OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIE?OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

O?ioaiuee?i Aeaaeeneaa Ai?eniae/

OAeE 661.961. 1

OAeINEIIAEAIIss I?IOeANO OA ?AAEOI?A

II AE?IAIEOeOAO AIAeITH C AIAeE

CA AeIIIIIAITH NIEAA?A, IAeA?AEOAAIEO

?C IAI?AAI?*II? *ANOEIE AOA?EEss

05.05. 13 – “Iaoeie oa aia?aoe o?i?/ieo ae?iaieoeoa”

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiienii.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio
oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: Caneoaeaiee aeiao?aeiee Oe?a?ie,

aeaaeai?e AAI Oe?a?ie

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?,

Oea/ A?eai??e Aiaoie?eiae/,

OAeIO, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e o?i?/ii?

oaoiieia?? oa i?iieneiai? aeieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

Ia?oeaa Eaii?ae Iao?iae/,

AAO “Oe?IAe?o?iiao”, i.Oa?e?a,

/eai niinoa??aeii? ?aaee

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iaei?/aaneee Aeueo?aae ?aaiiae/,

?inoeooo oaoi?/ii? oaieio?ceee

IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a,

i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?oa?aeia onoaiiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao Oe?a?ie

“Ee?anueeee iie?oaoi?/iee ?inoeooo”, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 28 ” aeiaoiy 1999?. i 10-o?e aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.050.05 o Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iie?oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:

Oe?a?ia, 310002, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. O?oica, 21; o.47-80-68, 40-03-29.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iie?oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 24 ” eenoiiaaea 1999?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Oei/aiei A. E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. No/ania oaiaeaioe?y ?icaeoeo i?iieneiaino?
na?ae/eoue i?i iioe?aiiy iaeanoae canoinoaaiiy aiaeith. Iath/e aenieo
eaei??ei?noue, cia/io ?aaeoe?eio caeaoi?noue ? iaeo aonoeio, aiaeaiue ?
iacai?iiei eiiiiiaioii o o?i?/ieo oa aia?aaoe/ieo i?ioeanao, oa a
i?aeeiiieo i?eno?iyo i?e aea/aii? aoiinoa?e oa ieaaio.

Ia?niaeoeaiei aeaea?aeii iaea?aeaiiy aiaeith ? aiaea. Ia aaoiiiiieo
ia’?eoao, cie?aia ia iaoainoaioe?yo, canoiniaothoue nee?eieaaee niin?a
iaea?aeaiiy aiaeith c aiaee. I?ioean a?aecia/a?oueny aenieeie aeo?aoaie
?aaaaio?a (oa?inee?oe?th oa ?aeeiai iao?o). A?aoiaoth/e /eneaii?noue
niiaeeaa/?a, cacia/eii, ui aeacaiee iaaeie?e i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/ieo
iaoa??aeueieo aeo?ao. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a?eueo aeiiii?/ieo iaoiae?a ?
iaeaaeiaiiy no?eio?oueny oei, ui caaaeueia oai??y aca?iiae?? nieaa?a c
aiaeith ia?aaoaa? a noaae?? noaiiaeaiiy. A?aenooi? aeine?aei? aeai?, ye?
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy o ae?iaieoeoa? aiaeith
?yaeo i?iieneiaeo nieaa?a, aeeth/ath/e nieaae, iaea?aeai? c iai?aai?/ii?
/anoeie aeaoaaiai aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey.

Noai?aiiy aeineiiaei? oaoiieia?? oa ii?i ?ic?aooieo aiaeiaaeo ?aaeoi??a
ia iniia? anaa?/iiai aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ? oai?aoe/iiai aea/aiiy
iaoai?cio aaoa?iaaiieo ?aaeoe?e, a?ae?iaeeiai?ee oa oaieiianiiai?io a
o?eoacieo iioieao ? aeooaeueiith ? i?aeoe/ii cia/eeaith i?iaeaiith.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iniiaia /anoeia
?iaioe aeeiioaaeanue ca ieaiaie IAe? OAeIO oa ?IIao IAI Oe?a?ie
a?aeiia?aeii aei oaeeo aeieoiaio?a:

— aeiaia?? i?ae ?IIao oa OAeIO ? 53235 a?ae 25.06. 93?. “I?i?iaea
i?ioeano ioieiaeaeaiiy oa ei?ic?ei? aei?iaoaaiiy nieaa?a
oa?inee?eiaethi?i?th (ONA)”;

— aeiaia?? i?ae ?IIao oa AeiiIAe?/i?iao ? 536-93 “?ic?iaea aeiia ?
aea/aiiy aeanoeainoae aethiie?aii?eai?nieo nieaa?a, io?eioaaieo ?c
aenieicieueiiai aoa?eey”, Ae. ?. ? 0194 U 002439;

— aea?aeathaeaeaoia oaia ?IIao ae/o ? 1.7.2.208 1996-2000??. “?ic?iaea
eiioeaioe?? i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy aeueoa?iaoeaieo
aia?aiiin??a ? iao?aaeeoe?eieo aeaea?ae aia?a?? o ae?iaie/iio eiiieaen?
Oe?a?ie”, Ae. ?. ? 0197 V 012286.

E??i oiai, aaoi? i?eeiaa o/anoue o aeeiiaii? ?ia?o ca:

— aeiaiai?ii i?ae I?iaoaeai?iiii oa iaoeiai-ae?iaie/ith i?eaaoiith
o??iith “I?aecaiaia?ai ”? Y21980501I-I2/Oe5 a?ae 03.02.97?.“Aeeiiaoe
aaieia?/i? oa o?ceei-o?i?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeanoeainoae ? noaio
aoa?eueieo ieano?a ? ?ic?iaeoe i?eioeeiia? oaoiieia?/i? noaie aeoyaaiiy
? niaoe?aeueii? i?aeaioiaee a??nueei? iane, ui aeiaoaa?oueny,
oa i?iaeoeo?a ?? ia?a?iaee c iaoith io?eiaiiy iaei?iaeoth/eo nieaa?a
oa?inee?eiaethi?i?th”,  Ae. ?. ? 0198 U 004047, aeeiioaaiei a?aeiia?aeii
aei iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie ? 668 a?ae 28.06.97?.“I?i
I?ia?aio aeei?enoaiiy a?aeoiae?a ae?iaieoeoaa oa niiaeeaaiiy ia ia??iae
aei 2005 ?. ”Oaia ? 4.2.7. “I?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeii-i?iieneiai? ieaaee
iaei?iaeoth/iai nieaao a ia/? iiooaei?noth 2,6 IAo ?c a?aeoiae?a
aoaeacaaaa/aiiy”.

Iaoa ?iaioe iieyaaea a oaeineiiaeaii? i?ioeano ae?iaieoeoaa aiaeith ?
noai?aii? oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaiiai iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo aaciaaia?aoi??a
oeyoii iiaeeaoaiiai aea/aiiy o?ceei-o?i?/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ooai?aiiy
aiaeith a ?aaeoe?yo ?yaeo aethi?i??aeo, e?aii??aeo, oa
cae?ciaethiie?aii??aeo nieaa?a c aiaeith.

Iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aeiia?aeii aei iinoaaeaii? iaoe
aeieeea iaiao?aei?noue ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaea/:

— ?ic?iaeoe niiniae ? oaoiieia?th aaia?oaaiiy aiaeith c aiaee ca
aeiiiiiaith nieaa?a ONA, iaea?aeoaaieo ?c iai?aai?/ii? /anoeie aoa?eey,
oa i?iieneiaeo nieaa?a, ca-noinoaaiiy yeeo ? aeiiii?/ii aei?aaaeaiei;

— ciaeoe iaoiaeaie oa?iiaeeiai?ee ??aiiaaaeieo i?ioean?a oai?aoe/ia
cia/aiiy iiaiioe ?aaeoe?e Al, Si ? Fe c aiaeith, ioe?ieoe aieea oeneo ?
/enoioo iaea?aeoaaiiai aiaeith. ?ic?aooiee i?iaanoe ia aac?
oaaoeueiaaieo cia/aiue oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo aaee/ei;

— aea/eoe e?iaoeeo ?aaeoe?e aea?aieo nieaa?a c aiaeith ? ocaaaeueieoe
aeai? ??aiyiiyi ??ioa?aa, ui a?aoiao? oneeaaeiaiiy i?ioeano
oiiio?i?/ieie yaeuaie;

— ii??aiyoe aeoeai?noue nieaa?a iaoiaeaie oa?iiaeeiai?ee ia??aiiaaaeieo
i?ioean?a, aa?o/e aei oaaae iioa?iao aca?iiae?th ?a/iaei;

— aeine?aeeoe oaieiianiiai?i i?ae /anoeaie nieaao oa aiaeith c
o?aooaaiiyi aeieeath/iai ieneaeiiai oa?o, ciaeoe niin?a ?ic?aooieo
oaiia?aoo?e ?aaeoe?eii? iiaa?oi?;

— i?iaanoe aei?iaoaaiiy aaciaaia?aoi?a AAA-45 ia ??ciiiai?oieo nieaaao ?
aeaoe ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii nei?i/aiith aeo?ao ?aaaaio?a ia ae?iaieoeoai
aiaeith;

— noai?eoe iiaeaeue i?ioeano i?e?iaeii? oee?eoeyoe?? a oiiaao
aaciooai?aiiy, ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ?ic?aooieo ?aaeoi??a ia iniia?
noai?aii? iiaeae?.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Iaea?eueo ?noioieie iaoeiaeie ?acoeueoaoaie
aeine?aeaeaiiy oa?iiaeeiai?ee oa e?iaoeee ?aaeoe?e ? oae?:

— ??aiiaaaeiee nooi?iue ia?aoai?aiiy cae?ca o eieeaa?oueny a?ae 0,72
aei iaeeieoe?, oiae? ye o aethi?i?th oa e?aii?th o = 1;

— nieaae oa?inee?eiaethi?i?th (ONA), iaea?aeai? c iai?aai?/ii? /anoeie
aoa?eey, iathoue oaeaee?noue a 1,82 ?ace oa iiaiioo ?aaeoe??  o ia 1520%
aeu?, i?ae neioaoe/i? ONA, aeaioiaeai? nieaaethaaiiyi /enoeo
eiiiiiaio?a;

— iaaeoaeaeea aa?ooaaiiy (ni?i?iaoaaiiy) ao?e/? i?aeaeuo? aeoeai?noue
nieaa?a;

— ni?yaeaiiy aeaio ?aaeoe?e (ooai?aiiy aiaeith oa caeeiaiiy aiaee)
a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao iioa?iai? aca?iiae?? ?a/iaei, i?e cia/iiio
aieea? a?ae?iaeeiai?ee oa ?aaeeio a?aeoa?oaaiiy ieneaeiiai oa?o ia
?ioaineai?noue oaieiiai?io i?ae ieie. I?e oeueiio oaeaee?noue
ae?iaieoeoaa aio?ii?? a o?i?/i?e nenoai?, yea iaoiiaeaia cieaeaiiyi
ii-oaioe?aeo A?aana, n?iaaoia oaeaeeino? ae?iaieoeoaa aio?ii?? a
aeeneiao?ai?e no?oeoo??.

Aei?iaoaaiiy aaeiiieo ?aaeoi??a aenieiai oeneo iieacaee:

— e?aii?e ? eiai nieaae iio?aaothoue noaiaea?oiiai caaaioaaeaiiy aiaee,
aethi?i??a? nieaae — a 2 ?ace aeua, a nieaae ONA c aoa?eey — a 2 ?ace
ieae/a noaiaea?oiiai ia’?ia;

— ?c c?inoaiiyi ae?aiao?a aia?aoa i?aeneeth?oueny ia??aiii??i?noue
oee?eoeyoe??, ui i?ecaiaeeoue aei cieaeaiiy ?ioaineaiino? i?ioeano.
Iioeiaeuei? aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e ia? ?aaeoi? i?noe?noth 0,08 i 3.

Ocaaaeueiaiiy aeine?aeieo oa oai?aoe/ieo aeaieo aeicaieeei ooi/ieoe
?ic?aooiie ia?aiao??a ?aaeoi??a i?e caeeiaii? iioieo ??aeeie e oia?oa
cai?iiiioaaoe iine?aeiai?noue ?ic?aooieo o aace?ooiiio ?aaeei?.

I?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue oa ?aae?caoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe oai?aoe/ieo oa
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue caeiiii??iinoae oa?iiaeeiai?ee,
e?iaoeee, a?ae?iaeeiai?ee ? oaieiiai?io i?e ooai?aii? aiaeith aeicaieeee
ciaeoe ?ic?aooieia? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey aecia/aiiy iniiaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee aaciaaia?aoi??a c i?e?iaeiith oee?eoeyoe??th.

Cai?iiiiiaai? iaoaiaoe/i? caeaaeiino? neeaee iniiao iaoiaeo ?ic?aooieo
aiaeiaaeo ?aaeoi??a, ui ?ic?iaeythoueny ?inoeoooii i?iaeai
iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy IAI Oe?a?ie. Noai?aiee iaoiae aeei?enoiao?oueny AAO
“Oe?IAe?o?iiao” i?e ia?a-a??i/ieo ?ic?aooieao eei’yoeeueiee?a ? aeia?ieo
aia?ao?a.

?aeiiaiaeiaai? iioeiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? ?aaeeie aaia?oaaiiy aiaeith ca
aeiiiiiaith ?yaeo noaiaea?oieo aethi?i??aeo ? e?aii??aeo nieaa?a, a
oaeiae e?enoae?/ieo oa aii?oii-e?enoae?/ieo nieaa?a ONA, io?eioaaieo ?c
iai?aai?/ii? /anoeie aoa?eey. Canoinoaaiiy ONA nei?i/o? cao?aoe
?aaaaio?a ia iaeeieoeth iane aiaeith, ui aeaeiaoaa?oueny c aiaee, ia
1520%. E??i oiai, ca ?ic?aooieaie Oeaio?aeueii? aa?ieia?/ii?
iana?aaoi??? (OeAI) ?ina?ae?iiaoo ciaioothoueny o?ainii?oi? aeo?aoe ia
aeinoaaeo ?aaaaio?a, iniaeeai o aaaeeiaeinooii? ?aeiie ?icoaooaaiiy
iaoainoaioe?e. I?ae-aeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?ioeano aaciaeiaoaaiiy
aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe aeo?aoe ia oo?eiaiiy ianeoaiaoth/iai ia?niiaeo.
Caaaeyee aenieei o?ceei-e?iaoe/iei oa?aeoa?enoeeai ONA aeinyaathoue
i?eioeeiiai? iiaeeeaino? aaoiiaoecaoe?? i?ioeano. Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?ic?iaeaii? oaoiieia?? ca i?iiiceoe??th OeAI iai?/aii cae?enithaaoe o
?aieao I?aeaea?aeaaii? ?aaee c a?ae?iiaoai?ieia?? e?a?i NIAe.
A?aeiia?aei? ci?ie aianai? o oaoi?/io aeieoiaioaoe?th oeiiaeo
aiaeiaaeo ?aaeoi?ieo onoaiiaie ?IIao.

Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a. A iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeyo aaoi?o iaeaaeaoue
?ic?iaee iiaeae? i?ioeano aca?iiae?? nieaa?a c aiaeith, aeine?aei?
aeai?, ?o ia?iaea oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y, i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??:

— o ?iaio? [1] iieacaia caeaaei?noue oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe?? a?ae neeaaeo
nieaaa oa a?ae?iae?iai?/ieo oaeoi??a, ?icaeiaii iaoiae ?ic?aooieo
?aaeoi??a o ia?oiio iaaeeaeaii?;

— o noaoo? [2] aeeeaaeaii iaoiae aeeiiaiiai aaoi?ii iaaeoaeaeeiai
aa?ooaaiiy nieaa?a ? iiyniaii iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? c aiaeith
aii?oii-e?enoae?/ieo nieaa?a aaoaeoe/ieo neeaae?a;

— o noaoo? [3] aecia/aii caeiiii??iino? ?aaeoe?e e?enoae?/ieo oa
aii?oii-e?enoae?/ieo nieaa?a ONA c aiaeith;

— o i?ai?eio? [4] aeyaeaii iaeano? nenoaie Fe-Si-Al, aea nieaae iathoue
iaeneiaeueio oaeaee?noue aeo?niaiiy aiaeith oa iaea?eueoo iiaiioo
?aaeoe??; ?icaeiaii niin?a ii??aiyiiy aeoeaiino? nieaa?a ?c o?aooaaiiyi
oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai iioaioe?aeo;

— a ?iaio? [5] aeine?aeaeaii oaieiiai?i i?ae c?aceii aeoeaiaaiiai
aethi?i?th ? aiaeith ca oiia o?i?/ii? aca?iiae??, aea/aii i?io?eue
oaiia?aoo? ii ia?a??co c?acea;

— o aeiiia?ae? [6] ioe?iaii ?ioaineai?noue oaieiiai?io i?ae nieaaaie oa
aiaeyiei ?ic/eiii ?aeeiai iao?o a oiiaao aenieoaoaoe?? i?iieneiaeo
aia?ao?a;

— o aeiiia?ae? [7] i?iaiae?ciaaii aeine?aei? aeai? uiaei ?ioaineaiino?
i?ioeano aeae?eaiiy aiaeith i?e aenieeo oaiia?aoo?ao, iaaaaeaii
aenia?eiaioaeuei? cia/aiiy oaiia?aoo?e ?aaeoe?eii? iiaa?oi? /anoie
nieaa?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ?
iaaiai?thaaeenue ia oaeeo eiioa?aioe?yo:

— i?aeia?iaeiee oi?oi “Oaieiianiiai?i”, IIO-96. -I?inuee, 1996?.;

— i?aeia?iaeia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia eiioa?aioe?y “Microcad-97”. -Oa?e?a,
1997?.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
a?aeia-?aaeaii o naie iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo, aeeth/ath/e i?ai?eio.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e oa aeiaeaoeo. ?iaioo aeeeaaeaii
ia 103 noi??ieao ae?oei-aaiiai oaenoo, aeeth/ath/e 26 oaaeeoeue, 32
?enoiee. Ia?ae?e aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae noaiiaeoue 152 iaeiaioaaiiy.
Aeiaeaoie i?noeoue 8 iaeiaioaaiue ia 25 noi??ieao.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooiia? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?? oa aea?oueny
caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? a na?oe? caaaeueieo caeiiii??iinoae aaoa?iaaiieo
?aaeoe?e ?icaeyiooi ?ai?o iioae?eoaai? aeai? c oa?iiaeeiai?ee oa
e?iaoeee i?ioeano aca?iiae?? Al, Si, oa Fe, oa nieaa?a ia ?o iniia? c
aiaeith ? aiaeyieie ?ic/eiaie eoao. A?aecia/aii iacia/ia eiei aea/aieo
?aaeoe?e ? iieacaii iaaeineiiae?noue a?aeiieo iaoiaeee ?ic?aooieo
??aiiaaaeieo nenoai. Ni?iaa canoinoaaiiy aia?aoa ia??aiiaaaeii?
oa?iiaeeiai?ee iaiaaeoaaeanue ciaoiaeaeaiiyi eiao?oe??ioa
i?iii?oe?eiino? i?ae oaeaee?noth aeae?eaiiy aiaeith oa ooeaiei cia/aiiyi
oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai iioaioe?aeo. Iaaeinoaoiuei aa??thaaeenue ia?aiao?e
i?ioeano, neeaae ? no?oeoo?a nieaa?a, o oiio /ene? e iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeaieo, io?eioaaieo ?c iai?aai?/ii? /anoeie aenieicieueiiai
aoa?eey.

Iaaeinoaoiuei aeine?aeaeaii oaieiiai?i. Iaia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ii
?ic?aooieo oaiia?aoo?ieo iaii??a ? eiao?oe??io?a oaieiiai?io, ui ii/anoe
iiynith?oueny a?aenooi?noth a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii? iiaeae? aaciooai?aiiy.
Iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo ?aaeoi??a neeaaeaia eeoa aeey ?aaeei?a eei?iiy
??aeeie, ia ?ic?iaeaii iine?aeiaiino? ?ic?aooie?a aace?ooieo ?aaeei?a.
Iaiiaia oyaeaiiy i?i i?ioean i?ecaaei aei cia/ieo aeo?ao ?aaaaio?a o
i?iieneiaeo aia?aoao.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeai? ?ic?aooieia? cia/aiiy oa?iiaeeiai?/iiai
iioaioe?aeo G ?aaeoe?e Al, Si ? Fe c aiaeith oa aiaeyiith ia?ith.
Aea/aii 11 oei?a aca?iiae?e, aeeth/ath/e 3 ?ai?o a?aeiieo. Aeey
i?eeeaaeo ieae/a iaaaaeai? ?aaeoe??, ui niinoa??aathoueny i?e iaaenieeo
oaiia?aoo?ao( o a?aeiia?aeieo oiiaao ):

2Al + 6H2O 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2,

Si + 2H2O SiO2 + 2H2,

3Fe + 4H2O Fe3O4 + 4H2. ?ic?aooiee G aeeiiai? ca
oaaoeueiaaieie cia/aiiyie oa?iiaeeiai?/ieo aaee/ei. Ciaeaeai? cia/aiiy
G aeacothoue ia aenieo ?iia??i?noue i?ioean?a aca?iiae?? Al ? Si c
aiaeith, oa iaioo ?iia??i?noue ?aaeoe?? Fe c aiaeith. I?i oea na?ae/eoue
aaee/eia iiaiioe ?aaeoe??  o . sseui o ia?oeo aeaio aeiaaeeao  o = 1,
oi a inoaiiueiio ciaioo?oueny a?ae iaeeieoe? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 300 E aei
o = 0,72 i?e 1000 E.

Aenie? cia/aiiy eiinoaio ??aiiaaae i?aeoaa?aeaeothoue
iiaeeea?noue iaea?aeaiiy /enoiai aiaeith, i?e oeueiio oene, ui
?icaeaa?oueny o ?aaeoi?? (?  15IIa), neaai aieeaa? ia iiaiioo ?aaeoe??.
Oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy aia?a?? A?aana ca oaaoeueiaaieie cia/aiiyie
iacaeaaeieo ci?iieo aeua, i?ae ca a?aeiieie iaoiaeeeaie ia 59%.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith e?iaoeee ?aaeoe?e
aca?iiae?? nieaa?a ia iniia? Al, Si oa Fe c aiaeith oa aiaeyieie
?ic/eiaie ?aeeiai iao?o. sse iniiai? aiaeiaaaia?oth/? nieaae i?eeiyo?:
oa?inee?eiaethi?i?e (ONA) c ??ciiiai?oiei ai?noii aethi?i?th, ii/eiath/e
c ONA 11 (ian.%: Fe-18.15, Si-61.9, Al-11.13, Ti-0.68, Mg-0.15, Ca-4.0,
P-0.059, S-0.04) ? cae?i/oth/e ONA 77 ( Fe-7.84, Si-13.8, Al-77.2,
Ca-0.83, Ti-0.19, Mg-0.05, S-0.034, P-0.02, Mn-0.01, C-0.008);
/enoee e?aii?e; oa?inee?oe?e ON 75 (AINO 1415-70); aethi?i??a? nieaae
NAN-1 (OO 48-21-447-75) oa AIA ( OO 48-5-152-78 ). sse aoaeii aeey
ii??aiyiiy aea?aii iaea?eueo aeoeaiee nieaa AA5I5E5 — Al-85, Ga-5,
Sn-5, In-5 (a.n. 535364).

E?enoae?/i? nieaae ONA 11 oa ONA 16 io?eiai? c iai?aai?/ii?
/anoeie aoa?eey, ONA 17 — ONA 34 aeaiooaai? oeyoii nieaaeaiiy /enoeo
eiiiiiaio?a, ONA 38 — ONA 77 — nieaaeaiiyi ONA 11 c aethi?i??i oa
cae?cii. Iaaeoaeaeea aa?ooaaiiy ?icieaa?a i?iaaaeaii ia aeeneo, ui
iaa?oa?oueny.

A?aioeiiao?e/iee neeaae ii?ioe?a aecia/aii neoiaei aiae?cii ca AINOii
18318-73. Noai iiaa?oi? /anoie aea/aii ca aeiiiiiaith iioe/ieo
i?e?ineii?a IAN-9, IEI-7 aeaeo?iiiiai i?e?ineiia “Camscan-4DV” oa
iaoiaeii ?aioaai?anueeiai aiae?co ?c canoinoaaiiyi nenoaie “Link-860”.
Ieoiia iiaa?oiy ii?ioe?a ciaeaeaia ca aacii?iieei?noth (i?eeaaee INO-2
oa O-3) Aeey eiio?ieth canoiniaaii i?eeaae “Ni?aoiiao?”. Aeine?aei?
aeai? ii??aithaaeeny c ?ic?aooieiaeie.

A aenia?eiaioao c aeoeaiaaiei aethi?i??i canoiniaaii eiiaeainao
aeai?aciai? ia?aaiiee aiaee pH = 6,01 (AINO 6709-72). O ?aoo? ?ac?a
1030%-e ?ic/ei NaOH, yeee i?eaioiaaii ia aeenoeeueiaai?e aiae? (AINO
4328-77). O iiooeia?e na??? aeine?ae?a canoiniaoaaee KOH (NO NAA
1439-78).

Iniiai? e?iaoe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiiai? a ?aaeoi??, ui caaacia/o?
?cioi?ia i?io?eaiiy i?ioeano. Ia ii/aoeo aeine?aeo iaiao?aeio
e?euee?noue aiaeyiiai ?ic/eio ?aeeiai iao?o caeeaathoue o ?aaeoi?.
Ii?ioie aeine?aeaeoaaiiai nieaao caneiathoue o eanaoo. Eanaoo
i?aea?oothoue o ai?eiaei? ia iaoae?/i?e ieooe?, ui c’?aeio?oueny /a?ac
eiioaeo, ioneiao eiiieo ? aei?yiey/ c aeaeo?iia?aaeath. I?ney
aa?iaoecaoe?? oa ?ic?a??aaiiy ?aaeoi?a iaoeneathoue eiiieo ? aiaeii/an
o?enothoue /an ii/aoeo ?aaeoe??. ?iioeuen no?oio ?icieaaey? ieoeo,
eanaoa iaaea?, ? ii?ioie aeneia?oueny o ?ic/ei eoao. Cae?eniththoue
aaoiiaoe/iee caien ci?ie oeneo oa oaiia?aoo?e, aeey /iai aei ?aaeoi?a
i?e?aeiai? iaiiiao? ? oa?iiia?a ?c a?aea?aeiia?aeieie aoi?eiieie
i?eeaaeaie.

Aeine?ae aaaaea?oueny caaa?oaiei i?e i?eieiaii? iii?oiiai c?inoaiiy
oeneo oa cieaeaiiy oaiia?aoo?e na?aaeiaeua o ?aaeoi?? ia 35iN. I?ney
cae?i/aiiy aeine?aeo ?aaeoi? ioieiaeaeothoue, aac i?iioneathoue /a?ac
eiiaeainaoi? ? i?ney a?aeie?aieaiiy e?aiaeue aiaee a naia?aoi?? /a?ac
?aaeoeoi? ? aeo?aoii?? neeaeathoue o aoiinoa?o. I?iaeoeoe ?aaeoe??
ceeaathoue, noaiae ?aoaeueii i?iieaathoue.

?aaeoi? ia? eiio?ieueiee iaiiiao? ? caiia?aeio iaia?aio. Oaiia?aoo?o
na?aaeiaeua o ?aaeoi?? i?aeo?eiothoue iino?eiith ca ?aooiie cia/iiai
iaaeeeoeo ?ic/eio eoao. I?e oeueiio aeeeth/a?oueny aieea ci?ie
eiioeaio?aoe?? eoao a oiae? ?aaeoe??. Oaiia?aoo?o aei??ththoue
oa?iiia?ith oeio OE (ae?aiao? niath 1ii, oiaueia i?iaiae?a 0,4 ii) oa
aoi?eiiei i?eeaaeii ENI-4.

Aeey caieno oeneo canoiniaaia nenoaia, ui neeaaea?oueny c aeao/eea oeneo
IIA-IE oa naiiieno I-37. Aeo?aeiee neaiae no?oio, i?iii?oe?eiee oeneo, c
aeao/eea iiaea?oueny ia i?aeneethaa/ (OIO E-37), a iio?i ?a?no?o?oueny
naiiienii I-37. Aeey noeneino? aeeeaaeo iaae? ci?ie ia?aiao??a i?ioeano
iaaaaeai? o aeniiaeao.

O aaoa?iaaiieo nenoaiao oaeaee?noue ?aaeoe?? c?inoa? o i??o ?icaeoeo
?aaeoe?eii? iiaa?oi?, nyaa? naiai iaeneioio, a iio?i cieaeo?oueny ca
?aooiie cieeiaiiy ?aaaoth/eo /anoie. Caeaaei?noue /anoeie nieaao, ui
i?i?aaaoaaa  , a?ae /ano a?ao?/ii ia? aeaeyae s-iiae?aii? e?eai?, yea
i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny ??aiyiith ??ioa?aa

= 1 –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, (1)

aea k — eiinoaioa oaeaeeino? ?aaeoe??, caeaaeeoue a?ae oaiia?aoo?e oa
i?e?iaee ?a/iaei; n — noaea, a?aoiao? aaiiao?e/i? aeaiaioe iiaa?oi?
?aaeoe??. Cia/aiiy n ? k aecia/ai? i?ney iiaea?eiiai eiaa?eoioaaiiy
aeine?aeieo aeaieo. Iaeii/anii ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue i?e  = 0,30,5
iaaaaeai? o aeaeyae? caeaaeiino? Oieueia?a

W = d / d = LA . (2)

aea L — oaiiiaiieia?/iee eiao?oe??io; A — n?iaenoai o?i?/ii? ?aaeoe??.

Aeey e?aii??aeo nieaa?a oaeaee?noue ?aaeoe?? c?inoa? c? ciaioaiiyi
?ici??o /anoie, ca?eueoaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e oa eiioeaio?aoe?? eoao.
Aethi?i??a? nieaae o iaio?e i??? ii/oaathoue ci?io oaiia?aoo?e. Ca
??aieo oiia oaeaee?noue aaciaeae?eaiiy o nieaaao ONA, io?eiaieo ?c
aoa?eey, a 1,82 ?ace, a iiaiioa ?aaeoe?? ia 1520% aeua, i?ae o
neioaoe/ieo nieaaao.

I?aeaeuaia aeoeai?noue nieaa?a ONA c aoa?eey ii/anoe iiynith?oueny
cia/iith iaiaeii?iaei?noth iiaa?oi? oa e?eoeith no?oeoo?ith /anoie.
?ioith i?e/eiith ? iayai?noue i?e?iaeieo aeii?oie, eio?? o ?ic/ei? eoao
ooai?ththoue i?e?iaaeueaaiiia?e, ui ni?eythoue ?icieaaiith ieneaeiiai
oa?o.

Iaeiae nieaae ONA iathoue oaeaee?noue aaciaeae?eaiiy ia o?e ii?yaeee
aeuo, i?ae

aeoeaiaaiee aethi?i?e, oiae? ye oa?iiaeeiai?/i? iioaioe?aee
a?ae??ciythoueny eeoa a 1,2 ?ace. Inoaii? na?ae/eoue i?i cia/iee aieea
ia i?ioean ieneaeiiai oa?o ONA, a oaeiae i?i ?ia?oi?noue cae?ca.

Ni?i?iaoaaiiy ONA 11 aeicaieeei i?aeiyoe oaeaee?noue aaciaeae?eaiiy (i?e
10%-e eiioeaio?aoe?? eoao) aei Wmax = 11,3103 i3/(ean), ui ia?aaeuo?
Wmax e?enoae?/iiai ONA 11 ( i?e 20%-e eiioeaio?aoe?? eoao ) iaeaea a 2
?ace.

A?aeiii, ui aii?oi? nieaae oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iai?oaeaiith no?oeoo?ith ?
a?aenooi?noth aeaeueiuei? neiao??? a ?icoaooaaii? aoii?a. C i?aeaeuaiiyi
oaiia?aoo?e aoiie io?eiothoue iiaeeea?noue caeiyoe nai? o?aaeeoe?eia
i?noea a oii?yaeeiaai?e a?aooe? e?enoaeo ? iio?i anooieoe a eiioaeo c
iieaeoeaie aiaee. Oaea iine?aeiai?noue ia?ai?uaiue ni?ey? a?aeoa?oaaiith
i?iaeoeo?a ?aaeoe?? a iiiaio ooai?aiiy aiaeith. Aii?oia cae?ci oaeiae
anooia? a ?aaeoe?th, ui caaacia/o? i?aeoe/ii 100%-o aca?iiae?th nieaao.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy oaieiiai?io
i?ae eoneiaei c?aceii aeoeaiaaiiai aethi?i?th c aiaeith. Aeine?aee
i?iaaaeaii o neeyiiio aia?ao? E?iia oa e?iaoe/iiio ?aaeoi??. Ci?io
oaiia?aoo?e oeaio?o c?acea, eiai ciai?oiuei? iiaa?oi? oa aiaee
cae?eniaii ca aeiiiiiaith oa?iiia?. sse aoi?eiiee i?eeaae aeei?enoaii
iioaioe?iiao? ENI-4. ?ia?oe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee oa?iiia? ciaeaeai? i?e
iioneaii? ?o nia?a o iinoaeei? c eeiey/ith aiaeith oa ?ic?a??oei ianeii.

I?ae /an iniiaieo aeine?ae?a anoaiiaeaii i?io?eue oaiia?aoo? ii ia?a??co
c?acea, ui i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac yae?a aaciooai?aiiy.

Oaiia?aoo?a ?aaeoe?eiiai oa?o oiaueiith a aeae?eueea aiano?ai i?eeiyoa
??ai?e aae?aaaoi?e. Aenia?eiaioe iieacaee, ui oaiia?aoo?a aioo??oiuei?
/anoeie ieneaeiiai oa?o aei??aith? oaiia?aoo?? iane/aiiy aiaeyii? ia?e,
ui a?aeiia?aea? e?eoe/iiio oeneo, yeee ?icaeaa?oueny ia ?aaeoe?ei?e
iiaa?oi? i?e aeo?eaii? aaci??aeeiii? no?oieie.

Oaeaee?noue ??aeeie, ui iaieaa? /anoeo nieaao, ciaoiaeyoue oeyoii
iine?aeiaiiai ?ic?aooieo oaeaeeino? aaeeaaaoii? oa/?? iioieo aaco,
oaeaeeino? o?eoaciiai iioieo oa aaee/eie aieiaiai?noo aace?ooa. Cia/aiiy
oaeaeeino? aea? iiaeeea?noue ciaeoe /enei ?aeiieueaena ? iiaeaoe aeai? c
oaieiiai?io o aeaeyae? e?eoa??aeueii? caeaaeiino?

Nu = 1,8510 –  6 Re  1, 6 Pr 0, 33 .
(3) ??aiyiiy ae?enia a ?ioa?aae? /enae 410 4 Re 210 5.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui aieea /enea Re ia ?ioaineai?noue oaieia?aeaea/?
i?eaeecii oaeee aea, ye ? i?e aeia?iaoaaii? aiaee o aeani? ia?e
(nooi?iue i?e e??oa??? Re 1,3/1,79).

Aca?iiae?y nieaa?a c aiaeith a?aeaoaa?oueny c i?i?iaeueiei ?icn?thaaiiyi
e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? oee?eoethth/iai iioieo, ui aeieea? a i?ioean?.
Ooi/iai? cia/aiiy o?i?/iiai iioaioe?aeo a?aeiia?aeathoue ciaeaeai?e
?ioaineaiino? ia?aaea/? oaiea.

O caeeth/iiio i’yoiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe
aei?iaoaaiiy aaoiiiiiiai aiaeiaaiai aaia?aoi?a i?noe?noth 0,045i 3
(AAA-45). Noaia onoaiiaee c aaciaaia?aoi?ii AAA-45 ca?aa?oueny c
oeiiaith, ca aeiyoeii nenoai i?eaiooaaiiy ioeueie oa ?ic/eio eoao.
?aaeoi? ia? oa?iiia?e aeey aei??thaaiiy oaiia?aoo? ??aeeie oa aaco a
aia?ao?, a oaeiae oaiia?aoo?e ciai?oiuei? no?iee a ieaei?e /anoei?
aaia?aoi?a. Oene, ?icaeiooee a oiae? ?aaeoe??, aecia/athoue c?aceiaei
iaiiiao?ii. Ii oeneo ? ia’?io a?eueii? /anoeie aaeiia ioe?iththoue
e?euee?noue ooai?th?iiai aiaeith. Neeaeaiiy aaco a aoiinoa?o
cae?eniththoue /a?ac eiiaeainaoi?, naia?aoi? oa aeo?aoii?? ANA-400.

Iniiaiei aei?iaoaaiiyi ia?aaeoaaee aei?iaoaaiiy e?iaoe/iiai noaiaea a
?aaeei? aenieoaoaoe?? aaciaaia?aoi?a AAA-45.

Aeine?aei? aeai? ocaaaeueiai? ??aiyiiyi (2) oa caeaaeiinoyie ii
oaieiiai?io.

I?e ia?iaoe? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo aeei?enoai? ?ai?o iioae?eiaai?
a?aeiiino? uiaei aei?iaoaaiiy aaeiiieo ?aaeoi??a i?noe?noth 0,08 i 3 oa
0,2 i 3.

C i?aeaeuaiiyi oaiia?aoo?e a?ae 90N aei 227N eiao?oe??io i?iii?oe?eiino?
L i?ae iaeneiaeueiith oaeaee?noth aeae?eaiiy aiaeith oa ieoiiei
cia/aiiyi aia?a?? A?aana c?inoa? o nieaao ON 75 i?eaeecii aaea?/?, o
e?aii?th — a 4,5 ?ace, oiae? ye o ONA oeae eiao?oe??io ci?ith?oueny
neaai, a o aethi?i??aeo nieaa?a aeaui cieaeo?oueny. A?aecia/aia
caeiiii??i?noue na?ae/eoue i?i ??ciee oa?aeoa? a?aeoa?oaaiiy ieneaeiiai
oa?o, ui ooai?th?oueny. ?c ca?eueoaiiyi ae?aiao?a aia?aoa eiao?oe??io L
cieaeo?oueny, i/aaeaeii, ca ?aooiie ia??aiii??iino? oee?eoeyoe??.
Ioeuenoth/ee ?aaeei onoaa? cacia/aiee iaaeie?e. Iioeiaeuei? ?ici??e ia?
?aaeoi? ia’?iii 0,08 i 3.

Aeey c?o/iino? ioe?iee ianooaaieo ci?i aeine?aei? ?acoeueoaoe ia?iaeai?
o aeaeyae? ??aiyiiy

L = k Re n, (4)

aea k — ?ici??iee ei?o?oe?aio i?iii?oe?eiino?; n — noaea, ui
oa?aeoa?eco? a?ae?iae?iai?/iee ?aaeei iioieo.

?icoaooaaiiy i?yieo ia iaethieao na?ae/eoue, ui oaeaee?noue ?aaeoe??
aeae?eaiiy aiaeith caeaaeeoue ye a?ae iii?o o?i?/ii? noaae??, oae ? a?ae
o?ce/ii?.

A ?acoeueoao? aeaoaeueiiai aea/aiiy aieeao ci?ie aeeaiao?o aia?aoa ia
a?ae?iaeeiai?eo oa oaeaee?noue ?aaeoe?? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii e?eoa??aeuei
caeaaeiino?

ONA 11 c ?ic/eiii ?aeeiai iao?o 16,6% — ? eiioeaio?aoe??

L* = 1,5105 Re0,55
,(5)ON 75 c ?ic/eiii ?aeeiai iao?o 15% — ? eiioeaio?aoe??

L* = 6,24107 Re0,32 ,(6)ONA 18 c ?ic/eiii ?aeeiai iao?o
20% — ? eiioeaio?aoe??

L* = 2,82105 Re0,82
,(7)ON 75 c ?ic/eiii ?aeeiai iao?o 15% — ? eiioeaio?aoe??

L* = 4106 Re0,48 .(8) ??aiyiiy (5)(7) anoaiiaeai? aeey oiia
t = 100N (373E), P  0,1IIa ? ae?eni? a ?ioa?aae? 410 4

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