Iaeanueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai(y oieiaeo

Eaaoo(i Aiaoie(e THoeiiae/

OAeE 621.565

OAeINEIIAEAIIss AIA?AO(A IIA(O?ssIIAI IOIEIAeAEAIIss C
O?OA*ANOI–?AAA?IEIE IIAA?OIssIE (OAI?(ss ( I?AEOEEA)

Niaoe(aeuei(noue 05.04.03 – Oieiaeeeueia ( e?(iaaiia oaoi(ea, nenoaie
eiiaeeoe(thaaiiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe((

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi(/ieo iaoe

IAeANA – 1998

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Iaeanuee(e aea?aeaai(e aeaaeai(( oieiaeo.

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio – aeieoi? oaoi(/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caneoaeaiee
ae(y/ iaoee ( oaoi(ee O?N? *aio?iaiei A(eoi? Iaaeiae/, i?i?aeoi?
Iaeanueei( aea?aeaaii( aeaaeai(( oieiaeo

Io(oe(ei( iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi(/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaaei?ia Aieiaeeie?
Aaa?eeiae/, i?ioani? eaoaae?e oaieioaoi(ee Oe?a(inueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi(aa?neoaoo oa?/iaeo oaoiieia(e;

aeieoi? oaoi(/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ao?aei Ieaa A?eai?iae/, caa(aeoaa/
eaoaae?e i?ioean(a oa aia?ao(a Iaeanueei( aea?aeaaii( aeaaeai(( oa?/iaeo
oaoiieia(e;

aeieoi? oaoi(/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? I?eooea Aaea?(e Aaneeueiae/, caa(aeoaa/
eaoaae?e oaieiianiiai(io Iaeanueei( aea?aeaaii( aeaaeai(( oieiaeo

I?ia(aeia onoaiiaa – Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee iie(oaoi(/iee oi(aa?neoao

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny «16 » 11 1998 ?. i 16 aiaeei( ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii( ?aaee Ae 41.087.01 i?e Iaeanuee(e
aea?aeaai(e aeaaeai(( oieiaeo ca aae?anith: 270026, i.Iaeana,
aoe.Aeai?yinueea, 1/3.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? IAeAO ( 270026,
i.Iaeana, aoe.Aeai?yinueea, 1/3.)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii «15 » 10. 1998 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe(ae(ciaaii( ?aaee Ae 41.087.01 aeieoi? oaoi(/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

?.E.I(eoeueoei

Aeo.?_____

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei(noue i?iaeaie. Oe?a(ia, iacaaaeath/e ia iiooaeio no?oeoo?o
iaoaeo?a(eii( aaeoc(, a aeiiii(/i(e iie(oeoe( Nithco, yea neeaeany a
ieioeiio, ia iaea i(aei?e(inoa ii ae?iaieoeoao e?oiieo iia(o?yieo
oaieiiai(iiee(a aeey aaeocae aia?aaoe/iiai eiiieaeno. O a(aei(/aieo
oiiaao, c o?aooaaiiyi o(ce/iiai noa?(iiy aia?ao(a oa (o cia/ii( aa?oino(
ia na(oiaeo ?eieao, iniaeeao aino?ioo e aeooaeuei(noue iaaoaa( i?iaeaia
noai?aiiy a(o/eciyii( aace ii ae?iaieoeoao iia(o?yieo oaieiiai(iiee(a.
?(oaiiy iinoaaeaieo caaea/ iaiiaeeeaa aac noai?aiiy iiaiai ( ioe(iee
aoaeoeaiino( (nioth/iai oaieiiai(iiiai onoaoeoaaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo nenoai
oa onoaiiaie.

Aeiiii(/ia aoaeoeai(noue cai(ie aiaeyiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy oaoiieia(/ieo
oa aia?aaoe/ieo onoaiiaie ia iia(o?yia caneoaiao( ia iino(eio oaaao (
ia?aioe(iee. Oaoi(/i( ?(oaiiy aeei?enoaiiy aiaeyieo oaieiiai(iiee(a
cae/aeii i?iaeeeoiaai( (o iecueeith aa?o(noth ( ia a?aoiaothoue
aeieia(/ieo i?iaeai, caa?ice o(ce/iiai noa?(iiy ( aenieeo
aenieoaoaoe(eieo aeo?ao. Aeina(ae aenieoaoaoe(( aia?ao(a iia(o?yiiai
ioieiaeaeaiiy a ia?aaeiaeo e?a(iao na(oo aeaco( ia ia?aaaaeia (o
aeei?enoaiiy iaa(oue o oeo ?aeiiao, aea aeao(oeeo aiaee ia ( aecia/iei
oaeoi?ii.

Oe?ioa iaeano( aeei?enoaiiy ?aaa?ieo nenoai oaieia(aeaiaeo
(iia(o?i-ioieiaeaeoaa/(, «noo(» a?aaee?i(, ooee(caoi?e, eiiaeainaoi?e
iia(o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy, ( o.ae.) i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai
ca(eueoaiiy aeo?ao iaoaeo.

C?(no iio?aae iaoaeo aenoaa( i?iaeaio iiooeo iioeiaeueieo aa?(aio(a
oaieiiai(iieo iiaa?oiiue, a i?ioean( oaeineiiaeaiiy yeeo ae?(oothoueny
no/ani( i?iaeaie aeiiii(( aia?aaoe/ieo ( iaoa?(aeueieo ?ano?n(a.
I(aeaeuaiiy aia?aaoe/ii( aoaeoeaiino( aia?ao(a o(nii iia’ycaio c
(ioaineo(eaoe((th i?ioean(a oaieiiai(io ( aecia/aiiyi iioeiaeueieo
?aaeei(a (o aenieoaoaoe((.

O oeueiio ca’yceo aeieeea iaiao(aei(noue anaa(/iiai
aenia?eiaioaeueiiai ( oai?aoe/iiai aeine(aeaeaiiy i?ioean(a, ye(
i?io(eathoue o oaieiiai(iieeao iia(o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy ?(ciiai
i?ecia/aiiy.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c i?ia?aiaie, iinoaiiaaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
oaiaoe/ii iia’ycaia c aeeiiaiiyi: Iinoaiiae AI N?N? ?214 a(ae 23.12.85;
Iinoaiiae AeEIO N?N? ?555 a(ae 30.10.85; Iinoaiiae AeEIO O?N? ?535 a(ae
31.12.86; Iinoaiiae I(iaoco Oe?a(ie ?78 a(ae 21.03.91; Iinoaiiae AeEIO
Oe?a(ie ?84 a(ae 3.08.93; Iinoaiiae II Oe?a(ie ?271 a(ae 15.06.96.

?iaioa oaeiae o na(e /an aoea iia’ycaia c aeeiiaiiyi ?anioae(eainueeeo
iaoeiai-oaoi(/ieo i?ia?ai ?I.16.03.18, ?I.16.04.21 (Iinoaiiaa ?I O?N?
?580 a(ae 28.10.1980) oa ainiaeiaia(?ieo oai (iiia?e aea?ae?a(no?aoe((
?75034820, ?77044958 oa (io.).

Iaoa ( caaea/( aeine(aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe aoei noai?aiiy iaoeiaeo
iniia, ye( caaacia/othoue ?ic?iaeo, i?iaeooaaiiy ( i?iieneiaa inai(iiy
aeiiii(/ieo aia?ao(a iia(o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy ?(ciiai i?ecia/aiiy ia
aac( iiaeo oei(a o?oa/anoi-?aaa?ieo oaieiiai(iieo iiaa?oiiue.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii( iaoe iaiao(aeii ae?(oeoe oae( caaea/(:

c o?aooaaiiyi oaoiieia(/ieo iniaeeainoae iaoiaeo eeoaa i(ae oeneii
aethi(i((aiai ?icieaao ia noaeaao o?oao ( ?aaeei(a aenieoaoaoe((
aia?ao(a, aeeiiaoe iaa?oiooaaiiy aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao?(a i?aa?aiiy
a(iaoaeaaeo oaieiiai(iieo iiaa?oiiue;

aecia/eoe oa?aeoa? aca(iiae(( oaiia?aoo?ieo iie(a ?aaa?ieo aeaiaio(a (
iia(o?yiiai iioieo o i(ae?aaa?i(e ii?iaeiei( c iaoith aeyaeaiiy oeyo(a (
iaoiae(a (ioaineo(eaoe(( oaieiiai(io;

ia i(aenoaa( ?acoeueoao(a aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine(aeaeaiiy oaieiaeo oa
aa?iaeeiai(/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee io/e(a o?oa c iiaeie aeaeaie i?aa?aiiy
aeeiiaoe ocaaaeueiaiiy aeine(aeieo aeaieo c iaoith iaea?aeaiiy
e?eoa?(aeueieo caeaaeiinoae aeey ?ic?aooieo iia(o?yieo oaieiiai(iiee(a;

noai?eoe aiae(oe/i( iiaeae( oaieii?ia(aeiino( ?aaa? oaeineiiaeaieo oi?i
aeey iaea?aeaiiy (iaeaia?ieo iaoiae(a ?ic?aooieo (o aoaeoeaiino(;

i?iaanoe aeine(aeio ioe(ieo oa?i(/ieo iii?(a eiioaeoo iniiaii( noaeaai(
o?oae c i?aa?aiith aethi(i((aith ioooith;

ca ?acoeueoaoaie no?oeoo?iiai ( ia?aiao?e/iiai aiae(c(a, ia i(aenoaa(
?ic?iaeaii( iaoaiaoe/ii( iiaeae( oieiaeeeueii( onoaiiaee cae(enieoe
iaa?oiooaaiiy iioeiaeueieo ?aaeeiieo ia?aiao?(a oaieiiai(iiee(a
iia(o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy;

ca ?acoeueoaoaie aei?iaoaaiue aeine(aeii-i?iieneiaeo c?ace(a iia(o?yieo
oaieiiai(iiee(a ?(ciiai i?ecia/aiiy, aeaioiaeaieo ca aac( cai?iiiiiaaieo
i?aa?aieo o?oa, cae(enieoe ioe(ieo ?aoe(iiaeueiino( (o aeei?enoaiiy.

Iaoeia( iieiaeaiiy, ye( aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

I(aeaeuaiiy aia?aaoe/ii( aoaeoeaiino( ( cieaeaiiy oieiaei(ieino(
oaieiiai(iieo aia?ao(a iia(o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy aeinyaa(oueny
noai?aiiyi o?oa/anoi-?aaa?ieo iiaa?oiiue c ia?ai(iiei i?io(eai ?aaa? (
i?aai(caoe((th iioiauaiith /anoeiith ?aa?a eiiooci?ii- aeeooci?ii( ci(ie
aeeaiai ia?a?(co i?ioiaeo iia(o?y ii ?yaeao o?oa oaoiaiai io/ea.

(ioaineo(eaoe(y oa?iia(ae?aae(/ieo i?ioean(a o ?aaa?ieo nenoaiao
oaieia(aeaiaeo aaco(oueny ia aeei?enoaii( a(naaiaioieo iiia?a/ieo ?aaa?
(c i?((ioaoe((th (o iaioi( in( o iai?yieo ioieiaeaeoth/iai iioieo
iia(o?y.

I?e aenie(e (ioaineaiino( aioo?(oiueiai oaieiiai(io iie?auaiiy
aia?aaoe/ieo iieaciee(a iia(o?yieo oaieiiai(iiee(a caaacia/o(oueny
ca(eueoaiiyi eiao(oe((ioa i?aa?aiiy ca ?aooiie noai?aiiy aenieeo ?aaa?.

O iaoaiaoe/i(e iiaeae( iioei(caoe(( ?aaeei(a ?iaioe aia?ao(a iia(o?yiiai
ioieiaeaeaiiy oieiaeeeueieo onoaiiaie i?ia?aiiee aea(? /enea nooiai(a
noeneoaaiiy eiii?ani?(a ( aeiaeaoeiaei a?aoiaioii o i?ioeaaeo?(
i(i(i(caoe(( i?eaaaeaieo aeo?ao.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ( iaoeia( ?acoeueoaoe. Oai?aoe/ii ( aenia?eiaioaeueii
aeiaaaeaia oaieiaa oa aa?iaeeiai(/ia ia?aaaaa oaieiiai(iieo iiaa?oiiue c
oaeineiiaeaiith oi?iith (a(naaiaio) ( i?io(eai (ci(iia oiaueia) ?aaa?.

Aia?oa a na(oia(e i?aeoeoe( aeaioiaeai( oa aeine(aeaeai( aeniei?aaa?i(
oaieiiai(ii( iiaa?oi( c eiao(oe((ioii i?aa?aiiy ( = 36.4.

Iaea?aeai( ocaaaeueithth/( e?eoa?(aeuei( caeaaeiino( c ?ic?aooieo
oaieiaeo ( aa?iaeeiai(/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee io/e(a o?oa c aenieeie ?aa?aie
( ?aa?aie c iiaith oi?iith oa i?io(eai.

I(aeoaa?aeaeaia iaeanoue iaeneiaeueiiai oaieiceiio ?aae(aeueiiai
iiia?a/iiai ?aa?a a eiai aeaaoi?(aeuei(e cii(.

Iaea?aeai( aiae(oe/i( caeaaeiino(, ye( iienothoue oaieiao
aoaeoeai(noue ?aaa? c iiaith oi?iith ( i?io(eai.

Caoeuai( aaoi?nueeeie na(aeioeoaaie oaieiiai(iieee iia(o?yiiai
ioieiaeaeaiiy ia aac( cai?iiiiiaaieo iiaeo aeae(a i?aa?aiiy.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii i(aeoaa?aeaeaii, ui oaoiieia(/iee i?ioean eeoaa i(ae
oeneii caaacia/o( iaae(eiee eiioaeo ?(cii?(aeieo iaoae(a iniiaii( o?oae
( ioooiaiai i?aa?aiiy.

Ia i(aenoaa( noai?aii( iaoaiaoe/ii( iiaeae( aeeiiaii iaa?oiooaaiiy
iioeiaeueieo ?aaeeiieo ia?aiao?(a iia(o?iioieiaeaeoaa/(a oa
eiiaeainaoi?(a iia(o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy oieiaeeeueieo onoaiiaie.

Aeinoia(?i(noue iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao(a, iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue (
i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe(e i(aeoaa?aeaeaii iiaiaeaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao(a
oai?aoe/ieo, aenia?eiaioaeueieo ( i?iieneiaeo aeine(aeaeaiue.

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou(noue ?acoeueoao(a ?iaioe iieyaa( o oaeiio:

?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue iiaea aooe aeei?enoaia aeey no?oeoo?iiai
oa ia?aiao?e/iiai aiae(c(a oieiaeeeueii( onoaiiaee c iaoith
iaa?oiooaaiiy iioeiaeueieo oiia (( aenieoaoaoe((( ( aeiiii(/iiai aeai?o
eiiieaeooth/iai onoaoeoaaiiy;

iaea?aeai( cia/aiiy oa?i(/iiai eiioaeoiiai iii?o, aiae(oe/i( ?(aiyiiy
?ic?aooieo oaieiai( aoaeoeaiino( ?aaa? oaeineiiaeaieo oi?i ( ?ic?(c(a oa
aii(?e/i( caeaaeiino( uiaei ?ic?aooieo oaieiaeo ( aa?iaeeiai(/ieo
oa?aeoa?enoee oaoiaeo io/e(a o?oa, aeei?enoai( o i?aeoeoe( i?iaeooaaiiy
aia?ao(a iia(o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy an(eyeiai i?ecia/aiiy.

Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao(a ?iaioe i?iaaaeaii ia /ioe?ueio ae?iaie/eo
ia'(aeiaiiyo o(i(/ii( i?iieneiaino( ( ia aeaa’yoe i(aei?e(inoaao
oa?/iai( i?iieneiaino(, aea acaaae( oni(oii aenieoaoo(oueny iiiaae 50
oaieiiai(iiee(a iia(o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy.

Ni(eueii c ?(cieie i?iaeoieie i?aai(caoe(yie cae(eniaii ?ic?iaeo
oaoi(/ii( aeieoiaioaoe(( ia na?(th aia?ao(a iia(o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy.
Iaeaaiaeaeaii na?(eia ae?iaieoeoai oaieiiai(iiee(a.

Ca oa?i(i c 1988 ii 1998 ??. ia AI «Oe?aa?ii?ii?aiiao» i.I?(o(a
Caii?(cueei( iaeano( aeaioiaeaii 642 iia(o?iioieiaeaeoaa/a.

Aeey onoaiiaie ioieiaeaeaiiy eiii?(i(?oth/iai iia(o?y ia AAO «O(iiao»
(i.Ni(aeia Aeiiaoeueei( iaeano() oa NIAI (i.O?oica (i.Noie) aeeiiaii
aeione 19 i(aenooiaiaaeo ioieiaeaeoaa/(a iia(o?y II–600.

Iniaeeaee aianie aaoi?a o ?iaioao, ye( iioae(eiaai( o ni(aaaoi?noa(,
iieyaa( o iinoaiiaoe( (aeae ( caaaeaiue ?ic?iaie, aaeaioaoe(( iiaeaeae
oa (o c(noaaeaii( c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie; o ?ic?iaoe(
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iaoiaeee ( noaiae(a; o i?iaaaeaii( aeine(aeaeaiue,
noaoenoe/i(e ia?iaoe( (o ?acoeueoao(a; ?ic?iaoe( aeo(aeieo aeaieo aeey
i?iaeooaaiiy; ai?iaaaeaeaii( aia?ao(a ( (o i?iieneiaeo aeine(aeaeaiiyo
(aei?iaoaaiiyo).

Ai?iaaoe(y. Oai?aoe/i( ( aenia?eiaioaeuei( ?icae(ee aeena?oaoe((
iaaiai?thaaeenue ( noaaeai(: Ananithciei nai(ia?ii «Aeei?enoaiiy
aeinyaiaiue oieiaeeeueii( oaoi(ee ( oaoiieia(( c iaoith i(aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino( oa?/iaeo ae?iaieoeoa», i.Iineaa (1981); Ananithciith
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iith eiioa?aioe((th «(ioaineo(eaoe(y ae?iaieoeoaa (
aeei?enoaiiy ooo/iiai oieiaeo», i.Eai(ia?aae (1981); Ananithciith
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iith eiioa?aioe((th «Ooo/iee oieiae a aaeocyo
aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno», i.Iineaa (1987); VII ?anioae(eainueeith
eiioa?aioe((th «I(aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino(, oaeineiiaeaiiy i?ioean(a (
aia?ao(a o(i(/ieo ae?iaieoeoa», i.Euea(a (1988); Ananithciith
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iith eiioa?aioe((th «Oeyoe (ioaineo(eaoe(( ae?iaieoeoa (c
canoinoaaiiyi ooo/iiai oieiaeo a aaeocyo aa?ii?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno, o
oi?a(ae( ( ia o?ainii?o(«, i.Iaeana (1989); I conferencia internacional
de refrigaracion climatizacion y energia no convencional, Habana, Cuba,
1990; XVIII International Congress of Refrigeration, Montreal, Canada,
1991; Energy efficiency in refrigeration and global warming im?act.
Conference International, Chent, Belgium, 1993; CFCs The DAY AFTER
International conference, Padua, (taly, 1994; XIX International Congress
of Refrigeration, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1995; Proceedings of the
1996 International Compressor Engneering Conference at Pardue, Indiana,
USA, 1996; ia iaoeiai-oaoi(/ieo eiioa?aioe(yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo AOCo (1984-1995).

Ca e?auo iaoeiao ?iaioo «?ic?iaea, aeine(aeaeaiiy ( ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
aunieiaoaeoeaieo eiiaeainaoi?(a ai(aeo c iia(o?yiei ioieiaeaeaiiyi oa
iia(o?iioieiaeaeoaa/(a ae?iaie/eo oa ?iciiae(eyth/eo oieiaeeeueiee(a»
aaoi?nueeee eieaeoea a?oie oaieiiai(iieo aia?ao(a IO(OI (o oaia?(oi(e
/an — IAeAO) iaai?iaeaeaii ii/aniith a?aiioith I(i(noa?noaa aeui( (
na?aaeiuei( niaoe(aeueii( ina(oe N?N?.

Ioae(eaoe((. Neeaae ?iaioe a(aeaeoi o 33 iaoeiaeo ?iaioao, o oiio
/ene( 13 noaooyo, 8 iioae(eiaaieo aeiiia(aeyo ia ?anioae(eainuee(e
eiioa?aioe((, i(aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe(yo oa eiia?anao, o 8 oacao
aeiiia(aeae ia eiioa?aioe(yo oa o 4 aaoi?nueeeo na(aeioeoaao.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. ?iaioa neeaaea(oueny c( anooio, naie ?icae(e(a,
iniiaieo ?acoeueoao(a oa aeniiae(a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (
aeiaeaoeo, aeeeaaeaia ia 370 noi?(ieao oaenoo, a oiio /ene( 4 noi?(iee
aeiaeaoeo, i(noeoue 89 ?enoie(a ( 39 oaaeeoeue.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooi( ?icaeyiooi noai i?iaeaie, iaa?oioiaaia i?aeoe/ia
aeooaeuei(noue ?iaioe, (( ca’ycie c iinoaiiaaie, i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie,
noi?ioeueiaai( iaoa ( caaea/( aeine(aeaeaiiy, iaoeia( iieiaeaiiy,
iieacaia iaoeiaa iiaecia ?acoeueoao(a, i(aeoaa?aeaeaia i?aeoe/ia
cia/ou(noue ?iaioe ( ?aae(caoe(y (( ?acoeueoao(a o i?iieneiaino(.

O ia?oiio ?icae(e( ?icaeyioo( oa?aeoa?i( iniaeeaino( aieeao
aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao?(a i?aa?aiiy ia oaieia( oa aa?iaeeiai(/i( iieacieee
io/e(a o?oa. A(aei(/aia a(aenooi(noue aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo c
aeine(aeaeaiue aeniei?aaa?ieo nenoai oaieia(aeaiaeo. (o a(aenooi(noue o
i?iaeoao noai?aiiy iia(o?yieo oaieiiai(iiee(a i?iaeeeoiaaii
iaaeineiiae(noth no/anieo oaoi?ioean(a aeaioiaeaiiy o?oa/anoi-?aaa?ieo
iiaa?oiiue.

?icaeyioo( ie?ai( (/anoeia() ieoaiiy nooiaiy aieeao ia?(aiii(?iino(
oaieia(aeaea/( ia aoaeoeai(noue ?aaa?, oa?i(/ieo iii?(a eiioaeoo ?aa?a c
o?oaith, oaieioaoi(/ieo ( aa?iaeeiai(/ieo iieaciee(a ?iaioe
iia(o?iioieiaeaeoaa/(a a oiiaao ianiiai(io.

I?e aiae(c( iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae iioei(caoe(( ?aaeei(a ?iaioe
oieiaeeeueieo onoaiiaie aeyaeai( iniiai( iai?yiee a iien( iiaeaeae,
aecia/ai( oaeoi?e, ye( ii?ooothoue aaeaeaaoi(noue iiaeaeae ?aaeueiiio
o(ce/iiio ia'(eoia(.

?icaeyiooi iniiai( oeie oaieiiai(iieo iiaa?oiiue, ye(
aeei?enoiaothoueny i?e noai?aii( oaieiiai(iieo aia?ao(a oieiaeeeueieo
onoaiiaie. Aeeiiaii aiae(c oa?aeoa?enoee oa ieoiieo iieaciee(a
oaieiiai(iiee(a iia(o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy.

Ia i(aenoaa( ?acoeueoao(a aiae(co e(oa?aoo?e aoee noi?ioeueiaai(
aeuacaaaeai( oe(eue ( caaea/( aeine(aeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icae(e( aeeiiaii iaa?oiooaaiiy aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao?(a
i?aa?aiiy aeey oaieiiai(iieo iiaa?oiiue, aeaioiaeaieo iaoiaeii eeoaa
i(ae oeneii.

Nooi(noue oeueiai iaoiaeo iieyaa( a oiio, ui iiia?a/ia i?aa?aiiy
iaiao(aeieo oi?i ( ?ici(?(a ia iano/(e o?oa( oi?ioaaeinue (c
aethi(i((aiai ?icieaao o niaoe(aeuei(e i?an-oi?i(. Oiiae i?anoaaiiy
caaacia/oaaee aeia?o caiiaiai(noue ?iai/eo ii?iaeiei oi?iinoai?thth/eo
aeeaaeeo(a ?(aeeei iaoaeii. Aethi(i((aee nieaa AE–7 AINO2685-75, yeee
e?enoae(coaaany, aiane(aeie onaaeee u(eueii iaoiieth( noaeaao o?oao
?aaa?iei aeaiaioii ioooiaiai oeio, noai?thth/e iaae(eiee eiioaeo
a(iaoaeaai( ia?e. Ieneaeia ie(aea, yea ooai?th(oueny ia iiaa?oi(
aeeeaie, oaa?(aa( (o a(ae ei?ic((, ca(eueooth/e oa?i(i neoaeae aia?ao(a.

Iniiaieie ia?aaaaaie oaoi?ioeano, aaaaea(ii:

iiaeeea(noue aeaioiaeaiiy iiia?a/ieo ?aaa? ?(cieo oi?i ( niaoeeo(/ieo
ia?a?(c(a;

iiaeeea(noue noai?aiiy iiiaieeaoo?e i?aa?aieo iiaa?oiiue o oe?ieiio
ae(aiacii( cia/aiue eiao(oe((ioa i?aa?aiiy;

iaae(ei(noue iaoai(/iiai eiioaeoo ?(cii?(aeieo iaoae(a iniiaii( o?oae oa
i?aa?aiiy;

iiaeeea(noue aeei?enoaiiy aoi?eiiiai aethi(i(th a i?ioean( i(aeaioiaee
eeaa?iiai nieaao, ui caaacia/o( aaca(aeo(aeio oaoiieia(th.

Iniaeeaino( aeei?enoaiiai iaoiaeo iaeeaaeathoue niaoeeo(/i( iaiaaeaiiy
ia aaiiao?e/i( ia?aiao?e i?aa?aiiy. Iaiao(aei(noue caaacia/aiiy
i(i(iaeueii aeiionoeieo eeaa?ieo noee(a iaeeaaea( iaiaaeaiiy ia
i(i(iaeueio oiaueio ?aa?a. Oiiae iaoai(/ii( ( oa?i(/ii( i(oeiino(
oi?iiooai?thth/eo aeeaaeeo(a eeaa?ii( oi?ie iaiaaeothoue i(i(iaeueii
iiaeeeaee e?ie ?aaa? (up (4 ii).

C o?aooaaiiyi cacia/aiiai, aeey aia?ao(a c aenieith (ioaineai(noth
aioo?(oiueiai oaieiiai(io iaiao(aeiee nooi(iue ?icaeoeo iiaa?oi(
caaacia/oaaany ca ?aooiie ci(ie aenioe ?aa?a (hp). Aeey cia/aiue aenioe
?aa?a cai?iaaaeaeoaaeinue iaiaaeaiiy ia i(i(iaeueii i?eionoeio eiai
aoaeoeai(noue (A?(0.7) c o?aooaaiiyi oaeoi?a ca(eueoaiiy iane ?aaa? ca
?aooiie (o iioiauaiiy c( c?inoaiiyi aenioe i?e aeiaea?aeaii( eeaa?ieo
noee(a oa oiiae ?(aiino( oa?i(/ieo iii?(a ia noi?iiao oaieiiai(iieo
na?aaeiaeu.

Aa?(aioi( ?ic?aooiee aieeao aenioe ?aa?a ( a(aeiia(aeii nooiaiy
i?aa?aiiy ( ia oaieia( iieacieee aia?ao(a iia(o?yiiai ioieiaeaeaiiy
(AII), aeeiiai( ca niaoe(aeueii ?ic?iaeaieie i?ia?aie.

Ioe(iea aia?aaoe/ii( aoaeoeaiino( oaieiiai(iiee(a aac ci(ie
aa?aaaoiiai noaio aioo?(oiueiai oaieiiin(y cae(enithaaeanue ca iaoiaeii
I.A.Ee?ie/iaa

, (1)

aea: Ni – aeo?aoe iiooaeiino( ia o?ainii?o «i»-ai oaieiiin(y, eAo;

Q0 – oaieii?iaeoeoeai(noue aia?aoa, eAo.

Ia ?en.1 iaaaaeaii c(noaaeaiiy AII aia?aaoe/ii( aoaeoeaiino( i?e
?(cieo oaeaeeinoyo iia(o?y o aeeaiio ia?a?(c( aia?ao(a.

sse aeaeii (c ?enoiea, i?e oaeaeeino( iia(o?y o aeeaiio
ia?a?(c( aia?aoa (i= 3 i/n, aia?aaoe/ia aoaeoeai(noue A c?inoa( (c
ca(eueoaiiyi nooiaiy i?aa?aiiy. A i(?o c?inoaiiy oaeaeeino( iia(o?y,
oaii ci(ie A i(aaeth(oueny.

C( ci(iith oaeaeeino( aiaee o o?oaao aia?aoa ((w=1.5…2.5 i/n)
iaeanoue aeoeaiiai aieeao nooiaiy i?aa?aiiy ( a(aeiia(aeii aenioe ?aa?a
ia aia?aaoe/io aoaeoeai(noue aia?ao(a iioe?eeanue aei cia/aiiy
oaeaeeinoae iia(o?y (i=7…8 i/n.

?acoeueoaoe c(noaaeaiiy iiaa?oiiue ca ieoiieie ianiaeie ( ia'(iieie
iieacieeaie aeacothoue, ui a iaeano( ia?aiao?(a (( = 26; ( = 36.4; hp =
0.0261 i) niinoa?(aaany i(i(ioi ianiaiai iieacieea i?aa?aii( iiaa?oi(
i?e iaooeeueiiio cieaeaii( ieoiiiai ia'(io aia?aoa i?e ca(eueoaii(
nooiaiy i?aa?aiiy. Ia i?ioeeaaei(noue a(aei(/aiiio c( ca(eueoaiiyi
inoaiiuei( niinoa?(aaeiny c?(noaiiy aaniethoieo cia/aiue iiaa?oi(
oaieiiai(io, ia'(io oa iane aia?ao(a i?e cieaeaii( aia?aaoe/ieo aeo?ao
ia o?ainii?o oaieiiin((a.

I?e aiae(c( ?acoeueoao(a c(noaaeaiy eiiaeainaoi?(a iia(o?yiiai
ioieiaeaeaiiy (EII) anoaiiaeai( aiaeia(/i( ye(ni( ?acoeueoaoe.

Aeai( aea(?eiaeo ?aaeei(a, aa?(aioieo ?ic?aooie(a EII iieeaaeai( a
iniiao aecia/aiiy iaeano( aaiiao?e/ieo ?ici(?(a ?aaa?, ye(
a(aeiia(aeathoue oiia( ?(aiino( oa?i(/ieo iii?(a (Rc=Rai). Ia ?en.2
iaaaaeai( cia/aiiy oa?i(/ieo iii?(a ia ciai(oiueiio (Rc) ( aioo?(oiueiio
(Rai) aieao EII i?e oaeaeeino( iia(o?y o aeeaiio ia?a?(c( (i = 10 i/n.

C o?aooaaiiyi ?ica(aeiino( aeaieo aecia/aiiy eiao(oe((io(a
oaieia(aeaea/( ai(aeo, ui eiiaeaino(oueny, cia/aiiy (Rai) aecia/ai( ca
caeaaeiinoyie ?(cieo aaoi?(a.

Ia i(aenoaa( anoaiiaeaii( iaeano( (Rc=Rai) ( ieoiieo ianiaeo (
ia'(iieo iieaciee(a aeey EII i?eeiyoa aenioa ?aa?a hp = 0.026 i.

Ia i(aenoaa( aiae(oe/iiai ?(oaiiy oaieii?ia(aeiino( a(iaoaeaai(
i?aa?aii( o?oae, c o?aooaaiiyi neeaaeiaeo oa?i(/ieo iii?(a, aecia/aii
oiaueio aethi(i((ai( ioooe a(ey iniiae ?aaa?.

Aeey AII c o?aooaaiiyi (o i?ecia/aiiy ( ?aaeei(a aenieoaoaoe((
?ic?iaeaia a?aaeaoe(y oaieiianiiai(iieo iiaa?oiiue.

O o?aoueiio ?icae(e( iiaeaii ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aeine(aeaeaiiy oa?iia(ae?aae(/ieo i?ioean(a, ye( i?ioiaeyoue a aeaiaioao
iia(o?yieo oaieiiai(iieo aia?ao(a. Ooo iaaaaeaii iien eiino?oeoe((
aenia?eiaioaeueieo noaiae(a, iaoiaeee aeine(aeaeaiue ( ia?iaee
aeine(aeieo aeaieo. Aeey ca(eueoaiiy aeica(eueii( caeaoiino( aeine(ae(a
ca ?aooiie ciaioaiiy /enea aei(?thaaiue ia iiaeaeyo iaeeii/ieo ?aaa? (
i?aa?aieo aeaiaio(a i?e a(coaeueiiio eiio?ie( oaiia?aoo?e iiaa?oi( ?aaa?
ca aeiiiiiaith ?(aeeeo e?enoae(a oa oa?iiaeao/ee(a aecia/aeanue
i(i(iaeueia e(euee(noue ( i(noea anoaiiaeaiiy oa?iiia? aeey ia'(eoeaii(
ioe(iee oaiia?aoo?iiai iiey a aeine(aeaeaiiyo eiao(oe((io(a
oaieia(aeaea/( io/e(a i?aa?aieo o?oa.

O ni?iaao ia iaeeie/ieo iiaeaeyo ia aenio( ?aa?a hp= 35 ii a(ae eiai
iniiae aei aa?oeie aoei anoaiiaeaii 7 oa?iiia?. Aei(?thaaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
iiaa?oi( ?aa?a a ae(aiacii( ci(ie oaeaeeinoae iia(o?y (i = 3.5…19.6
i/n cae(enithaaeinue ca ?aooiie iiai?ioo ?aa?a acaeiaae iioieo iia(o?y
a(ae 0( aei 180( c (ioa?aaeii 15(.Oaiia?aoo?i( ?iciiae(eaiiy ii aenio(
?aa?a iieacaee, ui o eiaia(e cii( ( = 0…60( a(ey aa?oeie ?aa?a
niinoa?(aaeinue ?(cea cieaeaiiy eiai oaiia?aoo?e, a (( c?inoaiiy aoei
cao(eniaaii a iniia( ?aa?a, a iaea(eueo nooo(aa – o cii( ca aeaaoi?ii ((
= 90…180(). A(aeiinia ea?oeia oaiia?aoo?iiai ?iciiae(eo ii aenio(
aethi(i((aiai ?aa?a ia ci(ithaaeanue i?e ca(eueoaii( oaeaeeino(
ioieiaeaeoth/iai iia(o?y. Ooo ne(ae cacia/eoe, ui aeey aenieeo ?aaa?
(hp=35 ii) a iaeano( aei 15 ii a(ae iniiae ?aaa? c?inoaiiy oaiia?aoo?e
iiaa?oi( na(ae/eoue i?i cieaeaiiy oaieiai( aoaeoeaiino( oe((( ciie
(?en.3).

?en.3 ?iciiae(e oaiia?aoo?e ii aenio( ?aa?a

1 – ( = 0(; 2 – ( = 30(; 3 – ( = 60(; 4 – ( = 90(; 5 – ( = 120(; 6 – (
= 150(; 7 – ( = 180(

I?e aiae(c( oaieiiai(io a oiiaao aeiooaiiai ?ooo iia(o?y ( ioe(iee
o/ano( ?(cieo cii ?aa?a o eiai noia?iiio oaieiiai(i( aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy
ia( oa?aeoa? ci(ie oaiia?aoo?e ioieiaeaeoth/iai iioieo iia(o?y. Ea?oeia
ci(ie oaiia?aoo?e iia(o?y ii iaaiaeo ?aa?a i?e ?(cieo cia/aiiyo eiai
oaeaeeino( iieacaia ia ?en.4. Ooo, ia a(aei(io a(ae oaiia?aoo?e
iiaa?oi(, aeyaeaii aieea oaeaeeino( iia(o?y ia oaiia?aoo?io
ia?(aiii(?i(noue iioieo. C( ca(eueoaiiyi oaeaeeino( iioieo eiai
oaiia?aoo?ia ia?(aiii(?i(noue cieaeoaaeanue. Oaiia?aoo?i( ?iciiae(eaiiy
iioieo iia(o?y ii aenio( i(ae?aaa?ii( ii?iaeieie aecia/ai( i?e ?(ci(e
i?((ioaoe(( oa?iiia? ii iioieo (?en.5), iieacaee, ui o eiaia(e cii( (( =
0…90() oaiia?aoo?a iia(o?y iaei ci(ithaaeanue, a (( ?(cea i(aeaeuaiiy
niinoa?(aaeinue o cii( ca aeaaoi?ii (( = 120…180(). A(aeiinia ea?oeia
oaiia?aoo?iiai noaio iia(o?yiiai iioieo ii aenio( i(ae?aaa?ii(
ii?iaeieie ia ci(ithaaeanue i?e ca(eueoaii( oaeaeeino( iia(o?y.

Iaaaaeai( ?acoeueoaoe na(ae/aoue i?i oa, ui iniiaia iana iia(o?y
i?ioiaeeoue ii aa?oeiao ?aaa?. Oaeei /eiii, aeniei?aaa?i( nenoaie
oaieia(aeaiaeo iiaeii( iaoe iacaia?a/io ia?aaaao, iniaeeai i?e iaeiio
e?ioe( ?aaa?. Aeine(aeaeaiee oa?aeoa? eieaeueiiai ?iciiae(eaiiy
eiao(oe((io(a oaieia(aeaea/( a(ae iiaa?oi( ?aaa? ( ci(ie oaiia?aoo?ieo
iaii?(a i(aeoaa?aeeee iecueeo oaieiao aoaeoeai(noue ei?iiai( ciie ?aaa?.

Io?eiai( ?acoeueoaoe eyaee a iniiao noai?aiiy aeniei?aaa?ieo
iiaa?oiiue (c eiao(oe((ioii i?aa?aiiy ( = 36.4 ( oaeineiiaeaieo aeae(a
iiia?a/ieo ?aaa? o oi?i( ae(ina oa a(naaiaioa. (o aia?aaoe/ia
aeioe(euei(noue i(aeoaa?aeaeaia i?e aei?iaoaaiiyo io/e(a o?oa.

I?e aeine(aeaeaii( oaieiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee io/e(a o?oa aeei?enoiaoaaany
iaoiae eieaeueiiai oaieiaiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?e noaoe(iia?iiio oaieiaiio
iioioe(. Aa?iaeeiai(/i( iieacieee io/e(a o?oa aecia/aeenue a
(cioa?i(/ieo oiiaao. A aenia?eiaioao aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o?oae oanoe
iiaeeo(eaoe(e. Anueiai aeine(aeaeaii 22 io/ee oaoiai( eiiiiiiaee.
Aaiiao?e/i( ia?aiao?e aeine(aeaeaieo o?oa iaaaaeai( a oaaeeoe(.

Oaaeeoey

Iieacieee Iicia/aiiy i?aa?aieo o?oa

A–1 A–2 A–3 A–4 A–5 A–6

Oi?ia ?aaa? Ae(in A(naa-iaio e?oaea,

o?aiaoe((aeaeiiai ia?a?(co E?oaea, ci(iiiai ia?a?(co

Ae(aiao? iniiaii( o?oae,ii 25o2.5 20o2 25o2.5 25o2.5 25o2.5 25o2.5

Ae(aiao? o?oae a(ey iniiae ?aaa?, ii 28 23 28 28 28 28

E?ie ?aaa?, ii 4 5 13 4 16 4.5

Aenioa ?aa?a, ii 26*/

11** 22.5*/8.5** 24 26 24 26

Oiaueia ?aa?a

a(ey aa?oeie

a(ey iniiae

0.9

2

0.6

1.8

0.6

2

0.6

2

0.6

2 aeea.

?en.6

Iana 1 i.i i?aa?aii( o?oae, ea/i

4.0

2.0

2.9

5.3

2.65

5.14

Ieiua ciai(oiuei( iiaa?oi(

1 i.i, i2

1.41

0.70

0.73

2.29

0.58

2.04

Eiao(oe((io i?aa?aiiy, ( 25.5 13.9 11.0 36.4 9.2 32.5

Nooi(iue i?aa?aiiy, ( 16.0 9.7 7.8 26.0 6.6 23.2

* –?ici(? ii aaeee(e in(; ** – ?ici(? ii iae(e in( ?aa?a.

*enei eaei?eiao?e/ieo o?oa aaaaeaeiny ?(aiei ?yaeiino( io/ea iiia?ae
iioieo ioieiaeaeoth/iai iia(o?y. Aei?iaoaaiiy io/e(a o?oa
cae(enithaaeinue o i?aeoe/iiio ae(aiacii( ci(ie oaeaeeinoae iia(o?y o
aeeaiio ia?a?(c( AII – (i=2.5…11 i/n. I?eeiyo( a aeine(aeaeaiiyo
cia/aiiy iiia?a/iiai S1 oa iiaeiaaeiiai S2 e?ie(a o?oa o io/eao
aeae?aeenue, aeoiaey/e (c oiia noai?aiiy u(eueii( eiiiiiiaee c
o?aooaaiiyi ioe(iee oaeoi?(a, ye( aieeaathoue ia oaieia( oa
aa?iaeeiai(/i( iieacieee io/e(a. A aenia?eiaioao aeine(aeaeoaaeenue
4–,6– oa 8–?yaei( io/ee o?oa. Iaea(eueoee aieea ia aaee/eio
aa?iaeeiai(/iiai iii?o io/e(a o?oa /eiea nooi(iue i?aa?aiiy
oaieiiai(iii( iiaa?oi(. Aa?iaeeiai(/iee ii(? io/ea, iaa?aiiai (c o?oa
A–4, a(eueoee ca ii(? io/e(a, iaa?aieo (c o?oa A–5, o 2…3 ?ace. I?e
oeueiio c( ca(eueoaiiyi nooiaiy i?aa?aiiy ci(ieany caeii aca(iiaieeao
iiia?a/ieo ( iiaeiaaei(o e?ie(a o?oa ia cia/aiiy aa?iaeeiai(/iiai iii?o.
Ooo ne(ae cacia/eoe, ui a ae(aiacii( ci(ie e?ieo ?aaa? (0.013–0.016 i)
?(cei ci(ithaaany iieaciee nooiaiy i?e /ene( ?aeiieueaena. C o?aooaaiiyi
cacia/aiiai, aeey ?ic?aooieo aa?iaeeiai(/iiai iii?o aeine(aeaeaieo
io/e(a o?oa cai?iiiiiaai( oae( ocaaaeueith/( caeaaeiino(:

a) aeey io/e(a, iaa?aieo (c o?oa A–5,

, (2)

aea n = 0.11. (0.07;

a) aeey io/e(a, iaa?aieo (c o?oa A–3,

, (3)

aea n = 0.22. (0.105

a) aeey io/e(a, iaa?aieo (c o?oa A–4,

, (4)

aea n = 0.22. (0.105

(1 = S1/d – aac?ici(?iee iiia?a/iee e?ie o?oa;

(2 = S2/d – aac?ici(?iee iiaeiaaei(e e?ie o?oa.

?icoiaeaeaiiy aeine(aeieo ( ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue aa?iaeeiai(/ieo
iii?(a ii aeuaiaaaaeaieo ?(aiyiiyo ia ia?aaeuoaaei 6.2%.

A ?acoeueoao( aiae(co aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo uiaei oaieiiai(io
io/e(a o?oa iaea?aeaii ocaaaeueithth/a e?eoa?(aeueia ?(aiyiiy aeey
?ic?aooieo eiiaaeoeaieo eiao(oe((io(a oaieia(aeaea/( aeey io/e(a,
iaa?aieo (c o?oa A-3 – A-6.

, (5)

aea Nz – eiao(oe((io, ui a?aoiao( /enei ?yae(a o?oa acaeiaae iioieo
iia(o?y;

– eiao(oe((io oi?ie io/ea;

n = 0.61 .(0.08; m = S2 + (–0.48;

d – ae(aiao? o?oae a(ey iniiae ?aaa?.

Cia/aiiy eiao(oe((ioa Nz aecia/aii ia i(aenoaa( ii?yaeiiai
aeine(aeaeaiiy eiao(oe((io(a oaieia(aeaea/( io/e(a o?oa. Iaiaaeaiiy
aeei?enoaiiy ?(aiyiiy (5) ca ia?aiao?aie aei?(aiththoue: Re =
(6…20).103; ( = 6.6 – 26; S1 = 0.082 – 0.11 i; S2 = 0.06 – 0.1 i.

O iaaaaeaieo e?eoa?(yo iiae(aiino( (2)-(5) ye aecia/aeuei( ia?aiao?e
aea?ai( oaeaee(noue iia(o?y o aeeaiio ia?a?(c( io/ea ( ae(aiao? o?oae
a(ey iniiae ?aaa?.

?ic?aooieia( cia/aiiy caeaaeiino( Nue = f(Re) (c cai?iiiiiaaiiai
?(aiyiiy (5) caaacia/othoue aeia?a ocaiaeaeaiiy ?ic?aooieiaeo (
aenia?eiaioaeueieo cia/aiue o iaaeao 9%.

Iniaeeaee (ioa?an aeeeeeathoue ?acoeueoaoe aa?iaeeiai(/iiai
aeine(aeaeaiiy io/e(a o?oa (c ci(iiith oiaueiith ?aaa? (io/ee ?16–21),
oei iiaa?oi( A–6. Caaaeueiee aeaeyae oa aaiiao?e/i( ?ici(?e i?aa?aii(
iiaa?oi( c( ci(iiith oiaueiith ?aaa? iaaaaeai( ia ?en.6. Ia caaaeath/e
ia ?(aiicia/i(noue eiiiiiiai/ieo ?(oaiue (S1 = const), (S2 = const)
io/e(a, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny, (o aa?iaeeiai(/iee ii(? caeaaeaa a(ae
?icoaooaaiiy e(i(( iaeneiaeueii( oiaueie ?aa?a a(aeiinii iioieo iia(o?y,
ui iaa(aa( (?en.7).

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie ii?(aiyeueiiai aiae(co e?auiai (io/ie ?18) ( a(?oiai
(io/ie ?19) io/e(a anoaiiaeaii ?icoa?oaaiiy aeine(aeieo oi/ie o iaaeao
25–28%.

?en.6 Caaaeueiee aeaeyae ( ?ici(?e iiaa?oi( c ?aa?aie ci(iii( oiaueie

?en.7 Eiiiiiiaee io/e(a o?oa ?16–21

Aeey an(o io/e(a (?16–21) (aeeiei ci(iiei ia?aiao?ii aoea na?aaeiy
i(ae?aaa?ia a(aenoaiue aai ieiua aeeaiai ia?a?(co i?ioiaeo iia(o?y. O
aeayeeo io/eao (?19, ?20) aeeaee ia?a?(c ci(ithaaany oaeiae ii ?yaeao
o?oa io/ea. A aeine(aeao anoaiiaeaii, ui ni?eyoeeaei oaeoi?ii cieaeaiiy
aa?iaeeiai(/iiai iii?o io/e(a o?oa ( iino(ei(noue aeeaiai ia?a?(co ii
?yaeao o?oa io/ea. Ii?(aiyeueia ioe(iea oaieiai( aoaeoeaiino(
aeine(aeaeaieo io/e(a ?17–21 ( io/e(a, iaa?aieo (c o?oa A–4 (io/ee ?1,
?2), iaea?aeaia ia i(aenoaa( iaoiaeeee A.I.Aiooo'(aa, iaaaaeaia ia
?en.8. O io/eao, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny, a iaaeao ci(ie ieoiii( aeo?aoe
iiooaeiino( ia o?ainii?o ioieiaeaeoth/iai iia(o?y i?e N0 = 0.3…3.0
Ao/i2 e?au( iieacieee iaa io/ie ?20 c i?aai(caoe((th iioiauaii(
/anoeie ?aa?a eiiooci?ii-aeeooci?ii( oa/(( iioieo iia(o?y. Ia ?en.8 aeey
ii?(aiyiiy iaaaaeaia oaieiaa aoaeoeai(noue oaieiiai(iieo iiaa?oiiue
(?23, iaoiae iaaeaaiiy ?aaa? – ( = 22 oa ?24, iaoiae iaeaooaaiiy ?aaa? –
( = 9), ye( aeei?enoiaothoueny a eiino?oeoe(yo aia?ao(a iia(o?yiiai
ioieiaeaeaiiy, ui aeaioiaeythoueny ia i(aei?e(inoaao O(iiaooiiaoa (
?yaeo ca?oa(aeieo o(?i.

?en.8 C(noaaeaiiy oaieiai( aoaeoeaiino( io/e(a o?oa

1, 2, 17–21, 23, 24 – iiia?e io/e(a o?oa

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?iaaaeaiiai c(noaaeaiiy iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui
c( ca(eueoaiiyi eiao(oe((ioa i?aa?aiiy niinoa?(aa(oueny c?inoaiiy
oaieiai( aoaeoeaiino( ?aaa?ieo nenoai oaieia(aeaiaeo. I?e oeueiio
c?inoaiiy aenioe ?aa?a (io/ee ??1, 2, 17–21) ye oaeoi? c?inoaiiy
eiao(oe((ioa i?aa?aiiy ( a(eueo aeioe(eueia, i(ae ciaioaiiy e?ieo ?aaa?
(io/ie ?23).

A ?acoeueoao( aenia?eiaioaeueiiai i(aeoaa?aeaeaiiy aia?aaoe/ii(
ia?aaaae i?aa?aieo o?oa (c ae(ioe/iith oi?iith ?aaa? o eaiaeeaeaonuee(e
aeena?oaoe(( aaoi?a (oei iiaa?oi( A–1) i?e a(ae?iaoe( cia?yaeaey
eeaa?ii( oi?ie aeey (o aeaioiaeaiiy a i?ioean( oaeineiiaeaiiy ((
oaoiieia(/iino( ( iie?auaiiy ianiaeo iieaciee(a aoee iaea?aeai( ?aa?a
a(naaiaioii( oi?ie. Caaaeueiee aeaeyae i?aa?aii( iiaa?oi( iaaaaeaii ia
?en.9.

?acoeueoaoe aeine(aeaeaiue oaieiaeo ( aa?iaeeiai(/ieo iieaciee(a
io/e(a, iaa?aieo (c o?oa c a(naaiaioiei i?aa?aiiyi (io/ee ?11, ?22) c
?(ciith i?((ioaoe((th aaeeei( a(n( ?aa?a a(aeiinii iaa(aath/iai iioieo
iia(o?y, aeei?enoai( aeey ii?(aiyeueii( ioe(iee c iiaa?oiyie ye( iathoue
ae(ioe/ia i?aa?aiiy (io/ee ?8, ?10). Ii?(aiyeueia ioe(iea oaieiai(
aoaeoeaiino( aeey aeine(aeaeaieo io/e(a ?8, ?10, ?11, ?22 iaaaaeaia ia
?en.10. O io/eao, ui ?icaeyaeathoueny, e?au( iieacieee iaa io/ie ?11
(a(naaiaioia i?aa?aiiy c i?((ioaoe((th aaeeei( in( ?aa?a iiia?ae iioieo
iia(o?y). Eiai oaieiaa aoaeoeai(noue o iaaeao ci(ie N0 = 1.8…10 Ao/i2
aeua, i(ae o io/ea ?8 (ae(ioe/ia i?aa?aiiy c i?((ioaoe((th aaeeei( in(
ae(ina iiia?ae iioieo iia(o?y). Io/ee o?oa, i?((ioiaai( aaeeeith a(nnth
?aaa? acaeiaae iioieo iia(o?y (io/ee ?22, ?10), iathoue a(eueo iecueeo
oaieiao aoaeoeai(noue.

?en.9 Caaaeueiee aeaeyae iiaa?oi( A–2 c ?aa?aie a(naaiaioii( oi?ie

?en.10 C(noaaeaiiy oaieiai( aoaeoeaiino( io/e(a o?oa

8, 11. 10, 22 – iiia?e io/e(a o?oa

Inoaii( ( iacaia?a/iei aeieacii, ui aeaaoi?(aeuei( ae(eyiee ?aaa?
a(ae(a?athoue ia?aaaaeio ?ieue o noia?iiio oaieiiai(i( ?aaa?ii(
iiaa?oi(.

?acoeueoaoe aeine(ae(a ca i?eaaaeaieie ( eiiaaeoeaieie eiao(oe((ioaie
oaieia(aeaea/( ( aa?iaeeiai(/iei iii?ii io/e(a o?oa c ?aa?aie
a(naaiaioii( oi?ie ocaaaeueiai( oaeeie e?eoa?(aeueieie caeaaeiinoyie:

(6)

(7)

, (8)

– eiao(oe((io oi?ie io/ea.

O iaaaaeaieo e?eoa?(yo iiae(aiino( o(ce/i( ia?aiao?e iia(o?y aa?aii
i?e eiai na?aaei(e oaiia?aoo?(. sse aecia/aeuei( ia?aiao?e aenooiathoue
oaeaee(noue iia(o?y o aeeaiio ia?a?(c( io/ea ( ae(aiao? o?oae a(ey
iniiae ?aaa?. Iioeaea ai?ieneiaoe(( ia ia?aaeuo( 8%. Iaaea canoinoaaiiy
iaea?aeaieo ?(aiyiue iaiaaeaia ae(aiaciiii ci(ie e?ie(a o?oa S1 oa S2 (
/enae ?aeiieueaena (Re) oeueiai aeine(aeaeaiiy.

(nioth/( iai(aaii(?e/i( caeaaeiino( ?(cieo aaoi?(a ia aeathoue
iiaeeeaino( aecia/eoe aaee/eio oa?i(/iiai eiioaeoiiai iii?o (OEI)
i?aa?aieo o?oa, oiio ui iaa(aeiia /anoeia aecia/aeueieo ia?aiao?(a,
iia’ycaieo c( niaoeeo(eith oaoiieia(( aeaioiaeaiiy i?aa?aiiy iaoiaeii
eeoaa i(ae oeneii. Oiio a ?iaio( aeei?enoaii can(a aenia?eiaioaeueiiai
aecia/aiiy OEI.

A i?ioean( i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio(a aecia/aee: oaieiaa iaaaioaaeaiiy
aeaeo?ieaei?eiao?a ca aei(?thaaeueiith iiooaei(noth, yea aeo?a/a(oueny
ia eiai iaa?(aaiiy, oaiia?aoo?e ciai(oiuei( aethi(i((ai( iaieiiee (
aioo?(oiuei( noaeaai( o?oae. Caaaeyee caeiaooei aeaiei ?ic?aooieiaei
oeyoii aoee iaea?aeai( oaiia?aoo?e ciai(oiuei( iiaa?oi( noaeaai( o?oae (
aioo?(oiuei( iiaa?oi( aethi(i((ai( ioooe, ?(cieoey yeeo aeyaey(
oaiia?aoo?iee ia?aiaae o cii( eiioaeoo ?(cii?(aeieo iaoae(a noaeaai(
o?oae oa ae(i(i((ai( iaieiiee (Te.

Aaee/eia OEI aecia/aeanue ca oi?ioeith:

, (9)

aea qe – u(euei(noue oaieiaiai iioieo /a?ac eiioaeoio ciio.

Aeey ca(eueoaiiy aeica(eueii( caeaoiino( aenia?eiaio(a aeine(aeaeaiiy
i?iaiaeeeenue i?e i(aeaeuaieo cia/aiiyo u(eueiino( oaieiaiai iioieo qe
(6000 Ao/i2 a (ioa?aae( ci(ie oaiia?aoo?e eaei?eiao?a t = 40…95 (N i?e
aeiooaiiio eiai iaaeoa(.

Aaee/eia OEI aeey aeine(aeaeaieo o?oa aei?(aith( R =
(0.13…0.29).10-3 (i2.E)/Ao.

Io?eiai( cia/aiiy aeicaieythoue c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iaoiae eeoaa i(ae
oeneii caaacia/o( iaae(eiee eiioaeo ?(cii?(aeieo iaoae(a
(aethi(i(e–noaeue). A aenia?eiaioao anoaiiaeaii, ui aaee/eia OEI
caeaaeeoue a(ae oaiia?aoo?ieo oiia ?iaioe a(iaoaeaaeo o?oa ( ia ((
cia/aiiy ia aieeaathoue aaiiao?e/i( ?ici(?e iano/i( o?oae. Ne(ae
i?eionoeoe, ui a oiiaao iecueeeo oaiia?aoo? o ?ac( aeei?enoaiiy
a(iaoaeaaeo iiaa?oiiue a eiino?oeoe(yo iia(o?iioieiaeaeoaa/(a, ae(enia
aaee/eia OEI aoaea ieae/a a(ae iaea?aeaieo aeine(aeieo aeaieo.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae(e( iaaaaeai( aiae(oe/i( ?(oaiiy aeeoa?aioe(aeueieo
?(aiyiue oaieii?ia(aeiino( oeaio?ineiao?e/ieo ?aaa? aeia(eueii( oi?ie.
A(naaiaioia ?aa?i (?en.11) ?icaeyiooa ye ie?aiee aeiaaeie iaeiiai c
iiaeeeaeo aa?(aio(a oi?i.

?en.11 A(naaiaioia ?aa?i

?ic?aooieia( caeaaeiino( aeey ioe(iee eiao(oe((io(a aoaeoeaiino(
a(naaiaioiiai ?aa?a iaea?aeai( i(ney ?ica’ycaiiy oaei( e?aeiai( caaea/(.

(10)

O iiey?ieo eii?aeeiaoao ?(aiyiiy aeoae iaaiaeo aeey naaiaioa AA
a(naaiaioiiai ?aa?a iiaeaii o aeaeyae(:

.

,

.

A ?acoeueoao( ?ica’ycaiiy caaea/( aoaeoeai(noue ?aa?a iiaeaia ae?acii:

, (11)

;

;

;

Aeey e?oaeiai ?aae(aeueiiai ?aa?a c( ci(iiith oiaueiith ?aa?a
(?en.12), iaoooth/e oaieia(aeaea/ath c eiai oi?oey, noaoe(iia?ia
?(aiyiiy oaieii?ia(aeiino( ( a?aie/i( oiiae, i?eionoeaoe, ui ci(ii(
aaee/eie t(r,() = T(r,() – T1, r = m( (x = ((cos(; y =
((sin(), caienaii o aeaeyae(

, (12)

aea O((,() – oaiia?aoo?a ?aa?a a oi/oe( ((,(); O* = O0 — O1;

Ooieoe(y q(r, () iia’ycaia c aieeaii ci(iiino( oiaueie ?aa?a ia
?iciiae(eaiiy oaiia?aoo?e o ?aa?(.

?en.12 ?aae(aeueia ?aa?i ci(iii( oiaueie

C o?aooaaiiyi ?(ciiai iaa(aaiiy ioieiaeaeoth/iai iioieo iia(o?y
a(aeiinii iioiauaii( /anoeie ?aa?a, oiaueio ?aa?a ( = ((r, () oyaey(ii
neiaie(/ii

. (13)

O ?ac( iiaeiaaeiueiai iaa(aaiiy iioieo iia(o?y a(aeiinii iioiauaii(
/anoeie ?aa?a o eaaae?aoieo aeoaeeao oi?ioee (13) ne(ae acyoe (sin((,
aeey iiia?a/iiai iaa(aaiiy – (cos((.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e iaea?aeaiee ae?ac t(r, (), aecia/a(ii oaieiao
aoaeoeai(noue ?aa?a

, (14)

aea A0 – aoaeoeai(noue ?aa?a iino(eii( oiaueie ((?) , ui aecia/a(oueny
a(aeiiei

ni(aa(aeiioaiiyi:

.

I?eionoeaoe, uiiicia/aiiy ( = (re + r0)/2, ( = (re – r0)/2, iaea?aeeii

Oaia?

. (15)

Aeei?enoaiiy oi?ioee (14) ia( aooe caaacia/aii iaiao(aeieie oiiaaie:

(>0; (<(1-E0)/(E0; (<0, (<1/(, oiio ui i?e (( aeaaaeaii( ie iaooo(ii /eaiaie, ui i(noyoue (2, (3, .... ( i?e cia/aiiyo (, aeecueeeo aei iaeeieoe(, iiaeeeai ii?ooaiiy ia?(aiino( 0

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