OA?NIINUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE AA?A?IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

AIEEIA AIAOIE?E AIAOIE?EIAE*

OAeE 636.4.082.25

OAeINEIIAEAIIss NAEIAE II?IAeE AeTH?IE I?E *ENOIII?IAeIIIO ?ICAAAeAII?
OA AOAEOEAI?NOUe AEEI?ENOAIIss ?? A NO?AUOAAII?

06.02.01 — ?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoe?y oaa?ei

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Oa?nii — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? naeia?noaa ?inoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa noaiiaeo
?aeii?a ?i.I.O.?aaiiaa “Aneai?y-Iiaa” OAAI, nio Aneai?y-Iiaa
Oa?niinueei? iaeano?.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, noa?oee
iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee, caneoaeaiee i?aoe?aiee n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa
Oe?a?ie Oii?oa A??a Na?a?eiaia, ?inoeooo oaa?eiieoeoaa noaiiaeo ?aeii?a
?i.I.O.?aaiiaa “Aneai?y-Iiaa” OAAI, caa?aeoaa/ eaai?aoi???
a?a?eaeecaoe?? naeiae

Io?oe?eiee iiiiaio — aeieoi? n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,
/eai-ei?aniiiaeaio OAAI Aa?acianueeee Ieeiea Aeaaeaeiae/, ?inoeooo
naeia?noaa OAAI, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee

Io?oe?eiee iiiiaio — eaiaeeaeao n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe,
aeioeaio E?niee A?eoi? Aiaoie?eiae/, Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a ?icaaaeaiiy ? aaiaoeee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeee ?inoeooo I?i?noa?noaa AIE Oe?a?ie, i.Iaeana

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny 28 a?oaeiy 1999 ?. i
10-e aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E
67.830.02 a Oa?niinueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aa?a?iiio oi?aa?neoao? (325006,
i.Oa?nii, aoe. ?.Ethenaiao?a, 23, aieiaiee o/aiaee ei?ion, aoaeeoi??y
64).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?niinueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai aa?a?iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 325006, i. Oa?nii,
aoe. ?. Ethenaiao?a, 23, aieiaiee o/aiaee ei?ion.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 26 eenoiiaaea 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Ea?aioc A.Ae.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. Caaacia/ai?noue ianaeaiiy iiaiioe?iieie ? a aeinoaoi?e e?eueeino?
i?iaeoeoaie oa?/oaaiiy aoei ? caeeoa?oueny iaei??th ?c iaeaeooaeuei?eoeo
i?iaeai no/aniino?. sse na?ae/eoue i?aeoeea ?icaeiooeo e?a?i, iiiiaiaiiy
aeao?oeeoo iyna (a?eueo ye 42%) ae??oo?oueny ca ?aooiie aaeoc?
naeia?noaa, yea caaaeyee a?ieia?/iei iniaeeainoyi, ni?ey? oaeaeeiio
ia?iuoaaiith aeaoaai? ? ye?nii? i?iaeoeoe??.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A?o/eciyi? ii?iaee naeiae, yeeo ?icaiaeyoue a
Oe?a?i?, oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieeie ?ai?iaeoeoeaieie ? iathoue iaaia
a?aenoaaaiiy ca iynieie yeinoyie. Oiio a cayceo c oaiaeaioe??th aei
aaeeaaiiy iaaee?ii? iynii? oa aaeiiii? naeieie, aeooeothoueny oeyoe
iie?auaiiy ?o a?aeaiae?aaeueieo oa iynieo iciae ?c caeo/aiiyi aaiioei?a
naeiae ca?oa?aeii? naeaeoe??.

A oeueiio ieai? aaaeeeaa i?noea a?aeaiaeeoueny naeiyi ii?iaee aeth?ie,
ye? caaaeyee nai?i aenieei a?aeaiae?aaeueiei ? iyniei yeinoyi aoee
caaacai? a Oe?a?io c iaoith aeei?enoaiiy ?o a nenoai? no?auoaaiiy.

A oiiaao Oe?a?ie ieoaiiyie aee?iaoecaoe??, caa?aaeaiiy oa oaeineiiaeaiiy
naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie caeiaeanue A.N.Oii?oa. A ?? aeine?aeaeaiiyo aoee
aeei?enoai? naei? aia?eeainueei? oa /anueei? naeaeoe??. A
iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo aeine?aeao ii?iaeo aeth?ie aea/aee a no?auoaaii? c
ieaiiaeie iaoa?einueeeie aaiioeiaie, aeei?enoiaoth/e ?? a yeino?
aaouee?anueei? oi?ie. Anoaiiaeaii iiceoeaiee aieea eio??a oe??? ii?iaee
ia i?iaeoeoeai?noue iii?nae ye i?e aeaioii??aeiiio, oae ?
o?ueioii??aeiiio no?auoaaii?.

Ia??iaee/ia caaacaiiy a ?aaeaini “Noaiiie” Caii??cueei? iaeano? naeiae
ii?iaee aeth?ie /anueei? (1983, 1984, 1986 ??.), aia?eeainueei? (1986
?.), aiae?enueei? (1996 ?.), aeaonueei? (1997 ?.) naeaeoe?? coiiaeei
iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a oaeineiiaeaiiy ?? ? ia
oe?e iniia? noai?aiiy ieai?iiiai noaaea eiieo?aioicaeaoiiai ca
?ai?iaeoeoeaieie yeinoyie iaoie oa aea/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? no?auoaaiiy c
aaeeeith a?eith ii?iaeith aiae?enueei? naeaeoe??, yeo oaeiae ?icaiaeyoue
a ainiiaea?noa?. Ioaea, aea/aiiy oeeo ieoaiue iineoaeeei iniiaith aeai?o
oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aeeiiaiiy yei? iai?aaeaii ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ieai?iii? ?iaioe c iacaaiith ii?iaeith, ye?e a?aeaaaeaii
nooo?aa cia/aiiy a ?aa?iiaeueieo nenoaiao no?auoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue a ?inoeooo? oaa?eiieoeoaa noaiiaeo ?aeii?a
“Aneai?y-Iiaa” ca?aeii aea?aeaaii? oaiaoeee 0.51.25 ii i?iaeai?
“Naeieia” (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0197 U013653; EA 000983 ?; 01870098798).

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoith ?iaioe aoei ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaee/i?
i?aeoiaee oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaee aeth?ie a iiaeo oiiaao c aeei?enoaiiyi
naeiae /anueei?, aia?eeainueei?, aiae?enueei? oa aeaonueei? naeaeoe?e
? ia oe?e iniia? noai?eoe aenieii?iaeoeoeaia ieai?iia noaaei c
iie?ioaieie ?ai?iaeoeoeaieie yeinoyie iaoie, a oaeiae aecia/eoe
aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ii?iaee a no?auoaaii? c aaeeeith a?eith
aiae?enueeith.

A ca’yceo c oeei aoee iinoaaeai? ianooii? caaaeaiiy:

· aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? aa??aioe ii?aeiaiue naeiae aeth?ie /anueei?,
aia?eeainueei?, aiae?enueei?, aeaonueei? naeaeoe?? c iaoith iie?auaiiy
?ai?iaeoeoeaieo yeinoae iaoie a noaae? AAO “Ieaicaaiae Noaiiie”;

· aea/eoe naeaeoe?ei? ia?aiao?e a?aeai?o ia iniia? ioe?iee oaa?ei ca
oaiioeiii ? aaiioeiii;

· noai?eoe aenieii?iaeoeoeaia noaaei ca ?ai?iaeoeoeaieie yeinoyie, a ia
ia?niaeoeao — ? caaiaenueeee oei;

· aea/eoe aoaeoeai?noue no?auoaaiiy ii?iaee aeth?ie c aaeeeith a?eith oa
aieea eiai ia ??aaiue ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieo iciae iii?nae, ye?noue
i’yna ? naea c aecia/aiiyi a iueiio ??cieo iaoae?a, i?e?iaeio
?acenoaioi?noue ia iniia? ii?oieia?/ieo oa a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a e?ia?;

· aecia/eoe aeiiii?/io aoaeoeai?noue a?aeaiae?ae? iii?nae.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaa? a oiio, ui a
oiiaao Oe?a?ie aia?oa i?iaiaeeoueny iiaeeaeaia naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iia
?iaioa c ii?iaeith aeth?ie. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiaee/iee i?aeo?ae noiniaii
aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aeth?ie?a aia?eeainueei?, /anueei?,
aiae?enueei? oa aeaonueei? naeaeoe?e, aeey iie?ioaiiy
a?aeoai?thaaeueieo yeinoae ? ia oe?e iniia? noai?aii iiioeyoe?th naeiae
oe?a?inueei? naeaeoe??, yea ca oe??th iciaeith ia?aaa?oo? ca?oa?aei?
aiaeiae. Aia?oa aea/aia aoaeoeai?noue no?auoaaiiy aaiioei?a ca?oa?aeiie
naeaeoe?? (aeth?ie?a ? aaeeei? a?ei? aiae?enueei?), aee?iaoeciaaieo a
oiiaao Oe?a?ie. Aei iiaecie a?aeiineii aea/aiiy ye?nieo iieaciee?a i’yna
?, iniaeeai, ui noino?oueny ai?noo a iueiio ??cieo iaoae?a, ye? cia/iith
i??ith aecia/athoue aeieia?/io /enoioo i?iaeoeoe??.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeiiiaiaiiyi aei ?icoe?aiiy ciaiue i?i a?ieia?/i?
iniaeeaino? naeiae, ye? aeei?enoiaothoueny a Oe?a?i?, ye i?e
/enoiii?iaeiiio ?icaaaeaii?, oae ? no?auoaaii?, ??aaiue i?e?iaeii?
?acenoaioiino? ?o i?aai?cio.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? ?o ?aae?caoe?y. A
?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeyaeai? i?eioeeiiai iia?
iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee, ia iniia? yeeo ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ? i?iiiceoe?? ii aoaeoeaiiio aaaeaiith
naeaeoe?eii-ieai?iii? ?iaioe c ii?iaeith aeth?ie.

?aoe?iiaeueia aeei?enoaiiy o?aaeeoe?eieo naeaeoe?eieo i?eeii?a ? iiaeo
iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a a oiiaao iiaiioe?iii? aiae?ae? AAO “Ieaicaaiae
Noaiiie” noai?aia aenieii?iaeoeoeaia noaaei naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie
oe?a?inueei? naeaeoe??. AAO “Ieaicaaiae Noaiiie” — ia?oa ? ?aeeia
naeaeoe?eia noaaei ii ?icaaaeaiith naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie ia oa?eoi???
NIAe. Ca a?aeaiae?aaeueieie ? i’ynieie yeinoyie oaa?eie
a?aeiia?aeathoue e?auei na?oiaei aiaeiaai, a ca ?ai?iaeoeoeaieie
ia?aaa?oothoue ?o. AAO “Ieaicaaiae Noaiiie” ? iino?eiee o/aniee
Aenoaaie Oe?a?ie. Ca 10 ?ie?a ainiiaea?noai ia? 8 aeeieii?a “?aei?aeeno”
ii?iaee ? 22 aoanoaoo ? nooiaiy.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. C /ano caaico naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie aaoi?
? iniiaiei iino?eiei aeeiiaaoeai ii caa?aaeaiith oa oaeineiiaeaiith
oeeo oaa?ei. Aaoi?ii inai?i? iaoiaeeee aeine?aeaeaiue.
Aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe oa i?iaaaeaiiy
iaoeiai-ainiiaea?nueeeo aeine?aeaeaiue, a oaeiae aiae?c iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, oi?ioaaiiy aeniiae?a ? i?iiiceoe?e aeeiiai? iniaenoi
caeiaoaa/ai. Aei 5% a?ae caaaeueiiai ianyao an?o ?ia?o noiniaii
aea/aiiy ainiiaea?nueei-ei?enieo iciae naeiae aia?eeainueei? iiioeyoe??
oa ooi/iaiiy oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue ?iaioe i?iaaaeaii ?acii c iaoeiaei
ea??aieeii — aeieoi?ii n.-a. iaoe A.N. Oii?oith.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue, iaaiai?thaaeenue ? iaea?aeaee iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ia
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii i?iaeai? “Oaeineiiaeaiiy naeaeoe?eieo ?
oaoiieia?/ieo i?ioean?a a no/anieo oiiaao aaaeaiiy naeia?noaa”
(i.Iaeana, 1996; i. Oa?nii, 1998; i.O?oica, Aaoiiiiia ?anioae?ea
E?ei), ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo a/aieo c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo
oaa?eiieoeoaa (nio Aneai?y-Iiaa, Oa?niinueea iaeanoue, 1998), ia
iaoeiai-ae?iaie/?e ia?aae? c ieoaiue noai?aiiy ? ?iaioe ?ioaa?iaaieo
oi?ioaaiue ae?iaieoeoaa, ia?a?iaee, ?aae?caoe?? i’yna ?
i’ynii?iaeoeo?a (i. Iae?oiiieue, 1998), iaeanieo ia?aaeao ii
ae?iaieoeoao naeieie (AAO “Ieaicaaiae Noaiiie”, 1997; i. Caii??aeaey,
1995, 1996), ia Aenoaaeao-aoeoe?iiao “Aa?i” (i. Ee?a 1991-1998), ia
?icoe?aiiio can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo naeia?noaa ?inoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa
noaiiaeo ?aeii?a “Aneai?y-Iiaa” (1999).

Ioae?eaoe?? iaoa??ae?a aeine?aeaeaiue. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeeeaaeai? a 6 iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c oaeeo
?icae?e?a: anooi, iaeyae e?oa?aoo?e, iaoa??ae, iaoiaeeea ? aoaie
aeine?aeaeaiue, ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue ? aiae?c iaea?aeaieo aeaieo,
iaaiai?aiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiue, aeniiaee, i?iiiceoe??
ae?iaieoeoao, nienie e?oa?aoo?e. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 130 noi??ieao
eiii’thoa?iiai oaenoo, i?noeoue 26 oaaeeoeue, 3 iaethiee. Nienie
e?oa?aoo?e ia?aoiao? 148 iaeiaioaaiue, a o./. 36 ?ia?o ?iicaiieo
aaoi??a.

IAOA??AE, CAAAEUeIA IAOIAeEEA ? AOAIE AeINE?AeAEAIUe

Iaoeiai-ainiiaea?nuee? aeine?aeaeaiiy ca oaiith ?iaioe i?iaiaeeee
i?ioyaii 1983-1998 ?ie?a a oiiaao AAO “Ieaicaaiae Noaiiie” Caii??cueei?
iaeano? a ia??iae oi?ioaaiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai ieai?iiiai noaaea
naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie ? noai?aiiy ieai?iiiai caaiaeo ii ?icaaaeaiith
naeiae oe??? ii?iaee. A oeueiio ae ainiiaea?noa? aea/aia aoaeoeai?noue
no?auoaaiiy ii?iaee aeth?ie noai?aiiai ieai?iiiai noaaea c aaeeeith
a?eith ii?iaeith aiae?enueei? naeaeoe??.

Caaaeueia noaia ? aoaie aeine?aeaeaiue i?eaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 1.

I?e noai?aii? ieai?iiiai noaaea naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie aoee aeei?enoai?
o?aaeeoe?ei? naeaeoe?ei? iaoiaee a?aeai?o oa i?aeai?o. Ioe?iea oaa?ei
noai?aiiai naeaeoe?eiiai noaaea i?iaiaeeeanue ca aeaniith
i?iaeoeoeai?noth ? ye?noth iauaaee?a ii??aiyii ?c noaiaea?oii aeiia
eeano ae?oa (?ino?oeoe?y ii aii?ooaaiith naeiae. — Ee?a: O?iaeae, 1993;
I., 1976) ? e?aueie na?oiaeie aiaeiaaie. Ioe?iea eio??a oa iaoie ca
ye?noth iauaaee?a (a?aeaiae?aaeueieo ? iynieo iciae) i?iaiaeeeanue
ca?aeii iaoiaeeee A?Oa (1976). Nei?inoeae?noue, a?aeaiae?aaeuei? yeino?
eio??a, ye? ioe?ithaaeenue, aecia/aee ca aaniethoieie iieacieeaie, a
oaeiae c aeei?enoaiiyi ioe?ii/iiai ?iaeaeno (Ca Iaca?ae?, 1966;
I.Ae.Aa?acianueeee, 1978), o?ceei-o?i?/i? iieacieee iyna ? naea,
ii?oieia?/i? ? a?io?i?/i? iieacieee e?ia? aeine?aeaeoaaee a
o?i?ei-aiae?oe/i?e eaai?aoi??? ?inoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa “Aneai?y-Iiaa”
ca?aeii caaaeueii i?eeiyoeo niaoe?aeueieo iaoiaeee, i?eaaaeaieo a
aeena?oaoe??, ai?no iaoae?a aecia/aee c aeiiiiiaith
aoiiii-aani?aoe?eiiai niaeo?ioioiiao?o AAS-3. Noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea
iaoa??aeo i?iaiaeeeanue ia iaeeo AII ca iaoiaeaie, iienaieie
I.I.Ieio?inueeei (1961), ?.E.Ia?eo??aith (1970).

Iniiaiei ei?iii an?o iiaiia?eiaeo a?oi aoee niaoeeiia?ei?ie: aeey
ii?inyo NE-11, NE-16, aeey aei?ineiai iiaie?ay NE-1, NE-6 c aeiaaaeith a
caeaaeiino? a?ae ii?e ?ieo a?aioe, ao?ye?a, ?ioeo iai/aaaooaiieo ?
caeaieo ei?i?a. A iaoeiai-ae?iaie/iio aeine?ae? ii a?aeaiae?ae? iii?nae
aoee aeei?enoai? iiaiioe?ii? eiia?ei?ie c aeeth/aiiyi i?ai?en?a.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIUe ? AIAE?C IO?EIAIEO AeAIEO

Aoaie ? iaoiaee/i? i?aeoiaee oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaee aeth?ie

Naei? ii?iaee aeth?ie ca?oa?aeii? naeaeoe?? oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aenieith
aia?a??th ?inoo ? aeia?eie iynieie yeinoyie, aea ca aaaaoiie?aei?noth ia
eiieo?aioicaeaoi? c a?o/eciyieie ii?iaeaie. Oiio aoei iinoaaeaii
caaaeaiiy aecia/eoe iioeiaeuei? aa??aioe aeei?enoaiiy naeiae ??cieo
iiioeyoe?e aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo yeinoae iaoie. Aoaeoeaiei a
ia??iae 1983-1989 ??. aeyaeeinue ieaiii??ia aeei?enoaiiy ii?aeiaiiy
(AeAI o Ae*), aea iaoa?einueeith iniiaith aoea /anueea iiioeyoe?y,
aaouee?anueeith — aia?eeainueea.

A ia??iae 1989…1998 ?.?. aeei?enoiaoaaeenue oae? ii?aeiaiiy: (Ae* o
Ae*), (AeAI o Ae*), (AeAA o Ae*), (AeAeO o Ae*). Aaaaoiie?aei?noue iaoie
a oeae ia??iae a na?aaeiueiio ii noaaeo (n=2048) noaiiaeea 10,76 aie?a
(ia 0,5 ii?inyoe a?eueoa, i?ae o ia??iae? 1983…1989 ?.?.), ui coiiaeaii
ni?yiiaaiei aaoa?iaaiiei i?aeai?ii c aeei?enoaiiyi aeth?ie?a /anueei?,
aia?eeainueei?, aiae?enueei? ? aeaonueei? naeaeoe??. I?aeaeuaiith
i?iaeoeoeaiino? naeiae ni?eyei aeei?enoaiiy aaoa?iaaiiiai i?aeai?o i?e
aioo??ii?iaeiiio ia?oaaii? oaa?ei, ye? ae?inee a ??cieo aaia?ao?/ieo
oiiaao (i?iyaa “aaia?ao?/iiai aaoa?iceno”).

A iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo aeei?enoaiiy ia?oaaiue naeiae ??cieo
aaia?ao?/ieo iiioeyoe?e ? aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaee
aeth?ie a iiaeo aeieia?/ieo oiiaao.

Noai?aiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaiiai ieai?iiiai noaaea naeiae ii?iaee
aeth?ie AAO “Ieaicaaiae Noaiiie”

Ni?yiiaaia aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo aaiioei?a, ioe?iea ?o, noai?aiiy ieaioa?ie
(1985 ?.), noai?aiiy ieaicaaiaeo (1989 ?.), iino?eia oaeineiiaeaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaieo yeinoae oaa?ei aei ??aiy e?aueo na?oiaeo aiaeia?a, — oaeee
oeyo ?icaaaeaiiy naeiae ii?iaee a ainiiaea?noa?. Ca 1983-1998 ?iee
i?iaii?oiaaii anueiai 37355 aie?a, ?c ieo eio??a iniiaieo — 434,
ia?aa??y?ieo — 181, iaoie iniiaieo — 2681, ia?aa??y?ieo — 1343,
?aiiioieo eio??a — 576, ?aiiioieo naeiie — 2490, ieaiiieiaeiyeo — 29832.
Ca eiiieaeniith ioe?ieith 83,4% noaaea a?aeiia?aea? eeano ae?oa ?
ae?oa-?aei?ae. A na?aaeiueiio aeeaa iana eio??a a 12-i?ny/iiio a?oe?
noaiiaeoue 204 ea, ui aeua noaiaea?oo eeano ae?oa ia 36 ea, a
24-i?ny/iiio — 292 ea (ia 2 ea aeua), a 36 — 329 ea (ia 29 ea aeua).
Iaeneiaeuei? ia?aiao?e, a?aeiia?aeii: 220 ea, 320 ea, 410 ea, ui aeua
eeano ae?oa, a?aeiia?aeii, ia 52 ea, 30 ea, 110 ea. AEeaa iana iaoie o
a?oe? 18…23 i?nyoe? neeaaea? 236 ea (ia 26 ea aeua eeano ae?oa), o a?oe?
30…35 i?nyoe?a — 257 ea (aeua ia 27 ea), o 36 i?nyoe?a — 267 ea (aeua ia
32 ea); iaeneiaeuei? ia?aiao?e, a?aeiia?aeii: 300 ea, 360 ea, 380 ea
(aeua ia 90 ea, 127 ea, 145 ea).

?ai?iaeoeoeai? yeino? iaoie i?eaaaeai? a oaaeeoe? 2.

Oaaeeoey 2 — ?ai?iaeoeoeai? yeino? iaoie (1989-1998 ??.)

E?euee?noue

iii?i-

n?a Aaaaoiie?aei?noue, 2 i?nyoey aie.e?euee?noue
ii?inyoIana ai?caeana?aaei.iaen.na?aaei.iaen.na?aaei.iaen.Iaoee c
iaeiei iii?inii

845

10,2

16

8,9

12

174

217Iaoee c aeaiia ? a?eueoa iii?inaie

2780

11,0

18

9,6

14

190

252 aei noaiaea?oo eeano ae?oa

+ 1

+8

+20

+82a na?aaeiueiio362510,6189,2514182252

Aaaaoiie?aei?noue iaoie (n=3625) neeaaea? 10,6 aie?a (aeua noaiaea?oo
eeano ae?oa ia 0,6 aieiae) ? aeua ia 0,6 aie?a ia??iaeo 1983- 1989 ?.?.
sseui a?aooaaoe, ui a e?aueo ieai?iieo ainiiaea?noaao NOA, Aeai??,
Oaaoe??, *aoineiaa//eie aaaaoiie?aei?noue iaoie aeth?ie neeaaea?,
a?aeiia?aeii: 9,5…10,5; 9,2; 9,2…10,5; 10,25 aie?a, oi iiaeia
a?aei?oeoe, ui iaoee AAO “Ieaicaaiae Noaiiie” ia?aaeuothoue e?au?
na?oia? aiaeiae ca aaaaoiie?aei?noth ia, a?aeiia?aeii: 1,1…0,1; 1,4;
1,4…0,1; 0,35 ii?inyoe.

A?aoiaoth/e oa, ui ii?iaea aeth?ie yaey? niaith aaouee?anueeo oi?io,
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy iaaeaaaeinue caa?aaeaiith aenieiai ??aiy
a?aeaiae?aaeueieo oa iynieo yeinoae, a oiio ui??/ii iaoiaeii
eiio?ieueii? a?aeaiae?ae? ioe?ithaaee a?eueoo /anoeio e?i?e eio??a ?
/anoeiai ?iaeei naeiiiaoie.

I?aeoe/ii aeinoia??ii? ??cieoe? i?ae e?i?yie eio??a ia anoaiiaeaii, i?i
ui na?ae/aoue ye aaniethoi? iieacieee a?aeaiae?aaeueieo ? i’ynieo
yeinoae, oae ? cia/aiiy ioe?ii/iiai ?iaeaeno. Oaa?eie ia cieceee nai?
caa?ei? oa iyni? yeino?. A ia??iae 1989… 1998 ?.?. oe? iciaee aoee
oaeeie: caa?eiee aeo?ae — 79,5%, ieiua “iyciaiai a?/ea” — 38,0 ni2,
oiaueia oi?ao — 22,2 ii, aeiaaeeia ooo? — 96,5 ni, iana ieinoo — 11,73
ea.

Oaaeeoey 3 — ?acoeueoaoe ioe?iee eio??a

Eee/ea ? ? eio?aE?eue-e?noue

iauaaee?aA?e aei-nyaiaiiy iane 100 ea, aei?aNa?aaeiuei-aeiaiaee i?e??no,

aAeo?aoe ei?io ia

1 ea i?e?inoo, ei?i. iae.Ioe?ii/iee ?iaeaen ?i1983…1989
??.A na?aaeiueiio501183,65,371117,23,72-1989…1998 ??.A
na?aaeiueiio720178,08,774518,23,65-1998 ?.Aaeueoa?
7585121807,374213,53,6614,60Aaeueaao 7765121799,47309,73,6315,05Ieioa?
407121773,876314,53,6015,31Eaaeai 7631121784,77745,23,6414,38Noaae Oinn
8005121819,874710,73,6914,43Aoe Ion 843121788,17636,73,6415,33A
na?aaeiueiio721797,175612,33,6414,86aei 1983-1989 ??.—4,6+45-0,08-aei
1989-1998 ??.-+1+11-0,1-

Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie a no?auoaaii? c
aaeeeith a?eith aiae?enueeith

?ai?iaeoeoeai? yeino? iaoie

Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue ii?inyo i?e ia?iaeaeaii? (11,5 aie.) aoea o iaoie
ii?aeiaiiy AAA o AAA, ae?oaa i?noea iaeaaeaei ii?aeiaiith Ae o AAA —
(11,4 aie.). A 2 i?nyoe? i?aeoe/ii e?euee?noue ii?inyo o an?o iii?nieo
a?oiao aoea iaeiaeiaa: 11,4; 11,13; 11,18 aie., aea ca ianith ai?caea a
2 i?nyoe? e?aueie aoee iaoee ii?iaee aeth?ie, iie?eo? eio?aie aaeeei?
a?ei? aiae?enueei? — 223 ea i?ioe 200 ea a ? a?oi?; 208 o ??; 214 o
?V-e.

A?aeaiae?aaeuei? oa iyni? yeino? i?aeaeine?aeiiai iieiaeiyea

I?eaaaeai? o oaaeeoe? 4 aeai? iieacothoue, ui a?aeaiae?aaeuei? yeino?
an?o ii?aeioaaiue a oiiaao iiaiioe?iii? aiae?ae? aoee aeineoue aenie?.

A iaoeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ? ? ?? a?oie ? eiio?ieueieie ii a?aeiioaiith aei
iii?nieo, aea a ??? a?oi? iaoa?einueeith iniiaith aoea ii?iaea aeth?ie,
aaouee?anueeith — aaeeea a?ea aiae?enueea; a IV a?oi?, iaaiaee,
iaoa?einueeith — aaeeea a?ea aiae?enueea, aaouee?anueeith — aeth?ie. A
aeine?aeieo a?oiao oaa?eie aeinyaathoue 100 ea aeeai? iane ca 171…174
aei?, ui iaioa eiio?ieueieo, a?aeiia?aeii, ia 4 ? 5 aei?a; nei?i/aiiy
a?eo aeinyaiaiiy 100 ea iaoiiaeaii a?eueo aenieeie (ia 31 a, 32 a )
na?aaeiueiaeiaiaeie i?e?inoaie. I?e aeinyaiaii? iane 120 ea oaa?eie
aeine?aeieo a?oi oaeiae aoee a?eueo i?iaeoeoeaieie. Ca
na?aaeiueiaeiaiaeie i?e?inoaie ??cieoey ia ei?enoue aeine?aeieo a?oi
neeaaeaea 39 a, 35 a (?>0,95).

Oaaeeoey 4 — ?acoeueoaoe a?aeaiae?ae? naeiae

Ae o Ae

?EAAoEAA

??EAAoAe

???AeoEAA

IV???

aei ?IV

aei ??I?e aeinyaiaii? 100 eaE?euee?noue aie?a30303030—A?e aeinyaiaiiy
aeeai? iane 100 ea, aei?a

1753,72

1794,52

1714,07

1745,14

-4

-5Na?aaeiueiaeiai-aee i?e??no,
a76017,075115,779116,578317,0+31+32Aeo?aoe ei?io ia 1 ea i?e-?inoo,
e..iae.

3,50

3,50

3,40

3,35

-0,10

-0,15I?e aeinyaiaii? 120 eaE?euee?noue aie?a20202020—A?e aeinyaiaiiy
aeeai? iane 120 ea, aei?a

2002,17

2053,21

1943,5

1982,35

-6

-7Na?aaeiuei-aeiai-aee i?e??no,
a76815,575513,080711,279012,0+39*+35*Aeo?aoe ei?io ia 1 ea i?e-?inoo,
e..iae.

3,64

3,65

3,52

3,45

-0,12

-0,20

A oaaeeoe? 5 iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe iaaaeoaaiiy ooo oa aeo?ae c ooo?
iyna, naea, e?noie. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ooo? /enoiii?iaeieo aeth?ie?a a?eueo
iyni?, aeo?ae iyna c ooo? noaiiaeoue 64,21%, naea — 22,84%, a a oooao
i?aenaeie?a aaeeei? a?ei? ii?iaee, a?aeiia?aeii, 59,3% ? 29,40%.

Ii??aithth/e aeine?aei? ? eiio?ieuei? a?oie, iiaeia aeacaoe ia
iiceoeaiee aieea ii?iaee aeth?ie ia ca?eueoaiiy iyna a oooao iii?nae ye
i?e i?yiiio, oae ? cai?ioiiio no?auoaaii? c aaeeeith a?eith
aiae?enueeith. Oae, iii?n? (AAA o Ae) ia?aaeuoaaee /enoiii??aeieo
i?aenaeie?a aaeeei? a?ei? ii?iaee ca aeoiaeii iyna c ooo? ia 2,45%
(?>0,95), iii?n? (Ae o AAA) — ia 1,12% (?>0,99), naea o ieo iaioa,
a?aeiia?aeii, ia 2,65% (?>0,99) ? 1,24% (?>0,95). A?eueo nooo?aee aieea
ii?iaee aeth?ie ia ca?eueoaiiy iyniino? o iii?nae a?aei?/a?oueny i?e
aeei?enoaii? ?? a yeino? iaoa?einueei? oi?ie.

Oaaeeoey 5 — Ii?oieia?/iee neeaae ooo

Iana ioieiaeaeaii? ooo?, eaAeo?ae c ooo?, % i’yna naea e?noieI
a?oia Ae o Ae68,25±0,4864,21±0,5722,84±0,4312,95±0,21 II a?oia AAA
oAAA65,01±0,3759,3±0,2529,40±0,2811,30±0,33 III a?oia AAA
xAe67,32±0,4561,75±0,4726,75±0,3511,50±0,35 IV a?oia Ae o
AAA66,25±0,3560,42±0,4328,16±0,3811,42±0,37±III a?oia aei
I-0,93-2,46*+3,91**-1,45*±III a?oia aei II+2,31*+2,45*-2,65**+0,20 ±IV
a?oia aei II+1,24*+1,12*-1,24*+0,12

*?>0,95; ** ?>0,99.

O?i?/i? ? o?ce/i? iieacieee iyna, naea oa aeaye? aeaiaioe oyaeeeo
iaoae?a

Nooo?ai? ??cieoe? i?ae a?oiaie ca ai?noii o iyn? nooi? ?a/iaeie,
i?ioa?io, ciee ia aeyaeaii. A?eueo aenieei aoa ai?no aee?o a iyn?
/enoiii?iaeiiai iieiaeiyea ii?iaee aeth?ie (3,54%), ui ia?aaa?oo? ??
a?oio (AAA o AAA), ??? (AAA o Ae), IV (Ae o AAA), a?aeiia?aeii, ia
1,13%; 0,90%; 0,71% (?>0,95). Naei i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei an?o a?oi
oaeiae aeniei? yeino?. Aeua cia/aiiy eiaeiiai /enea a nae? iii?nieo
oaa?ei aeaco? ia eiai ieae/o oaiia?aoo?o ieaaeaiiy.

Ai?no a iyn? i?ae?, naeioeth, cae?ca, oeeieo iaoiaeeoueny a iaaeao
aeiionoeieo ii?i.

I?e?iaeia ?acenoaioi?noue i?aai?cio oaa?ei

Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaieo aaiaoieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue (ii?oieia?/ieo ?
a?io?i?/ieo iieaciee?a e?ia?) o a?oe? a?ae iaeiiai aei oanoe i?nyoe?a,
onoaiiaeaii, ui ??aaiue ?aaeoeaiino? i?aai?cio naeiae o an?o a?oiao
aenieee. O oaa?ei a iniiaiiio ae?aaeaia a?eiaa caeiiii??i?noue ca
ii?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie e?ia?.

A oaaeeoe? 6 i?eaaaeai? aaiaoieia?/i? iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue
i?e?iaeio ?acenoaioi?noue i?aai?cio i?aeaeine?aeieo oaa?ei.

Oaaeeoey 6 — Aaiaoieia?/i? iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue

i?e?iaeio ?acenoaioi?noue i?aai?cio naeiae

A?o-

ieAEe-

aa

ia-na, eaEaeeioeeoe,

oen./ieCaaa-

eueiee

a?eie a%A?eeia? o?aeoe??, a% Aeoeai?noue, %aeue-

ao-

i?ie Aeiaoe?ieoaai-

oeeoa?iae?ci-

oeei-

iaaaeoa-

??oeeae-

ia 1
i?n.I9,58,106,062,960,750,521,8391,23,0772,26II9,314,235,753,050,860,781
,0689,52,6274,52III9,611,456,322,961,030,801,5388,43,0073,00IV9,113,056,
352,870,950,931,6089,03,1073,702
i?n.I20,818,307,223,470,721,431,6085,33,9070,00II20,119,036,243,170,561,
451,0685,03,7066,11III21,320,776,872,730,661,641,8486,04,4068,89IV20,718
,407,152,840,851,541,9287,04,1071,504 i?n.
I47,018,157,453,310,771,511,8686,03,7569,70II47,022,676,752,321,071,561,
8088,54,2566,07III50,417,767,122,471,131,092,4386,03,8366,67IV49,915,867
,422,640,941,072,7788,04,2268,096
i?n.I103,514,858,043,651,401,261,7389,04,2355,80II101,216,727,753,531,35
1,521,3588,74,3854,37III108,315,207,783,681,151,621,3390,54,3263,25IV106
,513,508,053,541,171,451,8988,94,0164,05

??aaiue eaeeioeeo?a ? caaaeueiiai a?eeo o a?oe? a?ae iaeiiai aei oanoe
i?nyoe?a a ?ic??c? a?oi iieacothoue iiae?aio a?eiao caeiiii??i?noue oeeo
iciae o an?o a?oiao, ye o /enoiii?iaeieo oaa?ei, oae ? iii?nieo. Aeaui
i?aeaeuaiee ??aaiue caaaeueiiai a?eeo o i?aenaeie?a /enoiii?iaeieo
aeth?ie?a ? ii?aeiaiiy Ae o AAA, ui coiiaeth? a aeaye?e i??? e?auee
a?eeiaee iai?i a i?aai?ci?. Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe iaaio ??cieoeth ca ??aiai
ie?aieo ooieoe?e aeiaoe?i?a i?ae a?oiaie, iniaeeai oea a?aeiineoueny aei
eiioeaio?aoe?? aaia-aeiaoe?i?a o e?ia? i?aeaeine?aeiiai iieiaeiyeo a 4-o
i?ny/iiio a?oe?. Ca?eueoaiiy aaia-aeiaoe?i?a o iii?nieo oaa?ei
ii?aeiaiue (AAA o Ae) ? (Ae o AAA) aeineoue nooo?aa, a ii??aiyii? c
/enoiii?iaeieie, ui iiynith?oueny a?eueo aenieith ?aaeoeai?noth
i?aai?cio iii?nieo oaa?ei a oeae ia??iae. Aeaui aeua aaeoa??inoaoe/ia
ae?y o iii?nieo oaa?ei a 6-i?ny/iiio a?oe?. Ioaea, ci?ia
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iieaciee?a ee?oeiiiai ? aoii?aeueiiai caoenoo e?ia?
naeiae ia? a iniiaiiio iiae?aiee oa?aeoa? ? ni?ey? aeyaeaiith
aaiaoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo o i?aeaeine?aeiiai iieiaeiyea.

I?ioa, o iii?nieo oaa?ei a?aei?/athoueny a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue
aaia-aeiaoe?iiai? o?aeoe??, aeaui aeua aaeoa??oeeaeia aeoeai?noue a
oanoei?ny/iiio a?oe?, a ia?aaeuaiiy e?eueeino? a?eo?ioeeo?a a e?ia?
naeiae ii?aeiaiue Ae o AAA; AAA o Ae na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueo ?ioaineaiee
??no iii?niiai iieiaeiyea.

Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue iii?nieo oaa?ei

?ic?aooiee iieacothoue, ui aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue iii?nae AAA o Ae
(III a?oia), Ae o AAA (IV a?oia), a ii??aiyii? c /enoiii?iaeieie
aeth?eaie (I a?oia) ? aaeeeeie a?eeie (?? a?oia) noaiiaeea a ?ic?aooieo
ia iaeio aieiao, a?aeiia?aeii, 25,12 a?i., 28,44 a?i. Aoaeoeai?noue
neeaaea?oueny a?ae ia?aaeuaiiy na?aaeiueiaeiaiaiai i?e?inoo aeine?aeieo
a?oi iaae eiio?ieueieie ia 31 a, 32 a oa nei?i/aiiy ia??iaeo
a?aeaiae?ae? ia 4; 5 aei?a. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?e a?aeaiae?ae?
aei aeeai? iane 120 ea a?ae iaei??? aieiae noaiiaeea, a?aeiia?aeii: 37,1
a?i., 38,6 a?i., ui coiiaeaii a?eueoei ia 39 a; 35 a na?aaeiueiaeiaiaei
i?e?inoii ? nei?i/aiei ia 6…7 aei?a ia??iaeii a?aeaiae?ae?. Ioaea,
a?eueo aeiiii?/iith ne?ae aaaaeaoe a?aeaiae?aeth oaa?ei aei aeeai? iane
120 ea.

AENIIAEE

1.Oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaee aeth?ie c iaoeiai-iaa?oioiaaiei aeei?enoaiiyi
naeiae /anueei?, aia?eeainueei?, aiae?enueei? ? aeaonueei? naeaeoe?? ?
aoaeoeaiei. Ia oe?e iniia? noai?aii aenieii?iaeoeoeaia noaaei c
iie?ioaieie ?ai?iaeoeoeaieie yeinoyie iaoie, ui iaoiiaeaii aeei?enoaiiyi
aaoa?iaaiiiai i?aeai?o i?e aioo??ii?iaeiiio ?icaaaeaii? oaa?ei,
ae?iuaieo a ??cieo aaia?ao?/ieo oiiaao (i?iyaa “aaia?ao?/iiai
aaoa?iceno”).

2.

Aeei?enoaiiy a yeino? iaoa?einueei? iniiae oaa?ei /anueei? iiioeyoe??, a
a yeino? aaouee?anueei? — aia?eeainueei?, aiae?enueei?, aeaonueei? —
noaei aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii oaeineiiaeaiiy naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie.

3. Iayai?noue 50%-? e?iaiino? aeaio ??cieo iiioeyoe?e ni?ey?
i?aeaeuaiith ?ai?iaeoeoeaieo yeinoae iaoie ia 5-10%. Aaaaoiie?aei?noue
iaoie ii?aeiaiiy aeth?ie aiae?enueei? naeaeoe?? o aeth?ie /anueei? —
10,77 aie?a, ii?aeiaiiy aeth?ie aeaonueei? o aeth?ie /anueei? — 10,86, o
iaoie aea /anueei? naeaeoe?? aeth?ie /anueei? o aeth?ie /anueei? — 10,65
aie?a.

4. Aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo aaiioei?a, ioe?iea ?o, noai?aiiy ieaioa?ie,
ieaicaaiaeo, iino?eia oaeineiiaeaiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo yeinoae oaa?ei aei
??aiy e?aueo na?oiaeo aiaeia?a — oaeee oeyo ?icaaaeaiiy naeiae ii?iaee
aeth?ie o AAO “Ieaicaaiae Noaiiie”. Ca eiiieaeniith ioe?ieith 83,4%
oaa?ei noaaea a?aeiia?aeathoue eeano ae?oa ? ae?oa-?aei?ae. AEeaa iana a
36 i?nyoe?a noaiiaeoue: eio??a — 329 ea, iaoie — 257 ea, ui ia?aaeuo?
i?i?iaeuei? aeiiae eeano ae?oa, a?aeiia?aeii, ia 29 ? 27 ea,
aaaaoiie?aei?noue iaoie (10,6 aie?a) aeua e?aueo na?oiaeo aiaeia?a ia
0,1…1,4 ii?inyoe; 100 ea aeeai? iane oaa?eie aeinyaathoue ca 178…183
aei?, aeo?a/ath/e ia 1 ea i?e?inoo 3,65 ei?i. iae.; aenie? i’yni?
yeino?: caa?eiee aeo?ae — 81,2%, oiaueia oi?ao — 22,8 ii, ui
a?aeiia?aea? ??aith e?aueo na?oiaeo aiaeia?a.

5. Aeei?enoaiiy ii?iaee aeth?ie ye a i?yiiio, oae ? cai?ioiiio
aa??aioao no?auoaaiiy c aaeeeith a?eith aiae?enueeith ia? iiceoeaiee
aieea ia a?aeaiae?aaeuei?, i’yni? ? ?io? yeino? iii?nae. I?ioa, a?eueo
aoaeoeaiei ? ii?aeiaiiy aaeeea a?ea aiae?enueea o aeth?ie, aea
iaoa?einueeith iniiaith aoea ii?iaea aeth?ie.

6. ?ai?iaeoeoeai? yeino? iaoie o an?o ii?aeiaiiyo aeineoue aenie?:
aaaaoiie?aei?noue – 10,8…11,5 aie?a, a 2 i?nyoe? — 10,53…11,18 aie?a;
(a??ia?aeii? ??cieoe? i?ae a?oiaie ia anoaiiaeaii). A ii?aeiaiiyo aaeeea
a?ea aiae?enueea o aeth?ie ? aeth?ie o aaeeea a?ea aiae?enueea aeaui
aeua iana ai?caea a 2 i?nyoe? (223 ea, 214 ea) — ii??aiyii c a?oiaie
/enoiii?iaeieo aeth?ie?a ? aaeeei? a?ei? (200 ea, 208 ea).

Iii?ni? oaa?eie 50%-th e?iaiinoth ii aeth?eao ? aaeee?e a?e?e iaee
ia a?aeaiae?ae? na?aaeiueiaeiaia? i?e?inoe 807 a, 790 a ? ia?aaa?ooaaee
a?oie /enoiii?iaeieo oaa?ei (aeth?ie ? aaeeea a?ea) ia 39 a, 35 a
(P>0,95), ui nei?i/oaaei ia??iae a?aeaiae?ae?, a?aeiia?aeii, ia 6 ? 7
aei?a.

7. I’yni ? naei an?o a?oi oaa?ei aeia?i? yeino?. A?eueo aenieei
aoa ai?no aee?o a i’yn? iieiaeiyea aeth?ie (3,54%). ? oey iciaea e?aua
ia?aaeaaaeanue oaa?eiai ii?aeiaiiy aeth?ie o aaeeea a?ea aiae?enueea,
aea iaoa?einueeith oi?iith aoea ii?iaea aaeeea a?ea. Ai?no aea a i’yn?
i?ae?, naeioeth, cae?ca, oeeieo, iaoiaeeoueny ia ??ai? aeiiouaieo ii?i.

8. Aaiaoieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue aenieee ??aaiue ?aaeoeaiino?
i?aai?cio ye iii?nieo, oae ? /enoiii?iaeieo naeiae. O oaa?ei a?ae
iaeiiai aei oanoe i?nyoe?a a iniiaiiio ae?aaeaia a?eiaa caeiiii??i?noue
ca ii?oieia?/ieie iciaeaie e?ia?. I?ioa, o iii?nieo oaa?ei aaeeea a?ea
aiae?enueea o aeth?ie ? aeth?ie o aaeeea a?ea aiae?enueea a?aei?/a?oueny
a?eueo aenieee ??aaiue aaia-aeiaoe?iiai? o?aeoe??, o ieo aeaui aeua
aaeoa?eoeeaeia aeoeai?noue a oanoei?ny/iiio a?oe?, a a?eueoa e?euee?noue
a?eo?ioeeo?a a e?ia? na?ae/eoue i?i a?eueo ?ioaineaiee ??no iii?niiai
iieiaeiyea.

9. Aeiiii?/ia aoaeoeai?noue i?aenaeie?a ii?aeiaiiue aaeeea a?ea
aiae?enueea o aeth?ie ? aeth?ie o aaeeea a?ea aiae?enueea a
ii??aiyii? c aeine?aeieie /enoiii?iaeieie aeth?ieaie ? aaeeeith a?eith
neeaaeaea a?ae iaei??? aieiae i?e aeinyaiaii? aeeai? iane 100 ea,
a?aeiia?aeii, 25,12 a?i. ? 28,44 a?i., i?e 120 ea — 37,1 a?i. ? 38,6
a?i. A?eueo aeiiii?/ii aea?aeiei ? a?aeaiae?aey aei aeeai? iane 120 ea.

10. I?e /enoiii?iaeiiio ?icaaaeaii? ii?iaee aeth?ie aeioe?eueii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe oaa?ei, ae?iuaieo a ??cieo i?e?iaeii-ee?iaoe/ieo ciiao,
ui caaacia/o? aaoa?iaaiee i?aea?? ? ni?ey? ?icoe?aiith aaiaoe/ii?
no?oeoo?e noaaea.

11. Aeey iaea?aeaiiy aenieiye?niiai a?aeaiae?aaeueiiai iieiaeiyea iiaeia
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ii?iaeo aeth?ie a no?auoaaii? c aaeeeith a?eith
aiae?enueeith ye a yeino? aaouee?anueei?, oae ? iaoa?einueei? oi?i,
noai?thth/e i?e oeueiio a?aeiia?aei? oiiae aiae?ae? oa oo?eiaiiy oaa?ei.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoe??

1.Oii?oa A.N., ?ithe I.I., Aieeia A.A., *a?iaae/oe A.N. Naeiuee ii?iaeu
aeth?ie. — Neioa?iiieue: Oaa?ey. — 1994. — 113 n. (aenia?eiaioaeueia
/anoeia, ia?iaea aeaieo).

2. Oii?oa A.N., Aieeia A.A., *a?iaae/oe A.N. Naei? ii?iaee aeth?ie
oe?a?inueei? naeaeoe?? // Naeia?noai. I?aea?aeii/ee oaiaoe/iee iaoeiaee
ca??iee, Ee?a: Aa?a?ia Iaoea. — 1997. — ?53. — n.26-29
(aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia, ia?iaea aeaieo).

3.

Oii?oa A.N., Aieeia A.A., *a?iaae/oe A.N. Aenieii?iaeoeoeaia noaaei
naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie. — Ee?a, 1993. — 6 n. (aeine?aeia /anoeia).

4. Oii?oa A.N., Aieeia A.A., *a?iaae/oe A.N. Iiaee caaiaenueeee oei
naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie oe?a?inueei? naeaeoe??. — Caii??aeaey. — 1998. —
4 n. (aenia?eiaioaeueia /anoeia).

5. Aieeia A.A. ?acaaaeaiea naeiae ii?iaeu aeth?ie e e?oiiie aaeie
aiaeeeneie naeaeoeee // Naeiiaiaenoai. — 1999. — ?1. — n.22-24.

6. Aieeia A.A. Aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie a
no?auoaaii? c aaeeeith a?eith aiae?enueeith // Oaa??enueeee iaoeiaee
a?niee. Ca. iaoeia. i?aoeue ? iiiia?ao?e. – Oa?nii, 1999.- Aei. 10.-
n.103-106.

Aieeia A.A. Oaeineiiaeaiiy naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie i?e /enoiii?iaeiiio
?icaaaeaii? oa aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy ?? a no?auoaaii?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 06.02.01. —
?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoe?y oaa?ei — Oa?niinueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee
oi?aa?neoao, Oa?nii, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi ?ic?iaee iaoiaee/ieo i?aeoiae?a
oaeineiiaeaiiy ii?iaee aeth?ie a oiiaao i?aaeiy Oe?a?ie c aeei?enoaiiyi
naeiae /anueei?, aia?eeainueei?, aiae?enueei?, aeaonueei? naeaeoe??,
noai?aiith ieai?iiiai noaaea c iie?ioaieie ?ai?iaeoeoeaieie yeinoyie
iaoie oa aecia/aiith aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy ii?iaee a no?auoaaii? c
aaeeeith a?eith aiae?enueeith.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ni?yiiaaia aeei?enoaiiy a yeino? iaoa?einueei? iniiae
/anueei? iiioeyoe??, a a yeino? aaouee?anueei? aia?eeainueei?,
aiae?enueei? oa aeaonueei?, noaei aoaeoeaiei iaoiaeii oaeineiiaeaiiy
ii?iaee aeth?ie. Ia oe?e iniia? a oiiaao AAO “Ieaicaaiae Noaiiie”
noai?aii ieai?iia noaaei naeiae ii?iaee aeth?ie oe?a?inueei? naeaeoe??,
yea ca ?ai?iaeoeoeaieie yeinoyie iaoie ia?aaa?oo? e?au? na?oia? aiaeiae.

Aeei?enoaiiy ii?iaee aeth?ie a no?auoaaii? c aaeeeith a?eith
aiae?enueeith iiceoeaii aieeaa? ia a?aeaiae?aaeuei? ? iyni? yeino?
iii?nae. A?eueo aoaeoeaiei aeyaeeiny ii?aeiaiiy, aea iaoa?einueeith
iniiaith aoea ii?iaea aeth?ie.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeth?ie, oaeineiiaeaiiy, aaia?ao?/i? iiioeyoe??,
?ai?iaeoeoeai? yeino?, no?auoaaiiy, aaeeea a?ea aiae?enueea.

Aieeia A.A. Oniaa?oainoaiaaiea naeiae ii?iaeu aeth?ie i?e /enoiii?iaeiii
?acaaaeaiee e yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey aa a ne?aueaaiee. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.02.01. — ?acaaaeaiea e
naeaeoeey aeeaioiuo — Oa?niineee ainoaea?noaaiiue aa?a?iue oieaa?neoao,
Oa?nii, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ?ac?aaioee iaoiaee/aneeo iiaeoiaeia
oniaa?oainoaiaaiey ii?iaeu aeth?ie a iiauo oneiaeyo n eniieueciaaieai
naeiae /aoneie, aia?eeaineie, aiaeeeneie, aeaoneie naeaeoeee, nicaeaieth
ieaiaiiiai noaaea n oeo/oaiiuie ?ai?iaeoeoeaiuie ea/anoaaie iaoie e
ii?aaeaeaieth yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey ii?iaeu a ne?aueaaiee n
e?oiiie aaeie aiaeeeneie.

A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee auyaeaiu i?eioeeieaeueii iiaua
iaoiaee/aneea iiaeoiaeu ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth naeiae ii?iaeu aeth?ie n
oeaeaiai?aaeaiiui eniieueciaaieai aaia?aoe/aneeo iiioeyoeee yoie
ii?iaeu. Ia iniiaaiee yoiai ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaee/aneea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii yooaeoeaiiio aaaeaieth naeaeoeeiiii-ieaiaiiie ?aaiou n
ii?iaeie.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia nio?aiaiea ii?iaeu aeth?ie a oeaeii e iiauoaiea
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe aeeaioiuo niinianoaiaaei, a iioeiaeueiuo oneiaeyo
ei?ieaiey, oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia eniieueciaaiea ?acee/iuo aaia?aoe/aneeo
iiioeyoeee. Ieaiiia?iia eniieueciaaiea yoeo ni/aoaiee yaeeinue
yooaeoeaiui iaoiaeii nio?aiaiey e nicaeaiey ieaiaiiiai /enoiii?iaeiiai
noaaea naeiae ii?iaeu aeth?ie. Iiauoaiea i?iaeoeoeaiinoe naeiae
iaania/eaaaony ca n/ao nia?eaaiey aeeaioiuo, au?auaiiuo a ?acee/iuo
oneiaeyo, i?aaenoaaeythueo niaie aa?eaiou aaoa?iceniiai iiaeai?a.

Oaeoaeaiiay naeaeoeeiiii-ieaiaiiay ?aaioa ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth naeiae
ii?iaeu aeth?ie a oneiaeyo iieiioeaiiiai ei?ieaiey IAI «Ieaicaaiae
Noaiiie» iicaieeei nicaeaoue aunieii?iaeoeoeaiia noaaei naeiae ii?iaeu
aeth?ie oe?aeineie naeaeoeee. Ii ioei?ii/iui e iyniui ea/anoaai
aeeaioiua niioaaonoaotho eo/oei ie?iaui aiaeiaai, a ii ?ai?iaeoeoeaiinoe
i?aainoiaeyo eo.

Eniieueciaaiea ii?iaeu aeth?ie a ?aoeei?ieiuo ne?aueaaieyo n e?oiiie
aaeie aiaeeeneie iieacaei, /oi ?ai?iaeoeoeaiua ea/anoaa iaoie ai anao
ni/aoaieyo aunieea. Ii ianna aiacaea a 2 ianyoea naiui auaiaeiui
ieacaeinue oaeia ni/aoaiea, eiaaea a ea/anoaa iaoa?eineie ii?iaeu
eniieueciaaeenue aeth?iee, a iooeianeie — e?oiiay aaeay, /oi
niinianoaiaaei a aeaeueiaeoai aieaa aunieie eioaineaiinoe ?inoa
ioei?ii/iiai iieiaeiyea. Ioei?ii/iua ea/anoaa iiaenaeieia anao ni/aoaiee
a oneiaeyo iieiioeaiiiai ei?ieaiey aunieea. AEeaie iannu 100 ea naeiuee
ia ioei?ia aeinoeaatho ca 171…179 aeiae i?e n?aaeianooi/iii i?e?inoa
760…791 a, cao?a/eaay ia 1 ea i?e?inoa 3,35…3,50 ei?i. aae. Aieaa
yooaeoeaiui auyaeeinue ni/aoaiea iaoie ii?iaeu aeth?ie n i?iecaiaeeoaeai
e?oiiie aaeie aiaeeeneie.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi oooe /enoiii?iaeiuo aeth?ieia aieaa iyniua, auoiae iyna
n oooe ninoaaeyao 64,21%, naea- 22,84%, a oooa iiaenaeieia e?oiiie aaeie
ii?iaeu niioaaonoaaiii 59,3% e 29,4%. Ii?iaea aeth?ie ieacaea
iieiaeeoaeueiia aeeyiea ia oaaee/aiea iyna a oooa eae i?e i?yiii oae e
ia?aoiii ne?aueaaiee n e?oiiie aaeie aiaeeeneie naeaeoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeth?ie, oniaa?oainoaiaaiea, aaia?aoe/aneea iiioeyoeee,
?ai?iaeoeoeaiua ea/anoaa, ne?aueaaiea, e?oiiay aaeay aiaeeeneay.

Volkov A.A. Improvement of the Duroc Pig Breed in Pure-Breeding and
Efficiency of Using It in Crossing. – Manuscript.

A dissertation for the degree of candidate of agricultural sciences in
specialty 06.02.01 – animal breeding and selection. The Kherson State
Agrarian University. Kherson, 1999.

The dissertation is dedicated to questions of elaboration of methods of
improvement of the Duroc breed under new conditions using pigs of the
Czech, American, English, and Danish selections, to creation of a stud
with sows of improved reproductive qualities, and to determination of
efficiency of using the breed in crossing with the White English breed.

It has been found that a purposeful use of the Czech population for the
maternal basis and the American, English, and Danish populations for the
paternal basis is an effective method of improving of the Duroc breed.
On this basis, in conditions of the Open Joint Stock Company “Plemzavod
Stepnoy”, a Duroc pig stud of the Ukrainian selection excelling the best
world analogues in production qualities of sows has been created.

Use of the Duroc breed in crossing with the Large White English breed
influences positively on fattening and meat qualities of crosses.
Combination in which the Duroc makes up the maternal basis has turned
out more effective.

Key words: Duroc, improvement, geographical populations, reproductive
qualities, and crossings.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 1 aeiaoiy 1999 ?. Oi?iao 60o90/16Ian.ae?oe.a?e.
1.0 i?ei??iee?a 100Oa?niinueeee AeAO: ?aaeaeoe?eii-aeaeaaie/ee oeaio?
“Eiein”

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