1

IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

A?E?E Aeaiei Aaneeueiae/

OAeE 621.039.548:534.08(043.3)

OAeINEIIAETHAAIIss NENOAIE EIIO?IETH AA?IAOE*IINO? OAIEIAEAe?EssTH*EO
CAI?IE ?AAEOI??A AAN (AAA?-1000).

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.14.14. — Oaieia? ? yaea?i? aia?aionoaiiaee

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaith

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?aaioa aeeiiaia a iaoeiai-aeine?aei?e eaai?aoi??? “Aoiiniaoeaaoiiaoeea”
Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Iaeneiia Iaenei A?oae?eiae/,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aaoiiaoecaoe??

oaieiaia?aaoe/ieo i?ioean?a

Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai

oi?aa?neoaoo, iaoeiaee ea??aiee

eaai?aoi??? “Aoiiniaoeaaoiiaoeea”

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? Iaea?ia Aieiaeeie? Einoyioe- iiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
caaaeueii? oa oai?aoe/ii? o?ceee Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaa-
iiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oe?ieia Na?a?e
Aaneeueiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aoiiieo aeaeno?inoaioe?e oa ?i-
aeaia?ii? oaieio?ceee Iaoe?iiaeueiiai

oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo “EI?”

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo yaea?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue IAI
Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “25” /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 14.00 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?a-e?ciaaii? ?aaee Ae 41.052.04 Iaeanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?-neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:
270044, i. Iaeana, i?. Oaa/aiea, 1, IAeIO, aoae. 22 ei?ion. 10
(oaiei-oaoi?/ia eaai?aoi??y)

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaeanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 270044, i.
Iaeana, i?. Oaa/aiea, 1, IAeIO.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “24” o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee, ae-? oaoi.iaoe Oiaei?oeaa TH.E.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No/aniiio aoaiia? ?icaeoeo aia?aaoeee Oe?a?ie
oa?aeoa?ia oaiaeaioe?y ca?eueoaiiy /anoee AAN a caaaeueiiio ae?iaieoeoa?
aia?a??. Oae, iai?eeeaae, o 1996 ?. aia?aiaeiee AAN ae?iaeee 79,6 ie?ae.
eAo/aiae aeaeo?iaia?a?? wmetafile8? ????? ????????
?????????????yyy????.??????1?????? ???????
 ????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@??O?? ???&? ?MathType??p? ???uYy
????Eiio?ieue aa?iaoe/iino? (EA) iaieiiie i?ae /an aenieoaoaoe?? AAN,
i?iaiaeyoue i?e:

— i?io?eaii? eaioethaiai? yaea?ii? ?aaeoe?? (aeiaaeueii an??? aeoeaii?
ciie ii aeoeaiino? caa?oaeiaiiai oaieiiin?y i?iaeoeoaie ae?eaiiy, ui
aeeoee c-i?ae iaieiiie oaae?a);

— coieiaiiio ? ?ic?a?aiiio ?aaeoi?? a i?ioean? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy iaeeaa ca
aeiiiiiaith ooaoii? nenoaie aecia/aiiy aeaoaeoieo cai?ie (NAAeC).

Oaoiieia?y i?iaaaeaiiy ?aiiioo a ia??iae ia?aaaioaaeaiiy aeeth/a?
aeae?eueea aoai?a: aeaaioaaeaiiy OAC c ?aaeoi?a; o?ainii?ooaaiiy aei
NAAeC; eiio?ieue oeyoii aiae?co aeoeaiino? na?aaeiaeua a ia’?i? iaiaea
NAAeC; aeeo/aiiy aeaoaeii? cai?ee a iaiae aanaeio aeo?eiee aai
onoaiiaeaiiy i?eaeaoii? OAC a ?aaeoi?. Oey oaoiieia?y aeiaaa? iaaiiai
/ano, ui ca?eueoo? /an i?inoith aeiea a ?aiiio? ? oaeei /eiii cieaeo?
eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy onoaiiaeaii? iiooaeiino?.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy oe??? noaiaea?oii? oaoiieia?/ii? iia?aoe?? iana a nia?
i?yio aeiiii?/io aeaiaeo. Nei?i/aiiy /ano i?inoith ?aaeoi?ii? onoaiiaee
(?O) iiaeia aeinyaoe ca ?aooiie noi?uaiiy i?ioeano EA iaieiiee oaaeo c
?ioeie oaoiieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie, ui i?ioiaeyoue ia?aeaeueii, aai
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy EA a i?ioean? aeoyao /e ia?anoaiiaie OAC a ?aaeoi?? i?e
ci?i? aaiiao??? aeoeaii? ciie. Aea noi?uaiiy EA, ui i?iaiaeeoueny
?aae?iaeoeaiei iaoiaeii, c ?ioeie oaoiieia?/ieie i?ioeanaie
i?iaeaiaoe/ia: a iniiaiiio /a?ac /an i?iaaaeaiiy EA. I?e ia?aoiae? ia
/ioe?e??/io eaiiai?th aeai?yiiy iaeeaa ii/eia? ca?eueooaaoeny /anoea
?icaa?iaoeciaaieo eanao. I?e oeueiio, yeui i?iaiaeeoe EA ca ooaoiith
oaoiieia??th, aoaea ca?eueooaaoeny cao?eiea no?ie?a ioneo aeiea. *a?ac
oea iniiaieie oaeoi?aie, ye? coiiaeththoue iaiao?aei?noue oaeineiiaeaiiy
iaoiae?a ? oaoi?/ieo cania?a EA, iiaeia aaaaeaoe:

— ia?ao?ae ia /ioe?e??/io, a a ia?niaeoea? ? ia i’yoe??/io eaiiai?th
yaea?iiai iaeeaa, ui ni?e/eieoue niaith ca?eueoaiiy ?iia??iino?
?icaa?iaoecaoe?? iaieiiee oaae?a;

— aei?noe?noue aeiia aaei?i?no?aoe?? yaea?iiai ?aaoethaaiiy ii
i?iaa-aeaiith EA aenieoaoiaaieo OAC i?e caaaioaaeaii? ?o ia /aoaa?oee
??e.

Oiaoi aeey aia?aaoeee Oe?a?ie aeooaeueia caaaeaiiy iiooeo ? iaoeiaiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy iiaeo iaoiae?a ? oaoi?/ieo cania?a aeey nei?i/aiiy /ano EA
iaieiiee ia AAN. Eiai ae??oaiiy aeicaieeoue, c iaeiiai aieo, i?aeaeueoe
aaciaeo aenieoaoaoe?? AAN, a c ?ioiai aieo — nei?ioeoe /an
ia?aaaioaaeaiiy iaeeaa ca ?aooiie nei?i/aiiy /ano EA.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy ii ?ic?iaoe? iiai? oaoiieia?? eiio?ieth aa?iaoe/iino?
iaieiiee aoee ?icii/ao? ia Caii??cuee?e AAN o 1994 ?ioe?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iniiai?
iieaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeeiiai? o aiaeiiaiaeiinoi c
Aea?aeaaiith eiiieaeniith i?ia?aiith i?aeaeuaiiy aaciaee ae?th/eo
aoiiieo aeaeo?inoaioe?e Oe?a?ie (1993?.) ? I?ia?aiith iiaea?i?caoe??
aia?aiaeie?a AAN Oe?a?ie c ?aaeoi?aie AAA?-1000 (A-320) Aea?aeeiiaoiia
Oe?a?ie ? AAeO/AeA/EAe? (1995?.).

Iniiao ?iaioe noaiiaeyoue ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue, aeeiiaieo iniaenoi
aaoi?ii oa i?e eiai o/ano? o ni?aaaoi?noa? c ?iaeaia?ii-oaoi?/ieie
ni?a?ia?oieeaie CAAN ? iaoeiaeie ni?a?ia?oieeaie IAeIO.

Iaoa ?iaioe ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaa? a
oaeineiiaeaii? oaoiieia?/iiai i?ioeano ioe?iee aa?iaoe/iino? OAN AAA?
ia iniia? iiaiai iaoiaeo ? oaoiieia?/ieo cania?a c iaoith ciaioaiiy /ano
eiio?ieth. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith aoee iinoaaeai? ianooii?
caaaeaiiy:

— aiae?c ?nioth/eo nenoai EA ? aeyaeaiiy i?e/ei, ui i?eaiaeyoue aei
ii?ooaiiy aa?iaoe/iino? iaieiiie oaaeo i?e aenieoaoaoe?? AAN;

— aiae?c i?io?eaiiy a ssI o?ce/ieo i?ioean?a ? aca?iiae?? oaaeo ?c
ioieiaeaeoaaeueiei na?aaeiaeuai aeey aecia/aiiy oaeoo ?icaa?iaoecaoe??
iaieiiee;

— aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a aeo?eaiiy aaciiiae?aiiai na?aaeiaeua e??cue
i?e?iu?eeio iaieiiee a ia??iae ?icoieiaeaeaiiy ?aaeoi?a;

— noai?aiiy aenia?eiaioaeueii? onoaiiaee aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeonoe/-iiai iaoiaeo eiio?ieth aa?iaoe/iino? OAC;

— iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a caoeiooai?aiiy i?e aeo?eaii? aaco
e??cue i?e?iu?eeie a iaieiioe?;

— aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iino? caoeiooai?aiiy i?e
ii?ooaii? aa?iaoe/iino? oaaeo;

— aei?iaoaaiiy iiaiai iaoiaeo EA o i?iieneiaeo oiiaao.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey ae??oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaaeaiue aoea
aeei?enoaia iaoiaeieia?y nenoaiiiai aiae?co neeaaeieo oaoi?/ieo nenoai,
oai?aoe/i? iaoiaee oa?iiaeeiai?ee ? oaieiia?aaea/?, a?ae?iaa?iae?iai?ee
caoeiooai?aiiy, iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy; iaoiaeieia?y
aenia?eiai-oaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ia aeine?aeieo onoaiiaeao ?
i?iieneiaiio iaeaaeiaii?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? a oiio,ui:

—?ic?iaeaii i?ea?iaeueiee iaoiae eiio?ieth aa?iaoe/iino?, yeee
aeei?enoiao? aeonoe/i? yaeua i?e aeo?eaii? aaco a ??aeei? e??cue
i?e?iu?eeie, aeicaiey? noi?uaoe iia?aoe?? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy ? EA;

— cai?iiiiiaaii i?ea?iaeueio aenia?eiaioaeueio onoaiiaeo ? oaoiiei-a?y
?aae?caoe?? i?e?iu?eei caaeaieo ?ici???a;

—iaea?aeaii aeai? i?i noai aaciiiae?aiiai na?aaeiaeua i?ae iaieiieith
oaaeo ia an?o aoaiao ?icoieiaeaeaiiy, ui aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe /an
aeo?eaiiy aaco e??cue i?e?iu?eeie ??cieo ?ici???a;

—?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue i?ioeano caoeiooai?aiiy i?e aeo?eaii?
aaco a ??aeeio, yea aeicaiey? ioe?ithaaoe ia?aiao?e caoeiaeo eieeaaiue;

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue ? ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue.
?ic?iaeai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeathoue iiaeeea?noue:

—ioe?iee aeoiaeo ?aae?iaeoeaieo i?iaeoeo?a a oaieiiin?e a ??cieo
?aaeeiao aenieoaoaoe?? ?aaeoi?a, a oaeiae aeey oaeineiiaeaiiy
?icoieiaeaeoaaiiy;

—ioe?iee noaio OAC ia?aae caaaioaaeaiiyi a nooa noiaeua;

—?icoe?aiiy aeine?aeaeaiue aeonoe/iiai iaoiaeo ?ici?ciaaaiiy aeaoaeoieo
cai?ie;

—aei?iaoaaiiy a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao iaeaoo nenoaie.

I/?eoaaiee aeiiii?/iee aoaeo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoiaeo noaiiaeoue
wmetafile8? ??Ae???? ????????
?????????????yyy????.??????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy@????? ???&? ?MathType??P?
???u@th??????Ai?iaaoe?y ? ?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. Iniiai?
?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeieeaaeaeeny aaoi?ii ia 5-?e ui??/i?e
iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? I?aeia?iaeiiai yaea?iiai oiaa?enoaa
“ssaea?ia aia?aaoeea ? i?iieneia?noue” o i. Iai?inueeo (1994?.); 6-?e
i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? Oe?a?inueeiai yaea?iiai
oiaa?enoaa “I?aeia?iaeia eiiia?aoe?y a yaea?iiio ?icaeoeo” (1995?.) o i.
Ee?a?; 2-?e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aaoiiaoeea-95” (1995?.) o i.
Eueaia?; 3-?e i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aaoiiaoeea-96” o i.
Naaanoiiie?; iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oeueo?acaoeia? oaoiieia?/i?
i?ioeane-98” (1998?.) o i. Iinea?; ia eaoaae?? Aoiiieo aeaeo?e/ieo
noaioe?e ? a IAeE “ANA” IAeIO.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii iaoa??aeao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe iioae?eiaaii 8
iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.

Iniaenoee aeeaae caeiaoaa/a. Aaoi?o aeena?oaoe?? iaeaaeeoue:

— iinoaiiaea caaaeaiiy oaeineiiaeaiiy oaoiieia?? EA aeey nei?i/aiiy /ano
i?inoith aeieo a ?aiiio?;

— ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co iaoiae?a ioe?iee EA ? ?nioth/i? nenoaie NAAeC ia
Caii??cuee?e AAN;

— ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ioe?iee noaio aac?a i?ae iaieiieith oaaeo ?
?ic?aooieo aeo?eaiiy ?o e??cue i?e?iu?eeie;

—aeine?aeaeaiiy ia iaoaiaoe/i?e iiaeae? ci?i ae?aiao?o aoeueaaoee;

— aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaio?a, ye? i?aeoaa?aeeee
iiaeeea?noue ?ic?iaee cai?iiiiiaaiiiai iaoiaeo EA.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. ?iaioa i?noeoue 115 noi?., 46 ?enoie?a, 19
oaaeeoeue, 1 aeiaeaoie. Aei ?iaioe aeiaea?oueny nienie aeei?enoaieo
aeaea?ae c 104 iaeiaioaaiue.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie ? noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?icae?e 1. Nenoaia aeyaeaiiy aeaoaeoieo oaieiaeae?eyth/eo cai?ie aeey
?aaeoi?o AAA?-1000.

I?e ?icaeyae? ia’?eoo ? i?aaeiaoo aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaii, ui a
inoaii?e /an a ?aaeeiao aenieoaoaoe?? AAN ii/eiathoue aeyaeyoeny aea?
oaiaeaioe??: ca?eueoaiiy no?ieo eaiiai?? aeai?yiiy iaeeaa (aei 4-5
?ie?a) oa i?aeaeuaiiy /anoee ?aaeeio iaiaa?oaaiiy iiooaei?noth.

Aiae?c ?aaeei?a ? oiia ?iaioe oaae?a ?aaeoi?a AAA?-1000 a ?aaeeiao
iaiaa?oaaiiy iiooaei?noth ? ca?eueoaiiy aeeaeie aeai?yiiy i?eaiaeeoue
aei aeiaeaoeiaeo aieea?a ia iaieiiee, ui i?aeaeuo? ?iia??i?noue
ii?ooaiiy ?o oe?e?niino?.

Eeaneo?eaoe?y oa?aeoa?ieo i?e/ei iioeiaeaeaiiy iaieiiie iieaco?, ui
iniiaiei iaoai?ciii, a?aeiia?aeaeueiei ca ?oeioaaiiy oaae?a, ?
iaoai?/iee aieea oa?i?/iiai ?icoe?aiiy iaeeaa ia iaieiiee.

A?aeii? ? ?aae?ciaai? o i?iieneiaino? iaoiaee ioe?iee aa?iaoe/iino?
oaae?a aeiaaathoue iaaiiai /ano, ui i?aeaeuo? o?eaae?noue i?inoith ?O
i?e ia?aaaioaaeaii? iaeeaa.

NAAeC CAAN, yea iienaia a ?iaio?, aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe oaoiieia?th EA
“iie?ei” niiniaii ca ?aae?iiao?e/ieie iieacieeaie ? aeo?aoaie /ano (2
aiae. ia iaeio OAC). A oaia??oi?e /an i?e o?e??/i?e eaiiai?? EA
caciathoue ia?aa??eo wmetafile8? ??A???? ????????
?????????????yyy????.??????1?????? ???????
`A???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????u????????????-?????P?–???
???u@th??????I?e aeaioiaeaii? oaaeo i?ae iaieiieith noai?th?oueny
ii/aoeiaee iaaei??iee oene He (a?eueoa wmetafile8? ??©???? ????????
?????????????yyy????.??????1?????? ???????
Aa???&??yyyy?????Ayyy!yyy ??a?? ???&? ?MathType?? ?
???u@th???????icae?e 2. Acaeiiae?? iaaa?iaoe/iiai oaaeo OAC c
ioieiaeaeoaaeueiei na?aaeiaeuai.

?icaeyioo? aeai?eoie, ca yeeie iiaeia ioe?ieoe oene aaciiiae?aiiai
na?aaeiaeua ana?aaeei? aa?iaoe/iiai oaaeo i?e ?iaio? ia iiooaeiino? c
o?aooaaiiyi oiai, ui i?e aeaioiaeaii? a?i caiiaith?oueny aae??i, a i?e
aenieoaoaoe?? i?ae iaieiieith ooai?ththoueny AIAe. Aeey ?ic?aooieo
oaiia?aoo?e oaae?a ii aenio? aeei?enoaii iiaea?i?ciaaiee aeai?eoi, a
yeiio a?aoiao?oueny aei??thaaiiy oaieii?ia?aeiino? aae?th a caeaaeiino?
a?ae oaiia?aoo?e ? oeneo. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo ia?oe?aeueiiai oeneo
aac?a i?ae iaieiieith oaaeo i?e ?iaio? ia iiooaeiino? i?eaaaeai? a oaae.
1.

Oaaeeoey 1

*anoea aeoiaeowmetafile8? ??f???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyy`??1?? ???&?
?MathType??`????u@th?????? i?iaeoeoeNoaa?euei?

i?iaeoeoeIa?aiao?eoe?,%1 ??e2 ?ieo3 ?ieo1 ??e2 ?ieo3
?ieo3?ieo0,49,618,828,133,366,7100,070877216123,947,170,286,4166,7250,17
08874085119,5235,5350,8416,8833,51250,37088868910238,9471,1701,6833,5166
7,02500,5708810290501194,72355,43508,24167,68335,212502,7708823099902150
,54239,76314,87501,615003,822504,9708835908I?e iayaiino? o??ueie a oaae?
a ?aaeei? ?icoieiaeaeoaaiiy, yeee o?eaa? 5 ae?a, AIAe aoaeooue
aeae?eyoeny c iueiai. Iaiao?aeii aoei ioe?ieoe /an aeo?eaiiy aeey
ioe?iee inoaoi/iiai oeneo ia?aae aeeo/aiiyi OAC c ?aaeoi?a a ia??iae
ia?aaaioaaeaiiy iaeeaa. O ae?na?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii aeai?eoi ?
i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo oeneo a na?aaeei? aa?iaoe/iiai oaaeo
i?e ?aaeei? ?icoieiaeaeoaaiiy o (oaae. 2).

Oaaeeoey 2

*anoea aeoiaeo aaco c oiieeaii? iao?eoe?, %*an i?ney coieiee ?
a?aeiia?aeia eiio oaiia?aoo?a aaco i?ae iaieiieith oaaeo1 oa, 299
wmetafile8? ??????? ????????
?????????????yyy????.??????1?????? ???????
@ ???&??yyyy?????oyyy?yyy???u?? ???&? ?MathType?? ?
???uAth??????Ine?eueee aeo?eaiiy aac?a c i?e?io??uei a oaieiiin?e a
?aaeei? ?iaioe ia iiooaeiino? iaeieiia??ia c o?ce/ieo i??eoaaiue,
aeo?eaiiy aac?a aoaea i?ioiaeeoe i?e cieaeaii? oeneo iaaeieeoiueiai
na?aaeiaeua oaaeo (?aaeei ?icoieiaeaeoaaiiy). Oiio aeine?aeaeai?
i?ioeane aca?iiae?? ai?noo iioeiaeaeaiiai oaaeo c oaieiiin??i. C oe??th
iaoith noai?aii aeai?eoi aeey ioe?iee /ano aeo?eaiiy aaciiiae?aiiai
na?aaeiaeua c iioeiaeaeaiiai oaaeo. ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo /ano
aeo?eaiiy aaco o aeiaao ia inoaiiueiio aoai? ?icoieiaeaeoaaiiy (i?ney 54
aiaeei a?ae coieiee ?O) aeey iaaeueii? o??ueie ii inyo wmetafile8?
??Oaaeeoey 3

wmetafile8? ???icae?e 3. Aeonoe/iee iaoiae eiio?ieth aa?iaoe/iino?
iaieiiee oaae?a.

Oeae ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? i?enay/aiee aiae?co o?ce/ieo yaeu, ia yeeo
iniiaaiee aeonoe/iee iaoiae EA oaae?a ? ?o iaoaiaoe/iiio iiaeaethaaiith.

I?e/eiith aaia?oaaiiy aeonoe/ieo eieeaaiue i?e aeo?eaii? aaco a ??aeeio
e??cue i?e?iu?eeio ia iiaea aooe yaeua eaa?oaoe??, oiio ui aiii
i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyaei iiooaeiiai ooio ?c nooe?eueiiai niaeo?o a
oe?ie?e nioc? /anoio, ui iaei ?iia??ia ca oaeiai aeo?eaiiy. ssaeua
ooai?aiiy aaciaeo ioce??a ?c i?e?iu?eeie noai?th? caoeiaa iiea, ui ia
ia?aaeuo? aeanyoe?a Aoe. Eiai aeeaae a niaeo? eieeaaiue iacia/iee.

Ioe?iea eieeaaiue iaieiiee oaaeo na?ae/eoue, ui aiie iiaeooue
noai?thaaoe caoeiaa iiea aeniei? /anoioe ? oaeiae ia aiinyoue cia/iiai
aeeaaeo a caoeiaa iiea.

Caoeiooai?aiiy i?e aeo?eaii? aaco a ??aeeio coiiaeaia eieeaaiiyie
aaciiaiiaiaieo ii?iaeiei a ??aeei?. Iiaeaeue aaciiaiiaiaii? ii?iaeieie o
a’yce?e noenea?i?e ??aeei? i?e i?eeiyoeo aeiiouaiiyo yaey? niaith
iae?i?eia iaiaeii??aeia aeeoa?aioe?aeueia ??aiyiiy ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo.

wmetafile8? ??T?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy°yyy????? ???&?
?MathType??`????&??yyyy??????????wmetafile8? ??s???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`?4???&??yyyy??[email protected]??

?? ???&? ?MathType??°?
???u?????????»????-?????|I???|y???| ???|
???|#???| ???|????|®???|1/2???|i
???|»???|(???|s.???|F/???|j2???|?3???u?th????
??aea wmetafile8? ??F????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?????&??yyyy?????.??†??“/???? ???&? ?MathType??
????u?th????????aiyiiy (1) iieno? ci?io ?aae?ona aoeueaaoee a /an?.
Aeey eiai ?ica’ycaiiy aeei?enoai? /enaeuei? iaoiaee ?ica’ycaiiy
cae/aeiiai aeeoa?aioe?aeueiiai ??aiyiiy ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo. Ia/eneaiiy
i?iaiaeeeeny c aeei?enoaiiyi iiae N++. E?ie ?ioaa?oaaiiy aeae?aany
i?ia?aiith aaoiiaoe/ii. Ao?aeia a?aeiinia iioeaea aoea iaioa
wmetafile8? ??th???? ????????
?????????????yyy????.??????1?????? ???????
@ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`??u?? ???&? ?MathType?? ?
???u@th??????Aiae?c aeaieo iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy aeicaiey?
noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui aieiaiith i?e/eiith caoooaiiy eieeaaiue ii?iaeieie ?
aei?ii?ithaaiiy iath aeonoe/ieo oaeeue a iaaaioaaeaiiy. A ii/aoeia?e
noaaei? i?ioeano iniaeeai i?iyaeythoueny eiai iae?i?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?
a niaeo?? aaaaoi aeueo aa?iii?e. Iae?e ??ceiai c?inoaiiy iii?o
aei?ii?ithaaiiy c /anoioith aeey iaeeo aeaea?ae i?eaiaeeoue c /anii aei
ia?a?iciiae?eo a niaeo?? ca ?aooiie oaeaeeiai caoooaiiy aeueo
niaeo?aeueieo neeaaeiaeo. Oiio ui a nenoai? ii?iaeiei inoaii?
ciaoiaeyoueny ia ??cieo noaae?yo ?icaeoeo, ?acoeueooth/ee niaeo? yaey?
niaith nenoaie nioa. Iaee?aua —iecei/anoioia nioaa, ui ia? ??ceo ieaeith
iaaeo ? ?icieoo aa?oith. C ?inoii ii/aoeiaiai oeneo aaco a ii?iaeiei?,
ca iioeo ?iaieo oiia, niaeo? ci?uo?oueny a iecei/anoioio iaeanoue.

Aeey ia?aa??ee aaeaeaaoiino? iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? i?iaaaeaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano aeo?eaiiy ia aenia?eiaioaeuei?e onoaiiaoe?.

?icae?e 4. Aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano aaia?oaaiiy
aeonoe/ieo eieeaaiue no?oiaiai aaco, ui aeo?ea? a ??aeieio.

Iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaio?a ii aeine?aeaeaiith i?ioeano
aaia?oaaiiy aeonoe/ieo eieeaaiue no?oiaiai aaco, ui aeo?ea? a ??aeeio.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue a eaai?aoi?ieo oiiaao aoea ?ic?iaeaia ?
aeaioiaeaia niaoe?aeueia aenia?eiaioaeueia onoaiiaea (?en. 2).

A oeee?iae?e/iee aae c aiaeith 1 (ae?aiao?ii wmetafile8? ??A????
???????? ?????????????yyy????.??????1?????? ??????? 
@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy?????? ???&? ?MathType??P?
???u@th??????Neaiae, yeee ni?eeia?oueny a?ae?ioiiii /a?ac niaoe?aeueii
?ic?iaeaiee iiia?aaei?e i?aeneethaa/ 7, iiaea ni?yiiaoaaoeny ii aeaio
eaiaeao: /a?ac inoeeeia?ao 8, niaeo?iaiae?caoi? 9 ? caienoaaoeny
naiiienoeai 10 (eaiae I), aai /a?ac aiaeiai-oeeo?iaee ia?aoai?thaa/ 11 a
aei??thaaeueiee o?aeo AII 12 (eaiae II).

Aeey i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaoaaeeny
aeaa aeaee o?ce/ieo iiaeaeae. Oiio ui oaae yaey? niaith o?oaeo
ae?aiao?ii wmetafile8? ??A???? ????????
?????????????yyy????.??????1?????? ???????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy ????? ???&? ?MathType??P?
???u@th??????A ae?iaie/eo oiiaao iaea?eueo ?iia??i? iioeiaeaeaiiy
oaaeo, ui ii?ooothoue eiai aa?iaoe/i?noue oa aeeeth/athoue iiaeaeueoo
aenieoaoaoe?th, — oea iicaeiaaei? o??ueie ocaeiaae oa??ii? oeee?iae?a,
aeiaaeeia yeeo o aaaaoi ?ac?a ia?aaeuo? ?o oe?eio, a oaeiae iane??ci?
ioai?e oeio “naeu”, aca?ii? i?oiaiiaeuei? ?ici??e yeeo noi??i? iaeei c
iaeiei. O?oaei?noue iiaeaethaaiiy oeeo iioeiaeaeaiue a eaai?aoi?ieo
oiiaao iieyaaea a iaeino? ?o ?ici???a.

?i?oaoe?y u?eei ??cieo ?ici???a cae?eniaia oeyoii ?ic?iaee eiino?oeoe??
niaoe?aeueii? ianaaeee ia o?oaeo, ui aeicaiey? noai?thaaoe u?eeie iaeeo
?ici???a ? caaaeaieo aeua eiio?ao?aoe?e. U?eeia oi?io?oueny c aeaio
iai?aoeee?iae?e/ieo ieanoei, ye? i?eeyaathoue iaeia aei iaeii? ii
i?eoa?oei ae?aiao?aeueiei ieiueiai. Ia ieanoei? ia?aeaeueii ieiuei?
eiioaeoo c?iaeaii caaeeaeaiiy oe?eiith wmetafile8? ??Aoa aeaioiaeaiee
iaa?? c oanoe u?eei iaeiaeiai? aeiaaeeie wmetafile8? ??Oaaeeoey 4

wmetafile8? ??

wmetafile8? ??A aenia?eiaioao canoiniaoaaeeny aea? eaoaai???
iiaeaeueieo u?eei ??cii? oe?eie. Ia?oa — “aeiaa?” u?eeie. ?o aeiaaeeia
noaiiaeea 4500 iei, a oe?eia ci?ithaaeany o iaaeao — 1; 5; 10; 20; 50;
100 iei. Ae?oaa — “ei?ioe?” u?eeie aeiaaeeiith 50 iei ? caaoe?oee 1; 5;
10; 20 iei, ye? noai?thaaeeny no?auoaaiiyi i?ae i?yiei eooii aeaio u?eei
(oe?eiith 1 iei ? 50 iei; 5 iei ? 50 iei; 10 iei ? 50 iei; 20 iei ? 50
iei).

Aei??thaaiiy aeonoe/iiai neaiaeo i?iaiaeeeiny ca aeiiiiiaith
inoeeeia?aoa ? ia?oiai eaiaeo nenoaie aei??thaaiue. I?e aeei?enoaii?
ia?oiai eaiaeo niaeo? ni?eeiyoeo a?ae?ioiiii aeonoe/ieo eieeaaiue
aeae?eueea ?ac?a o?enoaaany naiiienoeai, a aeae? i?aeeyaaa ia?iaoe? c
ona?aaeiaiiyi eiai a?aeiia?aeieo aa?ia?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo ? aeonoe/ieo
ia?aiao??a.

An? aenia?eiaioaeuei? na??? aeoaethaaeeny: iaeia i?iaiaeeeany i?e
aeo?eaii? aaco a a?eueio ??aeeio, ?ioa — a iiaeaeue naeoe??. Ia ?en. 3
iieacai? niaeo?ia?aie aenia?eiaioaeueii? na???, caeiaoo? i?e aeo?eaii? c
iaeeia?ii? aeiaai? u?eeie (wmetafile8? ??Aeey ia?aa??ee aaeaeaaoiino?
iiaeae? aoei i?iaaaeaia ii??aiyiiy ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?
oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. ?ica’ycaiiy ??aiyiiy (1) ia?iaeyeeny oaeei
/eiii, uia io?eiaoe a?aeiinia cia/aiiy /anoioe.

Ia ?enoieao 4,5 iaaaaeai? aenia?eiaioaeuei? caeaaeiino? oa?aeoa?ii?
/anoioe a?ae oeneo aeo?eaiiy (aeo?eaiiy a a?eueio ??aeeio: ?en. 4.a —
wmetafile8? ????? ????????
?????????????yyy????.??????1?????? ??????? 
 ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`????? ???&? ?MathType??P?
???u@th??????Ii??aiyiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo ? ?ic?aooieiaeo ?acoeueoao?a
na?ae/eoue, ui ia? i?noea ye?niee ca?a iniiaieo ?en niaeo?o eieeaaiue,
ye? niinoa??aaeeny aenia?eiaioaeueii i?e aeo?eaii? aaco a ??aeeio, c
iniaeeainoyie oai?aoe/ii ?icaeyiooiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy a ??aeeio
aeonoe/ieo oaeeue caanath/eie iae?i?eieie eieeaaiiyie aaciiaiiaiaieo
ii?iaeiei. Oea noino?oueny, ianaiia?aae, o??? iaeano?
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai niaeo?o, yea, ye aoei onoaiiaeaii, a?aeiia?aea? ca
aaia?oaaiiy eieeaaiue aeo?eath/ei a ??aeeio aacii. Oey iaeanoue
caeaaieueoiai iaea aeinoaoiuei /?oeo iecueei/anoioio iaaeo ? a?eueo
?icieoo aeniei/anoioio. Iiae?aiee aea aeniiaie aoei c?iaeaii oai?aoe/ii
noiniaii niaeo?aeueieo nioa a aeonoe/ieo oaeeyo, ye? aaia?othoueny
aaciiaiiaiaieie aoeueaaoeaie. I?inoaaeo?oueny oaeiae ca’ycie i?ae
aenia?eiaioaeueieie ? oai?aoe/ieie caeaaeiinoyie /anoioe eieeaaiue a?ae
oeneo aaco.

Iiae?aia ae noiae?noue niinoa??aa?oueny aeey caeaaeiino? /anoioe a?ae
e?i?eieo ?ici???a: c ?inoii oe?eie u?eeie oa?aeoa?ia /anoioa
ciaioo?oueny; c?inoaiiy aaaa?eoo aoeueaaoee, ui eieeaa?oueny,
i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy /anoioe. A?aoiaoth/e neeaaei?noue
aeine?aeaeoaaieo i?ioean?a, oaea ye?nia iiaiaeaeaiiy ne?ae aaaaeaoe
na?ae/aiiyi oiai, ui aea?? o ?iei iniiaiiai caoeiooai?thth/iai oaeoi?o
iae?i?eieo eieeaaiue aaciiaiiaiaii? aoeueaaoee a ??aeei? iiaeia aaaaeaoe
aeinoaoiuei iaa?oioiaaiei.

I?e aeine?aeaeaii? aeonoe/iiai iaoiaeo ioe?iee aa?iaoe/iino? oaaeo ia
aac? aei??thaaiiy aiie?ooaee ? /anoioe caoeiaiai neaiaeo, ui aeieea? i?e
aeo?eaii? aaco a ??aeeio e??cue i?e?iii? u?eeie, a ?aaeueieo oiiaao
i?eeaeaoueny a?aoiaoaaoe ia?aoeiaee a?ae ooai?aieo ooi?a. Niaeo?ia?aie
?o i?aaenoaaeai? ia ?en. 6. Iaeiae inoaiiy ianoaaeia ia iiaea aooe
ia?aoeiaeith aeey canoinoaaiiy oeueiai iaoiaeo, ine?eueee aeaea?aea oeeo
ooi?a ia?aaoaathoue a iia?o??, ooie iioe?ththoueny a iia?o?yiiio
na?aaeiaeu? (e?eaa 2) ? a ??aeeio ia?aoiaeeoue ?o iacia/ia /anoeia
(e?eaa 1) /a?ac aaeeeo ??cieoeth oaeeueiaeo iii??a oeeo na?aaeiaeu.

Aeey i?aaeeueii? ioe?iee aeonoe/iiai iiey aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue
aeae?eaiiy iaeano? a ??aeeiio na?aaeiaeu?, aea aei??thaaiee aeonoe/iee
neaiae c aeinoaoiueith oi/i?noth aecia/a? caaia?iaai? aeonoe/i?
eieeaaiiy (e?eaa 3). Ooo iathoueny ia oaac? caoiaee, ui aaeeaathoueny
aeey oiai, uia iicaooeny inaaaei-caoe?a iao?eaiiy a?ae?ioiia: eiai
iaeaaeeoue ?ici?uaoe ia a?aenoai? ii?yaeeo a?eueoa, i?ae 0,5 i a?ae OAC.

O ?iei ia?aiao??a, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue aaia?iaai? aeonoe/i? eieeaaiiy,
aeae?aeenue ?ioaa?aeueiee ??aaiue aei??thaaiiai aeonoe/iiai neaiaeo ?
eiai niaeo?aeueiee neeaae.

Aeniiaee

I?iaaaeaia a ?aieao aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie
eiio?ieth aa?iaoe/iino? OAC aeicaieeei c?iaeoe oae? aeniiaee:

1. ?ic?iaeaii oa aeine?aeaeaii i?eioe?iiai iiaee aeonoe/iee iaoiae EA
oaae?a, ui ?aae?co?oueny i?e ia?aaaioaaeaii? OAC ? ia iio?aao? aeey
eiai ?aae?caoe?? aeiaeaoeiaiai /ano. Oeae iaoiae caniiaaiee ia
ciaoiaeaeaii? ? aiae?c? niaeo?o aeonoe/ieo eieeaaiue, aaia?o?ieo i?e
aeo?eaiii? aaco c iioeiaeaeaiiiai oaaeo o ??aeeio.

2. ?ic?aoiaaii i?e??no oeneo ca ?aooiie AIAe c o?aooaaiiyi ci?ie ?o
neeaaeo ca /anii, yeee aeicaieea anoaiiaeoe, ui iniiaiee aeeaae o
ca?eueoaiiy oeneo /a?ac AIAe aeathoue ?cioiie, oae? ye wmetafile8?
??O???? ???????? ?????????????yyy????.??????1??????
??????? @`???&??yyyy?????oyyy?yyyT??u?? ???&? ?MathType??
? ???uAth??????3. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e /anoeiaiio aeoiae? IAe c iaeeaii?
iao?eoe? i?ae iaieiieo (i?ei??ii 50 e aieueoa i?ioeaio?a), a oiiaao
?iaioe ia iiooaeiino?, oene aaco iiaea ia?aaeueoe oene oaieiiin?y.

4. Ioe?iaii /an aeo?eaiiy aaco e??cue i?e?iu?eeie o oaaeao. Aeyaeaii, ui
ui aeo?ae aaco c oaaeo i?ney ?icoieiaeaeaiiy ?aaeoi?o iiaeeeaee aeey
iaaaeeeeo o??uei, oe?eiith 1—3 ? aeiaaeeiith 1—1200 iei.

5. ?ic?iaeaia oa aeaioiaeaia niaoe?aeueia aenia?eiaioaeueia onoaiiaea
yea aeicaiey? iiaeaethaaoe iaea?eueo ?iia??i? iane??ci? iioeiaeaeaiiy a
oaaeao ? iaeaaeiaia aei??thaaeueieie i?eeaaeaie, ye? iiaeooue
i?aoethaaoe a oiiaao ?ii?coth/iai aei?ii?ithaaiiy ? i?aeaeuaieo
oaiia?aoo?. Cae?eniai niaeo?aeueiee aiae?c aaia?oaieo aeonoe/ieo
eieeaaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi aiaeiaioeeo?iaiai i?aoai?thaa/a ?
aei??thaaeueiiai o?aeoo AII.

6. Io?eiai? aeonoe/i? niaeo?e i?e aeo?eaii? aaco i?ae ??cieie iaii?aie
e??cue u?eeie o?eniaaii? oe?eie ? aeae?eaia oa?aeoa?ia /anoioa.
Iayai?noue iiaoi?ieo caeiiii??iinoae caeaaeii a?ae oa?aeoa?ii? /anoioe,
a?ae oeneo aaco ? e?i?eieo ?ici???a u?eeie aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie,
ui a?aeiia?aeiei ca aaia?oaaiiy aeonoe/iiai neaiaeo ? aeo?eaiiy aaco c
u?eeie o ??aeeio.

7. Aeine?aeaeaii aeonoe/i? niaeo?e i?e iaya? ae?iaie/iai ooio a aannaei?
ia?aaaioaaeaiiy. Aeyaeaii ciaioaiiy ??aiy ae?iaie/iai ooio i?ei??ii ia 6
ii?yaee?a i?e i?ioiaeaeaii? eiai c aicaeooo a ??aeeio, o iane?aeeo /iai
aeine?aeaeoaaiee neaiae o ??aeei? ia?aeuo? ia 6-7 ii?yaee?a ae?iaie/ee
ooi o ??aeei?, oa inoaii?e ia iiaea neoaeeoe ia?aoeiaeith
aeei?enooaaiith cai?iiiiiaaiiai iaoiaeo a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao.

?icaeyiooa yaeua iiaea aooe iieeaaeaii a iniiao aeonoe/iiai iaoiaeo EA
oaae?a ? a?aeiia?aeieo oaoi?/ieo cania?a. ?aae?caoe?y aeonoe/iiai
iaoiaeo EA cai?noue ?nioth/iai aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe /an
ia?aaaioaaeoaaeueii? eaiiai?? ia 20 %.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeicaiey? iienaoe i?ioean aaia?oaaiiy
aeonoe/ieo eieeaaiue aaciaeo no?oiai?a i?e aeo?eaii? o ??aeieio.
Aenia?aiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?aeoa?i? /anoioe aaia?oaieo
eieeaaiue oeeaaeathoueny a ae?aiacii i?eaeecii 400-800 Aoe.

Nienie iioae?eiaaieo aaoi?ii i?aoeue ii oai? aeena?oaoe??

1. Iaeneiia I. A., Ianeia I. A., Aeeae Ae. A. e ae?. Nicaeaiea nenoaiu
ia?aa?ocee yaea?iiai oiieeaa iiaiai iieieaiey // Aoiiiay yia?aey. —
1995. — O. 78. — Aui. 4. — N. 281 — 282. Iniaenoi aaoi?a — Cai?iiiioaaa
a i?ioean? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy iaeeaa i?iaiaeeoe eiio?ieue aa?iaoe/iino?
iaieiiie oaae?a.

2. Aeeae Ae. A., Iaeneiia I. A., Ianeia I. A., Oiaei?oeaa TH. E.,
Aaaaiia A. E. Nenoaia oi?aaeaiey ia?aa?oceie yaea?iiai oiieeaa ia AYN n
AAY?-1000 // Yeaeo?e/aneea noaioeee. — 1996. — ? 12. — N. 37-42.
Iniaenoi aaoi?a — Cai?iiiiiaaia eiioeaioe?y i?iaaaeaiiy eiio?ieth
aa?iaoe/iino? iaieiiee. Aeyaeai? ? ocaaaeueiai? iniiai? noia?a/iino? a
nenoai? ia?aaaioaaeaiiy iaeeaa.

3. Iaca?aiei A.O., A?e?e Ae. A., Iaeneiia I. A. ? ae?. Niaeo?aeueiee
neeaae caoeo, ui aaia?o?oueny i?e aeo?eaii? aaciaeo no?oiai?a o ??aeeio
// Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Iaoea ? ina?oa. AI AOO. Eieaa III. — 1997.
— N. 164-168. Iniaenoi aaoi?a — Cai?iiiiiaaia no?oeoo?ia noaia
aenia?aiaioaeueii? onoaiiaee ? i?eaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ia?iaee
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo.

4. A?e?e Ae. A., Iaca?aiei A.O., I?ioiiiiia ?.A. A?euei? eieeaaiiy
aaciiaiiaiaii? ii?iaeieie o a’yce?e noeneea?e ??aeei? //Iaoeia? caienee
AI AOO. — Aei. 1. — Ee?a. — 1998. — N. 297-304. Iniaenoi aaoi?a —
Cai?iiiiiaaii aeaaaeaiiy iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? caoeiooai?aiiy i?e
aeo?eaii? aaco c i?e?iu?eei o a’yceo ??aeeio.

5. Iaca?aiei A.O., Aeaaeaeaiei E. A., Iaeneiia I. A., Iiei?a E. I.,
Aeeae Ae. A. Aeonoe/aneea niaeo?u aaciauo no?oe, enoaeathueo a aeeaeeea
n?aaeu //Nai?iee aeieeaaeia eiioa?aioeee IAAeE “Oeueo?acaoeiaua
oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu—98. ” — I.: 2—6 oaa?aey — N. 209-213. Iniaenii
aaoi?ii — Ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo.

6. Aeeae Ae.A., E?aa/aiei A.I., *oeeei I.A. Eiio?ieue aa?iaoe/iinoe
iaiei/ae oayeia ia AYN n AAY? // O?oaeu Iaeanneiai iieeoaoie/aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa. — 1998. — Aui. 1(5). — N. 183-187. Iniaenoi aaoi?a —
Cai?iiiiiaai aeonoe/iee iaoiae oe?e?niino? iaieiiie oaae?a. I?iaaaeaia
nenoaiaoecaoe?y ? aeyaeai? iniiai? i?e/eie ui i?eaiaeyoue aei ii?ooaiiy
oe?e?niino? iaieiiie oaae?a.

7. Aeeae Ae.A., Iaca?aiei A. O., Neeicaa?a O. I. Aiaeec aiciiaeiinoe
i?eiaiaiey aeonoe/aneiai iaoiaea aeey iaia?oaeaiey enoa/aiey aaca ec
iia?aaeaeaiey a o?oaao // O?oaeu Iaeanneiai iieeoaoie/aneiai
oieaa?neoaoa. — 1998. — Aui. 2(6). — N. 66-69. Iniaenoi aaoi?a
—Cai?iiiiiaaia oaoiieia?y aeaioiaeaiiy i?e?iu?eei ? a?ae?ioiia.

8. Aeeae Ae.A., Iaeneiia I. A., Iaca?aiei I. A., I?ioiiiiia ?.A.
Enneaaeiaaiea eciaiaiey aeaaeaiey aaca a ninoaeao i?e aai enoa/aiee ec
o?auei a noaieao // O?oaeu Iaeanneiai iieeoaoie/aneiai oieaa?neoaoa. —
1998. — Aui. 2(6). — N. 69-73. Iniaenoi aaoi?a — Cai?iiiiiaaia iiaeaeue
aecia/aiiy /ano aeo?eaiiy aaco c i?e?iu?eei o a’yceo ??aeeio.

A?e?e Ae. A. Oaeineiiaethaaiiy nenoaie eiio?ieth aa?iaoe/iino?
oaieiaeae?eyth/eo cai?ie ?aaeoi??a AAN (AAA?-1000). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca oaoii 05.14.14. — Oaieia? ? yaea?i? onoaiiaee.

Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Iaeana, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ?ic?iaoe? iiai? oaoiieia?? aeyaeaiiy
?icaa?iaoeciaaieo iaieiiie oaae?a aeonoe/iei iaoiaeii a ?aaeueiiio
ianooaa? /ano, ?ic?iaoe? iaeaoo onoaiiaee oa eiai aei?iaoaaiiyi a
?aaeueieo oiiaao AAN.

I?eioeei aeyaeaiiy ?icaa?iaoeciaaieo oaae?a a?oioo?oueny ia aoaeo?
aaia?oaaiiy aeonoe/ieo eieeaaiue a oaieiiin??, a yeiio ?ici?uaia OAC ca
?aooiie aeo?eaiiy noi?o? aac?a, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny i?ae iaieiieith.
I?aeaeuaiiy oeneo i?ae iaieiieith coiiaeaia ooai?aiiyi aaciiiae?aieo ?
noaa?eueieo i?iaeoeo?a ae?eaiiy a i?ioean? i?io?eaiiy eaioethaiai?
yaea?ii? ?aaeoe??.

Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeicaiey? iienaoe i?ioean aaia?oaaiiy
aeonoe/ieo eieeaaiue aaciaeo no?oiai?a i?e aeo?eaii? o ??aeieio.
Aenia?aiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii, ui oa?aeoa?i? /anoioe aaia?oaieo
eieeaaiue oeeaaeathoueny a ae?aiacii i?eaeecii 400-800 Aoe.

Aei?iaoaaiiy iieoiiai c?aceo onoaiiae a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao AAN iieacaee,
ui ??aaiue ei?eniiai neaiaeo o ??aeei? ia?aaeuo? ??aaiue i?iieneiaiai
ooio iaeaea ia 7 — 8 ii?yaee?a. Ii oaeaeeino? aecia/aiiy
?icaa?iaoeciaaiiai noaio ?ic?iaeaia nenoaia aea? aea?ao /ano a 2 aiaeeie
ia iaeio OAC a ii??aiyii? c o?aaeeoe?eiith nenoaiith.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeonoe/iee iaoiae eiio?ieth aa?iaoe/iino?, oaae,
aaci-iiae?ai? i?iaeoeoe ae?eaiiy, aeonoe/i? eieeaaiiy, aeonoe/iee
neaiae, ??aaiue neaiaeo, aeo?eaiiy e??cue i?e?iu?eeio.

Aeeae Ae. A. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu eiio?iey aa?iaoe/iinoe
oaieiauaeaeythueo nai?ie ?aaeoi?ia AYN (AAY?-1000). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.14.14. — Oaieiaua e yaea?iua onoaiiaee. —
Iaeanneee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Iaeanna, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ac?aaioea iiaie oaoiieiaee auyaeaiey
?acaa?iaoece?iaaiiuo iaiei/ae oayeia aeonoe/aneei iaoiaeii a ?aaeueiii
ianooaaa a?aiaie, ?ac?aaioea iaeaoa onoaiiaee e aai eniuoaieyi a
iaoo?iuo oneiaeyo AYN.

A ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca ?aaeeiia e oneiaee ?aaiou oayeia, a oaeaea
eeanneoeeaoeee oa?aeoa?iuo i?e/ei iia?aaeaeaiey iaiei/ae oayeia,
auyaeaii, /oi iniiaiui iaoaieciii, i?eaiaeyuei e ia?ooaieth
aa?iaoe/iinoe iaiei/ee, yaeyaony iaoaie/aneia aicaeaenoaea oa?ie/anee
?anoe?ythuaainy oiieeaa ia iaiei/eo.

Ecaanoiua e ?aaeeciaaiiua a i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaoiaeu ioeaiee aa?iaoe/iinoe
oayeia o?aaotho aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie, /oi i?eaiaeeo e i?inoith
?aaeoi?iie onoaiiaee.

Oaeei ia?acii, eae iaeaieaa i?eaiaeiia aeey auyaeaiey
?acaa?iaoece?iaaiiuo iaiei/ae, auei i?eiyoi neaaeothuaa iieiaeaiea. Ai
a?aiy yenieoaoaoeee, e ia/aeo eiio?iey aa?iaoe/iinoe, aeaaeaiea iiae
iaiei/eie aaciia?aciuo i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey aeinoeaaao cia/aiey ii?yaeea
30 IIa i?e 800 E. A ?acoeueoaoa iiyaeaiey iee?io?aueiu a iaiei/ea oayea
i?e iaoiaeaeaiee OAN a aannaeia ia?aa?ocee, /a?ac iee?io?aueio
auaeaeythony aaciia?aciua i?iaeoeou aeaeaiey. A i?ioeanna eo enoa/aiey a
aannaeia auaea?aeee aoaeoo aaia?e?iaaoueny aeonoe/aneea eieaaaiey.
?aaeno?aoeey aeonoe/aneeo eieaaaiee iicaieeo noaeeoue i iaee/ee
enoa/aiey aaca a aeeaeeinoue, /a?ac iee?io?aueiu. Iiyoiio anee i?eaiiee
aeonoe/aneiai neaiaea iiianoeoue ia ooaiao ia?aa?oci/iie iaoeiu, oi
?aaeno?aoeeth aeonoe/aneeo eieaaaiee iiaeii inouanoaeyoue i?e ecaea/aiee
OAN ec aeoeaiie ciiu.

A ?acoeueoaoa oai?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee nicaeaia iiaeaeue, ii eioi?ie
iiaeii ioeaieoue aeaaeaiea aaciia?aciie n?aaeu aioo?e aa?iaoe/iiai oayea
i?e ?aaioa iiae iaa?oceie, oae eae i?e ecaioiaeaiee ii caiieiyaony
aaeeai, a i?e yenieoaoaoeee iiae iaiei/eie ia?acothony aaciia?aciua
i?iaeoeou aeaeaiey.

Aeey o/aoa eciaiaiey aeaaeaiey aaciia?aciuo i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey ca a?aiy
eo ?anoieaaeeaaiey, auea ?ac?aaioaia iiaeaeue acaeiiaeaenoaey
niaea?aeeiiai iia?aaeaeaiiiai oayea n oaieiiineoaeai. Aeey yoie oeaee
aue ?ac?aaioai aeai?eoi ioeaiee a?aiaie enoa/aiey aaciia?aciie n?aaeu ec
iia?aaeaeaiiiai oayea.

Iieacaii, /oi i?e/eiie aeonoe/aneeo eieaaaiee i?e enoa/aiee aaciia?aciuo
i?iaeoeoia aeaeaiey a aeeaeeinoue /a?ac iee?io?aueio ia iiaeao neoaeeoue
yaeaiea eaaeoaoeee. ssaeaiea ia?aciaaiey aaciauo iocu?ae ec iee?io?aueiu
nicaeaao caoeiaia iiea, ia i?aauoathuaa aeanyoeia Aoe. Aai aeeaae a
niaeo? iacia/eoaeai. Caoeiia?aciaaiea i?e enoa/aiee aaca a aeeaeeinoue
iaoneiaeaii eieaaaieyie aaciia?aciuo iieinoae a aeeaeeinoe. I?aaeeiaeaia
iiaeaeue aaciiaiieiaiiie iieinoe a ayceie naeeiaaiie aeeaeeinoe.

Aiaeec aeaiiuo iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey iicaieyao ooaa?aeaeaoue,
/oi aeaaiie i?e/eiie caoooaiey eieaaaiee iieinoe yaeyaony eceo/aiea aai
aeonoe/aneeo aiei a iaa?oceo.

Aeey i?iaa?ee aaeaeaaoiinoe iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee i?iaaaeaii
enneaaeiaaiea i?ioeanna enoa/aiey ia niaoeeaeueiie yenia?eiaioaeueiie
onoaiiaea.

Yenia?eiaioaeueii onoaiiaeaii, /oi oa?aeoa?iua /anoiou aaia?e?oaiuo
eieaaaiee oeeaaeuaathony a aeeaiacii /anoio i?eia?ii 400-800 Aoe.
Eniuoaiey iiuoiiai ia?acoea onoaiiaee a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oneiaeyo AYN
iieacaee, /oi o?iaaiue iieaciiai neaiaea a aeeaeeie n?aaea i?aainoiaeeo
o?iaaiue i?iiuoeaiiiai ooia ii/oe ia 7 — 8 ii?yaeeia. I?eiaiaiea
?ac?aaioaiiie nenoaiu ioeaiee ?acaa?iaoecaoeee OAN aeaao auea?uo ai
a?aiaie — 2 /ana ia iaeio nai?eo ii n?aaiaieth ni ooaoiie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeonoe/aneee iaoiae eiio?iey aa?iaoe/iinoe, oaye,
aaciia?aciua i?iaeoeou aeaeaiey, aeonoe/aneea eieaaaiey, aeonoe/aneee
neaiae, o?iaaiue neaiaea, enoa/aiea /a?ac iee?io?aueio.

Biley D.V. Imroving of leak detection system of fuel assemblies on NPP
(VVER-1000). — Ianuscript.

Thesis for a candidate degree by speciality 05.14.14 — Ohermal and
nuclear facilities. — Odesa state polytechnic university, Odesa, 1998.

Dissertation is devoted to developing new technology in detecting
nogermethical shells of fuel rods in real time by acoustical method,
elaborating a model of installation and testing it in real conditions of
NPP.

The principe of detection nogermethical fuel rods is based on effect of
creation acoustcal waves in coolant where fuel assembly placed when the
gazes quit from under the shell. The pressure under the shell of fuel
element created by gazes — products of nuclear chain reaction.

The mathematical model, which can describe the process of acoustic
vibration whit gaz stream that runs out into liquid is proposed.
Experimentaly mount, that characteristic frequencies of generated
vibration are arranged in diapason about 400 — 800 Hz. Monkup tests
with NPP specifications showed that effective signal level greater than
production noise in 7 — 8 rank. New leak detection system faster then
traditional system on 2 hours on one fuel assmebly.

Key words: acoustical method of leak detection system, fuel element,
gaz-like products of chain reaction, acoustic vibration, acoustic
signal, signal level , leak through aperture.

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