OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE AAOIIIA?EUeII-AeI?IAEI?E OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

EI?ssE IEAENAIAe? IEAEN?EIAE*

OAeE 629.113-59

OAeINEIIAEAIIss AAEUeI?AIIAI OI?AAE?IIss

O?AEOI?IIAI II?CAeA IA AAC? EIE?NIIAI O?AEOI?A

IAEIAI EEANO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.22.02 — Aaoiiia?e? oa o?aeoi?e

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio
oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aieeia
Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e
oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aaoiiia?eae

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? N???a?yeia ?ai? Ieeieaeiae/,
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, i?ioani? eaoaae?e «O?aeoi?e oa aaoiiia?e?»

— eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iaiae?eea Aieiaeeie?
?inoeneaaiae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
aeioeaio eaoaae?e «O?aeoi?iaoae?aieoeoai»

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo iaoei ? nenoai IAI Oe?a?ie,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee oeaio? «Aia?aineeia? onoaiiaee ? nenoaie ea?oaaiiy»,
I?i?noa?noai i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 27 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.059.02 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Aae?ana: 310078, Oa?e?a, aoe. Iao?ianueeiai, 25.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 27 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Iiae?eaaei I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeei?enoaiiy o?aeoi?ieo ii?cae?a (OI) aeey ia?aaacaiiy aaioaae?a a
caaaeueiiio o?ainii?oiiio iioioe?, ca?eueoaiiy iaeneiaeueii? oaeaeeino?
?ooo, iiaeeea?noue aenieoaoaoe?? ia aei?iaao c aaeeeeie ooeeaie
aeiaaathoue caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ? iaae?eiino? aaeuei?aii? nenoaie.

A?eueo iecueea a ii??aiyii? c aaoiiia?eyie oaeaee?noue ?ooo eie?nieo
o?aeoi??a, oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy ?o a ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocyo ae?iaieoeoaa,
aeiiaa aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiino? ni?eyee i?eeiyooth a?aeiinii ianoai?eo
ii?iaoea?a aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy ? ?ic?iaoe? i?inoeo oa aeaoaaeo
aaeuei?aieo nenoai, ui aaaeei aaeaioothoueny aei no/anieo oiia
aenieoaoaoe??. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iioaioe?eieo
iiaeeeainoae iaoeie ii aaioaaeii?aeeiiiino? ? cieaeaiith i?iaeoeoeaiino?
o?ainii?oieo iia?aoe?e.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A inoaii?e /an a ca’yceo c ?icaeoeii oa?ia?nueeeo
ainiiaea?noa ca?eueoeany iiieo ia o?aeoi?e iaeiai eeano ? c?inea /anoea
ianyao ia?aaacaiue ii?caeaie ia aac? oaeeo o?aeoi??a. Iani?eyoeeaith
iniaeea?noth oeeo OI ? a?aenooi?noue aaeuei?aii? nenoaie ia i?e/aiao ?
iai?ai?e/aiao, ui ia caaacia/o? iaiao?aeii? aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy.
A?aoiaoth/e aaeeeee ae?aiacii ??ciiiai?oieo eiiiiiiaie ? iiaeeeao
aa?o?noue aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea, ieoaiiy noiniaii aeai?o e?eueeino?
aaeuei?aieo inae o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea iiaeiii ae??ooaaoeny ie?aii a
eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo. Iayai?noue aeae?eueeio aaeuei?aieo inae
coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue ??oaiiy ieoaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeai?o
?iciiae?eo aaeuei?aieo nee ? ?o ?aaoethaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi
aia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiy aaeuei oeeo inae.

Aaaeeeaei iieacieeii ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? oaoi?/iiai ??oaiiy ? aa?o?noue
aaeuei?aii? nenoaie. Aaaeaii, uia no?oeoo?a i?eaiaea aa?iii?eii
aienoaaeany a caaaeueio eiino?oeoe?th aeaii? iiaeae? o?aeoi?a,
iaeneiaeueii aeei?enoiaoth/e ?? ?aca?ae.

Oaeei /eiii, aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue ioe?iee iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy
oiai aai ?ioiai aa??aioo aaeuei?aii? nenoaie ia iniia?
aaaaoinoi?iiiueiai aiae?co ?? aeo?aeieo iieaciee?a, ui i?iaiicothoueny.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
iai?aaeai? ia oaeineiiaeaiiy aaeuei?aii? nenoaie o?aeoi?ieo ii?cae?a ia
aac? o?aeoi??a iaeeo eean?a, iie?ioaiiy ?o aaeuei?aieo aeanoeainoae, ui
ni?ey? ?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeei?enoaiith iaoeii-o?aeoi?iiai ia?eo e?a?ie ?
??oaiith i?iaeaie aaciaee ?ooo o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ii?iaoeaieie
aeieoiaioaie ? aeoaie Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
noai?aiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aaeuei?aiiai
oi?aae?iiy o?aeoi?ieo ii?cae?a ia aac? o?aeoi??a iaeiai eeano,
aaeaioiaaieo aei iayaieo ia ieo aeaea?ae aia?a??.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

— ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee iiaeeeaino? iacaaaeueiiaoaaiiy eie?n
i?e/aia;

— ?ic?iaeoe aa??aioe noai aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea ? i?iaanoe ?o
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ca iieacieeaie aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy, eo?niai?
no?eeino? o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea ? yia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiy aaeuei?aieo
iaoai?ci?a;

— i?iaanoe aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueii? noaie aaeuei?aiiai oi?aae?iiy
o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea ia aac? o?aeoi??a iaeeo eean?a;

— i?iaanoe ioe?ieo ?aaeueieo ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy aaeuei o?aeoi?iiai
ii?caea ia aac? o?aeoi?a eeano 0,6 a ?aaeueieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??;

— ?icaeyiooe ieoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae o?aeoi?iiai
ii?caea ii aaioaaeii?aeeiiiino?.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o?aeoi?iue ii?cae ia aac? o?aeoi?a eeano 0,6.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

— io?eiai? ooieoe?iiaeuei? caeaaeiino?, ui ca’ycothoue i?ae niaith
ia?aiao?e ??ciiiai?oieo aaeuei?aieo nenoai, aeicaieeee cae?enieoe
eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeuei?aieo aeanoeainoae
o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea (io?eiaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie);

— oaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea aeai?o ia?aaeaaaeueiiai a?aeiioaiiy
?ia?oe?eiiai aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea, a oaeiae cai?iiiiiaaiee caeii eiai
ci?ie;

— ?ic?iaeaii e?eoa??e ioe?iee eo?niai? no?eeino? o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea i?e
aaeueioaaii? ? i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aa??aio?a i?eaiae c
eiai aeei?enoaiiyi (io?eiaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie);

— cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a ?aaoethaaiiy ?iciiae?eo aaeuei?aieo nee i?ae
eaieaie o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea ? noaio aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea, ui ?aae?co?
oeae niin?a (oaeineiiaeaii);

— ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy
aaeuei io?eiaia ooieoe?y ?iciiae?eo iiaeeiooi? aaeueiaie e?iaoe/ii?
aia?a?? OI, ui a?aoiao? nooi?iue caaaioaaeaiiy ii?caea (aia?oa).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai? i?iiiceoe??
uiaei aeei?enoaiiy aa??aio?a aaeuei?aieo nenoai, ui aaaeeeai aeey aoaio
i?iaeooaaiiy, aeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? a?aeiinii aeai?o ?o
ia?aiao??a; cai?iiiiiaai? aa??aioe eiino?oeoeaiiai aeeiiaiiy aeaiaio?a
i?eaiaea; noai?aia iaoiaeeea, ui aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aia?a??, yeo iiaeeiathoue aaeueia ??cieo inae, c o?aooaaiiyi
oa?aeoa?enoee i?eaiaea, iniaeeainoae o?ainii?oiiai caniao ? oiia
aenieoaoaoe??. Iaaaaeaia a ?iaio? iaoiaeeea ioe?iee ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aia?a?? iiaea aooe ei?enia i?e aecia/aii?

?ano?no aaeuei?aieo iaeeaaeie, ui aeoaea aaaeeeai a oiiaao
aenieoaoaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny ia caaiaeao
OCONO, OOC oa ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiio i?aei?e?inoa? «Ea?iaoaa?iiao».

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a: Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeieia?/i?
iieiaeaiiy aeey anueiai eiiieaeno oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aaeuei?aiiai oi?aae?iiy o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea. Cie?aia,
c?iaeaii ne?aeoth/a:

— cai?iiiiiaaii caeii ci?ie aaee/eie ia?aaeaoi/iiai a?aeiioaiiy
?ia?oe?eiiai aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea, a oaeiae io?eiai? ooieoe?iiaeuei?
caeaaeiino?, ui iienothoue oeae caeii;

— ?ic?iaeaii caeii ?aaoethaaiiy aaeuei?aieo nee o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea, a
oaeiae noaio aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea, ui ?aae?co? oeae caeii;

— cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa??e aeey ioe?iee no?eeino? o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea;

— ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeey aecia/aiiy /anoee aia?a??, yeo iiaeeiathoue
aaeueia ??cieo inae;

— aeeiiaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ??cieo aa??aio?a aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea c
iiceoe?e aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy, no?eeino? o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea a
i?ioean? aaeueioaaiiy, aia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiy aaeuei?aieo iaoai?ci?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «No/ani?
o?ainii?oi? i?iaeaie», Oa?e?a, 1996; ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??: iaoea, oaoi?ea, oaoiieia?y,
ina?oa», Oa?e?a, 1996; ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aaeueia
aaoiiaoei», Eiaecue (Iieueua), 1997; ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo oa aenie? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa ?
?aiiioo o?ainii?oieo cania?a a oiiaao iino?iaeono??aeueii? aeiiii?ee»,
I?aiao?a, 1997, ia ia?o?e i?nuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii? iaoee a aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo o/aieo i.
Oa?eiaa», Oa?e?a, 1997; ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo OAeAAeOO 1997-1998.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a aeaa(yoe
ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao, a oiio /ene? /ioe?ueio noaooyo a niaoe?aeueieo
aeaeaiiyo.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, ui neeaaea?oueny c 119
iaeiaioaaiue. O ?iaio? 162 noi??iee, 36 iaethie?a, 4 oaaeeoe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aiae?co noaio ieoaiiy ? iinoaiiaoe? caaea/
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaiith iaoith ?ia?o, a yeeo ?icaeyaea?oueny aeeiai?ea
aaeueioaaiiy iiiaeeiieeo ? neeaaeaieo eie?nieo o?ainii?oieo cania?a ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy, a oaeiae caaacia/aiiy eo?niai?
no?eeino?. Oeyoaie aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aaoi?e aaaaeathoue aea??
iioeiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo aaeuei?aieo nee, canoinoaaiiy ?aaoeyoi??a,
aeei?enoaiiy aioeaeieoaaeueieo nenoai. I?e oeueiio iaia? ?aeeii? aeoiee
uiaei /a?aiaino? aeieoaaiiy inae ii?caea, oiae? ye aeey aeaia?nieo
iaia’yceiaei aecia?oueny aeia?aaeaeaeueia aeieoaaiiy eie?n ia?aaeiuei?
in?. E??i oiai, a?aenooi? aeiiae ii a?aeiioaiith aei e?eueeino?
aaeueiiaeo inae.

Aiae?c ?ia?o, ui ni?yiiaai? ia aea/aiiy ? i?iaeooaaiiy aaeuei?aieo
i?eaiae?a iieacaa, ui aieiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ooieoe?iiaeueiei
aeanoeainoyi i?eaiaea ? iaeaea ia ii?ooo?oueny aia?aaoe/iee aniaeo, a
i?ae oei ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c aeiiii??th aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a ?
i?iaeaiith caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua iaaoee aaaeeeaiai
cia/aiiy. A aeayeeo ?iaioao iieacaia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy
i?ioi/iiai a?ae?ineeiaiai aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea (AAI) aiane?aeie aeniei?
oaeaeeiae??, i?inoioe eiino?oeoe??, iaeeo aaaa?eo?a ? iaoa??aei?iiino?,
iaioi? ?iaioe aeeth/aiiy a ii??aiyii? c iiaaiaoe/iei ca ?aooiie iaioeo
aeo?ao aia?a?? ia noene ?iai/iai o?ea ? a?aenooiino? aeo?ao ia i?eaiae
eiii?ani?a.

I???ioaoe?y i?iaeooaaeueiee?a ia ?aaeeie aeno?aieo aaeueioaaiue
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aaeeei? ia??aiii??iino? iaaaioaaeaiiy aaeuei?aieo
iaoai?ci?a. A iaeieo aeiaaeeao oey i?iaeaia ae??oo?oueny «i?aeneeaiiyi»
aaaeei iaaaioaaeaieo aaeuei aai a?eueo /anoith cai?iith aaeuei?aieo
iaeeaaeie, a ?ioeo — canoinoaaiiyi ?aaoeyoi??a aaeuei?aieo nee, a iniia?
yeeo eaaeeoue i?eioeei ae??aithaaiiy aia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiy. I?e ??oaii?
caaea/, i?yii aai iia?/ii ca’ycaieo c aia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiyi,
aeei?enoiaothoue ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, ?iaey/e
o? aai ?io? aeiiouaiiy. Oae, iai?eeeaae, ioe?ithth/e aia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiy
aaeuei, ei?enoothoueny ooieoe?yie u?eueiino? ?iciiae?eo ??aiy
i?eaiaeiiai oeneo, ui aea? eeoa iia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo.

Oaeei /eiii, aeoiaey/e c ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co noaio ieoaiiy,
iaa?oioiaaii iaoo ? noi?ioeueiaaii caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c aeeiai?eith
aaeueioaaiiy o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea. I?iaaaeaiee oai?aoe/iee aiae?c
aeicaieea ioe?ieoe iiaeeeaino? aeine?aeiiai OI i?e ?aeaaeueiiio
?iciiae?e? aaeuei?aieo nee. Ia ?en.1 iieacai? caeaaeiino? iaeneiaeueii
iiaeeeaeo cia/aiue oiia?eueiaiiy a?ae eiao?oe??ioa c/aieaiiy. sse
ne?aeo? c ?enoiea, aeiaeai c aa??aio?a ii?caea, i?e/ai yeiai ia
iaeaaeiaiee aaeueiaie, ia caaeiaieueiy? aeiiaai ii aoaeoeaiino?
aaeueioaaiiy. E??i oiai, i?e iayaiino? aaeuei ia i?e/ai? iaeneiaeueia
oiia?eueiaiiy ii?iaeiueiai OI ia aei?ic? c ( =0, 8 anaae aeae?eueea
ieae/a iaiao?aeiiai: c aeaia?niei i?e/aiii ji=3,9 i/n2, c iaeiia?niei
ji=4,1 i/n2, oiae? ye ca?aeii aeiia a?o/eciyieo noaiaea?o?a [ji]=4,4
i/n2.

Ine?eueee oiia?eueiaiiy, ui anoaiiaeeiny, ?noioii caeaaeeoue a?ae
ii?aeiaiiy aaiiao?e/ieo ? aaaiaeo ia?aiao??a, aoa c?iaeaiee aiae?c
iiaeeeaino? iacaaaeueiiaoaaiiy i?e/aia. A ?acoeueoao? c’ynoaaeiny, ui a
aeiaaeeo iaeiia?niiai i?e/aia oiiaa iaiao?aeii? aoaeoeaiino? aoaea
aeeiiaia, yeui eii?aeeiaoe oeaio?o ian i?e/aia aoaeooue caaeiaieueiyoe
oiia?

(1)

?en.1. Caeaaeiino? oiia?eueiaiue ??cieo aa??aio?a OI a?ae eiao?oe??ioa
c/aieaiiy: 1-iaeiia?niee iaaaioaaeaiee i?e/ai c aaeueiaie; 2-aeaia?niee
iaaaioaaeaiee i?e/ai c aaeueiaie; 3-iaeiia?niee ii?iaei?e i?e/ai c
aaeueiaie; 4- aeaia?niee ii?iaei?e i?e/ai c aaeueiaie; 5- iaeiia?niee
ii?iaei?e i?e/ai aac aaeuei; 6- iaeiia?niee iaaaioaaeaiee i?e/ai aac
aaeuei; 7- aeaia?niee ii?iaei?e i?e/ai aac aaeuei; 8- aeaia?niee
iaaaioaaeaiee i?e/ai aac aaeuei; 9-o?aeoi? aac i?e/aia.

aea bnp — i?iaeoe?y ia ai?eciioaeueio ieiueio a?aenoai? a?ae oeaio?o ian
i?e/aia aei eiai in?; Lnp — i?iaeoe?y ia ai?eciioaeueio ieiueio
a?aenoai? a?ae oi/ee c/?iee aei in? i?e/aia; (max=0,8 — iaeneiaeueiee
eiao?oe??io c/aieaiiy; g — i?enei?aiiy a?eueiiai iaae?iiy; hi? — aenioa
oeaio?o ian i?e/aia; k1, k2, k3 — eiino?oeoeai? eiao?oe??ioe, ui
a?aoiaothoue aaiiao?e/i? ? aaaia? ia?aiao?e o?aeoi?-iiai ii?caea.

O aeiaaeeo aeaia?niiai i?e/aia iaiao?aeiith oiiaith ?

(2)

Ooo GT — aaaa oyaa/a; Gi? — aaaa i?e/aia; a — i?iaeoe?y ia
ai?eciioaeueio ieiueio a?aenoai? a?ae oeaio?o ian oyaa/a aei eiai
ia?aaeiuei? in?; L — aaca o?aeoi?a; hT — aenioa oeaio?o ian oyaa/a; hkp
— aenioa oi/ee c/?iee.

I?aenoaiiaea a ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (1) ? (2) ia?aiao??a ?aaeueiiai OI
iieacaea iaiao?aei?noue caaaeueiiaoaaiiy eie?n i?e/aia, ine?eueee
aeeiiaiiy ia?oi? ia??aiino? iaaeoi i?iaeaiaoe/ii, a ae?oai? — i?aeoe/ii
iaiiaeeeai.

I?e aeai?? oeio aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea aeey i?e/aia, c o?aooaaiiyi
i?inoioe eiino?oeoe?? ? iaeeo aeo?ao ia aeiaeaoeiaa iaeaaeiaiiy, aoei
?icaeyiooi ?ia?oe?eiee i?eaiae. Iniiaiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith ?ia?oe?eiiai
aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea (?AI) ? eiai ia?aaeaaaeueia a?aeiioaiiy knp.
Ae?aiacii iiaeeeaeo cia/aiue knp a aeiaaeeo iaeiia?niiai i?e/aia aoa
aecia/aiee c oiia c/aieaiiy eie?n eaiie ii?caea

; (3)

, (4)

aea mXT — eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy c/?iii? aaae o?aeoi?a.

c iaoith iaeneiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy c/?iii? aaae.

(5)

— ii/aoeiaa cia/aiiy ia?aaeaoi/iiai a?aeiioaiiy knp.

i?e (max aeey caaaioaaeaiiai OI.

Ca a?aenooiino? aaeuei?aii? neee ia ia?aaei?e in? o?aeoi?a (?O1=0)
aoaeue-yea iiceoeaia cia/aiiy knp aeey aeaiiai OI ia aeeee/a aeieoaaiiy
eie?n i?e/aia ia anueiio ?ioa?aae? ci?ie (. Iaeiae iiaeia anoaiiaeoe
aeayeo a?aie/io aaee/eio knp max, ia?aaeuoaaoe yeo ia ia? naino,
ine?eueee iiaeaeueoa ?? ca?eueoaiiy ia aeeee/a ?noioiiai ca?eueoaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy. Oiiaa iaiaaeaiiy iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie knp
ia? aeaeyae

(6)

aea (ki?=0,5 — i?eeiyoee i?e??no a?aoiaioo; Ay=0,01 — i?eeiyoee
i?i?iaeueii aoaeoeaiee a?aeiiniee i?e??no ooieoe??.

=5,49 i?e (=0,8 ?, i?eeiyaoe knp=5, ie caaacia/o?ii a?aenooi?noue
aeieoaaiiy eie?n i?e/aia aeaiiai OI o anueiio iiaeeeaiio ae?aiacii?
ci?ie caaaioaaeaiiy ? eiao?oe??ioa c/aieaiiy.

Ia ?enoieao 2 ? 3 iieacai? e?ea? c/aieaiiy, ui ?aae?co?oueny, aeey
aeaio ?aaeueieo aa??aio?a aeeiiaiiy i?eaiaea: a?ae?ineeiaiai c iino?eiei
?iciiae?eii aaeuei?aieo nee (=?O2/(?O2+?Oi?)=0,677 ? ?ia?oe?eiiai c
ki?=5. I?e oeueiio ?icaeyaeathoueny o?e aaaiaeo noaie: 1) ii?iaei?e
i?e/ai; 2) i?e/ai caaaioaaeaiee aaaith 5000 I; 3) aa??aio ca?eueoaiiy
aaioaaeii?aeeiiiino? aei 10000 I. C aiae?co e?eaeo iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui ?AI ia? cia/ii e?auo aaeaioeai?noue aei ci?ie caaaioaaeaiiy
OI, oiaoi a oeueiio a?aeiioaii? ye?nia ci?ia eiao?oe??ioa ?iciiae?eo
aaeuei?aieo nee ( oaea ae, ye aeey aeiaaeeo ?aeaaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo.
Oiio aeioe?eueii c?noaaeoe caeii ?aaoethaaiiy ? ai?eciioaeueio neeo a
c/?ioe?.

?en. 2. E?ea? c/aieaiiy, ui ?aae?co?oueny aeey OI c AAI: 1 — ii?iaei?e
OI; 2 — i?e/ai caaaioaaeaiee aaaith 5000 I; 3 — i?e/ai caaaioaaeaiee
aaaith 10000 I.

?en. 3. E?ea? c/aieaiiy, ui ?aae?co?oueny aeey OI c ?AI: 1 — ii?iaei?e
OI; 2 — i?e/ai caaaioaaeaiee aaaith 5000 I; 3 — i?e/ai caaaioaaeaiee
aaaith 10000 I.

Ioe?iea no?eeino? i?iaaaeaia c o?aooaaiiyi i?eiouaiiy, ui OI ?ooaany
i?yiie?i?eii ??aiioiia?eueiaii ? a aeayeee iiiaio /ano aiane?aeie aieeao
ciai?oi?o cao?thth/eo nee iicaeiaaei? in? oyaa/a ? i?e/aia ooai?eee
aeaye? iae? eooe (O ? (i? c iai?yieii ?ooo. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ?ia?o
aeicaieea aaaaeaoe oiiaith no?eeino? a?aei?io a?ae ioey ? iai?aaeaiiy a
noi?iio ciaioaiiy eooa ?ici???ioaoe?? iiiaioo ??aiiae?th/i? an?o nee
a?aeiinii oeaio?o ian eiaeii? eaiee OI. Oey oiiaa aeeiio?oueny, yeui
aieiaa ?aaeoe?y a c/?ioe? eaaeeoue a iaaeao

(7)

aea Ry1, Ry2, Ryi? — aieia? ?aaeoe?? oei a?aeiia?aeii i?aaeiuei? ?
caaeiuei? in? oyaa/a ? in? i?e/aia, Roo — iicaeiaaeiy ?aaeoe?y a
c/?ioe?; b, ckp- i?iaeoe?? ia ai?eciioaeueio ieiueio a?aenoaiae a?ae
caaeiuei? in? o?aeoi?a aei eiai oeaio?o ian ? oi/ee c/?iee a?aeiia?aeii.

Ine?eueee oi/ea c/aio iaeaaeeoue ? o?aeoi?o, ? i?e/aio, iiaeii?
ni?aiaaeaoe caeiie ?? ?ooo c iiceoe?? aoaeue-yei? eaiee OI. C
o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai iaea?aeo?ii:

(8)

— iiiaioe ?ia?oe?? a?aeiia?aeii o?aeoi?a ? i?e/aia a?aeiinii
aa?oeeaeueieo inae, ui i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac oeaio?e ian.

aeey ?ioeo aa??aio?a i?eaiaea, eaaeaoue i?ae A1A1 ? A2A2.

oei a?eueoa, /ei a?eueoa Gnp.

=1150 I/a?aae, aea i?e oeueiio ca?eueoo?oueny iaaaciaea aeieoaaiiy
eie?n caaeiuei? in? o?aeoi?a.

A?aeiinii aeia?? iieacieee o AAI c (=0,677 (e?eaa ADECB). Iaeiae ia
ne?ae caaoaaoe, ui ae?eyiea AAe a?aeiia?aea? caaeieiaaiei eieanai
i?e/aia c oei aai ?ioei iaaeeeoeii i?eaiaeii? neee.

=5, a oaeiae aeey ae?eyiee A4A4 e?eai? A4A4, ui a?aeiia?aea? aa??aioo
i?eaiaea, i?e yeiio caaacia/o?oueny a?aenooi?noue iicaeiaaeiueiai
coneeey a c/?ioe? (Oe?=0).

aeeee/a eeoa cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy, ine?eueee iaaeeeoie
i?eaiaeii? neee aoaea o?eueee iineethaaoe aeie eie?n i?e/aia, a ye
iieacaee ?ic?aooiee, oaeee ?oo no?eeee.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeeiiaii aiae?c eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae
iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a i?eaiaea, aeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeeiiaiith aeayeeo
eiai aeaiaio?a ? cieaeaiith iaae?iaie/eo aeo?ao iiooaeiino?.

a?ae Gnp aeey ??cieo aa??aio?a i?eaiaea

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ??ciiiai?oieo aa??aio?a i?eaiaea c o?aooaaiiyi
iiaeeeai? ?oiuei? aa?oino? ? iniaeeainoae aeaiiai OI na?ae/eoue i?i
aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy i?ioi/iiai a?ae?ineeiaiai aaeuei?aiiai
i?eaiaea.

Ca aeayeee i?ii?aeie /ano t ?iaioa ianina a?eueoa iaiao?aeii? aeey
i?eaiaea aaeuei ia aaee/eio

(9)

aea pH — oene ??aeeie ia aeoiae? c ianino; QH — i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianina,
pn — oene ??aeeie a i?eaiae?; Qn — aeo?aoe ??aeeie ia i?eaiae; ti -/an
i?ae aaeueioaaiiyie; tTi — /an i-oiai aaeueioaaiiy, t?? — /an
?icaaeueiiaoaaiiy; n — e?euee?noue aaeueioaaiue ca /an t.

Ia?oee ?ioaa?ae a ae?ac? (9) oa?aeoa?eco? ?iaioo ianina a
?icaaeueiiaaiiio noai?. sse c’ynoaaeiny a ?acoeueoao? ?nieo?a o?aeoi?a
AO-1, iaeaaeiaiiai a?ae?ineeiaei aaeuei?aiei i?eaiaeii, i?ioi/iee e?ai a
?icaaeueiiaaiiio noai? ia? a?ae?aae?/iee ii??, ia iiaeieaiiy yeiai
iaiao?aeia iiooaei?noue a na?aaeiueiio a?ey 0,1 eAo. Ioaea, aeey
cieaeaiiy iaae?iaie/eo aeo?ao iiooaeiino? a ia?oo /a?ao iaiao?aeii
cieceoe a?ae?aae?/iee ii?? a ?icaaeueiiaaiiio noai?, /iai iiaeia
aeinyaiooe aai ci?ieaoe ae?inaeueio /anoeio e?aia, aai aeiaeaaoe
iao?aeio iaa?no?aeue.

sse aoei iieacaii a ae?oaiio ?icae?e?, aaeuei?ai? aeanoeaino? OI iiaeia
iie?ioeoe ?aaoethaaiiyi aaeuei?aieo nee, ea?oth/enue aaee/eiith
ai?eciioaeueiiai coneeey a c/?ioe?. A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaia noaia
aaeuei?aii? nenoaie o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea, ui caaacia/o? ?aaoethaaiiy
aaeuei?aieo nee ii cai?iiiiiaaiiio niiniao, a oaeiae eiino?oeoe?? ?yaeo
aeaiaio?a oaei? aaeuei?aii? nenoaie.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaiith
?aaeei?a aaeueioaaiiy ? ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy /anoee aia?a??,
ui iiaeeia?oueny aaeueiaie ??cieo inae. Ia OCONO aoa i?iaaaeaiee
aenia?eiaio ii aecia/aiith ?aaeei?a aaeueioaaiiy o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea, ui
neeaaeaany c o?aeoi?a eeano 0,6 AO-1, iaeaaeiaiiai a?ae?ineeiaei
aaeuei?aiei i?eaiaeii c aeeneiaeie aaeueiaie a?aee?eoiai oeio ia caaei?e
in? ? iaeiia?niiai i?e/aia OO-1 aaioaaeii?aeeiii?noth 500 ea aac aaeuei.
Aaee/eia ui ?a?no?oaaeany — /enei iai?io?a aaeuei?aiiai aeenea a i’yoe
ae?aiaciiao i?eaiaeiiai oeneo. A oaaeeoe? 1 i?aaenoaaeai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? cia/aiiy a?aeiinieo /anoio ? aii??e/ieo u?eueiinoae ii
?ioa?aaeai iaia?a?aii? aeiaaeeiai? aaee/eie — i?eaiaeiiai oeneo.

Oaaeeoey 1. Noaoenoe/i? aeai? aenia?eiaioo

?ioa?aae

oeneo, IIA

0,5-1,5

1,5-2,5

2,5-3,7

3,7-5,0

5,0-7,0

A?aeiinia

/anoioa

0,356

0,363

0,156

0,100

0,025

Aii??e/ia

u?euei?noue

0,356

0,363

0,130

0,077

0,013

A ?acoeueoao? ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo io?eiaia oai?aoe/ia
ooieoe?y u?eueiino? ?iciiae?eo ??aiy i?eaiaeiiai oeneo f(p), ui
iiaiaeaeo?oueny c? noaoenoe/iei ?iciiae?eii ii e?eoa??yi I??niia (2 ?
Eieiiai?iaa aeey 5% ??aiy cia/ouino? aeaeyaeo

(10)

C iaeyaeo ia iacia/io ci?io jmax aeey a?aie/ieo aaaiaeo noai?a OI ?
a?aoiaoth/e, ui a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? caaaioaaeaiiy iiaea aooe
/anoeiaei (a oeueiio aeiaaeeo 3,03i/n2(jmax<3,13i/n2), i?eeiyoi aeiiouaiiy i?i iacaeaaei?noue iiaeeeaiai aeey aeaiiai ( oiia?eueiaiiy, ui anoaiiaeeiny, a?ae nooiaiy caaaioaaeaiiy. Ine?eueee aeey iaeiiai ? oiai ae jn oene a i?eaiae? caeaaeeoue a?ae nooiaiy caaaioaaeaiiy, oi, a?aoiaoth/e oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo, iiaeia iaa?oiooaaoe ?nioaaiiy aeayei? ooieoe?? u?eueiino? ?iciiae?eo f2(p, ka?), aeey yei? aeeiio?oueny ??ai?noue (11) Oaeei /eiii, ooieoe?y u?eueiino? ?iciiae?eo caeaaeeoue a?ae aeaio ia?aiao??a: oeneo ? eiao?oe??ioa caaaioaaeaiiy ka?=Ia?/Ia? iao, aea Ia? - iana aaioaaeo, ui ia?aaiceoueny, Ia? iao - aaioaaeii?aeeiii?noue OI. I?e i?iaaaeaii? aenia?eiaioo ka? aoa aeecueeee aei ??aii?iia??iiai caeiio ?iciiae?eo. C o?aooaaiiyi oeeo i??eoaaiue ? iaoaiaoe/iiai aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo, ooieoe?th u?eueiino? ?iciiae?eo iiaeia iiaeaoe a aeaeyae? (12) A?aoiaoth/e oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioo ? aeeiiaaoe iaoaiaoe/io ia?iaeo io?eiaieo aeaieo, ia?ii ooieoe?th ?iciiae?eo /anoee iiaeeiooi? aia?a?? a caeaaeiino? a?ae oeneo ? caaaioaaeaiiy i?e/aia (13) Iiaa?oiy, ui iieno?oueny ae?acii (13), iieacaia ia ?en.5. Aiia iai/ii ?ethno?o? oa?aeoa? iiaeeiaiiy aaeueiaie aia?a?? a ??ciiiai?oieo ?ioa?aaeao oeneo ? caaaioaaeaiiy. ?en. 5. ?iciiae?e ?iaioe nee oa?oy Aeey /enaeueiiai aecia/aiiy /anoee aia?a??, iiaeeiooi? aaeueiaie a aoaeue-yeiio ae?aiacii? i?eaiaeiiai oeneo ? caaaioaaeaiiy, iaiao?aeii acyoe iiaea?eiee ?ioaa?ae a?ae ooieoe?? f4(p, ka?) ii oe?e iaeano? DL. Oae, iai?eeeaae, ?ioaa?oth/e a?ae 0 aei 1 ii ka? ? a?ae 0 aei pi ii p, io?eia?ii cia/aiiy, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?ioaa?aeueiee caeii ?iciiae?eo /anoee iiaeeiooi? aia?a?? ii oeneo (aeea. oaae. 2). Aeai? oaaeeoe? 2 ? ae-aeyae iiaa?oi? ia ?en. 5 na?ae/aoue i?i oa, ui e?iaoe/ia aia?a?y ?ooo iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii iiaeeia?oueny a iaeano? iaeeo oene?a (aeecueei 2 IIa). Oaaeeoey 2. ?iciiae?e iiaeeiooi? aia?a?? ii oeneo 0,068 0,350 0,646 0,844 0,945 1,000 Ocaaaeueiaiiy ia eie?ni? iaoeie, ui iathoue aeae?eueea caaaeueiiaoaaieo inae, a oaeiae iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a aeicaieeee io?eiaoe a caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? ae?ac aeey /anoee aia?a??, ui iiaeeia?oueny aaeueiaie i-oi? in? a cii? DK, a?ae caaaeueii? aia?a?? a cii? DL iaeano? aecia/aiiy D (14) Ooo f9 (ka?) - ooieoe?y aeaeyaeo f9(ka?)=a9ka?+b9, eiao?oe??ioe yei? b9=Gni(Gmao (Gni - nii?yaeaeaia aaaa eie?niie iaoeie); a9=1-b9; f10(ka?) - ooieoe?y iaeneiaeueieo cia/aiue pn; b7, c7 - eiao?oe??ioe, ui a?aoiaothoue ?aaeeie aaeueioaaiiy o?ainii?oiiai caniao (aeey aeaieo oiia aenieoaoaoe?? b7=2,765, c7=1,234); f3(ka?) - ooieoe?y u?eueiino? ?iciiae?eo ?iia??iino? iaia?a?aii? aeiaaeeiai? aaee/eie; ( - eiao?oe??io, ui a?aoiao? iniaeeaino? ?icaeyaeoaaii? eie?nii? iaoeie. C aeei?enoaiiyi ae?aco (14), aoa aeeiiaiee ii??aiyiee aiae?c ??ciiiai?oieo aa??aio?a aaeuei?aieo i?eaiae?a c oi/ee ci?o aia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiy aaeuei?aieo iaoai?ci?a. Oae, cie?aia, aoei aecia/aii, ui aaeueia o?aeoi?a i?e ?aeaaeueiiio ?iciiae?e? aaeuei?aieo nee iiaeeiaoeiooue 62,7 % e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? ?ooo. Aeey a?ae?ineeiaiai oa ?ia?oe?eiiai i?eaiae?a oey aaee/eia noaiiaeoue 67,7 % ? 72,2 % a?aeiia?aeii. ?ic?aoiaoth/e ca aeiiiiiaith oi?ioee (14) ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aia?a??, ui iiaeeia?oueny aaeueiaie ??cieo inae, iiaeia ioe?ithaaoe ?o aia?aiia-aaioaaeaiiy, a oaeiae a?aeiinio aeiaaia?/i?noue o?eeoe?eieo iaeeaaeie. Aeniiaee 1. I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioeano aaeueioaaiiy o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea a neeaae? eie?niiai o?aeoi?a o?aaeeoe?eii? eiiiiiiaee (ui ia? aaeueia o?eueee ia caaei?e in?) ? i?e/aia iieacaee iaiao?aei?noue iaeaaeiaiiy i?e/aia aaeuei?aiith nenoaiith. I?e aeei?enoaii? ?ia?oe?eiiai aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea c iino?eiei ia?aaeaaaeueiei a?aeiioaiiyi aeey o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea c iaeiia?niei i?e/aiii ? aaeueiaie ia an?o inyo aeioe?eueii iaiaaeoaaoe aca?iia ia?ai?uaiiy eaiie ii?caea i?e aeinyaiaii? aaee/eie ii?iaiaiai oiia?eueiaiiy. Aeey aeine?aeiiai o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny i?eeiaoe iino?eia ia?aaeaaaeueia a?aeiioaiiy ki?=5. 3. Ca e?eoa??e no?eeino? o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea aeey ii??aiyeueii? ioe?iee ??cieo aa??aio?a aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe e?eoe/ia oiia?eueiaiiy (jie?), oiaoi iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaa oiia?eueiaiiy, i?e yeiio caa??aa?oueny eo?niaa no?ee?noue ?ooo. Iaea?eueo iani?eyoeeaei aeiaaeeii ? aeieoaaiiy eie?n caaeiuei? in? o?aeoi?a. I?e aeieoaaii? eie?n i?e/aia ?oo ii?caea no?eeee, aea aaee/eia e?eoe/iiai oiia?eueiaiiy iaioa iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeai? aaee/eie, ui ?icaeaa?oueny i?e iaeii/aniiio aeiaaaeaii? aei a?ai? aeieoaaiiy an?o eie?n inae, ui aaeueiothoueny. I?e oeueiio cieaeaiiy jie? oei a?eueoa, /ei a?eueoa aaaa i?e/aia. Aeey o?aeoi?ieo ii?cae?a ia aac? o?aeoi??a eean?a 0,6...0,9 iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei ? canoinoaaiiy i?ioi/iiai a?ae?ineeiaiai aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea a neeaae? caaaeueii? a?ae?inenoaie iaoeie. I?e oeueiio aaaeaii, uia aaeuei?aia nenoaia iaaaioaaeoaaea aeaeaoi o?eueee i?ae /an aaeueioaaiiy. 5. Ciaioaiiy caaaioaaeaiiy i?e/aia i?ecaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaiai oiia?eueiaiiy, ui ?icaeaa?oueny i?e iaeii/aniiio aeiaaaeaii? aei a?ai? aeieoaaiiy an?o eie?n aaeueio?ieo inae o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea. Ci?ia ??cieoe? i?ae iaeneiaeueii iiaeeeaei cia/aiiyi oiia?eueiaiiy ? ?aaeueiei, ui aecia/a?oueny oeiii i?eaiaea, oaeiae ? ooieoe??th aaae i?e/aia, i?e/iio aeey a?ae?ineeiaiai i?eaiaea c SYMBOL 98 \f "Symbol" \s 14 b =0,677 oey ci?ia ?noioii a?eueoa, i?ae aeey ?ia?oe?eiiai c ki?=5. Aeia?aaeaeaeueia aeieoaaiiy eie?n ii?iaeiueiai i?e/aia, iaieio/a i?e aeei?enoaii? a?ae?ineeiaiai aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea c SYMBOL 98 \f "Symbol" \s 14 b =0,677, ia aeeeeea? ao?aoe eo?niai? no?eeino? o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea. 6. I?e ?ic?iaoe? aaeuei?aiiai oi?aae?iiy o?aeoi?ieo ii?cae?a iaiao?aeii aeoeaiooaaoe oaaao ia aia?aiia?aoai?thth/eo aeanoeainoyo aaeuei?aieo iaoai?ci?a, a ca'yceo c /ei i?aaenoaaey? ?ioa?an aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy aaeuei o?aeoi?ieo ii?cae?a a ?aaeueieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??. Io?eiaia a ?acoeueoao? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ooieoe?y ?iciiae?eo /anoee iiaeeiooi? aaeueiaie e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui iaea?eueo ?ioaineaii icia/aia aia?a?y iiaeeia?oueny a iaeano? iaeeo i?eaiaeieo oene?a (a?ey 2 IIa). 7. Io?eiai? caeaaeiino?, ui iienothoue ?iciiae?e iiaeeiooi? aaeueiaie ??cieo inae e?iaoe/ii? aia?a?? o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea, ui a?aoiaothoue ia?aiao?e i?eaiaea, nooi?iue caaaioaaeaiiy, iniaeeaino? eie?nii? iaoeie, aeathoue iiaeeea?noue ia noaae?? i?iaeooaaiiy ioe?ithaaoe aeey iiaeeeaeo oiia aenieoaoaoe?? aia?aiiaaaioaaeai?noue aaeuei?aieo iaoai?ci?a. iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ?iaioao Iiae?eaaei I.A., Aieeia A.I., Ei?ye A.A. ?aaeeiu iaa?oaeaiey oi?iiciuo iaoaieciia o?aeoi?iiai iiacaea // O?aeoi?iay yia?aaoeea a ?anoaieaaiaenoaa - Oa?ueeia. - 1998. - N.177-182 (70 %). Iiae?eaaei I.A., Aieeia A.I., Ei?ye A.A. N?aaieoaeueiay ioeaiea onoie/eainoe o?aeoi?iiai iiacaea a i?ioeanna oi?iiaeaiey // Aaoiiiaeeueiue o?ainii?o. - 1999. - ? 1 (60 %). Iiae?eaaei I.A., Oaaeinia A.N., Iaca?ia A.E., Ei?ye A.A. Aeeiaieea oi?iiaeaiey aeaoiniiai aaoiiiaeey// Aanoiee OAAAeOO, 1999. - Aui. 9. - N. 21-23 (20 %). Iiae?eaaei I.A., Aieeia A.I., Ei?ye A.A. ?aaioa o?aiey oi?iicia caaiueaa o?aeoi?iiai iiacaea // O?aeoi?iay yia?aaoeea a ?anoaieaaiaenoaa - Oa?ueeia. - 1998. - N.182-186 (70 %). Iiae?eaaei I.A., Aieeia A.I., Ei?ye A.A. Yia?aaoe/aneee iiaeoiae e i?iaeoe?iaaieth oi?iiciuo nenoai// Iaoa?eaeu iaaeaeoia?. iao/.- oaoi. eiio. «Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, ia?aciaaiea». - *anoue 2. - Oa?ueeia, 1996. - N. 173 (60 %). 6. Ioeaiea oi?iiciuo nenoai eieaniuo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ii yia?aaoe/aneei e?eoa?eyi/ Iiae?eaaei I.A., Aieeia A.I., Ei?ye A.A., Iaca?ia A.E.// Oacenu aeiee. Iaaeaeoia?. iao/. eiio. «Nia?aiaiiua o?ainii?oiua i?iaeaiu». - Oa?ueeia,1996.- N.38 (25 %). 7. Iiae?eaaei I., Aieeia A., Ei?ye A. Ioeaiea onoie/eainoe eieaniuo iaoei i?e caiina a i?ioeanna oi?iiaeaiey// O?oaeu Iaaeaeoia?. eiio. «Oi?iica aaoiiaoei». - Eiaecue, 1997. - N.20-21 (20 %). 8. Iiae?eaaei I.A., Aieeia A.I., Ei?ye A.A. Ioeaiea onoie/eainoe aaoiiiaeeae e o?aeoi?ia i?e caiina a i?ioeanna oi?iiaeaiey//Nai?iee aeieeaaeia iao/.-i?aeo. eiio. «Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiie iaoee a enneaaeiaaieyo iieiaeuo o/aiuo». - Oa?ueeia, 1997. - N. 79-81 (25 %). 9. Iiae?eaaei I.A., Aieeia A.I., Ei?ye A.A. Ioeaiea oeaeaniia?aciinoe caoi?iaaeeaaiey eiean i?eoeaia aeaoocaaiiiai o?aeoi?iiai iiacaea ii oneiaeth yooaeoeaiinoe.// Oacenu aeiee. Iaaeaeoia?. iao/.-oaoi. eiio. «Eiioeaioeey ?acaeoey e aunieea oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aiiioa o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa a oneiaeyo iinoeiaeono?eaeueiie yeiiiieee». - I?aiao?a,1997.- N.111-113 (65 %). Aiioaoe?y Ei?ye A. A. Oaeineiiaeaiiy aaeuei?aiiai oi?aae?iiy o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea ia aac? eie?niiai o?aeoi?a iaeiai eeano. - ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy o/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.22.02 - aaoiiia?e? oa o?aeoi?e. - Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, Oa?e?a, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia aecia/aiith ?aoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aaeuei?aiiai oi?aae?iiy o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea. A ?iaio? ioe?iaia iaiao?aei?noue iaeaaeiaiiy i?e/aia aaeuei?aiith nenoaiith; aeeiiaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ??cieo aa??aio?a aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea c iiceoe?e aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea, eo?niai? no?eeinoe a i?ioean? aaeueioaaiiy, aia?aiiaaaioaaeaiino? aaeuei?aieo iaoai?ci?a; iieacaia aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy i?ioi/iiai a?ae?ineeiaiai aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a aaeueioaaiiy ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea, ui aeicaiey? ioe?ithaaoe aia?aiiaaaioaaeai?noue aaeuei ??cieo inae, ? a?aoiao? ia?aiao?e aaeuei?aii? nenoaie, iniaeeaino? eie?nii? iaoeie, a oaeiae oiiae aenieoaoaoe??. Eeth/ia? neiaa: o?aeoi?iee ii?cae, aoaeoeai?noue aaeueioaaiiy, aaeuei?aiee i?eaiae, ?iciiae?e aaeuei?aieo nee, eo?niaa no?ee?noue, aia?aiiaaaioaaeai?noue. abstract Korjak A.A. A brake management perfecting of a tractor train on basis a wheel tractor of a small class. - Manuscript. The dissertation for a candidate degree of technical sciences on speciality 05.22.02 - automobiles and tractors - The Kharkov State Automobile and Highway Technical University, Ministry of education of Ukraine, Kharkov, 1999. The thesis is devoted to determination of rational parameters of a small class tractor train’s brake management. The necessity of equipping of the trailer by a brake system is appreciated in this work; the comparative analysis of various variants of the brake drive is made from the standpoint of efficiency of tractor’s train braking, stability during braking, energyload of brake mechanisms; the expediency of application of the flowing hydroforce brake drive is shown. The method, that is worked out on basis of conditions of braking’s experimental researches, lets to evaluate energyload of various axeses’ brakes, which takes into account a brake system’s parameters, feature of the wheel machine, and also operating conditions. Key words: a tractor train, efficiency of braking, brake drive, distribution of brake forces, course stability, energyload. Aiiioaoeey Ei?ye A.A. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea oi?iiciiai oi?aaeaiey o?aeoi?iiai iiacaea ia aaca eieaniiai o?aeoi?a iaeiai eeanna. - ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.22.02 - aaoiiiaeee e o?aeoi?u. - Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue aaoiiiaeeueii-aei?iaeiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey Oe?aeiu, Oa?ueeia, 1999. O?aaeeoeeiiiay noaia oi?iiciie nenoaiu o?aeoi?iuo iiacaeia ia aaca eieaniuo o?aeoi?ia iaeiai eeanna, aeeth/athuay a naay oieueei caaeithth oi?iiceioth inue o?aeoi?a, ia iaania/eaaao iieiiai eniieueciaaiey eo iioaioeeaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?ainii?oiuo iia?aoeee. Iiyoiio aeaiiay ?aaioa iinayuaia ii?aaeaeaieth ?aoeeiiaeueiuo ia?aiao?ia oi?iiciiai oi?aaeaiey o?aeoi?iiai iiacaea. Aaeaeo ionoonoaey /aoeeo o?aaiaaiee ioiineoaeueii eiee/anoaa oi?iiceiuo inae ?ac?aaioaia iaoiaeeea, n iiiiuueth eioi?ie iieiaeeoaeueii ioeaiaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey i?eoeaia oi?iiciie nenoaiie. Aiaeec ?acee/iuo oeiia oi?iiciiai i?eaiaea n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae o?aeoi?iiai iiacaea iieacae, /oi i?eaieaiuie aa?eaioaie yaeyaony i?eiaiaiea i?ioi/iiai aeae?ineeiaiai eee eia?oeeiiiiai i?eaiaea. A ?acoeueoaoa enneaaei-aaiee ii?aaeaeaiu iioeiaeueiua ia?aiao?u oaeeo i?eaiaeia e ?ac?aaioaiu eo eiino?oeoeaiua ?aoaiey. Ia iniiaa oai?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca aeeiaieee oi?iiaeaiey o?aeoi?iiai iiacaea iaia/aiu iooe niaa?oainoaiaaiey aai oi?iiciuo naienoa iooai ?aaoee?iaaiey oi?iiciuo nee e ?ac?aaioaia niioaaonoaothuay noaia oi?iiciie nenoaiu. ?anniio?aiu aii?inu onoie/eainoe o?aeoi?iiai iiacaea a i?ioeanna oi?iiaeaiey e i?aaeeiaeai e?eoa?ee aeey ioeaiee eo?niaie onoie/eainoe. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaeaieaa iaaeaaii?eyoiui neo/aai n oi/ee c?aiey onoie/eainoe yaeyaony aeiee?iaea eiean caaeiae ine o?aeoi?a. Yenia?eiaioaeueii enneaaeiaaiu ?aaeeiu oi?iiaeaiey o?aeoi?iiai iiacaea a ?aaeueiuo oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee. A ?acoeueoaoa iaoaiaoe/aneie ia?aaioee yenia?eiaioaeueiuo aeaiiuo iieo/aia ooieoeey ?ani?aaeaeaiey ii i?eaiaeiiio aeaaeaieth e eiyooeoeeaioo caa?ocee o?aeoi?iiai iiacaea aeiee iiaeiuaaiie oi?iicaie eeiaoe/aneie yia?aee. Yoa ooieoeey iicaieyao aieaa oi/ii ioeaieaaoue yia?aiiaa?oaeaiiinoue oi?iicia, /ai i?eiaiyaiay iau/ii ooieoeey ieioiinoe ?ani?aaeaeaiey o?iaiy i?eaiaeiiai aeaaeaiey. Aeaeueiaeoea oai?aoe/aneea enneaaeiaaiey aeaee aiciiaeiinoue ?ac?aaioaoue iaoiaeeeo ioeaiee yia?aiiaa?oaeaiiinoe oi?iicia ?acee/iuo inae, eioi?ay o/eouaaao ia?aiao?u oi?iiciie nenoaiu, iniaaiiinoe eieaniie iaoeiu, a oaeaea oneiaey yenieoaoaoeee. Aeaiiay iaoiaeeea iiaeao auoue iniaaiii iieacia ia noaaeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey oi?iiciuo nenoai i?e ioeaiea aeey caaeaaaaiuo oneiaee yenieoaoaoeee yia?aiiaa?oaeaiiinoe oi?iiciuo iaoaieciia ?acee/iuo inae. Aeey ?ac?aaioaiiuo e ia?niaeoeaiuo aa?eaioia oi?iiciiai i?eaiaea i?iecaaaeai n?aaieoaeueiue aiaeec n iiceoeee yooaeoeaiinoe oi?iiaeaiey o?aeoi?iiai iiacaea, onoie/eainoe a i?ioeanna oi?iiaeaiey e yia?aiiaa?oaeaiiinoe oi?iiciuo iaoaieciia. Eeth/aaua neiaa: o?aeoi?iue iiacae, yooaeoeaiinoue oi?iiaeaiey, oi?iiciie i?eaiae, ?ani?aaeaeaiea oi?iiciuo nee, eo?niaay onoie/eainoue, yia?aiiaa?oaeaiiinoue.

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