoue ia noai caaacia/aiiy aeiiii?/ii? aaciaee. Oea aea?
iiaeeea?noue aaeaeaaoii ?aaaoaaoe ia iaaacia/i? nioe?aeuei? yaeua.

Aoaeoeaia oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ia?aaeaa/a? aecia/aiiy
e?eoa??th iaeicaaacia/aiino?, iaoiaeieia?y aecia/aiiy yeiai aaco?oueny
ia aeae?eueeio ii?iaao iaeicaaacia/aiino? ? /?oeiio aecia/aii?
athaeaeaoo n?i’?. E??i oiai, ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe /eiieee, ye? aieeaathoue
ia ??aaiue a?aeiino? ianaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Ioe?iea nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy”
aiae?co?oueny ?aaeueiee noai nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?
oa Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano?. I?e oeueiio canoiniao?oueny nenoaia e?eoa???a
(aaniethoieo, a?aeiinieo, noa’?eoeaieo, no?oeoo?ieo oa ?ano?nieo) ?
iieaciee?a a?aeiino? (??aaiue a?aeiino?, iieaciee aeeaeie a?aeiino?,
iieaciee a?aeiino? ii iieooaaiith), ui aea? iiaeeea?noue
iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaii ioe?ieoe noai a?aeiino? a Oe?a?i? oa a ?aa?ii?
Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?.

Aeoiaey/e c oiai, ui nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aeeiio? aea? iniiai?
ooieoe??: 1) ciaioaiiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a a?aeiino? oeyoii iaaeaiiy
ei?ioeioa?i?iiai? aae?anii? aeiiiiiae a?aeiei aa?noaai ianaeaiiy;

2) caiia?aaiiy a?aeiino? oeyoii noai?aiiy oiia aeey o/ano? a?iiaaeyi a
nioe?aeueiiio no?aooaaii? a i?aoeacaeaoiee ia??iae, a aeena?oaoe?eiiio
aeine?aeaeaii? c?iaeaii aeniiaie i?i oa, ui aiie ciaoiaeyoueny o iaaiiio
i?ioe??//?, a a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? aiii i?iyaey?oueny aeineoue
a?ae/ooii. Nenoaiia e?eca a Oe?a?i? ? ia?ao?aei?e noai aeiiii?ee
coiiaeee oo ianoaaeio, ui nioe?aeueiee caoeno ianaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?
?aae?co? a iniiaiiio ia?oo ooieoe?th, a aeey ?aae?caoe?? ae?oai? oiia ua
iaaeinoaoiuei.

No/anio nenoaio nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? neeaaeathoue
ne?aeoth/? aeaiaioe: iain?eia caaacia/aiiy, aeiiiiiaa n?i’yi c ae?oueie,
aeeoeia? noaneae??, aeiiiiiaa ii aac?ia?ooth oa ?i. A nenoaio iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy aeeth/athoueny iain?? ca a?eii oa ii ?iaae?aeiino?. Ca
inoaii? 25 ?ie?a a Oe?a?i? ca?eueoeeanue e?euee?noue iain?iia??a c 8,9
iei. /ie. aei 14,5 iei. /ie., oiaoi ia 62,9%. A oie aea /an
/enaeuei?noue caeiyoiai ianaeaiiy a ?aaeueiiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee, oiaoi
ieaoiee?a no?aoiaeo aiane?a, ca oeae ia??iae nei?ioeeany iaeaea ia 1
iei. /ie. A ?acoeueoao? iieaciee aeaiia?ao?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy iaeaea
iiaeai?any — c 0,40 a 1970 ?. aei 0,78 ia e?iaoeue 1998?. No?oeoo?a
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy Oe?a?ie ia? ne?aeoth/ee aeae: ia ii/aoeo 1998?.
iain?? ca a?eii iaea?aeoaaee 74,12% iain?iia??a, iain?th ii
?iaae?aeiino? — 11,34%, 6,12% — a ?ac? ao?aoe aiaeoaaeueieea, 0,7% —
iain?th ca aeneoao ?ie?a oa 3% — nioe?aeueio iain?th.

C?inoaiiy /enaeueiino? iain?iia??a a Oe?a?i? ca inoaii? 5 ?ie?a aoei
aeeeeeaii i?eeiyooyi caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a, ui anoaiiaeee i?eueaiaee a?e
aaoiaeo ia iain?th. I?ney i?eeiyooy iiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa a 1991?.
ciaioaii a?eiaee oeaic aeey aeoiaeo ia iain?th ca a?eii ia i?eueaiaeo
oiiaao iaeaea aeey 20 eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a (a aeayeeo aaeocyo iia?
iieiaeaiiy iioe?ai? iaeaea ia an?o i?aoe?aiee?a). Ca 1970-1998??. /anoea
iain?iia??a, ui iaea?aeothoue iain?th ca a?eii ia i?eueaiaeo oiiaao,
c?inea c 6,9% aei 28,3%.

E??i oiai, ?ici??e iain?e ia??iaee/ii ci?ithaaeenue: a 1994?. aiie
ci?ithaaeenue 3 ?ace, a 1993?.- 4, a 1995?. — 4, a 1996?. — 2, a 1998?.
— 1 ?ac. Iacaaaeath/e ia iino?eia ca?eueoaiiy iii?iaeueieo ?ici???a
iain?e, ?o eoi?aaeueia ni?iiiaei?noue iino?eii iaaea?. C 1990?. ?aaeuei?
iain?? ciaioeeenue a 4 ?ace. A 1998?. na?aaeiy iain?y ia ia?aaeuoaaea
75,87% aa?oino? i?i?iaeueiiai i?iaeoeoiaiai eioeea.

??ci? aeaee aeiiiiia, ia?o ca ana nthaee aoiaeeoue aeiiiiiaa n?i’yi c
ae?oueie, iaea?aeothoue 3,9 iei. /ie., a o./. 3,5 iee. /ie. io?eiothoue
oe?eueiao a?ioiao aeiiiiiao aei 37 a?i., 0,4 iei. /ie. — aea?aeaaio
a?ioiao aeiiiiiao aei 48 a?i.

C aiae?co noaio iiey nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
aeieeaathoue ne?aeoth/? aeniiaee. A oiiaao e?eciaiai noaio aeiiii?ee
iaiao?aeii aeoeaii i?iaiaeeoe iie?oeeo iiia?aaeaeoaaeueieo caoiae?a ii
nioe?aeuei?e i?aeo?eioe? iaea?eueo nioe?aeueia iacaoeuaieo aa?noa
ianaeaiiy, ia?o ca ana iai?aoeacaeaoieo a?iiaaeyi oa ?o n?iae. Aeey
i?aoeacaeaoieo iaiao?aeii noai?eoe oae? oiiae, uia aiie nai?, nai?th
i?aoeath caaacia/eee aeinoaoi?e ??aaiue ? oiiae aeeooy aeey naaa ? nai?e
n?i’? (iia? ?iai/? i?noey, iaaiee ??aaiue iieaoe i?aoe?), ia aeiioneaoe
?icoe?aiiy ianooaa?a iiai? a?aeiino? — a?aeiino? na?aae i?aoeacaeaoieo.

Iaa?aeeeaaeieie i??aie ii ?aoi?ioaaiith nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
yaeythoueny ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a aae?anii? aeiiiiiae iaea?eueo
iacaoeuaiei aa?noaai ianaeaiiy c iaeii/aniith iinooiiaith e?ea?aeaoe??th
i?aeoeee iaaeaiiy ?? /a?ac aeioaoe?? oa i?eueae an?i eaoaai??yi
ianaeaiiy iacaeaaeii a?ae ??aiy ?o aeioiae?a. Iniiaieie oeyoaie
?aae?caoe?? oeeo i??, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ne?ae aaaaeaoe:

1) cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?
i?i?iaeueieo nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e (iain?e, noeiaiae?e, aeiiiiiae
iaeicaaacia/aiei iai?aoeacaeaoiei a?iiaaeyiai, aac?ia?oiei);

2) anoaiiaeaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo i?iii?oe?e i?ae na?aaei?ie oa
i?i?iaeueieie ??aiyie ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ? iain?e, aeiiiiiaith ii
aac?ia?oii oa aeiiiiiaith iaeicaaacia/aiei a?iiaaeyiai iain?eiiai a?eo ?
n?i’yi c ae?oueie, ??cieie ioe?ieaie ??ai?a a?aeiino?;

3) cai?iaaaeaeaiiy, aeoiaey/e c aeeiai?ee niiaeea/eo oe?i,
iiia?aaeaeoaaeueieo caoiae?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, aae?anii?
aeiiiiiae ? noaneae?e;

4) caoeno eoi?aaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino? iaeicaaacia/aieo
iai?aoeacaeaoieo a?iiaaeyi ? n?iae /a?ac ia??iaee/iee ia?aaeyae
na?aaeiueiaeooiaiai noeoiiiai aeioiaeo, yeee aea? i?aai ia aeiiiiiao.

Oe? i?iiiceoe?? yaeythoueny oaeoe/ieie caaaeaiiyie. No?aoaa?/ieie
caaaeaiiyie ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aaoi? aaaaea?
cia/ia c?inoaiiy ?ie? no?aoiaeo i?aeoiae?a a ?? iaoai?ciao oa noai?aiiy
caeiiiaeaa/eo, ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo ? o?iainiaeo iniia aeey iiai? nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, yea ia?aaeaa/a?: iaia’yceiaa no?aooaaiiy,
ca’ycaia c? noaaeai ?iaioe a?iiaaeyieia ? eiai o/anoth a noai?aii?
oiiae?a nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy; aea?aeaaia no?aooaaiiy ie?aieo
eaoaai??e a?iiaaeyi ? a?aeiia?aeia caaacia/aiiy aa?aio?e, ye? aa?a ia
naaa aea?aeaaa (a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoe? oa ?i.); aeia?ia?eueia
no?aooaaiiy. Oaea nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy iiaeiia caaacia/eoe
a?eueo aoaeoeaiee nioe?aeueiee caoeno ianaeaiiy, ia’?eoeaio
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?th iain?e oa ?ioeo nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c aianeii eiaeiiai a?iiaaeyieia, eiai no?aoiaiai noaoono
oa ?i.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii
ianaeaiiy a ?aa?ii?” ?ic?iaeaia ? cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ia ??ai? ?aa?iio. ?? oi?ioaaiiy ?icii/aeiny a
Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano? a 1991 ?ioe? ? i?ieoei o?e aoaie.

Ia ia?oiio aoai? ?aoi?ioaaiiy aoee cae?eniai? caoiaee ii aaeineiiaeaiith
ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo, ia iia’ycaieo i?aai?caoe?eii i?ae niaith onoaiia:
a?aeae?e?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo oa oa?eoi??aeueieo oeaio??a c
a?aeae?eaiiyie nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae. Ia oeueiio aoai? ieoaiiy
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy caeiaei oeaio?aeueia i?noea a aeioe? i?iaeai
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy. sse?nii iiaee ??aaiue ?iaioe aoa
iia’ycaiee c i?iaaaeaiiyi iain?eii? ?aoi?ie (n?/aiue 1992?.) ?
eiii’thoa?ecaoe??th ia?aooaaiiy iain?e.

Iaeii/anii o an?o ?aeiiao noai?thaaeeny oa?eoi??aeuei? oeaio?e, ye?
noaee iniiaiith i?aai?caoe??th, ui eii?aeeio? a i?noao ? ?aeiiao
nioe?aeueio aeiiiiiao ianaeaiith oa iaaea? ?? ethaeyi o ??cieo oi?iao.
I?e oa?eoi??aeueieo oeaio?ao, e??i a?aeae?eaiue nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae
ia aeiio, aoee a?aee?eo? a?aeae?eaiiy oe?eiaeiaiaiai ia?aaoaaiiy,
?aaa?e?oaoe?? oa noaoe?iia?i? a?aeae?eaiiy eiioiaeueii-iiaooiaiai
ianeoaiaoaaiiy, nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe?? ae?oae-?iaae?ae?a a oaeiae
iaaacei “Oo?aioa”, ioieoe oa?/oaaiiy iaeicaaacia/aieo a?iiaaeyi. Aoea
i?iaaaeaia aoanoaoe?y oa?eoi??aeueieo oeaio??a, yea cao?enoaaea, ui
ae?yeuei?noue aeaieo no?oeoo? a iniiaiiio a?aeiia?aea? “Iieiaeaiith i?i
oa?eoi??aeueiee oeaio? nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae”. Ui?ieo i?aai?co?oueny
iiaia ianoaaeaiiy aeeooy iain?iia??a. Ca i?aenoieaie ianoaaeaiue
aecia/athoueny iio?aae iai?aoeacaeaoieo a?iiaaeyi, ia i?aenoaa? /iai
iaaea?oueny aae?ania aeiiiiiaa.

Ia e?iaoeue 1993?. aoei aeciaii, ui noai?aia a iaeano? nenoaia
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo noaea ae/a?ioaaoe aioo??oi? ?aca?ae iiaeaeueoiai
?icaeoeo. Ia?aeaeueia ?nioaaiiy ia ia?eoaoieo ia/aeao aeaio no?oeoo?
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a oiiaao aeiiii?/ii? e?ece ia aeaaaei iiaeeeaino?
ae?yoe ceaaiaeaeaii, eiioeaio?oaaoe coneeey ia iniiaieo iai?yieao.
A?eueoa oiai, iai?eeeaae, eiii’thoa?ecaoe?y iain?eii? ni?aae, noai?aiiy
aace aeaieo aeicaieyee ae??ooaaoe ieoaiiy ii nenoaiaoecaoe?? oa
aeyaeaiith iio?aa, iaaeaiith nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae oa ianeoaiaoaaiiy,
aea aiia ia iaea caieoo c aieo oa?eoi??aeueieo oeaio??a. Iacaai?
i?ae?icae?ee ia iai?ithaaeeny ?ioi?iaoe??th, ia aca?iiae?yee, oi/ eiaeai
nai ii nia? i?aoethaaa aeineoue ?ioaineaii. Aiae?c neooaoe?? na?ae/ea
i?i oa, ui a iei?oi?o oiiaao iioeiaeueia iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy ia ??ai? i?noa oa ?aeii?a iiaeiia
aoaeoaaoeny ia iniia? ia’?aeiaiiy a?aeae?e?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy oa oa?eoi??aeueieo oeaio??a. C aeicaieo I?i?noa?noaa
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano? c
a?oaeiy 1993?. ia aac? 8 ?aeii?a iaeano? i?iaiaeeany aenia?eiaio ii
noai?aiith i?eioeeiiai iiai? oi?aae?inueei? no?oeoo?e — ?aeiiiiai
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, yea ia’?aeiaei ?nioth/?
?ai?oa a?aeae?ee nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo oa oa?eoi??aeueiee oeaio?, ui
noaei ii/aoeii ae?oaiai aoaio ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy a iaeano?. Aeena?oaio aoa iaeiei ?c
aaoi??a noai?aiiy iiai? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy ? i?iaiaeea ?? a aeeooy.

Aei neeaaeo ?aeiiiiai oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy oa?eoee
ne?aeoth/? oi?aae?inuee? no?oeoo?e: a?aeae?e c iain?eieo ieoaiue;
a?aeae?e nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae; ia’?aeiaia aooaaeoa??y; ia’?aeiaia
ainiiaea?nueea a?oia. ?ai?aai?caoe?y i?iaiaeeeany a iaaeao e?i?o?a
a?aie/ii? /enaeueiino? ? oiiaeo iieaoe i?aoe?, anoaiiaeaieo a?aeae?eai ?
oi?aae?iiyi, ?aeiiiei aea?aeaaiei aaei?i?no?aoe?yi oa eioo?a i?noeaaeo
athaeaeao?a ia oo?eiaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo oeaio??a. A iiaeaeueoiio a
neeaae? oi?aae?iue aoee noai?ai? a?aeae?ee noaneae?e oa nioe?aeueieo
aa?aio?e ? eiiiainaoe?e.

?ai?aai?caoe?y nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy
Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano? aeeeeeaea iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy aeanii?
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace. A oe?e iiaeae? aoee ai?iaiaai? aaaeeea?
ii?iaoeai? aeoe, ye? iiaeooue aooe ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aeey noai?aiiy
i?aaiai? aace nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy e?a?ie ? ie?aieo ?aa?ii?a.

A iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy ?aae?ciaai? iaoeia?
i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy ? iaeiia?o? oai?aoe/i? ?ic?iaee a aaeoc?
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo, i?i ye? eoea iiaa ?ai?oa. Aeoiaey/e c aieiaiiai
i?eioeeio nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo — aae?ani?noue, a iaeano? a 1995 ?ioe? a
?aieao iiai? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy ia aac? aeaio n?euenueeeo ?aae aoa
i?iaaaeaiee aenia?eiaio ii noai?aiith n?euenueeeo oeaio??a nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ianaeaiiy, ye? yaeyeenue i?noeaaeie i?aaiaie oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioo aoee iiceoeai?
? a iaeano? aoee noai?ai? oae? oeaio?e ia oa?eoi??yo an?o n?euenueeeo oa
naeeuieo ?aae. Oea aoa o?ao?e aoai noai?aiiy iiai? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy a ?aa?ii?.

Aenooiath/e a ?ie? ieciai? (i?noeaai?) no?oeoo?e oi?aae?iue
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, oeaio?e io?eiaee nai? ooieoe??:
i?aoe?aieee oeaio?o naiino?eii i?ecia/athoue iain??, ia?aoiaothoue
noaneae??, i?ecia/athoue aeiiiiiae n?i’yi c ae?oueie, aaaeooue iino?eia
ianoaaeaiiy a?iiaaeyi iioeeiai a?eo, iaeicaaacia/aieo n?iae. ?acii ?c
aeeiieiiii n?euenueei? ?aaee aecia/athoue in?a, ye? iio?aaothoue
aae?anii? aeiiiiiae oa i?aai?ciaothoue ?? iaaeaiiy.

No?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy a
Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano? i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.1.

?en.1. No?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy a
Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?

Oea aeaei iiaeeea?noue ?aeiiiei oi?aae?iiyi nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy noaoe i?aai?caoe?eiith oa iaoiaee/ii-eiio?iethth/ith
no?oeoo?ith ? ia?aaeaoe cia/io e?euee?noue aeeiiaa/eo iiaiiaaaeaiue oa
oi?aae?inueeeo ooieoe?e ia i?noey.

Oaea iiaeaeue yaey?oueny iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiith aeey ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee ? a?aeiia?aea? aeiiaai caeii?a ?eieo. Ca 1991-1998 ??. a
iaeano? noai?ai? ? i?aoeththoue 17 noaoe?iia?ieo a?aeae?eaiue ia 265
/ie., 13 ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo a?aeae?eaiue ia 210 /ie., a?aee?eo?
i?iaeiaieue/? oiiaee i?e eiaeiiio oi?aae?ii?, 27 ioieo?a cai?o oa
?iciiae?eo ?a/ae, 19 ioieo?a aeaea/? i?iaeoeo?a, 23
ainiiaea?nueei-iiaooiaeo a?oie, 14 a?oi nioe?aeueii? ?aaa?e?oaoe??
ae?oae-?iaae?ae?a.

Oey iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy aea? iiaeeea?noue a?aei?aoeueiaoaaoe iioeiaeuei?
oi?ie ae?yeueiino? (?icaeoie aeueoa?iaoeaiiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy ia
eiieo?ni?e iniia?), nei?ioeoe o?iainia? aeo?aoe ia oi?aae?iiy ca ?aooiie
noai?aiiy ia’?aeiaii? aooaaeoa???, ainiiaea?nueei-ianeoaiaoth/i?
neoaeae, iaeneiaeueii caaaioaaeeoe ? aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?ei?uaiiy oa
iaeaaeiaiiy, iaea?eueo aeioe?eueii ?icnoaaeyoe oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe
eaae?e. Aeoiaey/e c iio?aa iiai? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy a iaeano? ?icii/aoa
i?aeaioiaea nioe?aeueieo i?aoe?aiee?a, ye? aoaeooue o ciic? caaacia/eoe
iaeaaeiee ??aaiue nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy.

Noai?aia iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy caeaoia aei ?icaeoeo oa aaeineiiaeaiiy,
yaey?oueny aio/eith, a?aeiia?aea? ia o?eueee ia iio?aae
nueiaiaei?oiueiai aeiy, aea e ?ic?aoiaaia ia aeeiiaiiy aeiaaino?ieiaeo
ieai?a. I?i oea na?ae/eoue ? ni?a?ia?oieoeoai c cao?aeieie ia?oia?aie c
iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a
Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano? — Aaaionoaii I?aeia?iaeiiai ?icaeoeo NOA (o??iith
IAAeEI) oa Oaaaenueeei aaaionoaii i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?a?ia?oieoeoaa oa
?icaeoeo SIDA.

AENIIAEE

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii
ianaeaiiy ?aa?iio aeaei ciiao c?iaeoe ne?aeoth/? aeniiaee oa
i?iiiceoe??.

1. A oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee ia iie? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ae?thoue
aeiiii?/i? caeiie ?eieo. Ae?y caeii?a iiieoo oa i?iiiceoe?? aea?
iiaeeea?noue iioei?coaaoe iiieo ia i?iaeoeoe (oiaa?e) nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo. Ia iie? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ?oo?eiith neeith aenooia?
i?iiiceoe?y nioe?aeueieo i?iaeoeo?a, a iiieo caeia? i?aeeaaea i?noea.
Oea iia’ycaii c aeoaea neeueiith iiceoe??th aea?aeaae a oe?e noa??. A
oie aea /an i?iiiceoe?y i?iaeoeo?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iaaeoiaeeoue ?
a?ae aeaaee ia a?eueo iecueeeo ??aiyo. E??i oiai, o?iainoaaiiy
nioe?aeueieo caoiae?a a oiiaao nenoaiii? e?ece, ui oa?aeoa?ii aeey
aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, cae?enith?oueny a iaeiaeia?e i?iii?oe??
oeaio?aeueiith oa i?noeaaith aeaaeith. Oea aeeeeea?
iaiao?aei?noue aeaoeaio?ae?coaaoe aeaaeo ia iie? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ye ii aa?oeeae?, oae ? ii ai?eciioae? ? iaaeaoe ?aa?iiai iaaio
aaoiiii?th o ae??oaii? nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai.

2. Neeaaei?noue oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii iia’ycaia ia?o ca ana c
iayai?noth ia iie? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo neeueieo i?ioe??/. I?ioe??//y
neeaaeathoueny ia o?eueee i?ae i?aai?caoe?eieie no?oeoo?aie, ui ae?thoue
ia oeueiio iie?, a ia?o ca ana a nai?e nooiino? oeueiai yaeua. Ni?aaa a
oiio, ui i?iaeoeoe nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ii nai?e i?e?iae? iio?aaothoue
iaaii? naiaiaee ae?e ? iaa?oue oaioac??, a iaaeathoueny aiie c aieo
oeaio?ae?ciaaii? aeaaee, ui ia caaaeaee ni?ey? iiaiiio aeyaeaiith noo?
oeeo i?iaeoeo?a.

3. ?eiie nioe?aeueieo i?iaeoeo?a aeinyaa? ??aiiaaae ca aeaio oiia: a) ca
?aooiie anoaiiaeaiiy o?eniaaieo oe?i c aieo aea?aeaae oa a) ca ?aooiie
??ciiai ?iaeo aeioaoe?e (noaaaioe?e) c ??cieo aeaea?ae. Aiie aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue ia o?eueee ?aoe?iioaaoe iiieo ia i?iaeoeoe nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo, a e i?aei?iathoue oi/eo ??aiiaaae ia a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue.

4. Oi?aae?iiy ia iie? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ne?ae aoaeoaaoe, aeoiaey/e c
iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaii? eiai no?oeoo?e, yea aeeth/a? ne?aeoth/? ??ai?:

nioe?aeueia aeiiiiiaa, yea aa?aioo? iiaeeea?noue aeaeeaaiiy a oiiaao
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ii? e?ece; nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy, ui aa?aioo?
iaaiee ??aaiue caaeiaieaiiy iniiaieo iio?aa ethaeeie; nioe?aeuei?
iineoae, ye? caaacia/othoue a?aeiia?aeiee ??aaiue o?oaeiai? aeoeaiino?
oa o/ano? a a?iiaaenueeiio aeeoo? ianaeaiiy e?a?ie.

Ca aeiiiiiaith oe??? aio/ei? no?oeoo?e iiaeia aoaeoeaii ea?oaaoe
nioe?aeueiei ?icaeoeii, ia?o ca ana ?aaoethth/e aeo?aoe ia nioe?aeueiee
caoeno: a ia??iae e?ece aea?aeaai? aeo?aoe iiaeooue nei?ioeoeny aei
i?i?ioio, yeee aei??aith? nioe?aeuei?e aeiiiiic?, a a ia??iae i?aeeiio
iiaeia ca?eueoeoe aeo?aoe aeey o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy,
a oaeiae nioe?aeueieo iineoa.

A oiiaao aeao?oeeoo o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a i?ia?aie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
iiaeii? aooe iaiaaeaieie, aae?anieie oa aoaeoeaieie. ?o ooieoe??
caiaeyoueny aei iaeiie/aiiy, ia?a?iciiae?eo oa no?aooaaiiy.

5. Nenoaia oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie iiaeiia
?aoi?ioaaoeny a aeaio iai?yieao: a) oeyoii ni?iuaiiy i?ioeaaeo?e aeieao
ianaeaiith; a) oeyoii iineeaiiy ?o aae?aniino?.

A oiiaao e?eciaiai noaio aeiiii?ee iaiao?aeii aeoeaii i?iaiaeeoe
iie?oeeo iiia?aaeaeoaaeueieo caoiae?a ii nioe?aeuei?e i?aeo?eioe?
iaea?eueo nioe?aeueia iacaoeuaieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy, a ia?oo /a?ao
iaeicaaacia/aieo iai?aoeacaeaoieo a?iiaaeyi oa ?o n?iae. A oie aea /an
aeey i?aoeacaeaoieo a?iiaaeyi iaiao?aeii noai?eoe oae? oiiae iieaoe
i?aoe?, uia aiie nai? nai?th i?aoeath caaacia/eee aeinoaoi?e ??aaiue
aeeooy aeey naaa ? nai?e n?i’?, ia aeiioneath/e oei naiei ?icoe?aiiy
ianooaa?a a?aeiino? ? iiyae iiai? a?aeiino? — a?aeiino? na?aae
i?aoeacaeaoieo.

Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?iaaaeaiiai a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio?, aaoi?
i?eeoia aei ne?aeoth/eo i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, ye? aeaaeooue ciiao
ea?aeeiaeueii ci?ieoe iiea nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, i?enoinoaaoe eiai aei
oiia ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, c?iaeoe eiai caeaoiei aei aaeaioaoe?? o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c? ci?iaie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a aeiiii?/i?e nenoai?:

— ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a aae?anii? aeiiiiiae iaea?eueo iacaoeuaiei
aa?noaai ianaeaiiy c iaeii/aniith iinooiiaith e?ea?aeaoe??th i?aeoeee
iaaeaiiy ?? /a?ac aeioaoe?? oa i?eueae an?i eaoaai??yi ianaeaiiy
iacaeaaeii a?ae ??aiy ?o aeioiae?a;

— cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ? o?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?
i?i?iaeueieo nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e (iain?e, noeiaiae?e,
aeiiiiiae iaeicaaacia/aiei iai?aoeacaeaoiei a?iiaaeyiai, aac?ia?oiei);

— anoaiiaeaiiy iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo i?iii?oe?e i?ae na?aaei?ie oa
i?i?iaeueieie ??aiyie ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ? iain??, aeiiiiiaith ii
aac?ia?ooth oa aeiiiiiaith iaeicaaacia/aiei a?iiaaeyiai iain?eiiai a?eo
? n?i’yi c ae?oueie, ??cieie ioe?ieaie ??ai?a a?aeiino?;

cai?iaaaeaeaiiy, aeoiaey/e c aeeiai?ee niiaeea/eo oe?i,
iiia?aaeaeoaaeueieo caoiae?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy ?
aae?anii? aeiiiiiae oa noaneae?e;

— caoeno eoi?aaeueii? ni?iiiaeiino? iaeicaaacia/aieo iai?aoeacaeaoieo
a?iiaaeyi ? n?iae /a?ac ia??iaee/iee ia?aaeyae na?aaeiueiaeooiaiai
noeoiiiai aeioiaeo, yeee aea? i?aai ia aeiiiiiao;

— no?aoaa?/iei iai?yieii ?aoi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo iiaeiai aooe
cia/iee ??no ?ie? no?aoiaeo i?aeoiae?a a eiai iaoai?ciao, noai?aiiy
caeiiiaeaa/eo ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo ? o?iainiaeo iniia aeey iiai? nenoaie
nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy.

Nenoaia nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy iiaeiia aeeth/aoe: iaia’yceiaa
no?aooaaiiy, ca’ycaia c? noaaeai ?iaioe a?iiaaeyieia ? eiai o/anoth a
noai?aii? oiiae?a nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy; aea?aeaaia no?aooaaiiy
ie?aieo eaoaai??e a?iiaaeyi ? a?aeiia?aeia caaacia/aiiy aa?aio?e, yea
aa?a ia naaa aea?aeaaa; aeia?ia?eueia no?aooaaiiy. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?aoi?ie nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy ia?aaeaa/a? : i?aeaioiaeo oa i?eeiyooy
eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie; ?ic?iaeo iniia
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie i?i nioe?aeueia no?aooaaiiy; ?ic?iaeo oa
aaaaeaiiy a ae?th eiie?aoieo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a c iniiaieo aeae?a
iaia’yceiaiai no?aooaaiiy.

I?e iaaeaii? nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae ia ?aa?iiaeueiiio ??ai?, ye
na?ae/eoue aiae?c noaio nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?;
ne?ae a?aoiaoaaoe niaoeeo?eo n?euenueeiai oa i?nueeiai ianaeaiiy,
??cieoeth a ?o aeioiaeao, a oaeiae aa??thaaoe ??cieie oi?iaie aeiiiiiae
(iaoo?aeueia oa a?ioiaa).

Aoaeoeaia oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii iaiiaeeeaa aac aecia/aiiy
e?eoa??th iaeicaaacia/aiino?, yeee iiaeiai ia?aaeaa/aoe aeae?eueea
ii?ia?a iaeicaaacia/aiino? ? /?oea aecia/aiiy athaeaeaoo n?i’?. E?eoa??e
iaeicaaacia/aiino? yaey?oueny ia iiooeiaei iieacieeii, yeee aecia/a?
/enaeuei?noue a?aeieo a?iiaaeyi, a iaaiei nioe?aeueiei ii?iaoeaii,
aeciaiei aea?aeaaith.

6. Iniiaieie i?eioeeiaie iiaoaeiae ?aa?iiaeueii? iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy, yea ai?iaaaeaeaia a Ieeiea?anuee?e
iaeano? iaeiei ?c aaoi??a yei? yaey?oueny aeena?oaio, aenooiathoue:
aae?ani?noue an?o aeae?a nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae; ?iciaaeoaaiiy
eiiiaoaioe?e aea?aeaae, ?aa?ii?a oa i?noeaai? aeaaee a ieoaiiyo
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy; aoaeoeaia ioe?iea nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy ia iniia? aaaaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai iii?oi?eiao oa aeyaeaiiy
iiaeo nioe?aeueia neaaeeo a?oi ianaeaiiy; ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai in?a
iioeeiai a?eo.

7. Noaiiaeaiiy iiaeae? oi?aae?iiyi nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy a
?aa?ii? iiaeiii a?aeaoaaoeny iiaoaiii ? aeeth/aoe: a) oaeineiiaeaiiy
ae?yeueiino? ie?aieo i?aai?caoe?eii ia iia’ycaieo i?ae niaith onoaiia:
a?aeae?e?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy oa oa?eoi??aeueieo oeaio??a;
noai?aiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo oeaio??a nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae o an?o ?aeiiao
iaeano?. Ia oeueiio aoai? oa?eoi??aeueiei oeaio?ai ne?ae iaaeaoe noaoon
a?aeae?e?a ?aeiiieo aea?aeaaieo aaei?i?no?aoe?e (i?nuee?aeaeeiieii?a), a
aee?aeoi?ai oeaio??a -noaoon caa?aeoth/eo a?aeae?eaie. I?e oeueiio
oa?eoi??aeuei? oeaio?e noathoue iniiaiith i?aai?caoe??th, ui eii?aeeio?
a i?no? oa ?aeiiao nioe?aeueio aeiiiiiao, yea iaaea?oueny eiiieaenii; a)
ia?ao?ae aei oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii /a?ac ?aeiii? oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy, ye? ia’?aeiaee a?aeae?e nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ianaeaiiy oa oa?eoi??aeueiee oeaio?. A eiai neeaae? ne?ae
noai?eoe i?ae?icae?ee: iain?eiee a?aeae?e, a?aeae?e nioe?aeueii?
aeiiiiiae, ia’?aeiaia aooaaeoa??y, ia’?aeiaia ainiiaea?nueea a?oia; a)
a iiaeaeueoiio ia?aaea/a oi?aae?iiyi nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy
ooieoe?e i?ecia/aiiy noaneae?e oa aeiiiiia n?i’yi c ae?oueie (ye
i?aoethth/ei oae ? iai?aoethth/ei) c iaeii/aniei noai?aiiyi n?euenueeeo
oeaio??a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy ia oa?eoi??? n?euenueeeo oa
naeeuieo ?aae, a oaeiae o a?aeaeaeaieo i?e?i?aeiiao i?no.

?ai?aai?caoe?y iiaeiia i?iaiaeeoeny a iaaeao e?i?o?a /enaeueiino? oa
oiiaeo iieaoe i?aoe?, anoaiiaeaieo a?aeae?eai ? oi?aae?iiyi, ?aeiiiei
aea?aeaaiei aaei?i?no?aoe?yi oa a iaaeao eioo?a i?noeaaeo athaeaeao?a ia
oo?eiaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo oeaio??a.

8. ?ai?aai?caoe?y nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy aeeeeea?
iaiao?aei?noue noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeii? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace. A
Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano? aiia noai?aia, ?? iiaeia iieeanoe a iniiao
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy ?aa?ii?a
Oe?a?ie.

Ia ?? iniia? noai?th?oueny aio/ea no?oeoo?a oi?aae?iiy, ui caeaoia
aaeineiiaethaaoeny oa ?icaeaaoeny.

A iia?e iiaeae? oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy:

— ci?ith?oueny oa?aeoa? ?iaioe oi?aae?inueeeo no?oeoo? oa nioe?aeueieo
i?aoe?aiee?a. Inoaii? ca ?acoeueoaoaie ianoaaeaiue (aeea. a Aeiaeaoeo
aieaoo ii nioe?aeueiiio caoenoo) naiino?eii aac caa?iaiiy a?iiaaeyi
aaaeooue ?iaioo ii ioi?ieaiith iain?eieo ni?aa, ia?aooaaiith noaneae?e,
iaaeaiith iaiao?aeii? aeiiiiiae, ?aae?coth/e oei naiei ae?th caeiio
i?iiiceoe?e ia iie? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy. Aaaeaiiy oaei?
?iaioe ia?aaeaa/a? eiii’thoa?ecaoe?th ni?aae nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy;

— a?aeaoaa?oueny ia?a?iciiae?e ooieoe?e ii oi?aae?iith nioe?aeueiei
caoenoii ianaeaiiy. Iain?eiee a?aeae?e, a?aeae?e eiiiainaoe?eieo aeieao
n?i’yi c ae?oueie, a?aeae?e noaneae?e oa a?aeae?e nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae
ia?aaeathoue nai? ooieoe?? ia?aooaaiiy oa ia?a?aooaaiiy iain?e,
aeiiiiia, noaneae?e n?euenueeei oeaio?ai. O a?aeae?eao caeeoathoueny
niaoe?ae?noe, ye? cae?eniththoue eiio?ieue ca ia?aooaaiiyi iain?e,
aeiiiiia, noaneae?e ? iaaeathoue iaoiaee/io aeiiiiiao i?aoe?aieeai
oeaio??a. Oaeei /eiii ?aae?co?oueny i?eioeei aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?? aeaaee
ia iie? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy;

— n?euenuee? oeaio?e nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy aenooiathoue a ?ie?
i?noeaaeo i?aai?a oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy ? ae?thoue
a ni?ai?aoe? c a?aeiia?aeiei n?euenueeei aeeiieiiii.

9. Ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy a ?aa?ii?
(Ieeiea?anuee?e iaeano?) aeeth/athoue ianooii? iai?yie: oaoi?/ia
ia?aica?i?iiy noa?e nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo; i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a ia
iie? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo; ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ei?ioeino?ieiaeo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo i?iaeo?a; ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeiaaino?ieiaeo
aenia?eiaioaeueieo i?iaeo?a;

i?aeaioiaea oa ia?ai?aeaioiaea eaae??a, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iniiaii? oaoiai?
niaoe?aeueiino? “Nioe?aeueiee i?aoe?aiee”; aea/aiiy oa oe?iea
aeei?enoaiiy na?oiaiai aeina?aeo i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO IAOEIAEO I?AOeUe:

1. Oeey?nueeee TH.0. C?iaeoe aeey aaoa?ai?a ana iiaeeeaa //
Nioe?aeueiee caoeno. — 1993. — ?3. — N.78-82.

2. Oeey?nueeee TH.0. I?iaeaie ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?aa?iiaeueii? nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee caoenoo ianaeaiiy // Nioe?aeueiee caoeno. — 1997. -?1.-N.49-56.

3. Oeey?nueeee TH.0. ?aa?iiaeueiee aeina?ae ?aoi?ioaaiiy
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy // ?aa?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea.
-1997. -?3.-N.180-188.

4. Oeey?nueeee TH.0. Nioe?aeueiee caoeno: ?icaeoie ? ia?niaeoeae //
Nioe?aeueia iie?oeea ? nioe?aeueia ?iaioa. — 1998. — ?1-2. — N..23-30.

5. Oeey?nueeee TH.0. Nioe?aeueiee caoeno a aeiiii?/i?e no?oeoo??
noni?euenoaa // Nioe?aeueiee caoeno. — 1998. — ? 8. — N.33-40.

Aiioaoe?y. Oeey?nueeee TH.0. Oaeineiiaeaiiy oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei
caoenoii ianaeaiiy a ?aa?ii? (ia iaoa??aeao Ieeiea?anueei? iaeano?).
-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.09.01 — aeaiia?ao?y, aeiiii?ea i?aoe?,
nioe?aeueia aeiiii?ea ? iie?oeea. — ?aaea ii aea/aiith i?iaeoeoeaieo nee
Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? aecia/ai? nooi?noue, i?noea oa ?ieue nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo ianaeaiiy a aeiiii?/i?e no?oeoo?? ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa,
aeine?aeaeaii ae?th aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a ?eieo ia iie? nioe?aeueiiai
caoenoo. A ?iaio? aeaia ioe?iea ?aaeueiiai noaio nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy a e?a?i? oa a ?aa?ii?. Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue ?aa?iiaeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy, a ye?e ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy iia? i?aeoiaee aei oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii
ianaeaiiy, iaoeia? i?eioeeie oi?aae?iiy, ?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii iaoiaeeee
uiaei ioe?iee ??aiy nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy oa i?aai?caoe??
?iaioe i?aai?a nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo ianaeaiiy ?aa?iio.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiea nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo, nioe?aeuei? i?iaeoeoe,
aae?ani?noue nioe?aeueieo iineoa, ?aa?iiaeueia iiaeaeue oi?aae?iiy
nioe?aeueiei caoenoii ianaeaiiy, oeaio?ae?caoe?y oa aeaoeaio?ae?caoe?y
aeaaee ia iie? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

Aiiioaoeey. Oeey?neee TH.A. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?aaeaiiy nioeeaeueiie
caueoie ianaeaiiy a ?aaeiia (ia iaoa?eaeao Ieeieaaaneie iaeanoe). —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa ceiiiie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.09.01 — aeaiia?aoey, ceiiiieea o?oaea,
nioeeaeueiay ceiiiieea e iieeoeea. — Niaao ii eco/aieth i?iaeoeoeaieo
nee Oe?aeii IAI Oe?aeie, Eeaa, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee ii?aaeaeaii nouiinoue, ianoi e ?ieue nioeeaeueiie caoeoa
ianaeaiiy a ceiiiie/aneie no?oeoo?i ia?aoiaeiiai iauanoaa, enneaaeiaaii
aeaenoaea ceiiiie/aneeo caeiiia ?iiea ia iiea nioeeaeueiie caoeoa.
Nioeeaeueiay caoeoa ?anniao?eaaaony eae ceaiaio ?iii/iie ceiiiieee. Ia
iiea nioeeaeueiie caueoue? aeaenoaotho caeiie ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, a
oaeaea ae?oaea caeiie ?ueoi/iie nenoaie, a niieaeueiea i?iaeoeoe
iiaeeaaeao aeaenoaeth coeo caeiiia. Eniieuecoy iaoiaeieiaeth eco/aiey
iieeoe/aneiai ?eiea e ?ue?ieo nioeeaeueiue?o i?iaeoeoia, a ?aaioa
aeaeaaony aiaiae, /oi ia iiea nioeeaeueiie caoeoa aeaeaeouoth ?ieue
ea?aao i?aaeeiaeaiea, a ia ni?in, eae ia ?iiea iaueiniiaaiiio
i?iaeoeoia. A ?aaioa i?aaeeaaaaony: no?iyoue nioeeaeueioth iieeoeeo
ainoaea?noaa ia o?ao o?iaiyo n o/aoii aa ceiiiie/aneiai ninoiyiey,
enoi/ieeia oeiaine?iaaiey e aiciiaeiinoae ?aaeiiia; aiaae?aiea
iiieoi?eiaa nioeeaeueiue?o eiaeeeaoi?ia, eioi?ue?a aeeytho ia ninoiyiea
iaania/aiey ceiiiie/aneie aaciianiinoe, /oi aeano aiciiaeiinoue
aaeaeaaoii ?aaae?iaaoue ia iianiua nioeeaeueiua yaeaiey;
i?aaeoniao?eaaoue ii?aaeaeaiea e?eoa?ey iaeiiaania/aiiinoe, iaoiaeieiaey
ii?aaeaeaiey eioi?iai aace?oaony ia ianeieueeeo ii?iaao
iaeiiaania/aiiinoe e /aoeii ii?aaeaeaiee athaeaeaoa naiuee.

A ?aaioa aeaia ioeaiea ?aaeueiiai ninoiyiey nioeeaeueiie caueou
ianaeaiey a no?aia e a ?aaeiia. I?e yoii i?eiaiyaony nenoaia e?eoa?eaa
(aaniethoiuo, ioiineoaeueiuo, noauaeoeaiuo, no?oeoo?iuo, ?ano?niuo) e
iieacaoaeae aaaeiinoe (o?iaaiue aaaeiinoe, iieacaoaeae aeoaeiu
aaaeiinoe), /oi aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iao/ii iainiiaaiii ioeaieoue
ninoiyiea aaaeiinoe a Oe?aeia e a ?aaeiia Ieeieaaaneie iaeanoe.

A ?aaioa aeoeaioe?oaony aieiaiea ia oii, /oi iaioeiaeiuie ia?aie ii
?aoi?ie?iaaieth nenoaiu nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey yaeyaony
aiaae?aiea iaoaieciia aae?aniie iiiiue iaeaieaa iacaueuaiiui neiyi
ianaeaiey n iaeiia?aiaiiie eeeaeaeaoeeae i?aeoeee i?aaeinoaaeaiey aa
/a?ac aeioaoeee e eueaiou anai eaoaai?eyi ianaeaiey iacaaeneii io o?iaiy
eo aeioiaeia, a no?aoaae/aneei caaeaieai a aa ?aoi?ie?iaaiee
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony cia/eoaeueiia aic?anoaiea ?iee no?aoiauo iiaeoiaeia a
aa iaoaieciao e nicaeaiea caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo, einoeoooeeiiiuo e
oeiainiauo iniia aeey iiaie nenoaiu nioeeaeueiiai no?aoiaaiey.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaeeiaeaia iiaeaeue ?aaeiiaeueiiai oi?aaeaiey
nioeeaeueiie caueoie ianaeaiey, a eioi?ie iaoee io?aaeaiea iiaua
iiaeoiaeu e oi?aaeaieth iae, iiaua i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey. Aa oi?ie?iaaiea
i?ioei ianeieueei yoaiia.

Aia/aea auee inouanoaeaiu ia?ii?eyoey ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth
nouanoaothueo i?aaiecaoeee: ioaeaeia nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey e
oa??eoi?eaeueiuo oeaio?ia ii nioeeaeueiie iiiiue eiaaeeaeai e
iaineiia?ai, iaaeiiiiio ianeoaeeaaieth iaeeiieeo i?anoa?aeuo a?aaeaeai.
Oa??eoi?eaeueiua oeaio?u auee nicaeaiu a eaaeaeii ?aeiia iaeanoe, ei aue
i?aaeinoaaeai noaoon naiinoiyoaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee ia o?iaia ioaeaeia
nioeeaeueiie caueou, cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?ai e?oa eo iaycaiiinoae.

Ia neaaeothuai yoaia, n oeaeueth eiioeaio?aoeee oneeee ia iniiaiuo
iai?aaeaieyo, oeo/oaaony acaeiiaeaenoaea ii nioeeaeueiie caueoa
ianaeaiey, auea nicaeaia i?eioeeieaeueii iiaay oi?aaeai/aneay no?oeoo?a
-?aeiiiia oi?aaeaiea nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey. A aai ninoaa aioee:
ioaeae ii iaineiiiui aii?inai; ioaeae nioeeaeueiie iiiiue (oa?oeaio?);
iauaaeeiaiiay aooaaeoa?ey; iauaaeeiaiiay oicyenoaaiiay a?oiia. A
aeaeueiaeoai a ninoaaa oi?aaeaiey auee nicaeaiu ioaeaeu noaneaeee e
nioeeaeueiuo aa?aioee e eiiiainaoeee.

Enoiaey ec aeaaiiai i?eioeeia nioeeaeueiie caueou — aae?aniinoe a oaeaea
n oeaeueth aeaoeaio?aeecaoeee eniieieoaeueiie aeanoe ia iiea
nioeeaeueiie caueou a iaeanoe, ia oa??eoi?ee eaaeaeiai naeueneiai e
iinaeeiaiai niaaoa, a ?aieao iiaie iiaeaee oi?aaeaiey auee nicaeaiu
naeueneea oeaio?u nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey. Yoi iicaieeei
i?eaeeceoue i?aaiu nioeeaeueiie caueou e ianaeaieth, a ?aeiiiui
oi?aaeaieyi nioeeaeueiie caueou ianaeaiey noaoue
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-iaoiaee/aneie e eiio?iee?othuae no?oeoo?ie oi?aaeaiey e
ia?aaeaoue cia/eoaeueioth /anoue eniieieoaeueiuo iieiiii/ee e
oi?aaeai/aneeo ooieoeee ia ianoa. I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi nicaeaiiay
iiaeaeue yaeyaony iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiie aeey ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee e
ioaa/aao o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea. Nicaeaiiay iiaeaeue oi?aaeaiey niiniaia e
?acaeoeth e niaa?oainoaiaaieth, yaeyaony aeaeie, ?ann/eoaia e ia
auiieiaiea aeieain?i/iuo ieaiia.

A yoie iiaeaee auee ?aaeeciaaiu aaaeiua ii?iaoeaiua aeou, eioi?ua iiaoo
auoue ?aeiiaiaeiaaiu aeey nicaeaiey i?aaiaie aacu nioeeaeueiie caueou
ianaeaiey ainoaea?noaa e ioaeaeueiuo ?aaeiiia. A iae ?aaeeciaaiu iao/iua
i?eioeeiu oi?aaeaiey e iiaua oai?aoe/aneea ?ac?aaioee a nenoaia
nioeeaeueiiai ?acaeoey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiea nioeeaeueiie caueou, nioeeaeueiua i?iaeoeou,
aae?aniinoue aioeeaeueiuo oneoa, ?aaeiiaeueiay iiaeaeue oi?aaeaiey
nioeeaeueiie caueoie ianaeaiey, oeaio?aeecaoeey e aeaoeaio?aeecaoeey
aeanoe ia iiea nioeeaeueiie caueou.

Annotation. Shklyarski Y.0. Improvement of social protection of
population management at the regional level (on the data obtained in
Mykolayiv oblast). -Manuscript.

The dissertation for the acquisition of the candidate of economic
sciences degree ty speciality 08.09.01- demography, labour economics,
social economics and politics. — Council of Productive Forces Study of
the National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kyiv, 1999.

The subject of the dissertation is to define the part of social
protection of population management within the economic structure of
transition type society. The dissertation studies the economic market
laws within the field of social protection of population. The
dissertation gives a real picture of social protection of population
management both in the country and in the region. It contains an
original model of social protection of population management at the
regional level. The author describes the newest methods of managing the
social protection of population, including recommendations of
qualitative evaluation of efficiency of social protection of population
management and labour organisation management in the region.

Key-words: field of social protection, social products, preferences in
distributing social services, regional model of social protection of
population management, centralisation and decentralisation of power
within the field of social protection.

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