.

Удосконалення гальмівного управління тракторного поїзда на базі колісного трактора малого класу: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / О.О. Коряк, Харк.

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OA?E?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE AAOIIIA?EUeII-AeI?IAEI?E OAOI?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

EI?ssE IEAENAIAe? IEAEN?EIAE*

OAeE 629.113-59

OAeINEIIAEAIIss AAEUeI?AIIAI OI?AAE?IIss

O?AEOI?IIAI II?CAeA IA AAC? EIE?NIIAI O?AEOI?A

IAEIAI EEANO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.22.02 – Aaoiiia?e? oa o?aeoi?e

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oa?e?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio
oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?, I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Aieeia
Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaei?e
oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e aaoiiia?eae

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

– aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? N???a?yeia ?ai? Ieeieaeiae/,
Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao n?euenueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, i?ioani? eaoaae?e «O?aeoi?e oa aaoiiia?e?»

– eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio Iaiae?eea Aieiaeeie?
?inoeneaaiae/, Oa?e?anueeee aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,
aeioeaio eaoaae?e «O?aeoi?iaoae?aieoeoai»

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo iaoei ? nenoai IAI Oe?a?ie,
iaoeiai-oaoi?/iee oeaio? «Aia?aineeia? onoaiiaee ? nenoaie ea?oaaiiy»,
I?i?noa?noai i?iieneiai? iie?oeee Oe?a?ie, i. Oa?e?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 27 aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.059.02 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio aaoiiia?eueii-aei?iaeiueiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?.

Aae?ana: 310078, Oa?e?a, aoe. Iao?ianueeiai, 25.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? oi?aa?neoaoo.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 27 aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Iiae?eaaei I.A.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeei?enoaiiy o?aeoi?ieo ii?cae?a (OI) aeey ia?aaacaiiy aaioaae?a a
caaaeueiiio o?ainii?oiiio iioioe?, ca?eueoaiiy iaeneiaeueii? oaeaeeino?
?ooo, iiaeeea?noue aenieoaoaoe?? ia aei?iaao c aaeeeeie ooeeaie
aeiaaathoue caaacia/aiiy aoaeoeaiino? ? iaae?eiino? aaeuei?aii? nenoaie.

A?eueo iecueea a ii??aiyii? c aaoiiia?eyie oaeaee?noue ?ooo eie?nieo
o?aeoi??a, oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy ?o a ??ciiiai?oieo aaeocyo ae?iaieoeoaa,
aeiiaa aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiino? ni?eyee i?eeiyooth a?aeiinii ianoai?eo
ii?iaoea?a aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy ? ?ic?iaoe? i?inoeo oa aeaoaaeo
aaeuei?aieo nenoai, ui aaaeei aaeaioothoueny aei no/anieo oiia
aenieoaoaoe??. Oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei iaiiaiiai aeei?enoaiiy iioaioe?eieo
iiaeeeainoae iaoeie ii aaioaaeii?aeeiiiino? ? cieaeaiith i?iaeoeoeaiino?
o?ainii?oieo iia?aoe?e.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A inoaii?e /an a ca’yceo c ?icaeoeii oa?ia?nueeeo
ainiiaea?noa ca?eueoeany iiieo ia o?aeoi?e iaeiai eeano ? c?inea /anoea
ianyao ia?aaacaiue ii?caeaie ia aac? oaeeo o?aeoi??a. Iani?eyoeeaith
iniaeea?noth oeeo OI ? a?aenooi?noue aaeuei?aii? nenoaie ia i?e/aiao ?
iai?ai?e/aiao, ui ia caaacia/o? iaiao?aeii? aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy.
A?aoiaoth/e aaeeeee ae?aiacii ??ciiiai?oieo eiiiiiiaie ? iiaeeeao
aa?o?noue aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea, ieoaiiy noiniaii aeai?o e?eueeino?
aaeuei?aieo inae o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea iiaeiii ae??ooaaoeny ie?aii a
eiaeiiio eiie?aoiiio aeiaaeeo. Iayai?noue aeae?eueeio aaeuei?aieo inae
coiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue ??oaiiy ieoaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueiiai aeai?o
?iciiae?eo aaeuei?aieo nee ? ?o ?aaoethaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi
aia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiy aaeuei oeeo inae.

Aaaeeeaei iieacieeii ioe?iee aoaeoeaiino? oaoi?/iiai ??oaiiy ? aa?o?noue
aaeuei?aii? nenoaie. Aaaeaii, uia no?oeoo?a i?eaiaea aa?iii?eii
aienoaaeany a caaaeueio eiino?oeoe?th aeaii? iiaeae? o?aeoi?a,
iaeneiaeueii aeei?enoiaoth/e ?? ?aca?ae.

Oaeei /eiii, aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue ioe?iee iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy
oiai aai ?ioiai aa??aioo aaeuei?aii? nenoaie ia iniia?
aaaaoinoi?iiiueiai aiae?co ?? aeo?aeieo iieaciee?a, ui i?iaiicothoueny.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
iai?aaeai? ia oaeineiiaeaiiy aaeuei?aii? nenoaie o?aeoi?ieo ii?cae?a ia
aac? o?aeoi??a iaeeo eean?a, iie?ioaiiy ?o aaeuei?aieo aeanoeainoae, ui
ni?ey? ?aoe?iiaeueiiio aeei?enoaiith iaoeii-o?aeoi?iiai ia?eo e?a?ie ?
??oaiith i?iaeaie aaciaee ?ooo o a?aeiia?aeiino? c ii?iaoeaieie
aeieoiaioaie ? aeoaie Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ?
noai?aiiy, aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueieo ia?aiao??a aaeuei?aiiai
oi?aae?iiy o?aeoi?ieo ii?cae?a ia aac? o?aeoi??a iaeiai eeano,
aaeaioiaaieo aei iayaieo ia ieo aeaea?ae aia?a??.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy:

– ?ic?iaeoe iaoiaeeeo ioe?iee iiaeeeaino? iacaaaeueiiaoaaiiy eie?n
i?e/aia;

– ?ic?iaeoe aa??aioe noai aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea ? i?iaanoe ?o
ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ca iieacieeaie aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy, eo?niai?
no?eeino? o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea ? yia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiy aaeuei?aieo
iaoai?ci?a;

– i?iaanoe aea?? ?aoe?iiaeueii? noaie aaeuei?aiiai oi?aae?iiy
o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea ia aac? o?aeoi??a iaeeo eean?a;

– i?iaanoe ioe?ieo ?aaeueieo ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy aaeuei o?aeoi?iiai
ii?caea ia aac? o?aeoi?a eeano 0,6 a ?aaeueieo oiiaao aenieoaoaoe??;

– ?icaeyiooe ieoaiiy ?aae?caoe?? iioaioe?eieo iiaeeeainoae o?aeoi?iiai
ii?caea ii aaioaaeii?aeeiiiino?.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? o?aeoi?iue ii?cae ia aac? o?aeoi?a eeano 0,6.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

– io?eiai? ooieoe?iiaeuei? caeaaeiino?, ui ca’ycothoue i?ae niaith
ia?aiao?e ??ciiiai?oieo aaeuei?aieo nenoai, aeicaieeee cae?enieoe
eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae aei aeine?aeaeaiiy aaeuei?aieo aeanoeainoae
o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea (io?eiaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie);

– oaeineiiaeaia iaoiaeeea aeai?o ia?aaeaaaeueiiai a?aeiioaiiy
?ia?oe?eiiai aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea, a oaeiae cai?iiiiiaaiee caeii eiai
ci?ie;

– ?ic?iaeaii e?eoa??e ioe?iee eo?niai? no?eeino? o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea i?e
aaeueioaaii? ? i?iaaaeaii ii??aiyiiy ??ciiiai?oieo aa??aio?a i?eaiae c
eiai aeei?enoaiiyi (io?eiaei iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie);

– cai?iiiiiaaii niin?a ?aaoethaaiiy ?iciiae?eo aaeuei?aieo nee i?ae
eaieaie o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea ? noaio aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea, ui ?aae?co?
oeae niin?a (oaeineiiaeaii);

– ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeei?a iaaaioaaeaiiy
aaeuei io?eiaia ooieoe?y ?iciiae?eo iiaeeiooi? aaeueiaie e?iaoe/ii?
aia?a?? OI, ui a?aoiao? nooi?iue caaaioaaeaiiy ii?caea (aia?oa).

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. ?ic?iaeai? i?iiiceoe??
uiaei aeei?enoaiiy aa??aio?a aaeuei?aieo nenoai, ui aaaeeeai aeey aoaio
i?iaeooaaiiy, aeai? i?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? a?aeiinii aeai?o ?o
ia?aiao??a; cai?iiiiiaai? aa??aioe eiino?oeoeaiiai aeeiiaiiy aeaiaio?a
i?eaiaea; noai?aia iaoiaeeea, ui aeicaiey? ioe?ieoe ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aia?a??, yeo iiaeeiathoue aaeueia ??cieo inae, c o?aooaaiiyi
oa?aeoa?enoee i?eaiaea, iniaeeainoae o?ainii?oiiai caniao ? oiia
aenieoaoaoe??. Iaaaaeaia a ?iaio? iaoiaeeea ioe?iee ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
aia?a?? iiaea aooe ei?enia i?e aecia/aii?

?ano?no aaeuei?aieo iaeeaaeie, ui aeoaea aaaeeeai a oiiaao
aenieoaoaoe??. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoiaothoueny ia caaiaeao
OCONO, OOC oa ?aaii-O?aie?anueeiio i?aei?e?inoa? «Ea?iaoaa?iiao».

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a: Aaoi?ii ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeieia?/i?
iieiaeaiiy aeey anueiai eiiieaeno oai?aoe/ieo ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeine?aeaeaiue aaeuei?aiiai oi?aae?iiy o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea. Cie?aia,
c?iaeaii ne?aeoth/a:

– cai?iiiiiaaii caeii ci?ie aaee/eie ia?aaeaoi/iiai a?aeiioaiiy
?ia?oe?eiiai aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea, a oaeiae io?eiai? ooieoe?iiaeuei?
caeaaeiino?, ui iienothoue oeae caeii;

– ?ic?iaeaii caeii ?aaoethaaiiy aaeuei?aieo nee o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea, a
oaeiae noaio aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea, ui ?aae?co? oeae caeii;

– cai?iiiiiaaii e?eoa??e aeey ioe?iee no?eeino? o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea;

– ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeey aecia/aiiy /anoee aia?a??, yeo iiaeeiathoue
aaeueia ??cieo inae;

– aeeiiaii ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c ??cieo aa??aio?a aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea c
iiceoe?e aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy, no?eeino? o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea a
i?ioean? aaeueioaaiiy, aia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiy aaeuei?aieo iaoai?ci?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
aeiiia?aeaeeny ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? «No/ani?
o?ainii?oi? i?iaeaie», Oa?e?a, 1996; ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «?ioi?iaoe?ei? oaoiieia??: iaoea, oaoi?ea, oaoiieia?y,
ina?oa», Oa?e?a, 1996; ia i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? «Aaeueia
aaoiiaoei», Eiaecue (Iieueua), 1997; ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? «Eiioeaioe?y ?icaeoeo oa aenie? oaoiieia?? ae?iaieoeoaa ?
?aiiioo o?ainii?oieo cania?a a oiiaao iino?iaeono??aeueii? aeiiii?ee»,
I?aiao?a, 1997, ia ia?o?e i?nuee?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe??
«Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii? iaoee a aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo o/aieo i.
Oa?eiaa», Oa?e?a, 1997; ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo OAeAAeOO 1997-1998.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a aeaa(yoe
ae?oeiaaieo ?iaioao, a oiio /ene? /ioe?ueio noaooyo a niaoe?aeueieo
aeaeaiiyo.

Ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, /ioe?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo e?oa?aoo?e, ui neeaaea?oueny c 119
iaeiaioaaiue. O ?iaio? 162 noi??iee, 36 iaethie?a, 4 oaaeeoe?.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aiae?co noaio ieoaiiy ? iinoaiiaoe? caaea/
aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aieiaiith iaoith ?ia?o, a yeeo ?icaeyaea?oueny aeeiai?ea
aaeueioaaiiy iiiaeeiieeo ? neeaaeaieo eie?nieo o?ainii?oieo cania?a ?
i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy, a oaeiae caaacia/aiiy eo?niai?
no?eeino?. Oeyoaie aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe aaoi?e aaaaeathoue aea??
iioeiaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo aaeuei?aieo nee, canoinoaaiiy ?aaoeyoi??a,
aeei?enoaiiy aioeaeieoaaeueieo nenoai. I?e oeueiio iaia? ?aeeii? aeoiee
uiaei /a?aiaino? aeieoaaiiy inae ii?caea, oiae? ye aeey aeaia?nieo
iaia’yceiaei aecia?oueny aeia?aaeaeaeueia aeieoaaiiy eie?n ia?aaeiuei?
in?. E??i oiai, a?aenooi? aeiiae ii a?aeiioaiith aei e?eueeino?
aaeueiiaeo inae.

Aiae?c ?ia?o, ui ni?yiiaai? ia aea/aiiy ? i?iaeooaaiiy aaeuei?aieo
i?eaiae?a iieacaa, ui aieiaia oaaaa i?eae?ey?oueny ooieoe?iiaeueiei
aeanoeainoyi i?eaiaea ? iaeaea ia ii?ooo?oueny aia?aaoe/iee aniaeo, a
i?ae oei ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c aeiiii??th aia?aaoe/ieo ?ano?n?a ?
i?iaeaiith caa?oaeiaiiy iaaeieeoiueiai na?aaeiaeua iaaoee aaaeeeaiai
cia/aiiy. A aeayeeo ?iaioao iieacaia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy
i?ioi/iiai a?ae?ineeiaiai aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea (AAI) aiane?aeie aeniei?
oaeaeeiae??, i?inoioe eiino?oeoe??, iaeeo aaaa?eo?a ? iaoa??aei?iiino?,
iaioi? ?iaioe aeeth/aiiy a ii??aiyii? c iiaaiaoe/iei ca ?aooiie iaioeo
aeo?ao aia?a?? ia noene ?iai/iai o?ea ? a?aenooiino? aeo?ao ia i?eaiae
eiii?ani?a.

I???ioaoe?y i?iaeooaaeueiee?a ia ?aaeeie aeno?aieo aaeueioaaiue
i?ecaiaeeoue aei aaeeei? ia??aiii??iino? iaaaioaaeaiiy aaeuei?aieo
iaoai?ci?a. A iaeieo aeiaaeeao oey i?iaeaia ae??oo?oueny «i?aeneeaiiyi»
aaaeei iaaaioaaeaieo aaeuei aai a?eueo /anoith cai?iith aaeuei?aieo
iaeeaaeie, a ?ioeo – canoinoaaiiyi ?aaoeyoi??a aaeuei?aieo nee, a iniia?
yeeo eaaeeoue i?eioeei ae??aithaaiiy aia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiy. I?e ??oaii?
caaea/, i?yii aai iia?/ii ca’ycaieo c aia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiyi,
aeei?enoiaothoue ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo, ?iaey/e
o? aai ?io? aeiiouaiiy. Oae, iai?eeeaae, ioe?ithth/e aia?aiiaaaioaaeaiiy
aaeuei, ei?enoothoueny ooieoe?yie u?eueiino? ?iciiae?eo ??aiy
i?eaiaeiiai oeneo, ui aea? eeoa iia?/io oa?aeoa?enoeeo.

Oaeei /eiii, aeoiaey/e c ?acoeueoao?a aiae?co noaio ieoaiiy,
iaa?oioiaaii iaoo ? noi?ioeueiaaii caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny ieoaiiy, iia’ycai? c aeeiai?eith
aaeueioaaiiy o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea. I?iaaaeaiee oai?aoe/iee aiae?c
aeicaieea ioe?ieoe iiaeeeaino? aeine?aeiiai OI i?e ?aeaaeueiiio
?iciiae?e? aaeuei?aieo nee. Ia ?en.1 iieacai? caeaaeiino? iaeneiaeueii
iiaeeeaeo cia/aiue oiia?eueiaiiy a?ae eiao?oe??ioa c/aieaiiy. sse
ne?aeo? c ?enoiea, aeiaeai c aa??aio?a ii?caea, i?e/ai yeiai ia
iaeaaeiaiee aaeueiaie, ia caaeiaieueiy? aeiiaai ii aoaeoeaiino?
aaeueioaaiiy. E??i oiai, i?e iayaiino? aaeuei ia i?e/ai? iaeneiaeueia
oiia?eueiaiiy ii?iaeiueiai OI ia aei?ic? c ( =0, 8 anaae aeae?eueea
ieae/a iaiao?aeiiai: c aeaia?niei i?e/aiii ji=3,9 i/n2, c iaeiia?niei
ji=4,1 i/n2, oiae? ye ca?aeii aeiia a?o/eciyieo noaiaea?o?a [ji]=4,4
i/n2.

Ine?eueee oiia?eueiaiiy, ui anoaiiaeeiny, ?noioii caeaaeeoue a?ae
ii?aeiaiiy aaiiao?e/ieo ? aaaiaeo ia?aiao??a, aoa c?iaeaiee aiae?c
iiaeeeaino? iacaaaeueiiaoaaiiy i?e/aia. A ?acoeueoao? c’ynoaaeiny, ui a
aeiaaeeo iaeiia?niiai i?e/aia oiiaa iaiao?aeii? aoaeoeaiino? aoaea
aeeiiaia, yeui eii?aeeiaoe oeaio?o ian i?e/aia aoaeooue caaeiaieueiyoe
oiia?

(1)

?en.1. Caeaaeiino? oiia?eueiaiue ??cieo aa??aio?a OI a?ae eiao?oe??ioa
c/aieaiiy: 1-iaeiia?niee iaaaioaaeaiee i?e/ai c aaeueiaie; 2-aeaia?niee
iaaaioaaeaiee i?e/ai c aaeueiaie; 3-iaeiia?niee ii?iaei?e i?e/ai c
aaeueiaie; 4- aeaia?niee ii?iaei?e i?e/ai c aaeueiaie; 5- iaeiia?niee
ii?iaei?e i?e/ai aac aaeuei; 6- iaeiia?niee iaaaioaaeaiee i?e/ai aac
aaeuei; 7- aeaia?niee ii?iaei?e i?e/ai aac aaeuei; 8- aeaia?niee
iaaaioaaeaiee i?e/ai aac aaeuei; 9-o?aeoi? aac i?e/aia.

aea bnp – i?iaeoe?y ia ai?eciioaeueio ieiueio a?aenoai? a?ae oeaio?o ian
i?e/aia aei eiai in?; Lnp – i?iaeoe?y ia ai?eciioaeueio ieiueio
a?aenoai? a?ae oi/ee c/?iee aei in? i?e/aia; (max=0,8 – iaeneiaeueiee
eiao?oe??io c/aieaiiy; g – i?enei?aiiy a?eueiiai iaae?iiy; hi? – aenioa
oeaio?o ian i?e/aia; k1, k2, k3 – eiino?oeoeai? eiao?oe??ioe, ui
a?aoiaothoue aaiiao?e/i? ? aaaia? ia?aiao?e o?aeoi?-iiai ii?caea.

O aeiaaeeo aeaia?niiai i?e/aia iaiao?aeiith oiiaith ?

(2)

Ooo GT – aaaa oyaa/a; Gi? – aaaa i?e/aia; a – i?iaeoe?y ia
ai?eciioaeueio ieiueio a?aenoai? a?ae oeaio?o ian oyaa/a aei eiai
ia?aaeiuei? in?; L – aaca o?aeoi?a; hT – aenioa oeaio?o ian oyaa/a; hkp
– aenioa oi/ee c/?iee.

I?aenoaiiaea a ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (1) ? (2) ia?aiao??a ?aaeueiiai OI
iieacaea iaiao?aei?noue caaaeueiiaoaaiiy eie?n i?e/aia, ine?eueee
aeeiiaiiy ia?oi? ia??aiino? iaaeoi i?iaeaiaoe/ii, a ae?oai? – i?aeoe/ii
iaiiaeeeai.

I?e aeai?? oeio aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea aeey i?e/aia, c o?aooaaiiyi
i?inoioe eiino?oeoe?? ? iaeeo aeo?ao ia aeiaeaoeiaa iaeaaeiaiiy, aoei
?icaeyiooi ?ia?oe?eiee i?eaiae. Iniiaiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith ?ia?oe?eiiai
aaeuei?aiiai i?eaiaea (?AI) ? eiai ia?aaeaaaeueia a?aeiioaiiy knp.
Ae?aiacii iiaeeeaeo cia/aiue knp a aeiaaeeo iaeiia?niiai i?e/aia aoa
aecia/aiee c oiia c/aieaiiy eie?n eaiie ii?caea

; (3)

, (4)

aea mXT – eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy c/?iii? aaae o?aeoi?a.

c iaoith iaeneiaeueiiai aeei?enoaiiy c/?iii? aaae.

(5)

– ii/aoeiaa cia/aiiy ia?aaeaoi/iiai a?aeiioaiiy knp.

i?e (max aeey caaaioaaeaiiai OI.

Ca a?aenooiino? aaeuei?aii? neee ia ia?aaei?e in? o?aeoi?a (?O1=0)
aoaeue-yea iiceoeaia cia/aiiy knp aeey aeaiiai OI ia aeeee/a aeieoaaiiy
eie?n i?e/aia ia anueiio ?ioa?aae? ci?ie (. Iaeiae iiaeia anoaiiaeoe
aeayeo a?aie/io aaee/eio knp max, ia?aaeuoaaoe yeo ia ia? naino,
ine?eueee iiaeaeueoa ?? ca?eueoaiiy ia aeeee/a ?noioiiai ca?eueoaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy. Oiiaa iaiaaeaiiy iaeneiaeueii? aaee/eie knp
ia? aeaeyae

(6)

aea (ki?=0,5 – i?eeiyoee i?e??no a?aoiaioo; Ay=0,01 – i?eeiyoee
i?i?iaeueii aoaeoeaiee a?aeiiniee i?e??no ooieoe??.

=5,49 i?e (=0,8 ?, i?eeiyaoe knp=5, ie caaacia/o?ii a?aenooi?noue
aeieoaaiiy eie?n i?e/aia aeaiiai OI o anueiio iiaeeeaiio ae?aiacii?
ci?ie caaaioaaeaiiy ? eiao?oe??ioa c/aieaiiy.

Ia ?enoieao 2 ? 3 iieacai? e?ea? c/aieaiiy, ui ?aae?co?oueny, aeey
aeaio ?aaeueieo aa??aio?a aeeiiaiiy i?eaiaea: a?ae?ineeiaiai c iino?eiei
?iciiae?eii aaeuei?aieo nee (=?O2/(?O2+?Oi?)=0,677 ? ?ia?oe?eiiai c
ki?=5. I?e oeueiio ?icaeyaeathoueny o?e aaaiaeo noaie: 1) ii?iaei?e
i?e/ai; 2) i?e/ai caaaioaaeaiee aaaith 5000 I; 3) aa??aio ca?eueoaiiy
aaioaaeii?aeeiiiino? aei 10000 I. C aiae?co e?eaeo iiaeia c?iaeoe
aeniiaie, ui ?AI ia? cia/ii e?auo aaeaioeai?noue aei ci?ie caaaioaaeaiiy
OI, oiaoi a oeueiio a?aeiioaii? ye?nia ci?ia eiao?oe??ioa ?iciiae?eo
aaeuei?aieo nee ( oaea ae, ye aeey aeiaaeeo ?aeaaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo.
Oiio aeioe?eueii c?noaaeoe caeii ?aaoethaaiiy ? ai?eciioaeueio neeo a
c/?ioe?.

?en. 2. E?ea? c/aieaiiy, ui ?aae?co?oueny aeey OI c AAI: 1 – ii?iaei?e
OI; 2 – i?e/ai caaaioaaeaiee aaaith 5000 I; 3 – i?e/ai caaaioaaeaiee
aaaith 10000 I.

?en. 3. E?ea? c/aieaiiy, ui ?aae?co?oueny aeey OI c ?AI: 1 – ii?iaei?e
OI; 2 – i?e/ai caaaioaaeaiee aaaith 5000 I; 3 – i?e/ai caaaioaaeaiee
aaaith 10000 I.

Ioe?iea no?eeino? i?iaaaeaia c o?aooaaiiyi i?eiouaiiy, ui OI ?ooaany
i?yiie?i?eii ??aiioiia?eueiaii ? a aeayeee iiiaio /ano aiane?aeie aieeao
ciai?oi?o cao?thth/eo nee iicaeiaaei? in? oyaa/a ? i?e/aia ooai?eee
aeaye? iae? eooe (O ? (i? c iai?yieii ?ooo. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ?ia?o
aeicaieea aaaaeaoe oiiaith no?eeino? a?aei?io a?ae ioey ? iai?aaeaiiy a
noi?iio ciaioaiiy eooa ?ici???ioaoe?? iiiaioo ??aiiae?th/i? an?o nee
a?aeiinii oeaio?o ian eiaeii? eaiee OI. Oey oiiaa aeeiio?oueny, yeui
aieiaa ?aaeoe?y a c/?ioe? eaaeeoue a iaaeao

(7)

aea Ry1, Ry2, Ryi? – aieia? ?aaeoe?? oei a?aeiia?aeii i?aaeiuei? ?
caaeiuei? in? oyaa/a ? in? i?e/aia, Roo – iicaeiaaeiy ?aaeoe?y a
c/?ioe?; b, ckp- i?iaeoe?? ia ai?eciioaeueio ieiueio a?aenoaiae a?ae
caaeiuei? in? o?aeoi?a aei eiai oeaio?o ian ? oi/ee c/?iee a?aeiia?aeii.

Ine?eueee oi/ea c/aio iaeaaeeoue ? o?aeoi?o, ? i?e/aio, iiaeii?
ni?aiaaeaoe caeiie ?? ?ooo c iiceoe?? aoaeue-yei? eaiee OI. C
o?aooaaiiyi oeueiai iaea?aeo?ii:

(8)

– iiiaioe ?ia?oe?? a?aeiia?aeii o?aeoi?a ? i?e/aia a?aeiinii
aa?oeeaeueieo inae, ui i?ioiaeyoue /a?ac oeaio?e ian.

aeey ?ioeo aa??aio?a i?eaiaea, eaaeaoue i?ae A1A1 ? A2A2.

oei a?eueoa, /ei a?eueoa Gnp.

=1150 I/a?aae, aea i?e oeueiio ca?eueoo?oueny iaaaciaea aeieoaaiiy
eie?n caaeiuei? in? o?aeoi?a.

A?aeiinii aeia?? iieacieee o AAI c (=0,677 (e?eaa ADECB). Iaeiae ia
ne?ae caaoaaoe, ui ae?eyiea AAe a?aeiia?aea? caaeieiaaiei eieanai
i?e/aia c oei aai ?ioei iaaeeeoeii i?eaiaeii? neee.

=5, a oaeiae aeey ae?eyiee A4A4 e?eai? A4A4, ui a?aeiia?aea? aa??aioo
i?eaiaea, i?e yeiio caaacia/o?oueny a?aenooi?noue iicaeiaaeiueiai
coneeey a c/?ioe? (Oe?=0).

aeeee/a eeoa cieaeaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aaeueioaaiiy, ine?eueee iaaeeeoie
i?eaiaeii? neee aoaea o?eueee iineethaaoe aeie eie?n i?e/aia, a ye
iieacaee ?ic?aooiee, oaeee ?oo no?eeee.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeeiiaii aiae?c eiino?oeoeaieo iniaeeainoae
iiaeeeaeo aa??aio?a i?eaiaea, aeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeeiiaiith aeayeeo
eiai aeaiaio?a ? cieaeaiith iaae?iaie/eo aeo?ao iiooaeiino?.

a?ae Gnp aeey ??cieo aa??aio?a i?eaiaea

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ??ciiiai?oieo aa??aio?a i?eaiaea c o?aooaaiiyi
iiaeeeai? ?oiuei? aa?oino? ? iniaeeainoae aeaiiai OI na?ae/eoue i?i
aeioe?euei?noue canoinoaaiiy i?ioi/iiai a?ae?ineeiaiai aaeuei?aiiai
i?eaiaea.

Ca aeayeee i?ii?aeie /ano t ?iaioa ianina a?eueoa iaiao?aeii? aeey
i?eaiaea aaeuei ia aaee/eio

(9)

aea pH – oene ??aeeie ia aeoiae? c ianino; QH – i?iaeoeoeai?noue ianina,
pn – oene ??aeeie a i?eaiae?; Qn – aeo?aoe ??aeeie ia i?eaiae; ti -/an
i?ae aaeueioaaiiyie; tTi – /an i-oiai aaeueioaaiiy, t?? – /an
?icaaeueiiaoaaiiy; n – e?euee?noue aaeueioaaiue ca /an t.

Ia?oee ?ioaa?ae a ae?ac? (9) oa?aeoa?eco? ?iaioo ianina a
?icaaeueiiaaiiio noai?. sse c’ynoaaeiny a ?acoeueoao? ?nieo?a o?aeoi?a
AO-1, iaeaaeiaiiai a?ae?ineeiaei aaeuei?aiei i?eaiaeii, i?ioi/iee e?ai a
?icaaeueiiaaiiio noai? ia? a?ae?aae?/iee ii??, ia iiaeieaiiy yeiai
iaiao?aeia iiooaei?noue a na?aaeiueiio a?ey 0,1 eAo. Ioaea, aeey
cieaeaiiy iaae?iaie/eo aeo?ao iiooaeiino? a ia?oo /a?ao iaiao?aeii
cieceoe a?ae?aae?/iee ii?? a ?icaaeueiiaaiiio noai?, /iai iiaeia
aeinyaiooe aai ci?ieaoe ae?inaeueio /anoeio e?aia, aai aeiaeaaoe
iao?aeio iaa?no?aeue.

sse aoei iieacaii a ae?oaiio ?icae?e?, aaeuei?ai? aeanoeaino? OI iiaeia
iie?ioeoe ?aaoethaaiiyi aaeuei?aieo nee, ea?oth/enue aaee/eiith
ai?eciioaeueiiai coneeey a c/?ioe?. A aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaia noaia
aaeuei?aii? nenoaie o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea, ui caaacia/o? ?aaoethaaiiy
aaeuei?aieo nee ii cai?iiiiiaaiiio niiniao, a oaeiae eiino?oeoe?? ?yaeo
aeaiaio?a oaei? aaeuei?aii? nenoaie.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aenia?eiaioaeueiiio aeine?aeaeaiith
?aaeei?a aaeueioaaiiy ? ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee aecia/aiiy /anoee aia?a??,
ui iiaeeia?oueny aaeueiaie ??cieo inae. Ia OCONO aoa i?iaaaeaiee
aenia?eiaio ii aecia/aiith ?aaeei?a aaeueioaaiiy o?aeoi?iiai ii?caea, ui
neeaaeaany c o?aeoi?a eeano 0,6 AO-1, iaeaaeiaiiai a?ae?ineeiaei
aaeuei?aiei i?eaiaeii c aeeneiaeie aaeueiaie a?aee?eoiai oeio ia caaei?e
in? ? iaeiia?niiai i?e/aia OO-1 aaioaaeii?aeeiii?noth 500 ea aac aaeuei.
Aaee/eia ui ?a?no?oaaeany – /enei iai?io?a aaeuei?aiiai aeenea a i’yoe
ae?aiaciiao i?eaiaeiiai oeneo. A oaaeeoe? 1 i?aaenoaaeai?
aenia?eiaioaeuei? cia/aiiy a?aeiinieo /anoio ? aii??e/ieo u?eueiinoae ii
?ioa?aaeai iaia?a?aii? aeiaaeeiai? aaee/eie – i?eaiaeiiai oeneo.

Oaaeeoey 1. Noaoenoe/i? aeai? aenia?eiaioo

?ioa?aae

oeneo, IIA

0,5-1,5

1,5-2,5

2,5-3,7

3,7-5,0

5,0-7,0

A?aeiinia

/anoioa

0,356

0,363

0,156

0,100

0,025

Aii??e/ia

u?euei?noue

0,356

0,363

0,130

0,077

0,013

A ?acoeueoao? ia?iaee aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo io?eiaia oai?aoe/ia
ooieoe?y u?eueiino? ?iciiae?eo ??aiy i?eaiaeiiai oeneo f(p), ui
iiaiaeaeo?oueny c? noaoenoe/iei ?iciiae?eii ii e?eoa??yi I??niia (2 ?
Eieiiai?iaa aeey 5% ??aiy cia/ouino? aeaeyaeo

(10)

C iaeyaeo ia iacia/io ci?io jmax aeey a?aie/ieo aaaiaeo noai?a OI ?
a?aoiaoth/e, ui a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? caaaioaaeaiiy iiaea aooe
/anoeiaei (a oeueiio aeiaaeeo 3,03i/n2(jmax

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