OE?A?INUeEA AEAAeAIIss AA?A?IEO IAOE

IINOEOOO OAA?EIIEOeOAA

Ao?nueeee Iai? Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 636.2.033.082.432

OAeINEIIAEAIIss IAOIAeEEE IOeIIEE IEIAeIEEIA E?OIIEO I’ssNIEO II?IAe IA
I?EEEAAeI NOAI?THAAII? NEIAIOAEUeNUeEI? I’ssNII?

06.02.01 — ?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoeiy oaa?ei

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe

Oa?eia – 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iinoeoooi oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI.

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee — aeieoi? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?
Aei?iothe Aaeoa?ae Ieeieaeiae/, Iinoeooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI,
caaiaeoth/ee eaai?aoi?i?th naeaeoei? i aiaeoai?aiiy i’ynii? ooaeiae.

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: aeieoi? nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?,
aeaaeaiie OAAI Eice? Aieiaeeie? Naiaiiae/, Aeiii?iiao?ianueeee
aea?aeaa?ioiiaa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?icaaaeaiiy i aaiaoeee
n?euenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo oaa?ei;

eaiaeeaeao nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, Aaeiae/aiei TH?ie
Aaneeueiae/, Iinoeooo ?icaaaeaiiy i aaiaoeee oaa?ei OAAI, noa?oee
iaoeiaee niia?iaioiee aiaeaeieo neioa?noaa

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa: A?eioea?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aa?a?iee oi?aa?neoao,
eaoaae?a ?icaaaeaiiy i aaiaoeee oaa?ei, i. A?ea Oea?eaa

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny «2» aa?aciy 1999 ?. i_10_aiaeeii ia caniaeaiii
niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.65.356.01 Iinoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI
ca aae?anith: 312120, i.Oa?eia, i/a Eoeeie/i

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o aiaeiioaoei Iinoeoooo
oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI (312120, i.Oa?eia, i/a Eoeeie/i)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee «_2_»_ethoiai_1999 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoeiaeiciaaii?

a/aii? ?aaee
A.I.Oaaoia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Anooi. Iaeiei ic aaaeeeaeo oaeoi?ia iaoeiai-oaoii/iiai i?ia?ano a
i’yniiio neioa?noai ? oe?iea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai no/anieo
aeinyaiaiue iaoee a iaeanoi aaiaoeee i naeaeoe??, yei ni?eythoue
iiaeaeuaiith aaiaoe/iiai iioaioeiaeo i?iaeoeoeaiinoi oaa?ei. A oeueiio
ca’yceo ae?ioaeueia cia/aiiy ia? ioeiiea niaaeeiaeo yeinoae aoaa?a,
aeiai? e?aueo aaiioeiia i ?o i?aeai? c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy aieueo
i?iaeoeoeaieo oaa?ei a ianooiieo iieieiiiyo. Aaaaea?oueny, ui iieiioaiiy
i’ynii? i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ooaeiae ia 80-90% caeaaeeoue aiae iioaineaii?
naeaeoei? aoaa?a. Oiio ioeiiea ?o aaiioeio ia? ae?ioaeueia cia/aiiy.

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. A inoaiii ?iee a Oe?a?ii ia?aaaaeii ?icaiaeyoue
nai? aio/eciyii oa iiii?oii e?oiii i’ynii ii?iaee o?aioeocueei?
naeaeoei?, oiio inioth/a iaoiaeeea ioeiiee aoaa?a iaei aoaeoeaia. Ii
aiaeiioaiith aei oe?a?inueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee A.I.Eoeao i niiaaa.
(1983), A.I.Oaiiaaiei (1988, 1995) ?aeiiaiaeothoue i?iaiaeeoe ioeiieo
aoaa?a aiae 8 aei 18-21-iin aieo.

A i’yniiio neioa?noai Oe?a?ie i a aaaaoueio e?a?iao naioo ana aieueoo
caoeieaaeaiinoue aeeeeeathoue oaa?eie neiaioaeuenueei? ii?iaee, yeeo
oe?iei aeei?enoiaothoue aeey no?auoaaiiy c i’ynieie ii?iaeaie.

Aeey i?enei?aiiy naeaeoeieiiai i?ioeano noai?aiiy neiaioaeuenueei?
i’ynii? ii?iaee, aeyaeaiiy ?iaeiia/aeueieeia caaiaenueeeo eiiie i
oi?ioaaiiy aaiaaeiai/ii? no?oeoo?e iaiaoiaeii oaeineiiaeeoe inioth/o
iaoiaeeeo ioeiiee aoaa?a.

A ca’yceo c oeei cacia/aia i?iaeaia ? aeooaeueiith, ?? ae?ioaiiy ia?
aaeeea oai?aoe/ia i i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy. Oea coiiaeei iaoeiaee iiooe i
aeai? iai?yieo aeaii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue caiaeii c ieaiii iaoeiai-aeineiaeieo ?iaio Iinoeoooo
oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI ca oaiith 2 «Oaeineiiaeeoe inioth/i, noai?eoe iiai
i’ynii ii?iaee i oeie ooaeiae ia iniiai no/anieo aeinyaiaiue iaoee a
iai?yieo iiaeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioiicaeaoiinoi a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiiiiee»,
?icae?eo IV «Noai?eoe noia?iioaineaio neiaioaeuenueeo i’ynio ii?iaeo,
yea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith iiei/iinoth i i’yniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth»
ca iaoeiai-oaoii/iith i?ia?aiith «I?iaeiaieuenoai-95», i?iaeo
«sseiae/eia» (iiia? aea?aeaaii? ?a?no?aoei? AI1001315?).

Iaoa i caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoa ?iaioe — oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee
ioeiiee aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia e?oiieo ii?iae ca aeaniith i?iaeoeoeai?noth ?
ye?noth iauaaee?a ia i?eeeaaei noai?thaaii? neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii?
ii?iaee c iaoith aeyaeaiiy ?iaeiia/aeueiee?a caaiaenueeeo e?i?e,
caeeaaeee aaiaaeia?/ii? no?oeoo?e noaaea.

A?aeiia?aeii aei oeueiai aoee aecia/ai? oae? caaaeaiiy:

— aea/?oe ?ino, ?icaeoie, aeeao iano, aenoa?’??ii iniaeeainoi, i’ynio
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue i yeinoue i’yna iauaaeeia ioeiithaaieo
aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia, aeei?enoaieo ia ia?oiio aoaii noai?aiiy
neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee;

— aecia/eoe aoaeoeaiinoue aeei?enoaiiy iiaeeaieo ?a/iaei ei?io aeey
ae?iaieoeoaa oa?/iaiai aieeo iauaaeeaie ioeiithaaieo aoaa?a oa
aeiiiii/io aoaeoeaiinoue ioeiiee;

— aeyaeoe ?iaeiia/aeueieeia caaiaenueeeo eiiie noai?thaaii?
neiaioaeuenueei? ii?iaee;

— ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieiai/io noaio i i?iiiceoei? ii oaeineiiaeaiith
iaoiaeeee ioeiiee aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia noai?thaaii? neiaioaeuenueei?
i’ynii? ii?iaee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. Oai?aoe/ii i aenia?eiaioaeueii
iaa?oioiaaii iaiaoiaeiinoue i?iaaaeaiiy o?eaoaiii? ioeiiee ieiaeieeia ca
aeaniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth ? yeinoth iauaaeeia (i’yniith i?iaeoeoeai?noth
ae/e?a, a?aeoai?iith ooieoe??th aei/ie ? iaoa?einueeeie yeinoyie
aei/ie-ia?a?noie) ia i?eeeaaei neiaioaeuenueei?.

Aia?oa a ciioaoii/iie i?aeoeoei anoaiiaeaia aeioe?euei?noue ioe?iee
i’ynii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ca ?acoeueoaoaie eiio?ieueiiai caaith ? cia/ia
aa??aaaeuei?noue eiao?oe??ioa eiiaa?n?? i?ioa?io ei?io a oa?/iaee a?eie
i’yna iauaaeeaie aoaa?a, ui ? iniiaith aeey aianaiiy oeueiai iieacieea a
/enei naeaeoeieieo iciae i?e ioeiioei oa aeiai?i aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia
i’ynieo ii?iae. A?aoiaoth/e aeuaaeeeaaeai? aeiiiaiaiiy i?e ioe?ioe?
aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a ca ye?noth iauaaee?a, aeyaeai? ?iaeiia/aeueieee ia?oeo
caaiaenueeeo e?i?e Nia?oai ? Oaio, ye? ca ieai?iieie ? i?iaeoeoeaieie
yeinoyie ia?aaa?oothoue oe?eueiaee noaiaea?o.

?ic?iaeaia, ai?iaaaeaeaia oa ia?aai?aia oaoiieiai/ia iiaeaeue
o?eaoaiii? ioeiiee aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia ca aeaniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth oa
yeinoth iauaaeeia.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia. Iaeaieueo iiaii iiaeia
ioeiieoe ieiaeieeia eeoa c o?aooaaiiyi noaoi iauaaeeia, ui ia? iniaeeai
aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy i?e naeaeoei? oaa?ei e?oiieo i’ynieo ii?iae, yeith i ?
noai?thaaia neiaioaeuenueea i’ynia. Ia i?eeeaaei oei?? ii?iaee
?ic?iaeaia eiiieaenia o?eaoaiia ioeiiea aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia e?oiieo
i’ynieo ii?iae ca aeaniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth, yeinoth iauaaeeia,
aiaeoai?iith ooieoei?th (eaaeiioaeueiinoth) i iaoa?einueeeie
(iiei/iinoth) yeinoyie aei/ie iiney ia?oiai ioaeaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii
aeioeieueiinoue i aenieo aoaeoeaiinoue aeei?enoaiiy aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia
neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee naeaeoei? Eaiaaee i O?I i?e noai?aiii
aio/eciyii? neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee. Aeyaeaii ?iaeiia/aeueieee
caaiaenueeeo eiiie i ?o i?iaeiaaeoaa/i noai?thaaii? neiaioaeuenueei?
i’ynii? ii?iaee, yei ca nai?ie yeinoyie ia?aaa?oothoue aeiiae
oeieueiaiai noaiaea?oo.

?aaeicaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue. ?acoeueoaoe
iaoeiai-ainiiaea?nueeeo aeineiaeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeaii a aa?ioi?ii
ii.Ino?ianueeiai i ENI «Ae?oaeaa» Iaiueeianueeiai ?aeiio *a?eanueei?,
ENI «Ia?aiiaa» Aaeeianueeiai, ?aaeainii «Aiaiue?anueeee»
E?aniieoonueeiai ?aeiio Oa?eianueei?, ENI «Noaiiaa» Iiaiiineianueeiai
?aeiio Aeiii?iiao?ianueei? iaeanoae. Iaea?aeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe
aeei?enoaii i?e ?ic?iaoei «Iaoeiiiaeueii? i?ia?aie ?icaeoeo aaeoci
i’yniiai neioa?noaa Oe?a?ie ia 1997-2005 ?iee» (Ee?a, 1997) i «I?ia?aie
noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee aei 2005 ?ieo».

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaioii ocaaaeueiaii ?acoeueoaoe
o?ueio iniaenoeo iaoeiai-ainiiaea?nueeeo aeineiaeia. Noaio oa iaoiaeeeo
aeineiaeaeaiue aiaei?aoeueiaaii niieueii c iaoeiaei ea?iaieeii.
I?iaaaeaii aiaeic iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia oa oi?ioaaiiy ?oeiieno
aeena?oaoei? ia iniiai aeanieo aeineiaeaeaiue i ioaeieaoeie,
aeiiiii/iiai aiaeico ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue, ?ic?iaee oaoiieiai/ii?
iiaeaei o?eaoaiii? ioeiiee aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia, oi?ioaaiiy aeniiaeia ii
?iaioi oa i?iiiceoeie ae?iaieoeoao.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue. Iaoa?iaee aeena?oaoei?
aeieeaaeaii i iaea?aeaee noaaeaiiy ia: ui?i/ieo caioieo iaoiaee/ieo
?aaeao Iinoeoooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI (1991-1997); Anaoe?a?inueeie
thaieaeiie iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei?, i?enay/aiie 90-?i//th c aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy i?ioani?a I.I.Eieanieea, Ee?a, 1994; iaoeiai-ae?iaie/ie
eiioa?aioei? «Oai?aoe/ii oa i?aeoe/ii aniaeoe ii?iaeiooai?thaaeueiiai
i?ioeano a iiei/iiio oa i’yniiio neioa?noai», Ee?a, 1995; Iiaeia?iaeiie
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei?, i?enay/aiie 110-?i//th c aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy Iioueiieiia I.Ae., Oa?eia, 1995; Iiaeia?iaeiie
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei?, i?enay/aiie 125-?i//th c aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy aeaaeaiiea I.O.Iaaiiaa, Oa?eia, 1996; Iiaeia?iaeiie
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei?, i?enay/aiie 80-?i//th c aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy /eaia-ei?aniiiaeaioa AANAIIE O.O.Aenia?a, Oa?eia, 1996;
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei? «Aoaeoeaiinoue iaoiaeia iioaineoieaoei?
ae?iaieoeoaa i?iaeoeoia oaa?eiieoeoaa», Oa?eia, 1996; ?anioaeieainueeiio
naiiia?i-iaa/aiii c ieoaiue ?icaeoeo i’yniiai neioa?noaa, ia?a?iaee i
?aaeicaoei? i’yna oa i’ynieo i?iaeoeoia, Eiaaeue, 1997; ia Iiaeia?iaeiie
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iie eiioa?aioei?, i?enay/aiie 100-?i//th aiae aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy eao?aaoa aea?aeaaii? i?aii? N?N?, caneoaeaiiai aeiy/a iaoee
Oe?a?ie, aeieoi?a nieuenueeiainiiaea?nueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?a ssoeaiea
I.TH., Oa?eia, 1998; ?aaei c i?iaeai caieueoaiiy ae?iaieoeoaa yeiae/eie
i ?icaeyaeo i?ia?ai noai?aiiy i’ynieo ii?iae aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae,
Ee?a, 1998; eii?aeeiaoeieieo ia?aaeao a iinoeoooi oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI,
Oa?eia, 1993-1997.

Ioaeieaoei?. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii 11 iaoeiaeo ?iaio, 4 c
ieo — o iaoeiaeo aeaeaiiyo, ia?aeie yeeo caoaa?aeaeaiee AAE Oe?a?ie.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?. Aeena?oaoeiy neeaaea?oueny c anooio, 4
?icaeieia, aeniiaeia oa i?iiiceoeie ae?iaieoeoao. Ianya aeena?oaoei?
neeaaea? 122 noi?iiie, o oiio /enei 14 iethno?aoeie, 38 oaaeeoeue oa 8
aeiaeaoeia. Nienie aeei?enoaii? eioa?aoo?e iaei/o? 256 aeaea?ae, c yeeo
12 iiicaiieie iiaaie.

AENIA?EIAIOAEUeIA *ANOEIA

Iaoa?iaee oa iaoiaeeea aeineiaeaeaiue

Aeineiaeaeaiiy aeeiiaii oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy o?ueio iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo
aeineiaeia a aa?ioi?ii ii.Ino?ianueeiai Iaiueeianueeiai ?aeiio
*a?eanueei? iaeanoi. Ia’?eoii aeineiaeaeaiue aoee oaa?eie
neiaioaeuenueei? ii?iaee iiei/ii-i’yniiai iai?yieo i?iaeoeoeaiinoi,
aieeinueei?, noai?thaaii? ciai’yinueei?, neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii?
eaiaaenueei?, iiiaoeueei?, oe?a?inueei? naeaeoei? (oaae.1).

Aeey ioeiiee aoaa?a ca yeinoth iauaaeeia aoei aiaeia?aii 150 oaeeoeue
neiaioaeuenueei? ii?iaee iiei/ii-i’yniiai iai?yieo i?iaeoeoeaiinoi i
?icaeieaii ia 5 a?oi, eiaeio c yeeo ooo/ii iniiaiyee nia?iith aoaa?a
caiaeii noaie aeineiaeia. Ic iaea?aeaiiai i?eieiaeo noi?iiaaii
aeineiaeii oa eiio?ieueii a?oie ca i?eioeeiii ia?-aiaeiaia.

A iniiao ioeiiee acyoi inioth/o iaoiaeeeo «Ioeiiea aoaa?a i’ynieo ii?iae
ca yeinoth iauaaeeia oa aei?iaoaaiiy aoaaeoeia ca iioaineaiinoth ?inoo»
( I. 1972, 1990).

Iieiaeiye ioeiithaaee ca /ioe?ia iniiaieie iieacieeaie: iioaineaiinoth
?inoo oa cao?aoaie ei?io ia 1 ea i?e?inoo ca ia?iiae ae?iuoaaiiy (8-18
iin), aeeaith ianith oa i’ynieie oi?iaie o 15-iiny/iiio aioei. E?ii
oeueiai, iaie ioeiithaaeanue aeeaa iana i?e ia?iaeaeaiii, i’ynia
i?iaeoeoeaiinoue i yeinoue i’yna ca ?acoeueoaoaie eiio?ieueiiai caaith a
18-iin aioei.

Iaea?aeaiee i?eieiae aei 8-iiny/iiai aieo ae?iuoaaee ia iiaenini,
aiaeiaeth iiaeaeineiaeieo oaa?ei i?iaiaeeee ca aeaoaeiciaaieie ii?iaie
AIO c ?ic?aooieo iaea?aeaiiy na?aaeiueiaeiaiaiai i?e?inoo ia ae/eao
1000-1200, oaeeoeyo – 700 — 900 a.

Ioeiieo ae/eia ca aeaniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth oa aoaa?a ca yeinoth
iauaaeeia i?iaiaeeee iaoiaeii ii?iaiyiiy c ?iaanieeaie oa ?ic?aooaaiiy
naeaeoeieieo iiaeaenia.

E?ii iiaeeaiaeoaeueieo iiaeaenia, ia/enethaaee eiiieaeniee naeaeoeieiee
iiaeaen ca aniia iciaeaie. Noaaeee eiai iiney aoeae «A», yeui aoaay
ioeiiaii ca aeaniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth, i iiney aoeae «A» i?e ioeiioei ca
yeinoth iauaaeeia. Aoaay c eiiieaeniei iiaeaenii «A» aieueoa 100
aaaaeaee iieiiooaa/ai, c iiaeaenii 99-100 — iaeo?aeueiei, iaioa 99 —
iiai?ooaa/ai.

1. Noaia iaoeiai-ae?iaie/eo aeineiaeia

A?oia Iauaaeee aoaay Ii?iaea Eieueeinoue oaa?ei o a?oii

Ae/ee Oaeeoei

Aeineiae 1. Ioeiiea aoaa?a ca yeinoth iauaaeeia

I eiio?ieueia ?oaii 32 neiaioaeuenueea* 10 13

II aeineiaeia Ai?i 224 aieeinueea 10 13

III aeineiaeia Ciiae 122 ciai’yinueea 10 13

IV aeineiaeia Nia?oai 10V neiaioaeuenueea** 10 13

V aeineiaeia Oaio 39032 neiaioaeuenueea*** 10 13

Aeineiae 2. Ioeiiea aoaa?a ca yeinoth iauaaeeia (aei/ee-ia?ainoee)

I eiio?ieueia ?oaii 32 neiaioaeuenueea* — 13

II aeineiaeia Ai?i 224 aieeinueea — 13

III aeineiaeia Ciiae 122 ciai’yinueea — 13

IV aeineiaeia Nia?oai 10V neiaioaeuenueea** — 13

V aeineiaeia Oaio 39032 neiaioaeuenueea*** — 13

Aeineiae 3. Ae?iaie/a ia?aai?ea ioeiiee e?aueo aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia ca
yeinoth iauaaeeia

I eiio?ieueia ?oaii 32 neiaioaeuenueea* 10 —

II aeineiaeia Ethoee 211 neiaioaeuenueea**** 10 —

III aeineiaeia Oacai 832 neiaioaeuenueea**** 10 —

I?eiioee:

1.* — neiaioaeuenueea eiiaiiiaaia oe?a?inueei? naeaeoei?

2.** — neiaioaeuenueea i’ynia eaiaaenueei? naeaeoei?

3.*** — neiaioaeuenueea i’ynia iiiaoeueei? naeaeoei?

4. **** — noai?thaaia neiaioaeuenueea i’ynia

O oaeeoeue oa ei?ia-ia?ainoie aea/aee aiaeoai?io caeaoiinoue ca oaeeie
iieacieeaie: aie aeinyaiaiiy noaoaai? oiciieiai/ii? c?ieinoi oa ia?oiai
ioaeaiiy, iiaeaen caieiaeiaiiy, oa?aeoa? ia?aaiao ioaeaiiy,
e?oiiiieiaeiinoue, iiei/iinoue ei?ia (oeyoii eiio?ieueiiai caaaeoaaiiy
oaeyo aei oa iiney nnaiiy) i?ioyaii eiaeiiai iinyoey eaeoaoei?, a oaeiae
ca aeeaith ianith i?e aiaeeo/aiii. Caa?aaeaiinoue oaeyo anoaiiaethaaee
ca iieacieeii aeeoo?caeaoiinoi a iinoiaoaeueiee ia?iiae (ia i?ioyci
ia?oiai iinyoey aeeooy).

Aeiiiii/io aoaeoeaiinoue aecia/aee ia iniiai oaeoe/iiai iaeieo anio
aeo?ao ia ae?iuoaaiiy oaa?ei, i?eaooeo aiae ?aaeicaoei?, iaea?aeaiiai
/enoiai i?eaooeo c aecia/aiiyi ?iaiy ?aioaaaeueiinoi. ?acoeueoaoe
aeineiaeia ia?iaeaii aiiiao?e/ii ca iaoiaeeeith I.I.Ieioiinueeiai c
aeei?enoaiiyi IAII.

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINEIAeAEAIUe

Ioe?iea aoaa?a ca ye?noth iauaaee?a (aeine?ae 1)

Ioeiiea aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia ca aeeaith ianith oa iioaineaiinoth ?inoo
iauaaeeia. A oni aieiai ia?iiaee iauaaeee aoaa?a Nia?oaia i Oaioa iaee
aieueo aenieo aeeao iano. Iaeaieueoith aiia aoea o iauaaeeia Nia?oaia,
yei a 17-iiny/iiio aioei ia?aaaaeaee ?iaanieeia eiio?ieueii? a?oie ia
120,2 ea (24,9%). I?e oeueiio neiae aiaecia/eoe oo caeiiiii?iinoue, ui,
ii/eiath/e c 15-iin aieo, ia?iuoaaiiy aeeai? iane o iauaaeeia Nia?oaia ?
Oaioa aoei iioaineaiioei a ii?iaiyiii c ?iaanieeaie ia?oeo o?ueio a?oi.
Aiie ye o 15, oae i a 17-iin aioei iaee naeaeoeieiee iiaeaen aieueoa
100, a eiaoioei?io ?iaiiii?iinoi ?inoo e?auei.

Ii/eiath/e c 15- iin aieo, iauaaeee oeeo aoaa?a ca aeeaith ianith
ai?iaiaeii ia?aaa?ooaaee ?iaanieeia ia?oeo o?ueio a?oi (?>0,95). Oea
aeaei iiaenoaao aecia/aiiy ?o ?iaeiia/aeueieeaie caaiaenueeeo eiiie, a
aoaa?a Ai?ia i Ciiaea aeeeth/eoe c iiaeaeueoiai aeei?enoaiiy o
naeaeoeieiiio i?ioeani noai?aiiy neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee.

Ioeiiea aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia ca aenoa?’??ii oa i’ynieie oi?iaie. Ca
inioth/ith iaoiaeeeith ioeiiea aenoa?’??o i i’ynieo oi?i aoaa?a
i?iaiaeeeany o 15-iiny/iiio aioei ca 60-aaeueiith oeaeith, a oaeiae
noi?iaiaeaeoaaeanue aecia/aiiyi i?iii?ia oa iiaeaenia aoaeiae oiea.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aaiioei oaa?ei aieeioa ia oieueee ia ciiio aeeai? iane i
iioaineaiinoue ?inoo a ie?aii ia?iiaee aeeooy, aea e ia oa?aeoa?
oi?ioaaiiy ?o aenoa?’??o. Iauaaeee aoaa?a Nia?oaia i Oaioa aoee
aaaiaeoioi, iaee aieueo oe?ieee ooeoa ii?iaiyii c ?iaanieeaie aiae
?oaiia.

Ioeiiea aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia ca i’yniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth i yeinoth
iauaaeeia. Iaie aoei i?iaaaeaii eiio?ieueiee caaie ae/eia, ia iniiai
yeiai iiaea?oueny ii?iaiyeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea i’ynii? i?iaeoeoeaiinoi
ioeiithaaieo oaa?ei (oaae.2).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui neie aoaay Nia?oaia ca ianith oooi ia?aaaaeaee
?iaanieeia ?oaiia ia 84,7 ea (35,9%), Ai?ia — ia 51,0 ea (18,9%), Ciiaea
— 56,4 ea (21,3%); neie Oaioa aiaeiiaiaeii: 74,2 ea (31,4%), 40,5 ea
(15,0%), 45,9 ea (17,4%). ?icieoey ia ?o ei?enoue aoea ai?iaiaeiith
(?>0,999). Oiio aiie ioeiiaii iiaeaenii aieueoa 100 i aiaeianaii aei
?ic?yaeo iieiiooaa/ia.

?icieoey ca ianith i’yeioi aoea ia ei?enoue ae/eia aiae Nia?oaia i a
ii?iaiyiii c ?iaanieeaie ?oaiia neeaea 77,1 ea (41,4%), Ai?ia — 42,7 ea
(19,3%) i Ciiaea — 46,7 ea (21,5%). Aeyaeaia oaeiae aeineoue nooo?aa
ia?aaaaa iauaaeeia ieiaeieea Oaioa. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaeaeuee aeoiae
einoie iaee ?iaanieee aiae ?oaiia, i iaeiaioee — aiae Oaioa. Ca
eiaoioei?ioii i’yniinoi i naeaeoeieieie iiaeaenaie iaee?aua
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny iauaaeee Nia?oaia i Oaioa.

Caaieii iieacieee iauaaeeia ioeiithaaieo aoaa?a

Iieaciee Iauaaeee aoaa?a

?oaiia Ai?ia Ciiaea Nia?oaia Oaioa

Ia?aaecaaieia aeeaa

iana, ea

415,0±12,2

470±8,3

468±5,6

515±6,17

489,7±5,5

Iana ia?ii? oooi, ea

236,0±6,1

269,7±5,0

264,3±10,6

320,7±5,2

310,2±9,3

Naeaeoeieiee iiaeaen 84,9 97,0 95,1 115,4 107,6

Aeoiae oooi,% 56,9 57,4 56,4 62,3 63,3

Iana aioo?ioiueiai aee?o-ne?oeth, ea

1,9

3,4

5,8

2,3

2,2

Aeoiae aee?o-ne?oeth, %

0,5

0,7

1,2

0,4

0,4

Caaieia iana,ea 237,9±0,7 273,1±4,9 270,1±10,6 323,0±5,3 312,4±9,2

Caaieiee aeoiae,% 57,4 58,0 57,7 62,7 63,8

Naeaeoeieiee iiaeaen 96,6 97,1 96,7 105,5 103,7

Nooo?ai? ?icieoei iiae a?oiaie ca oiii/iei neeaaeii i’yna ia aeyaeaii.
I’yni ae/eia onio aaiioeiia ca niiaaiaeiioaiiyi aieeo aei aee?o
aiaeiiaiaeaei aeiiaai uiaei aenieiyeiniiai. C no/anii? oi/ee ci?o e?auei
niiaaiaeiioaiiyi aieeo aei aee?o oa?aeoa?ecoaaeiny i’yni iauaaeeia
Nia?oaia (2,0:1) i?ioe 1,6:1 i 1,7:1 o ?iaanieeia ?oaiia i Ai?ia.

Aeiiiii/ia aoaeoeaiinoue ioeiiee aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia ca yeinoth iauaaeeia.
Neiae cacia/eoe, ui i?e iioaineaiiio ae?iuoaaiii ae/ee i oaeeoei anio
a?oi aoaeoeaii aeei?enoiaoaaee ei?ia. Oae, ae/ee ia 1 ea i?e?inoo c
o?aooaaiiyi ei?ia aeo?a/aee 11,22-13,94 e.iae., a aac ieo — 5,92-7,30
e.iae., oaeeoei — aiaeiiaiaeii 13,41-15,05, 6,68-7,50 e.iae. Iaeiae
iaee?aua iiea/oaaee ei?i iauaaeee Nia?oaia i Oaioa. Naeaeoeieiee iiaeaen
ca iieaoith ei?io o ieo aoa aiaeiiaiaeii 109,7 i 108,3, i?ioe 87-101 o
ae/e?a ae?oaeo a?oi.

Oia?oa a ciioaoii/iie i?aeoeoei anoaiiaeaia cia/ia aa?iaaaeueiinoue
eiaoioei?ioo eiiaa?ni? i?ioa?io ei?io a oa?/iaee aieie i’yna iauaaeeaie
aoaa?a ?icieo i’ynieo ii?iae, ui ? iniiaith aeey aianaiiy oeueiai
iieacieea a /enei naeaeoeieieo iciae i?e ioeiioei aoaa?a.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ae?iuoaaiiy ia ieai’y iauaaeeia aiae onio aoaa?a aoei
aeiiiii/ii aeaiaeiei. Iaeiae aa?oinoue aeiaeaoeiai? i?iaeoeoei? aiae
?aaeicaoei? iauaaeeia aoaa?a Nia?oaia i Oaioa aoea cia/ii aeua (ia 26,1
i 22%) a ii?iaiyiii c ?iaanieeaie eiio?ieueii? a?oie.

Ioe?iea aoaa?a ca ye?noth iauaaee?a (aeine?ae 2)

Ioeiiea aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia ca iaoa?einueeeie yeinoyie oa aiaeoai?ieie
ooieoeiyie aei/ie-ia?ainoie. ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue naiae/aoue i?i
oa, ui ia?ainoee onio a?oi iathoue aenieo iiei/iinoue (266,4-313,5 ea)
(oaae.3). Iaeiae aei/ee aiae aoaa?a Nia?oaia i Oaioa a na?aaeiueiio
ia?aaa?oothoue ?iaanieoeue aiae ?oaiia aiaeiiaiaeii ia 47,1 i 41,0 ea
(7,7 i 15,4%), Ciiaea — 28,5 i 22,4 ea (10,0 i 7,9%).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui ca caieiaeiaiinoth i iiaeaenii iniiaiiiiy ? cia/ia
?icieoey ia ei?enoue aei/ie-ia?ainoie aiae aoaa?a Ciiaea, Nia?oaia i
Oaioa i noaiiaeoue 9 –13% oa 0,2-0,4, aiaeiiaiaeii. Aei/ee oeeo aoaa?a
iaee aenieee aiaenioie eaaeeo ioaeaiue (95-100%), oiio aiie oaeaeoa
aiaeiiaethaaee aiaeoai?io ooieoeith iiney ioaeaiiy.

3. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoa?einueeeo yeinoae ia?ainoie

Iieaciee Iauaaeee aoaa?a

?oaiia Ai?ia Ciiaea Nia?oaia Oaioa

AEeaa iana, ea: ia?ainoie

i?eieiaeo

540,0±12,3

32,0±0,8

550,0±9,2

32,2±0,6

542,0±10,3

30,9±0,6

579,0±7,8

35,2±2,0

575,0±0,2

35,0±0,9

Eiaoioei?io e?oiiiie?aeiinoi

5,9

5,8

5,7

6,0

6,0

Iiei/iinoue, ea 266,4±7,3 275,4±6,9 285,0±9,2 313,5±6,8 307,4±6,5

Naeaeoeieiee iiaeaen

98,9

95,1

91,5

108,2

106,2

?aia 3 4 5 1 2

Caa?aaeaiinoue oaeyo ia ia?oiio iinyoei aeeooy,%

90

95

100

100

100

Eiiieaenia ioeiiea aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia. Ia iniiai ioeiiee ie?aieo
iieacieeia ii neiai i aei/eai aeaia eiiieaenia ioeiiea
aoaayi-ieiaeieeai.

I?e noia?iie eiiieaeniie ioeiioei aoaa?a ii neiai i aei/eai aeyaeaia
cia/ia ia?aaaaa ieiaeieeia Nia?oaia i Oaioa a ii?iaiyiii c ?iaanieeaie
iioeo a?oi, ui aeicaieeei aiaeianoe ?o aei eeano aeioa-?aei?ae. Aoaa?
?oaii, Ai?i, Ciiae iaea?aeaee iaioo eieueeinoue aaeia i aiaeianaii aei
ia?oiai eeano. ?o naeaeoeieiee iiaeaen aoa iaioa 100, oiio aiie aoee
aeeeth/aii c naeaeoeieiiai i?ioeano.

Iiaenoiiaoth/e aeeeaaeaia, i?e oi?ioaaiii aaiaaeiai/ii? no?oeoo?e
neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee noa? i/aaeaeiith aeioeieueiinoue
aeciaiiy aoaa?a Nia?oaia i Oaioa ?iaeiia/aeueieeaie iaeaooiio
caaiaenueeeo eiiie.

Ae?iaie/a ia?aa??ea ioe?iee e?aueo aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a

ca ye?noth iauaaee?a (aeine?ae 3)

Ioeiiea aoaa?a ca aeeaith ianith i iioaineaiinoth ?inoo neiia. Iaie ic
50 ae/eia, ioeiiaieo a ia?oiio aeineiaei ca aeaniith
i?iaeoeoeaiinoth, aeaeieaii aeaio iaee?aueo — Ethoiai 211 (neia Nia?oaia
10), oa Oacaia 832 (neia Oaioa 39032) aeey ioeiiee ca yeinoth iauaaeeia.
Ae/eia ae?iuoaaee ia aei 15-iiny/iiai aieo, ye ia?aaeaa/aii
o?aaeeoeieiith iaoiaeeeith, a aei 18 iinyoeia.

Neie Ethoiai i Oacaia aiae?iciyeeny aieueoith aeeaith ianith ia oieueee
i?e ia?iaeaeaiii, a e a oni aieiai ia?iiaee. Oa?aeoa?ii, ui c aieii
?icieoey ca oeei iieacieeii c?inoaea. O 18-iiny/iiio aioei oei ae/ee
ia?aaaaeaee iaeiiieieo ?iaanieeia ia 93,5 i 67 ea (17,5 i 12,6%) i?e
noaoenoe/ii ai?iaiaeiie ?icieoei (?>0,999). sse i a ia?oiio aeineiaei,
iaea?aeaii aeaii naiae/aoue i?i oa, ui ioeiiea o 15-iiny/iiio aioei ia
iiaea aooe caeeth/iith aeey ae/eia noai?thaaii? neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii?
ii?iaee. ?o naeaeoeieiee iiaeaen o 18-iiny/iiio aioei, ii?iaiyii c
15-iiny/iei, aeaui iiaeaeueany (ia 3,7-4,4%). Oiio aeioeieueii oa?iii
ae?iuoaaiiy ae/eia iiaeiaaeeoe aei 18-iiny/iiai aieo, yeee iaaeeaeaiee
aei ?aaeueiiai i?e ?aaeicaoei? iieiaeiyea ia i’yni.

Aeineiaeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ae/ee neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee
caeaoii iiaeo?eioaaoe aenieee na?aaeiueiaeiaiaee i?e?ino aei 18-
iiny/iiai aieo (957 — 991 a).

A oni aieiai ia?iiaee iauaaeee aiae Ethoiai 211 i Oacaia 832 ia?aaaaeaee
iaeiiieieo ?iaanieeia ca ioeiieith i’ynieo oi?i i naeaeoeieiei iiaeaenii
ia 17-27,8%.

Ioeiiea aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia ca i’yniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth iauaaeeia.
Ineieueee i?eaeeoo?aa ioeiiea i’ynii? i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ca i’ynieie
oi?iaie noa’?eoeaia, ie i?iaaee eiio?ieueiee caaie iauaaeeia
ioeiithaaieo aoaa?a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ca aniia iieacieeaie i’ynii?
i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ? cia/ia ia?aaaaa ia ei?enoue iauaaeeia aiae aoaa?a
Ethoiai i Oacaia. Ca oeeie iieacieeaie iauaaeee Ethoiai iaea?aeaee
aieueo aenieee naeaeoeieiee iiaeaen (110,5), a aiae Oacaia, iaaiaee,
iaioee (105,5).

Anoaiiaeaii, ui iauaaeee aoaa?a Ethoiai i Oacaia iaee a oooi cia/ii
aieueoa aieeo — aiaeiiaiaeii ia 10,2 i 6,4 ea (24,0 i 15,2%), iiae o
iaeiiieieo ?iaanieeia. Iauaaeee oeeo aoaa?a ia?aaaaeaee aiaeiaia
eiio?ieueii? a?oie ca eiaoioei?ioii eiiaa?ni? i?ioa?io ei?io a a?eie
ooo? ia 3,2 i 2,1%.

Eiiieaenia ioe?iea aoaa?a-ie?aeiee?a. ?acoeueoaoe ioeiiee
aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia iaaaaeaii a oaaeeoei 4. Iaea?aeaii aeaii naiae/aoue,
ui ioeiiea o 15-iiny/iiio aioei ca o?aaeeoeieiith noaiith ia iiaea aooe
caeeth/iith aeey aoaa?a e?oiieo ii??ae, a o. /. ? noai?thaaii?
neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee. A oeueiio aioei aoaa? Ethoee i Oaio
aiaeianaii aei eeano aeioa; ca iiaea?iiciaaiith o?eaoaiiith noaiith (?en
1) — aei eeano aeioa-?aei?ae. Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, oa?iii aei?iaoaaiiy
iaiaoiaeii iiaeiaaeeoe aei 18-iiny/iiai aieo.

4. Eiiieaenia ioeiiea aoaa?a

Iauaaeee Caaaeueia eieueeinoue aaeia Eean ?aia Naeaeoeieiee iiaeaen

A* A**

A 15 iin (ca o?aaeeoeieiith noaiith)

Iaeiiieii 38 ? 2 — 88,2

Ethoiai 41 ae. 1 105,4 115,5

Oacaia 41 ae. 1 104,9 110,9

A 18 iin (ca iiaea?iiciaaiith noaiith)

Iaeiiieii 38 ? 3 — 86,5

Ethoiai 45 ae.?. 1 105,4 117,7

Oacaia 45 ae.?. 2 104,9 112,8

I?eiioee:

1. * — ca aeaniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth

2.** — ca yeinoth iauaaeeia

AENIIAEE

1.Canoinoaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? iaie eiiieaenii? o?eaoaiii? ioeiiee
aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia ca aeaniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth, yeinoth iauaaeeia,
aiaeoai?iith ooieoei?th (eaaeinoth ioaeaiue) i iaoa?einueeeie yeinoyie
(iiei/iinoth) aei/ie iiney ia?oiai ioaeaiiy aea? ciiao i?aeaeu?oe
oi/i?noue aecia/aiiy ?o ieai?iii? oe?iiino?, aieueo iaaeieii aeyaeoe ?o
i?iaeoeoeaii i ieaiiiii yeinoi i i?aiioaioiinoue, aiaeia?aoe
iieiiooaa/ia c o?aooaaiiyi noaoi iauaaeeia, ui ia? iniaeeai aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy i?e naeaeoei? oaa?ei e?oiieo i’ynieo ii?iae.

2. A ca’yceo c aeiaai?ineinoth i iiciueinoeaeinoth oaa?ei e?oiieo
i’ynieo ii?iae aeaiaoaiia ioeiiea ?o a ia?iiae aiae 8- aei 15-iiny/iiai
aieo ? iaaeinoaoiy, oae ye aiie caeaoii aeaaaoe aeniei i?e?inoe i?ioyaii
ianooiiiai ia?iiaeo ae?iuoaaiiy. Oea naiae/eoue i?i iaiaoiaeiinoue
i?iaeiaaeaiiy ia?iiaeo aei?iaoaaiiy ca aeaniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth i
yeinoth iauaaeeia aei 17-18-iiny/iiai aieo.

3. Ia iiaenoaai eiiieaeniiai ii?iaiyeueiiai aea/aiiy i?iaeoeoeaieo i
ieaiiiieo yeinoae aeyaeaii inoioii aiaeiiiiinoi iiae iauaaeeaie
ioei-ithaaieo aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia ca aia?ai?th ?inoo, aeeaith ianith,
aoaeiaith oiea, i’yniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth, iieaoith ei?io oa
aeiiiii/ieie iieacieeaie. Iaeaeui? aeeai? iane a 17-iiny/iiio aioei
aeinyaee neie aoaa?a Nia?oaia i Oaioa (602,2 i 597,5), ui ia 24,9 i
24,0% aieueoa, iiae o ?iaanieeia aiae ?oaiia, ia 13,6 i 12,7%, iiae aiae
Ai?ia i ia 11,1 i 10,2%, iiae aiae Ciiaea. Oaea ae oaiaeaioeiy
niinoa?iaaeany i a iieacieeao aeeai? iane ae/eia i oaeeoeue. Oei
ieiaeieee ia?aaa?ooaaee oeieueiaee noaiaea?o neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii?
ii?iaee ia 5,6 i 4,8% oa iaee naeaeoeieiee iiaeaen aiaeiiaiaeii ii
ae/eai 107,7 i 104,8 i oaeeoeyi — 107,1 i 102,7, ui aea? ciiao aeciaoe
?o ?iaeiia/aeueieeaie i caeeanoe ia?oi caaiaenueei eiii? noai?thaaii?
neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee.

4. Ca aeaieie ioeiiee anoaiiaeaii, ui ae/ee i oaeeoei – iioiiee aoaa?a
Nia?oaia i Oaioa oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny aieueo oe?ieei, aeeaieei oa aiaeiinii
aeiaaei ooeoaii c e?aueie i’ynieie oi?iaie. Aiie iaee aieueo aeniei
iieacieee iiaeaenia ianeaiinoi i ?icoyaiooinoi oa iaioee eiiieaeniee, ui
oa?aeoa?eco? ?o ye oaa?ei aeia?a ae?aaeaiiai i’yniiai oeio.

5. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iioiiee aoaa?a Nia?oaia i Oaioa i?e caai? a
17-iiny/iiio aioei iaee iano oooi a ii?iaiyiii c iaeiieioeaie
eiio?ieueii? a?oie aieueoa ia 84,1 i 74 ea (35,8 i 31,3%), oa c Ai?iii i
Ciiaeii — ia 51 oa 56,4 ea (18,9 oa 21,3%). Aiae ieo iaea?aeaia
iaeaieueoa eieueeinoue ?noiaieo /anoei oooi -aiaeiiaiaeii 82,8; 83,1
i?ioe 79,7% o aiaeiaia eiio?ieueii? a?oie. Oei ae/ee oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny
aenieei aeoiaeii o oooi iaeaieueo oeiiieo o oa?/iaiio aiaeiioaiii /anoei
(iiia?aeiaa oa noaaiiaa).

6. Aieeiai-yeiniee iieaciee iaeaeiaoiai i’yca nieie o ae/eia-iauaaeeia
aoaa?a onio i’ynieo ii?iae aoa aenieei (5,64-5,76 i?ioe 5,0 o aiaeiaia
eiio?ieueii? a?oie). Ca eiaoioei?ioii yeinoi cia/ia ia?aaaaa aoea o
neiia Nia?oaia oa Oaioa — ia 1,2-1,1% i?ioe eiio?ieueii? a?oie. I’yni
oeeo ae/eia oa?aeoa?ecoaaeinue aieueoith aieiai?ieinoth, iaioith
oaa?thaaiinoth oa aeueie eoeiia?ii-oaoiieiai/ieie iieacieeaie.

7.Ae?iuoaaiiy ae/eia onio aaiioeiia ia i’yni i ieai’y aoei aeiiiii/ii
aeaiaeia. Iioiiee Nia?oaia i Oaioa, aeath/e aieueo aeniei i?e?inoe,
aeo?a/aee iaioa ei?iia ia 1 ea i?e?inoo (5,95 e.iae. i?ioe 7,3). O
?acoeueoaoi niaiaa?oinoue 1 oe i?e?inoo a ieo aoea ieae/a a ii?iaiyiii c
aiaeiaaie eiio?ieueii? a?oie, a /enoee i?eaooie i ?aioaaaeueiinoue aoee
aeueie.

8. Cia/ia aa?iaaaeueiinoue aeoiaeo oa?/iaiai aieeo, eiaoioei?ioa
eiiaa?ni? i?ioa?io ei?io a aieie i’yna, ? iniiaith aeey aianaiiy oeueiai
iieacieea a /enei naeaeoeieieo iciae i?e ioeiioei oa aeiai?i aoaa?a
i’ynieo ii?iae. Ia no/aniiio aoaii ye iioeiaeueio aaee/eio eiiaa?ni?
i?ioa?io ei?io aeey aoaa?a i’ynieo ii?iae neiae i?eeiyoe 12-16%.

9. Aeei?enoaiiy iieacieea eiiaa?ni? i?ioa?io ei?io ni?eyoeia oaeaeeiio
oaeineiiaeaiith noaae, eiiie i ii?iae ia oieueee ca iioaineaiinoth
?inoo, aea e ca aoaeoeaiinoth o?ainoi?ioaaiiy oaa?eiaie iiaeeaieo
?a/iaei ei?io, iniaeeai i?ioa?io, a oa?/iaee aieie i’yna.

10. Ae?iaie/a ia?aai?ea ioeiiee ca aeaniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth e?aueo
ieiaeieeia — Ethoiai oa Oacaia — iiaiinoth iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ioeiieith
ca yeinoth iauaaeeia uiaei ?o ieaiiiii? oeiiiinoi i caeiiiii?iinoae,
oa?aeoa?ieo aeey aeeiaiiee iieacieeia aeeai? iane i i’ynii?
i?iaeoeoeaiinoi, aeyaeaieo o ia?oiio aeineiaei, a oaeiae i oa, ui c
eiaeiei iiaei iieieiiiyi oaa?eie ca iieacieeaie i?iaeoeoeaiinoi i
aenoa?’??o yeiiiaa aieueoa aiaeiiaiaeathoue oeieueiaiio noaiaea?oo
neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee.

11. Canoinoaaiiy o?eaoaiii? ioeiiee aoaa?a aeicaiey? iiaeaeueoe
aoaeoeaiinoue naeaeoeieii-ieaiiiii? ?iaioe c oaa?eiaie e?oiieo i’ynieo
ii?iae, iniaeeai i?e aeyaeaiii ?iaeiia/aeueieeia i i?iaeiaaeoaa/ia
caaiaenueeeo eiiie. A ii?iaiyiii c aeaiaoaiiith ioeiieith ?aia
ieiaeieeia ca ?iaiai ?o ieaiiiii? oeiiiinoi iiaeaeuo?oueny.

I?IIICEOeII AE?IAIEOeOAO

1. C iaoith iiaeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiinoi naeaeoeieii-ieaiiiii? ?iaioe i?e
oaeineiiaeaiii inioth/eo i noai?thaaieo iiaeo e?oiieo i’ynieo ii?iae, a
oiio /enei neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii?, ?aeiiaiaeoaaoe aei?iaiaoaaoe
aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia eiiieaenii ca o?eaoaiiith ioeiieith c a?aooaaiiyi
caaieieo iieacieeia, eiiaa?ni? i?ioa?io ei?io a oa?/iaee aieie oooi,
aiaeoai?ii? ooieoei? i iaoa?einueeeo yeinoae ei?ia-ia?ainoie.

2. I?e iiaeeaiaeoaeueiie ioeiioei aoaaeoeia ca aeaniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth
aeey aieueo iiaiiai aeyaeaiiy ieaiiiii? oeiiiinoi oa iiaeaeuaiiy i’ynii?
i?iaeoeoeaiinoi ?o aeioeieueii ae?iuoaaoe aei 17-18-iiny/iiai aieo. Aeey
oi?ioaaiiy aaiaaeiai/ii? no?oeoo?e noaae caeeoaoe aoaa?a-ieiaeieeia c
eiiieaeniei naeaeoeieiei iiaeaenii “A” iiiaae 101.

3. I?e oi?ioaaiii aaiaaeiai/ii? no?oeoo?e noai?thaaii? neiaioaeuenueei?
i’ynii? ii?iaee iaiaoiaeii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ieiaeieeia Nia?oaia i Oaioa
ye ?iaeiia/aeueieeia ia?oeo caaiaenueeeo eiiie, a ?o neiia Ethoiai i
Oacaia — ye i?iaeiaaeoaa/ia oeeo eiiie.

NIENIE IOAEIEAOeIE II OAII AeENA?OAOeII

1. Aei?iothe A.I., Oeo?ii A.O., Aoiaiiee A.Ae., Ao?nueeee I.I. Noai?aiiy
neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee// Oaa?eiieoeoai Oe?a?ie.- 1995. — ?1.,
— N.8-10.

2. Aei?iothe Y.I., Eaaiouaiei A.I., Ao?neee E.I., Ao?neee I.A.
Aeaooyoaiiay ioeaiea aueia nicaeaaaaiie neiiaioaeueneie iyniie ii?iaeu
ii nianoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e ea/anoao iioiinoaa// Iao/ii-oaoie/aneee
atheeaoaiue. – O., — 1995. ? 17. — N.34-39.

3. I?ia?aia noai?aiiy oe?a?inueei? neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee aei
2005 ?ieo / Ea?anee TH.I., Coaaoeue I.A., Ao?eao A.I., Oeo?ii A.O.,
Aei?iothe A.I., Ao?nueeee I.I. oa ii. — E., 1997. — 53 n.

4. Aei?iothe A.I., Oeo?ii A.O., Ao?nueeee I.I. Noai?aiiy
neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii? ii?iaee aaeeei? ?iaaoi? ooaeiae a Oe?a?ii
//I?iaeaie ciiiiaeaia?i? oa aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie: Iaoe.-oai?aoe/iee
aeo?iae /OCA?. – O., 1998., aei.3. — N. 75-78.

5. Ao?nueeee I.I. I’ynia i?iaeoeoeaiinoue iauaaeeia, iaea?aeaieo aiae
i’ynieo aoaa?a ?icieo aaiioeiia i?e noai?aiii neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii?
ii?iaee // I?iaeaie ciiiiaeaia?i? oa aaoa?eia?ii? iaaeeoeeie:
Iaoe.-oai?aoe/iee aeo?iae /OCA?. Aei.3. – O., 1998. — N. 58-61.

Aiioaoeiy

Ao?nueeee I.I. Oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee ioeiiee ieiaeieeia e?oiieo
i’ynieo ii??ae ia i?eeeaae? neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
nieuenueeiainiiaea?-nueeeo iaoe ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 06.02.01 —
?icaaaeaiiy oa naeaeoeiy oaa?ei. Iinoeooo oaa?eiieoeoaa OAAI, Oa?eia,
1999.

Aeeeaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aeineiaeaeaiue ii oaeineiiaeaiith inioth/i?
iaoiaeeee ioeiiee ieiaeieeia i?e noai?aiii neiaioaeuenueei? i’ynii?
ii?iaee ca aeaniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth i yeinoth iauaaeeia c o?aooaaiiyi
?o i’ynii? i?iaeoeoeaiinoi oa aiaeoai?ii? ooieoei? oa iaoa?einueeeo
yeinoae iaoie.

Oai?aoe/ii i aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oioiaaii iaiaoiaeiinoue i?iaaaeaiiy
o?eaoaiii? ioeiiee ieiaeieeia. Aeiaaaeaia iaiaoiaeiinoue ioeiithaaoe
i’ynio i?iaeoeoeaiinoue ia oieueee ca iieacieeaie aenoa?’??o, a e ca
?acoeueoaoaie eiio?ieueiiai caaith, a oaeiae eiiaa?ni?th i?ioa?io ei?io
a oa?/iaee aieie i’yna i aiaeoai?ieie yeinoyie aei/ie.

Aeyaeaii inoioii aiaeiiiiinoi iiae iauaaeeaie ioeiithaaieo aoaa?a ca
aia?ai?th ?inoo, aeeaith ianith, i’yniith i?iaeoeoeaiinoth i
naeaeoeieieie iiaeaenaie. Iaeaeueie iieacieeaie oa?aeoa?ecoaaeenue
iauaaeee aoaa?a Nia?oaia 10V i Oaioa 390, ui aeicaieeei aeciaoe ?o
?iaeiia/aeueieeaie, a ?o neiia Ethoiai 211 i Oacaia 832 —
i?iaeiaaeoaa/aie ia?oeo caaiaenueeeo eiiie noai?thaaii? neiaioaeuenueei?
i’ynii? ii?iaee.

Eeth/iai neiaa: aaiioei, ii?iaea, iieiaeiye, aeeaa iana, i?e?inoe,
aenoa?’??, i’ynia i?iaeoeoeaiinoue.

Aiiioaoeey

Ao?neee E.I. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoiaeeee ioeaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeae e?oiiuo
iyniuo ii?iae ia i?eia?a neiiaioaeueneie iyniie. — ?oeiienue.
Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 06.02.01. — ?acaaaeaiea e
naeaeoeey aeeaioiuo. Einoeooo aeeaioiiaiaenoaa OAAI, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

Eceiaeaiu ?acoeueoaou enneaaeiaaiee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth nouanoaothuae
iaoiaeeee ioeaiee i?iecaiaeeoaeae e?oiiuo ii?iae ia i?eia?a
neiiaioaeueneie iyniie ii nianoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e ea/anoao
iioiinoaa n o/aoii eo iyniuo iieacaoaeae, aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo ooieoeee
e iaoa?eineeo ea/anoa iaoie.

Oai?aoe/anee e yenia?eiaioaeueii iainiiaaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?iaaaeaiey
o?aoyoaiiie ioeaiee aueia. Aeieacaia oeaeaniia?aciinoue ioeaiee iyniie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe ia oieueei ii yenoa?uea?o, ii e ii ?acoeueoaoai
eiio?ieueiiai oaiy e eiiaa?nee i?ioaeia ei?ia a ieuaaie aaeie iyna.
Auyaeaiu nouanoaaiiua ioee/ey iaaeaeo iioiieaie ioeaieaaaiuo aueia ii
yia?aee ?inoa, aeeaie ianna, iyniie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe e naeaeoeeiiiui
eiaeaenai. Ai ana aic?anoiua ia?eiaeu iioiiee Nia?oaia 10V e Oaioa 390
eiaee aieaa aunieoth aeeaoth ianno. I?e yoii neaaeoao ioiaoeoue oo
caeiiiia?iinoue, /oi, ia/eiay n 15-ian aic?anoa yoe aeeaioiua aieaa
eioaineaii ia?aueaaee aeeaoth ianno ii n?aaiaieth ni naa?noieeaie io
?oaeia 32, Aieia 224 e Ciiaea 122. Iie eae a 15-, oae e a 17-18- ian
aic?anoa eiaee naeaeoeeiiiue eiaeaen aieaa 100. Ii ?acoeueoaoai oaiy
oaeaea onoaiiaeaii i?aainoiaenoai iioiieia Nia?oaia e Oaioa. Oae ii
ianna oooe ?acieoea a eo iieueco ninoaaeea 84,7 e 74,2 ea, ianna iyeioe
77,1 e 69,7 ea (?>0,999).

Aia?aua a ciioaoie/aneie i?aeoeea onoaiiaeaia cia/eoaeueiay
aa?eaaaeueiinoue eiyooeoeeaioa eiiaa?nee ei?ia a ieuaaie aaeie oooe anao
enneaaeoaiuo a?oii aeeaioiuo, /oi yaeeinue iniiaaieai aeey aianaiey
yoiai iieacaoaey a /enei naeaeoeeiiiuo i?eciaeia i?e ioeaiea aueia.

Ioeaieaay aueia-i?iecaiaeeoaeae ii iaoa?eineei ea/anoaai e
aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiui ooieoeeyi auyaeaii, /oi ia?aioaeee anao a?oii
eiaee aunieoth iiei/iinou (266-313 ea), iaeiaei, iioiiee Nia?oaia e
Oaioa i?aainoiaeeee naa?noieoe io ?oaeia ia 47,0 e 41,0 ea, Aieia — 38,0
e 32,0 ea. Aei/a?e yoeo aueia eiaee aieaa aunieee i?ioeaio eaaeeo ioaeia
(95-100%), iiyoiio iie auno?aa ainnoaiaaeeaaee aini?iecaiaeeoaeueiua
ooieoeee iinea ioaea.

A nayce n aeieai?ineinoueth e iicaeianiaeinoueth aeeaioiuo e?oiiuo
iyniuo ii?iae, a oii /enea nicaeaaaaiie neiiaioaeueneie iyniie,
aeaooyoaiiay ioeaiea a ia?eiae io 8 aei 15-ian aic?anoa yaeyaony
iaaeinoaoi/iie. Iaoeie enneaaeiaaieyie onoaiiaeaii, /oi yoe aeeaioiua
niiniaiu aeaaaoue aunieea i?e?inou ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeothuaai
ia?eiaea au?aueaaiey, oi anoue aei 17-18- ian aic?anoa.

I?eiaiaiea o?aoyoaiiie ioeaiee aueia iicaieyao iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue
naeaeoeeiiii-ieaiaiiie ?aaiou n aeeaioiuie e?oiiuo iyniuo ii?iae e ii
n?aaiaieth n aeaooyoaiiie iiauoaaony ?aia i?iecaiaeeoaeae ii o?iaith eo
ieaiaiiie oeaiiinoe.

I?e i?iaaaeaiee i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?iaa?ee ii nianoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeaiinoe eo/oeo aueia (Ethoue e Oacai) iieiinoueth iioaa?aeeeanue
ioeaiea ii ea/anoao iioiieia eanaoaeueii eo ieaiaiiie oeaiiinoe e
caeiiiia?iinoae ii aeeiaieea aeeaie iannu, iyniie i?iaeoeoeaiinoe.

I?e noiia?iie eiiieaeniie ioeaiea aueia ii nuiiaueyi e aei/a?yi iaie
auyaeaii cia/eoaeueiia i?aainoiaenoai iioiieia Nia?oaia e Oaioa ii
n?aaiaieth ni naa?noieeaie ae?oaeo a?oi, /oi e iicaieeei ioianoe eo e
eeanno yeeoa-?aei?ae. Iioiiee aueia ?oaeia, Aieia e Ciiaea iieo/eee
iaiueoaa eiee/anoai aaeeia e ioianaiu e ia?aiio eeanno. Eo naeaeoeeiiue
eiaeaen aue iaiaa 100, /oi yaeeinue i?aaeiinueeie aeey eneeth/aiey eo ec
aeaeueiaeoaai naeaeoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna. Iioiiee aueia Nia?oaia 10V e
Oaioa 390 (nuiiauey Ethoue 211 e Oacai 832) ii?aaeaeaiu eae
i?iaeieaeaoaee ia?auo caaiaeneeo eeiee nicaeaaaaiie neiiaioaeueneie
iyniie ii?iaeu.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aaiioei, ii?iaea, iieiaeiye, aeeaay ianna, i?e?inou,
yenoa?uea?, iyniay i?iaeoeoeaiinoue.

Annotation

Gursky I.M. Sire evaluation improvement for Simmental Beef Cattle
development. — Manuscript.

Dissertation for candidate degree of animal science by speciality
06.02.01. – breeding and selektionaf farm animal. Instityte of Animal
Science, of the UAAS, Kharkov, 1999.

The results of research for sire evaluation improvement for Simmental
Beef Cattle development to their performance and progeny test
accounting their production, reproduction and matternal quality of dams
are presented.There was a necessity of three-staged sire evuation has
been grounded. It is proved useful to estimate beef production after
control slaughter and protein conversion of food into digestable beef
protein. An essential differences among progeny of sire for growth
energy, live weight, beef production and selection indexes has been
brought to light. The highest parameters have had sons of Spartan10V and
Fant 390, that’s why they where testified as ancestors, and their sons
Luty 211 and Fazan 832 as successors of developing Simmental Beef Breed.

Key words: genotype, breed, young animal, live weight, increase of
weight, conformation, beef production.

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