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Удосконалення управління оборотними коштами на підприємствах автомобільного транспорту: Автореф. дис… канд. екон. наук / В.В. Бойко, Київ. міжнар. у

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Ee?anueeee i?aeia?iaeiee oi?aa?neoao oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??

AIEEI A?EOI??ss AAEA???AIA

OAeE 658.152/.153

OAeINEIIAEAIIss OI?AAE?IIss IAI?IOIEIE EIOOAIE IA I?AeI?E?INOAAO
AAOIIIA?EUeIIAI O?AINII?OO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.02 – i?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

EE?A – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oe?a?inueeiio o?ainii?oiiio oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

*aniaeiaa Ethaeieea Noai?neaa?aia

Oe?a?inueeee o?ainii?oiee oi?aa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e iaiaaeaeiaioo oa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Oeiea?aiei Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/

Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiee oi?aa?neoao,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith iaiaaeaeiaioo

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

?aaiiaa Iaoae?y TH???aia

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea aeaaeai?y”,

aeioeaio aeaia?oaiaioo aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Ee?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aiaaeueii-aeiiii?/iee
oi?aa?neoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “8” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 12-00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.062.02 o Ee?anueeiio i?aeia?iaeiiio
oi?aa?neoao? oeea?eueii? aa?aoe??, ca aae?anith 252058 i.Ee?a-58,
i?iniaeo Eiia?iaa, 1, ei?ion 9, aoae.303.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
i?aeia?iaeiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oeea?eueii? aa?aoe?? ca aae?anith: LINK
Word.Document.8 “C:\\222\\aref\\AREF.DOC” “OLE_LINK1” \a \r 252058
i.Ee?a-58, i?iniaeo Eiia?iaa, 1 .

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee ”7” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee __________________ ?iae/aiei A.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia?ao?ae aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie aei
?eieiaeo a?aeiinei iio?aao? ci?i o i?aeoiaeao aei oi?aae?iiy iai?ioieie
eiooaie c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoa.
I?e oeueiio aaaeeeaei ia’?eoii oi?aae?iiy a on?o aaeocyo aeiiii?ee
e?a?ie, a oiio /ene? ? ia aaoiiia?eueiiio o?ainii?o?, noathoue
aenieie?ea?aei? iai?ioi? eiooe (a?ioia? eiooe oa ei?ioeino?ieia? oe?ii?
iaia?e). Iaaeinoaoiy e?euee?noue a?ioiaeo eioo?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei oiai,
ui i?aei?e?inoai ia iiaea ?ic?aooaaoeny c eiio?aaaioaie, oiaoi ao?a/a?
ieaoini?iiiaei?noue, ui a naith /a?ao cieaeo? eiieo?aioicaeaoi?noue ia
?eieo o?ainii?oieo iineoa. Iaaei??ia ae e?euee?noue a?ioiaeo eioo?a
i?ecaiaeeoue aei ao?aoe i?eaooeo, yeee iiaeia io?eiaoe a?ae aeeaaeaiiy
oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a a i?eaooeia? ?ino?oiaioe o?iainiaiai
?eieo. Oaeei /eiii, ye iaaeinoaoiy, oae ? iaaeeeoeiaa e?euee?noue
a?ioiaeo eioo?a a iai?io? i?aei?e?inoaa ciaioo? aoaeoeai?noue eiai
ooeoe?iioaaiiy.

Ca oiia ieaiiai? aeiiii?ee a?ioia? eiooe a?aeiineeenue aei iaii?iiaaieo
iai?ioieo eio?a, oiaoi aoee ia ea?iaaieie. Inoaii?i /anii caaaeyee
ci?iai a oi?iao aeaniino?, ?icaeoeo o?iainiaiai ?eieo e?a?ie noai?ai?
ia?aaeoiiae aeey oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie. Iaeiae
oe? ia?aaeoiiae ? iaaeinoaoi?ie, ine?eueee i?ioeaaeo?a oi?aae?iiy
iio?aao? iaaiiai iaoiaee/iiai caaacia/aiiy. Ca inoaii? ?iee a
a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? c’yaeeeny aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aieo ieoaiue oi?aae?iiy
aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie a o?iainiai-e?aaeeoieo onoaiiaao,
ia i?aei?e?inoaao oi?a?ae? ? aoae?aieoeoaa. Ui ae noino?oueny
i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo, oi oae? aeine?aeaeaiiy ia
nueiaiaei? a?aenooi?.

Oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie ia i?aei?e?inoaao
aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo iio?aao? ae??oaiiy i?eioeeiiai iiaeo ieoaiue,
a naia: aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ianyao a?ioiaeo eioo?a ia
?ic?aooieiaiio ?aooieo i?aei?e?inoaa, aea?? ia’?eo?a aeeaaeaiiy
oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a, iioei?caoe?? no?oeoo?e
ei?ioeino?ieiaeo o?iainiaeo ?iaanoeoe?e, aecia/aiiy aeaea?ae iiiiaiaiiy
caiano a?ioiaeo eioo?a. An? oe? ieoaiiy a?ae ?aciaeo ia?aoai?ththoueny
ia iianyeaeaii? ? iio?aaothoue ?aaoey?iiai ae??oaiiy.

Aeeeaaeai? ianoaaeie iaoiiaeththoue aeooaeuei?noue aaaaoia?/iiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy caaea/ oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie
i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo ? iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee
iaoiae?a ? iiaeaeae ?o ae??oaiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?y
aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei oaie iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe eaoaae?e
iaiaaeaeiaioo oa i?aei?e?iieoeoaa Oe?a?inueeiai o?ainii?oiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo “I?iaeaie oi?aae?iiy ia o?ainii?o?”.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea
iaoiaeeee oa i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii iia?aoeaiiio oi?aae?iith
aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai
o?ainii?oo a oiiaao ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei a Oe?a?i?.

?aae?caoe?y iinoaaeaii? iaoe, aeiaaa? ?icaeyaeo oa ae??oaiiy ianooiieo
caaea/:

aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee iai?ioieo eioo?a i?aei?e?inoa
aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo ye ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy;

aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae oi?aae?iiy iai?ioieie eiooaie oa
iiaeeeainoae eiai oaeineiiaeaiiy a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee;

?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie
eiooaie i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo;

?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e c oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiae?a ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
iaiaaeaeiaioo i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo;

i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueii? ia?aa??ee oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue,
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa
?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieie
iai?ioieie eiooaie i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo, yea
aeicaiey? iiaeaethaaoe aa??aioe aeeaaeaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo
eioo?a i?aei?e?inoa c o?aooaaiiyi ?eceeo ? aeio?aeiino? ia’?eo?a
ei?ioeino?ieiaiai o?iainiaiai ?iaanooaaiiy; iaa?oioiaoaaoe aea??
ia’?eo?a aeeaaeaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a, ye? ?aaeueii
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? a no/anieo oiiaao; aecia/aoe iioeiaeueiee
caian a?ioiaeo eioo?a ia ?ic?aooieiaiio ?aooieo i?aei?e?inoa
aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo ? aecia/aoe ?aoe?iiaeueio no?oeoo?o
iiiiaiaiiy caiano a?ioiaeo eioo?a.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaii?
iaoiaeeee iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie a
i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo
aeicaieeoue ?i ca?eueoeoe iio?e a?ioiaeo eioo?a ca ?aooiie i?eaooeiaiai
aeei?enoaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a, i?aeaeueoe ye?noue
o?iainiai? iie?oeee i?e oi?ioaaii? aeaniiai ii?ooaey ?iaanoeoe?e,
ioe?ieoe iaae?ei?noue ? i?eaooeia?noue aeueoa?iaoeaieo aa??aio?a
aeeaaeaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a, aecia/eoe ?aoe?iiaeueio
no?oeoo?o iiiiaiaiiy a?ioiaiai caiano, eiio?iethaaoe ieaoini?iiiaei?noue
i?aei?e?inoaa.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoiaeeea iiaea aooe
aeei?enoaia niaoe?ae?noaie i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo an?o
oi?i aeaniino? a yeino? iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii iia?aoeaiiio
oi?aae?iith aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea i?eeiyoa aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia AAO
“Aaoio?ainna?a?n” i.Ee?aa (Aeo i?eeiyooy aei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?ae
23.12.98).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A noaooyo, ui iioae?eiaai? o ni?aaaoi?noa?,
caeiaoaa/aa? iaeaaeeoue: ?ic?iaea ieoaiiue iiiiaiaiiy caiano a?ioiaeo
eioo?a, aiae?c aa??aio?a iiiiaiaiiy caiano a?ioiaeo eioo?a [3]; ?ic?iaea
iaoiaeeee aeeaaeaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a, canoinoaaiiy
oai??? ei?eniino? aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ii?ooaey
ei?ioeino?ieiaeo o?iainiaeo aeeaaeaiue [4].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aoee aeeeaaeai?, iaaiai?ai? oa noaaeai? ia
I?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aaoiiia?eueiiai
o?ainii?oo ia no/aniiio aoai?” (i.Ee?a 1996 ?.), 53, 54 ui??/ieo
iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo
Oe?a?inueeiai o?ainii?oiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1997 – 1998 ??.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy iioae?eiaai? a 5 iaoeiaeo ?iaioao, c ieo 4 noaoo? a
iaoeiaeo niaoe?aeueieo aeaeaiiyo Oe?a?ie, 1 oace iaoeiai-oaoie/ii?
eiioa?aioe??; caaaeueiei ianyaii 1,01 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?, c ieo iniaenoi
aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue – 0,88.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio,
/ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (153
iaeiaioaaiiy), aeiaeaoe?a. Iae?/o? 171 noi??ieo iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, 13
oaaeeoeue oa 19 ?enoie?a.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue ia?aii? oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy,
aecia/ai? iaoa ? caaea/? ?iaioe, iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a oa ?o i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi aeiiii?/iee ci?no iai?ioieo eioo?a,
?ice?eoi ?o ?ieue ? cia/aiiy a ooeoe?iioaaii? i?aei?e?inoa, i?eaaaeai?
?acoeueoaoe aiae?co no/anieo oaiaeaioe?e oai??? ? i?aeoeee oi?aae?iiy
iai?ioieie eiooaie ia i?aei?e?inoaao aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo.
A?aei?/a?oueny, ui iai?ioi? eiooe ? iniiaith ainiiaea?nueei? ?
o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa. Ca inoaii? ?iee a?aeaoeiny
ca?eueoaiiy ?o /anoee a caaaeueiiio ianyc? iaeia i?aei?e?inoa
aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo, ui aeiaiaeeoue iaiao?aei?noue i?eae?eyoe
a?eueoo oaaao ieoaiiyi ?o oi?aae?iiy.

A oeueiio ?icae?e? ca aeaieie i?aei?e?inoa, ui i?aeii?yaeeiaothoueny
Aeaia?oaiaioo aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo I?i?noa?noaa o?ainii?oo
Oe?a?ie, ca inoaii? i’youe ?ie?a aeine?aeaeaii iniiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
iai?ioieo eioo?a ye ia’?eoa oi?aae?iiy: ?o no?oeoo?o, e?ea?aei?noue oa
ianya. A?aei?/a?oueny, ui a no?oeoo?? iai?ioieo eioo?a aeii?iothoue
oiiaee ia?ao: ?o ieoiia aaaa noaiiaeoue a?eueo i?ae 60%. Iniiaio /anoeo
oiiae?a ia?ao neeaaea? aeaa?oi?nueea caai?aiaai?noue, ieoiia aaaa yei? a
na?aaeiueiio ca ?icaeyiooee ia??iae noaiiaeea 72%. Ca inoaii? ?iee, c
iaeyaeo ia ?icaeoie o?iainiaiai ?eieo e?a?ie, a neeaae? oiiae?a ia?ao
noaeeny ci?ie, a naia: c’yaeany iiaee aeaiaio – ei?ioeino?ieia?
o?iainia? aeeaaeaiiy. Oi/a ?o /anoea ca?ac iacia/ia (a na?aaeiueiio ca
ia??iae noaiiaeea 0,2%), ?icaeoie oiiaeiaiai ?eieo e?a?ie oa
noaa?e?caoe?y o?iainiai? nenoaie aacoiiaii i?ecaaaeooue aei ??
ca?eueoaiiy.

Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui a 1994 – 1998 ?ieao iai?ioi? aeoeae i?aei?e?inoa
oi?ioaaeeny, ia?aaaaeii, ca ?aooiie iice/aieo aeaea?ae, ui ca?eueooaaei
?ecee ao?aoe ieaoini?iiiaeiino? noa’?eoaie ainiiaea?thaaiiy. I?e
oi?aae?ii? iai?ioieie eiooaie iaiao?aeii ae??ooaaoe ieoaiiy oi?ioaaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueii? no?oeoo?e ?o o?iainoaaiiy, yea iiaea i?iaiaeeoeny ye ca
?aooiie aeanieo, oae ? caiice/aieo aeaea?ae.

Iiaeaii aiae?c iaoiae?a, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e oi?aae?ii? iai?ioieie
eiooaie: i?aaiaeo, aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueii-ineoieia?/ieo,
i?aai?caoe?eii-aaei?i?no?aoeaieo. Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue a
oiiaao ?icaeoeo ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ieo oa
i?aai?caoe?eieo iaoiae?a oi?aae?iiy iai?ioieie eiooaie. A oeueiio
?icae?e? oaeiae ?icaeyiooi iniiai? ooieoe?? oi?aae?iiy iai?ioieie
eiooaie. A?aei?/a?oueny, ui iaea?eueo oe?iei a a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?/i?e
e?oa?aoo?? aena?oeai? ieoaiiy ieaioaaiiy iai?ioieo eioo?a, i?ae yeei
aeiaaee /an ?icoi?ee ii?ioaaiiy ??cieo aeaiaio?a iai?ioieo oiiae?a. Aei
oiai ae iniiaiei ia’?eoii oi?aae?iiy na?aae aeaiaio?a iai?ioieo eioo?a
o?eaaeee /an aoee ae?iaie/? caiane. Oiio iniiai? iaoiaee oi?aae?iiy
noinoaaeeny iioei?caoe?? oiaa?ii-iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae. Iaoiaeeee
ii?ioaaiiy, ui ae?yee, ia a iiai?e i??? a?aeiia?aeaee aeeiai?/iei
nenoaiai ooieoe?iioaaiiy, oiaoi oei oiiaai ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?,
ye? ?aaeueii iaee i?noea a oie /e ?ioee iiiaio ieaiiaiai ia??iaeo.

A ca?oa?aei?e aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? c ieoaiue oi?aae?iiy iai?ioieie
eiooaie iniiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny oiiaeai ia?ao: a?ioiaei eiooai,
ei?ioeino?ieiaei oe?iiei iaia?ai oa aeaa?oi?nuee?e caai?aiaaiino?. A
i?aeoeoe? ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei i?e aecia/aii? iioeiaeueiiai ianyao oiai /e
?ioiai aeaeo iai?ioieo eioo?a ii??aith?oueny ?acoeueoao oa aeo?aoe a?ae
?o caa??aaiiy. Oea iia’ycaii c oei, ui ye ianoa/a, oae ? iaaeeeoie
iai?ioieo eioo?a iaaaoeaii aieeaathoue ia aeiiii?/i? oa ae?iaie/?
?acoeueoaoe ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa. Iaaeinoaoi?e ?o ianya, a
iniaeeai aenieie?ea?aeii? /anoeie, iiaea i?ecaanoe aei oiai, ui
i?aei?e?inoai a aecia/aiee oa?i?i ia ciiaea iiaaneoe aeani? iioi/i?
ciaia’ycaiiy. Oea oiia?eueieoue aanue ae?eiaee oeeee, a ioaea i?ecaaaea
aei nei?i/aiiy iaaeoiaeaeaiue. Ca oaeeo oiia ianoa/a iai?ioieo eioo?a
noaia ua a?eueoith. Iaaei??ia e?euee?noue iai?ioieo cania?a oaae
iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia ae?yeuei?noue i?aei?e?inoaa. Iayai?noue ??
na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui /anoeia eioo?a aeei?enoiao?oueny iai?iaeoeoeaii ?
i?aei?e?inoai ao?a/a? i?eaooie. Ca?oa?aei? aeiiii?noe aaaaeathoue, ui
ineoieia?/ii iaaeeeoie iai?ioieo eioo?a iineaaeth? eiio?ieue ca ??aiai
iioi/ieo aeo?ao ? iiaea i?ecaanoe aei aeeaaeaiue ia c iaeaeuith
aeio?aei?noth.

Aeeiiaiee aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo iieiaeaiue oi?aae?iiy
iai?ioieie eiooaie i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo, ye? iathoue
i?noea a ieaiia?e aeiiii?oe? oa a ?eieiaeo oiiaao, aeicaieea c?iaeoe
ianooii? aeniiaee. Ia?ao?ae aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iia’ycaiee c
nooo?aeie ci?iaie a noa?? oi?aae?iiy iai?ioieie eiooaie i?aei?e?inoa:
e??i iai?ioieo oiiae?a ia’?eoii oi?aae?iiy noathoue oiiaee ia?ao, ?o
aenieie?ea?aeia /anoeia – a?ioia? eiooe oa ei?ioeino?ieia? o?iainia?
aeeaaeaiiy. C ?icaeoeii oiiaeiaiai oa a?ioiaiai ?eie?a ? iiaeaeueoith
o?iainiaith noaa?e?caoe??th aeiiii?ee e?a?ie aeieea? iiaeeea?noue
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a
i?aei?e?inoa, a naia: aeeaaeaiiy ?o a i?eaooeia? ?ino?oiaioe o?iainiaiai
?eieo. A a?o/eciyi?e aeiiii?/i?e iaooe? ca inoaii?e /an c’yaeeeny
?ic?iaee a aaeoc? oi?aae?iiy ie?aieie neeaaeiaeie oiiae?a ia?ao ia
i?aei?e?inoaao oi?a?ae?, aoae?aaeueiiai eiiieaeno, a
o?iainiai-e?aaeeoi?e noa??. Ia aaoiiia?eueiiio o?ainii?o? oae?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeoe/ii a?aenooi?. Aeeeaaeai? ianoaaeie iio?aaothoue
?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieie eiooaie ia
i?aei?e?inoaao aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyaeathoueny iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee aei oi?aae?iiy
a?ioiaeie eiooaie, a oaeiae oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? ieoaiiy cae?eniaiiy
ei?ioeino?ieiaeo o?iainiaeo ?iaanoeoe?e i?aei?e?inoaaie aaoiiia?eueiiai
o?ainii?oo.

A oeueiio ?icae?e? i?i?ethno?iaaii iai?yiee ?ooo a?ioiaeo iioie?a a
?ic??c? ei?ioeino?ieiaeo oa aeiaaino?ieiaeo o?iainiaeo ??oaiue ia
i?eeeaae? aaoio?ainii?oiiai i?aei?e?inoaa. I?e oeueiio a?aei?/a?oueny,
ui oi?aae?iiy a?ioiaeie iioieaie – iaeei c iaeaaaeeea?oeo iai?yie?a
o?iainiai? ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa, ui aeeth/a? a naaa: aiae?c
a?ioiaiai iioieo, eiai i?iaiicoaaiiy, aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai ??aiy
a?ioiaeo eioo?a, i?aai?caoe?th oa eiio?ieue ca a?ioiaeie iioieaie.

Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy naia iia?aoeaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieo iai?ioieo eioo?a a oiiaao i?ieeaino?
aioo??oiueiai ? ciai?oiueiai na?aaeiaeua i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai
o?ainii?oo, yea aeiaaa? caaacia/aiiy iino?eii? ?o ieaoini?iiiaei?no?.

I?iaaaeaii aiae?c iaoiae?a aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai caiano a?ioiaeo
eioo?a ia ?ic?aooieiaiio ?aooieo i?aei?e?inoa a a?o/eciyi?e ?
ca?oa?aei?e i?aeoeoe?.

A?aei?/a?oueny, ui a a?o/eciyi?e iaooe? ?ic?iaeaii aeae?eueea
oai?aoe/ieo iiaeaeae aeey aecia/aiiy i?i?iaeueiiai caeeoeo a?ioiaeo
eioo?a ia ?ic?aooieiaiio ?aooieo i?aei?e?inoaa, yeee aecia/a?oueny ca
aeiiiiiaith iieacieea ieoiii? aaae a?ioiaeo eioo?a a caaaeueiiio ianyc?
iai?ioieo eioo?a aai eiao?oe?aioa a?ae iai?ioo a?ioiaeo eioo?a. On? oe?
iiaeae? ia a?aoiaothoue eieeaaiue ae?eiai? aeoeaiino? i?aei?e?inoaa, ui
aeoaea aaaeeeai a ?eieiaeo oiiaao ainiiaea?thaaiiy. Aei oiai ae aiie
ia/eneththoue i?i?iaeueiee, a ia iioeiaeueiee ianya a?ioiaeo eioo?a. Ia
a?aei?io a?ae a?o/eciyieo, a cao?aei?e i?aeoeoe? ?iciianthaeaeai? a?eueo
neeaaei? iiaeae?: iiaeaeue A.Aaoiiey, I.I?eea?a ? Ae.I??a, A.Noioia, a
oaeiae aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai caeeoeo a i?ioean? ?ic?iaee athaeaeaoo
aio?aee. A o?ueio inoaii?o iiaeaeyo a?aoiao?oueny /eiiee iaaecia/aiiino?
a?ioiaeo iaaeoiaeaeaiue ? aeo?ao, a oaeiae naciii? eieeaaiiy a
ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoaa, noai o?iainiaiai ?eieo e?a?ie. I?iaaaeaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aaoio?ainii?oieo i?aei?e?inoaao i.Ee?aa aeiaaei
?iia??iee oa?aeoa? iaaeoiaeaeaiiy ? aeo?ao a?ioiaeo eioo?a, oiio aeey
aecia/aiiyy iioeiaeueiiai caiano a?ioiaeo eioo?a aaoio?ainii?oiiai
i?aei?e?inoaa aoea aeei?enoaia iiaeaeue I?eea?a-I??a. Aei oiai ae aiia
ia? oae? nooo?a? ia?aaaae, ye i?inoioa ?ic?aooie?a oa ?aae?caoe??, ?
aeinooiiith aeey ?icoi?iiy oeo, ooi aoaea aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?? a
i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?.

A oeueiio ?icae?e? oaeiae aeine?aeaeai? oai?aoe/i? ? iaoiaee/i? ieoaiiy
?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a, a naia:
?iaanoeoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ia’?eo?a aeeaaeaiiy, oi?ioaaiiy aa??aio?a ?
aecia/aiiy no?oeoo?e aeeaaeaiiy. A eiioaeno? aeeaaeaiiy oei/aniai
a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a ooi/iaii aecia/aiiy o?iainiaeo ?iaanoeoe?e –
oea aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a a ??ciiiai?oi? aeio?aei? o?iainia? ?ino?oiaioe c
iaoith io?eiaiiy i?eaooeo, i?eiiiaeaiiy aai caa?aaeaiiy eai?oaeo a?ae
ciaoe?iaiiy. A?aei?/a?oueny, ui aeey i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai
o?ainii?oo aeei?enoaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a a
ei?ioeino?ieiaiio ia??iae?, ye iaeei c aeae?a o?iainiaiai ?iaanooaaiiy,
? iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei eiai iai?yieii.

A ?icae?e? aecia/ai? iiaeeea? ia’?eoe ei?ioeino?ieiaeo o?iainiaeo
aeeaaeaiue, ui aeinooii? aeey i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo:
aeaiiceoiee na?oeo?eao, aaie?anueeee aaenaeue, iae?aaoe?? aioo??oiuei?
aea?aeaaii? oa i?noeaaeo iicee, eacia/aenuee? ciaia’ycaiiy (i?e
aeioneo). Oe? ia’?eoe a?aeiia?aeathoue ianooiiei oe?eyi ei?ioeino?ieiaeo
o?iainiaeo aeeaaeaiue: caaacia/othoue aa?aioiaai? aeieaoe, e?ea?aei?noue
?iaanoeoe?eiiai ii?ooaey, aeinyaiaiiy iaeneiaeueiiai ?iaanoeoe?eiiai
aeioiaeo ca iaaiee ia??iae. Aea?oueny oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaanoeoe?eieo
yeinoae oeeo ia’?eo?a, a oaeiae aeueoa?iaoeaiiai aa??aioa, eiee eiooe
caeeoathoueny ia ?ic?aooieiaiio ?aooieo, oiaoi ia aeaiiceo? aei
caieoaiiy.

Aeey aecia/aiiy no?oeoo?e ?iaanoeoe?eiiai ii?ooaey i?aei?e?inoa
aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo aeiaaaeaia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy
oai??? ei?eniino?, ui a?aeiia?aea? ianyao iia?aoe?e c oe?iieie iaia?aie:
a?aeiinii iaaaeeeee ianya oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a, aeiaaa?
i?i?iaeueieo aeo?ao ii ianeoaiaoaaiith i?ioeana oi?aae?iiy ieie.

Ioaea iia?aoeaia oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie iiaeiii
caaacia/oaaoe iino?eio ieaoini?iiiaei?noue i?aei?e?inoa, ciaiooth/e
?ecee ao?aoe e?ea?aeiino?, ? a oie aea /an ca?eueooaaoe ?o
i?eaooeia?noue ca ?aooiie ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy oei/aniai
a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a. O ca’yceo c oeei iniiaieie neeaaeiaeie
iaoiaeeee iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie ?
aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai caiano a?ioiaeo eioo?a ia ?ic?aooieiaiio
?aooieo, i?eeiyooy ??oaiue uiaei o?ainoi?iaoe?? iaaeeeoeo eioo?a a
oe?ii? iaia?e aai uiaei iiiiaeaiiy caiano a?ioae.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?aaenoaaeaia aeie-noaia caaaeueii? iaoiaeeee
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iaoiaeeea iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieie
iai?ioieie eiooaie i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo.

Iaa?oioiaaii aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy a yeino? iaoiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oai??? i?eeiyooy ??oaiue, a oaeiae
?i?oaoe?eiiai iiaeaethaaiiy – i?e oi?ioaaii? aa??aio?a aeeaaeaiiy
oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a, a aeey aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai
aa??aioa aeeaaeaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a i?aei?e?inoa
aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo – aia?aoa oai??? ei?eniino?.

Nooi?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee iieyaa? a aeai?? aoaeoeaii? iie?oeee
oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie, yea iiaeiia caaacia/eoe
?o iioeiaeueiee ??aaiue, ui aa?aioo? i?aei?e?inoao aaoiiia?eueiiai
o?ainii?oo iaaio aaniethoio e?ea?aei?noue. Iia?aoeaia oi?aae?iiy
aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie i?aei?e?inoaa ca iaoiaeeeith, ui
i?iiiio?oueny, ia?aaeaa/a?:

1) aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai caeeoeo a?ioiaeo eioo?a ia ?ic?aooieiaiio
?aooieo;

2) yeui ?nio? iayai?noue oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a, oi iiaeeea?
??oaiiy uiaei cae?eniaiiy ei?ioeino?ieiaeo o?iainiaeo ?iaanoeoe?e, ye?
caaacia/othoue aeiaeaoeiaee aeio?ae, a ioaea i?aeaeuothoue aoaeoeai?noue
aeei?enoaiiy iai?ioieo aeoea?a i?aei?e?inoaa;

3) i?e iaaeinoaoi?e e?eueeino? a?ioiaeo eioo?a aecia/aiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii?
no?oeoo?e aeaea?ae iiiiaiaiiy caiano a?ioae.

I?ioeaaeo?a iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy aenieie?ea?aeieie aeoeaaie
ia?aaeaa/a? i?iaaaeaiiy o?iainiaith neoaeaith i?aei?e?inoaa i?aeaioia/i?
?iaioe, yea aeeth/a?:

1) ia??iaee/iee (uii?ny/iee, uiaeaeaaeiee) ?ic?aooiie ?ici??o
iioeiaeueiiai caiano a?ioiaeo eioo?a ca a?aeiia?aeieie ca?oieie aeaieie;

2) ia??iaee/iee iii?oi??ia ?eieo oe?iieo iaia??a, ia aac? aeaieo yeiai
?ic?iaeythoueny ? ioe?iththoueny aa??aioe aeeaaeaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo
a?ioiaeo eioo?a;

3) uii?ny/iee iii?oi??ia oiiaeiaiai oa e?aaeeoiiai ?eie?a, aeai? yeiai
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e i?eeiyoo? ??oaiue uiaei iiiiaiaiiy caiano
a?ioiaeo eioo?a.

Aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiiai caiano a?ioiaeo eioo?a ia ?ic?aooieiaiio
?aooieo i?aei?e?inoaa i?iaiaeeoueny ca iiaeaeeth I?eea?a-I??a ?
ia?aaeaa/a? aecia/aiiy: i?i?iaeueiiai ?ici??o a?ioiaeo eioo?a (Zmin);
aeenia?n?? uiaeaiieo iaaeoiaeaeaiue eioo?a ia ?ic?aooieiaee ?aooiie (
SYMBOL 115 \f “Symbol” \s 14 s 2); na?aaei?o aeo?ao ia aca?iio
o?ainoi?iaoe?th a?ioiaeo eioo?a oa oe?iieo iaia??a; aeo?ao ii
caa??aaiith eioo?a ia ?ic?aooieiaiio ?aooieo; ?iciaoo aa??aoe?? caeeoeo
a?ioiaeo eioo?a ia ?ic?aooieiaiio ?aooieo (R); aa?oiuei? iaae? a?ioae ia
?ic?aooieiaiio ?aooieo (Zmax); oi/ee iiaa?iaiiy (Zopt).

Iai?ee?ioe? eiaeiiai ia??iaeo aeey oi?aae?iiiy a ianooiiiio ia??iae?
aecia/a?oueny iioeiaeueiee aa??aio aeeaaeaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo
a?ioiaeo eioo?a. A ?icae?e? iiaeaii iaoiaeeeo oi?ioaaiiy aa??aio?a
aeeaaeaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a oa aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai
aa??aioa aeeaaeaiiy aeey i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo. Aeey
oi?ioaaiiy aa??aio?a aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a oa aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioa
i?iiiio?oueny ?i?oaoe?eia iiaeaeue, yea a?aoiao? ?aaeuei? aioo??oi? oa
ciai?oi? o?iainia? oiiae ooieoe?iioaaiiy i?aei?e?inoaa. Oey iiaeaeue
aeicaiey? io?eiaoe ?acoeueoaoe iiaeaethaaiiy aeey iioei?noe/iiai,
iaea?eueo ?aaeueiiai oa ianei?noe/iiai aa??aio?a ?icaeoeo iiae?e o
iaeaooiueiio. I?e oeueiio aa??aioe oi?iothoueny c aeaio aeae?a oe?iieo
iaia??a: ?eceeiaiai ? aac?eceeiaiai. Aeey eiaeiiai iiaeeeaiai aa??aioa
aeeaaeaiiy aecia/athoueny a?aeiia?aei? aeio?aei?noue ? ?? noaiaea?oia
a?aeoeeaiiy, yea oa?aeoa?eco? ?ecee aeeaaeaiiy.

Ia aoai? aeai?o iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioa no?oeoo?e aeeaaeaiiy oei/aniai
a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe aiia?ao oai???
ei?eniino?, ui iio?aao? ae??oaiiy oaeeo ieoaiue, ye aecia/aiiy
ia?aiao??a e?eaeo aaeaeoaeino?, athaeaeaoieo e?i?e, ?o a?ao?/ia
iiaoaeiaa, ?ic?aooiie no?oeoo?e aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a.

Ia?aiao?e e?eaeo aaeaeoaeino? aecia/athoueny ca ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?oieo
ioe?iie uiaei a?aeiioaiiy in?a, ye? i?eeiathoue o?iainia? ??oaiiy, aei
?eceeo.

Aca?iica’ycie i?ae ?eceeii oa aeio?aei?noth aeey eiaeiiai aa??aioa
aeeaaeaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a iieno? ??aiyiiy
athaeaeaoii? e?i??, yea ?ic?aoiao?oueny ca oi?ioeith:

aea i – e?euee?noue aa??aio?a oi?ioaaiiy ii?ooaey ei?ioeino?ieiaeo
o?iainiaeo ?iaanoeoe?e;

Di – i/?eoaaia aeio?aei?noue ?-ai aa??aioa aeeaaeaiiy oei/aniai a?eueieo
a?ioiaeo eioo?a, %;

– i/?eoaaia aeio?aei?noue aac?eceeiaiai oe?iiiai iaia?o, %;

j – e?euee?noue ?eceeiaeo oe?iieo iaia??a;

– i/?eoaaia aeio?aei?noue j-ai ?eceeiaiai oe?iiiai iaia?o, %;

– noaiaea?oia a?aeoeeaiiy i/?eoaaii? aeio?aeiino? j-ai ?eceeiaaiiai
oe?iiiai iaia?o, %;

(i – nooi?iue ?eceeo ?-ai aa??aioa aeeaaeaiiy, %.

Aa??aio ei?ioeino?ieiaeo o?iainiaeo aeeaaeaiue, ui i?eiineoue ?iaanoi?o
iaea?eueoo ei?eni?noue, ? iaee?auei ? a?aeiia?aea? oi/oe? aeioeeo
athaeaeaoii? e?i?? aei iaeaeui? c i?eoaiaiieo ?iaanoi?o e?eaeo
aaeaeoaeino?. No?oeoo?a aeeaaeaiiy aeae?a?oueny a?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai
aa??aioa ? aecia/a?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith a?ao?/iiai iaoiaeo, oiaoi
iiaoaeiaaieo athaeaeaoieo e?i?e oa ea?oe e?eaeo aaeaeoaeino?.

Oaeei /eiii aeey iioeiaeueiiai iaai?o oe?iieo iaia??a iaiao?aeiei ?
aeeiiaiiy oaeeo oiia:

1) a?i iiaeiai ciaoiaeeoenue ia athaeaeaoi?e e?i??;

2) iioeiaeueiei ? oa ??oaiiy, ui i?eionea? iaea?eueo ia?aaaaeia aeey
?iaanoi?a ii?aeiaiiy aeioiaeo oa ?eceeo.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? iiaeeeainoae aeinooio i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai
o?ainii?oo aei ei?ioeino?ieiaeo aeaea?ae iiiiaiaiiy caiano a?ioiaeo
eioo?a ia ?o ?ic?aooieiaiio ?aooieo a?aoiao?oueny noaiiaeua oiiaeiaiai
oa e?aaeeoiiai ?eie?a (iayai?noue o i?aei?e?inoa ii?ooaey
ei?ioeino?ieiaeo oe?iieo iaia??a). ??oaiiy uiaei iiiiaiaiiy caiano
a?ioiaeo eioo?a iiaeiii caaacia/eoe ia iaaiiio ??ai? aaniethoio
e?ea?aei?noue i?aei?e?inoaa ? caanoe aei i?i?ioia aeo?aoe ii caeo/aiith
a?ioiaeo eioo?a.

Wj`), yeee ?ic?aoiao?oueny ca ianooiiith oi?ioeith:

,

);

(Wj – a?aeoeeaiiy i?eaooeiaino? j-ai ia’?eoa ei?ioeino?ieiaeo o?iainiaeo
aeeaaeaiue, a?i.;

Dj`- aeio?ae a?ae aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a a j-e ia’?eo ?iaanooaaiiy i?e
ia?aae/ani?e eiai ?aae?caoe??, a?i.;

Dj – i/?eoaaiee aeio?ae ca j-i ia’?eoii ?iaanooaaiiy, a?i.;

Bj – aeo?aoe ia aeeaaeaiiy eioo?a a j-e ia’?eo ?iaanooaaiiy, a?i.;

?j – noaaea iiaeaoeo ia i?eaooie (eiao?oe??io);

Saj – ianya eioo?a, aeeaaeaieo a j-e ia’?eo ?iaanooaaiiy, a?i.

Wj. sseui ae ? a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo eioo?a iaaeinoaoiuei, ne?ae caeo/eoe
ciai?oi? aeaea?aea, a naia – ei?ioeino?ieia? iice/ee.

Ia e?aaeeoiiio ?eieo iniaeeaa oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny aea/aiith oiia
iaaeaiiy e?aaeeo?a aaie?anueeeie oa ?ioeie e?aaeeoieie onoaiiaaie.
Iiiiaiaiiy caiano a?ioiaeo eioo?a aeeiio?oueny ca ?aooiie iicee c
i?i?iaeueiith a?aenioeiaith noaaeith. I?e iayaiino? o i?aei?e?inoaa
ei?ioeino?ieiaeo o?iainiaeo aeeaaeaiue aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe
iice/eo aeey iiiiaiaiiy caiano a?ioiaeo eioo?a ca oiiae, ui ?? aa?o?noue
iaioa ao?ao a?ae ?aae?caoe?? ia’?eo?a ei?ioeino?ieiaeo o?iainiaeo
?iaanoeoe?e.

Nai?/ania iiiiaiaiiy caiano a?ioiaeo eioo?a caaacia/o? iaaiee ??aaiue
aaniethoii? e?ea?aeiino?, yeee ? iaeiei c aaaeeeaeo iieaciee?a
ieaoini?iiiaeiino? i?aei?e?inoaa ? iieaco?, yeo /anoeo ei?ioeino?ieiai?
caai?aiaaiino? i?aei?e?inoai iiaea iiaaneoe iaaaeii. Cia/aiiy oeueiai
iieacieea ? aeinoaoi?i o iaaeao 0,2 ( 0,35. Cieaeaiiy eiai na?ae/eoue
i?i c?inoaiiy ?eceeo iaaeeiiaiiy ciaia’ycaiue ia?aae eiio?aaaioaie. ?
iaaiaee, eiai i?aeaeuaiiy coiiaeth? iie?auaiiy o?iainiaiai noaio
i?aei?e?inoaa.

Iaoiaeeea iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy aenie?ie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie
i?aei?e?inoa aaoiiia?eueiiai o?ainii?oo a i?iaeiaae ca?oiiai ia??iaeo
ia?aaeaa/a? uiaeaiio ia?aa??eo ?ici??o caeeoea a?ioiaeo eioo?a ia
i?aenoaa? aeaieo aeienee aaiea c ?ic?aooieiaiai ?aooiea i?aei?e?inoaa:

– yeui ?ici?? caeeoea ia?aaeuo? aa?oith iaaeo caiano a?ioae (Zmax), oi
ianya oei/aniai a?eueieo a?ioiaeo eioo?a aeeaaea?oueny a ?ino?oiaioe
o?iainiaiai ?eieo a?aeiia?aeii aei iioeiaeueiiai aa??aioa aeeaaeaiue, ui
aecia/aiee ca aeiiiiiaith ?i?oaoe?eii? iiaeae?;

– yeui e?euee?noue a?ioae ia ?ic?aooieiaiio ?aooieo iaioa ca ieaeith
iaaeo caiano (Zmin), oi aeae?a?oueny aa??aio iiiiaiaiiy a?ioiaeo eioo?a
a?aeiia?aeii aei iayaiino? o i?aei?e?inoaa oe?iieo iaia??a oa noaio
o?iainiaiai ?eieo e?a?ie;

– yeui caeeoie a?ioiaeo eioo?a ciaoiaeeoueny a i?eeiyoieo iaaeao (Zmin (
Zmax), ae?? ii oi?aae?iith aenieie?ea?aeieie aeoeaaie ia i?eeiathoueny.

Aeoiaey/e c aeiia aei e?eoa???a aoaeoeaiino? oa caaaeaiue
aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeey ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? iia?aoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy
aenieie?ea?aeieie iai?ioieie eiooaie i?iiiio?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe
iieaciee i?eaooeiaino? aenieie?ea?aeieo aeoea?a:

,

i?e oiiaao

1) kae ( 0,2;

2) Zmin

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